This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Priming to Overcome the Silence of Sexual Harassment Kathryn McEntee Stony Brook University
Priming, Sexual Harassment Abstract The goal of this study is to increase the amount of women who will confront sexual harassment. The experiment will consist of a job interview containing sexually harassing questions. Fifty women will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions. One group will receive a prime and the other group will not. Priming method will involve exposure to a magazine with empowering images. The results are expected to indicate that women who receive the prime will confront sexual harassment more frequently than those who did not. Chi-square analysis will confirm the relationship between group membership and responses. This study will provide insights into
women¶s immediate behavioral reactions. Implications can be applied to real life applications for media representations of women.
1993). as well as an overall decrease in general psychological health (Schneider. sleep disturbance and declining health conditions have also been associated with sexual harassment (Magely. It can occur within any company throughout a variety of industries. Sexual harassment can result in staggering consequences in the workplace. gastrontemial disorders. only an estimated 1% of victims will actually take legal action against their harasser. Lam. Sexual harassment in the workplace can create a complicated situation for women. Cheung 2008). They all have paid large sums of money to women in sexual harassment settlements. Swan and Fitzgerald (1997) concluded that psychological effects of sexual harassment can inhibit the effects and symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. Schnedider. All of these companies have one thing in common. Unfortunately victims of sexual harassment frequently do not report the harassment. Unfortunately. Fiztergald & DeNardo.Women who have experienced sexual harassment report an increase in withdrawal from work. sell cars at Ford or Mitsubishi. Gutek and Koss (1993) found that the most common reason women stated for not reporting sexual harassment was fear. women reported being . Sexual harassment in the workplace can result in a many psychological and physical consequences (Chan. In their study. according to Terpstra and Baker (1988). fold clothes at American Apparel or Babies R US. It doesn¶t matter whether you choose to work for SoBe over Pepsi. 1999). Sexual harassment has no boundaries. or even work for the Knicks or the Kings.Priming. Many women have stated that they believe that speaking up against sexual harassment or reporting it would be useless or possibly dangerous (Gutek & Koss. accept the job with Morgan Chase or Smith Barney. Hulin. 1997). Chow. Swan. Sexual Harassment Priming to Overcome the Silence of Sexual Harassment 3 It doesn¶t matter whether you wait tables at Denny¶s or Hooters. Headaches. Fitzgerald. a decrease in the satisfaction rating of their coworkers.
women still do not identify with being a victim and will not label themselves as such. such as rape. Suhllman. Bailey. Gutek and Koss (1993) explained how harassment is not a one-time thing. Women are often afraid of job related consequences when considering reporting the crime. How one responds to sexual harassment will affect the overall outcome for the victim (Fitzgerald. Hulin. Generally. 1995). The way women perceive and label the situation and actions of the offender may also contribute to this ³keeping mum´ mentality. A majority of the time women believe nothing can or will be done if they reported the crime (Gutek & Koss. and the women remain silent (Fitzgerald.Priming. Harassment commonly continues and changes with time. 1993). Fitzgerald and DeNardo¶s (1999) experiment they reported that only 20-30% of the harassed women actually labeled their experiences as sexual harassment and the majority did not. 1988). Gold. increasing in the intensity and frequency of the harassment. Dealing with sexual harassment immediately can decrease the chances of reoccurrence and can help women avoid further . Many studies have proven that women fail to label sexual harassment. not being believed by coworkers and facing shame or humiliation 4 in the office. Gelfand. Swecker. In Koss¶ (1985) experiment. do not identify or label their experiences as rape. Ormerod & Weitzman. For all of these reasons and more. Richards. 1993). Even in extreme cases. In Magley. Sexual Harassment fearful of hurting their career. way too many cases of sexual harassment go unreported. Women often choose to suffer in silence and endure this inappropriate behavior. they believe the consequences outweigh the reporting. Drasgow. and only 4% were reported to the police. Women do not label the incident as sexual harassment. Many of these cases also go unreported (Koss. rather than confront their harasser or report the incident. The progression of the harassment depends on the responses from of the victim (Gutek & Koss. 43% of women whose experiences qualify for the legal definition of rape. 1985).
2001). 52%. The very second 5 harassment occurs it begins to grow in severity (Gutek & Koss. 2001). or left the interview. women don¶t respond or speak up against subtle sexual harassment as they imagined they would (Woodzicka and LaFrance. confronted the interviewer. 1991). and even evolving into assault or rape. no one told the interviewer off. Unfortunately. ignored the harassment. while 36% politely asked why the question was asked and 20% refocused the question. or worse. When placed in a real life situation. Woodzicka and LaFrance (2005) explored how women respond to subtle sexism. these cycles are constantly beginning. Instead. Implications of the same study suggest that women are not as likely to label sexual harassment as . or leave the interview. Generally speaking. In fact 62% anticipated that they would ask why the question was asked or tell the interviewer that the question was not appropriate. Even the most subtle acts of sexual harassment can be the beginning of a cycle that leads to an extremely uncomfortable work environment. dealing with the first occurrence of sexual harassment can stop the harassment from continuing. (Woodzicka and LaFrance. 1993). In their experiment they found that women do not act as they had imagined when confronted by sexually harassing questions during a job interview. report the incident. Verbally cueing women with the term ³sexual harassment´. Sexual Harassment harassment. In general. Largely due to the fact that.Priming. Perhaps these women didn¶t recognize the situation as harassing or didn¶t label it for what it was and therefore didn¶t react the way they had predicted. women who were asked to imagine a sexually harassing situation predicted that they would react against the harassment. has been proven to increase the amount of women that label the behavior as sexual harassment (Jascik and Fretz. 28% believed they would either leave the interview or rudely confront the male interviewer. confront the harasser. They stated that they would. findings from the real situation showed that the majority of women.
Magley and Shupe (2005) stated that cognition can also be influenced by the use of contextual cues. they will be able to recognize the harassment for what it is. and it seems that women will continue to remain silent. Out of sixty women who participated in this experiment. negatively affected the women¶s attitudes towards themselves as well as their emotional experiences. 59 of that 60 reported that it did. and be able to take control and respond correctly. It has been found that. we can also explore these findings with the use of priming. How can we empower women to stand up to sexual harassment when directly confronted by it? Will the introduction of empowering images help women overcome the silence of sexual harassment? The purpose of this study is to explore the use of priming and its effect on women¶s . When asked directly if sexual harassment had occurred. Roberts and Gettman (2004) explored the negative effects of priming. Sexual Harassment 6 harassment when receiving no cue. When actually confronted by it. The use of priming has also been proven to be effective in influencing a participant¶s response. Since verbal cues have proven to be effective. cues imbedded in the environment can affect the way women perceive and label their experiences.Priming. as well as true life stories from women who have overcome their harassment. This study will involve exposing women to a magazine full of empowering words and images. only two labeled it as sexual harassment. In real life there are no cues. label it. These empowered images should trigger the participants own experiences and knowledge about sexual harassment and put this topic into their thoughts. Their results showed that subtle exposure to words that objectify women on magazine covers. in increasing women¶s responses to sexual harassment. Using a more positive aspect of priming should therefore positively influence the way women respond.
The following hypothesis will be explored in this experiment: Priming women with empowering images prior to the interview will increase the amount of women that speak up during real life situations of sexual harassment. Recognizing the sexual harassment will enable women to then label the harassment for what it is. My study will hopefully provide a remedy to these negative results by increasing the amount of women that speak up when confronted by sexual harassment. than women who have not been primed. as well as. all fifty women will be asked to give their consent to volunteer in this study. NY. located on Long Island. I expect that the women who have been primed will be more inclined to. or leave the interview. discovered a negative trend in women¶s responses to sexual harassment. When learning the true nature of this experiment. The participants will be told and under the impression that they are interviewing for a research assistant job. Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001). Sexual Harassment 7 responses during a sexually harassing situation. The research assistant job position will be published in help wanted advertisements and displayed on posters throughout the Stony Brook University campus. until the study is concluded. The previous research. sensitize them so they are more likely to recognize the harassment in front of them. confront the harasser. No compensation will be given.Priming. not answer the question. Method Participants Fifty women (ages 18-39) will participate in this experiment. There will be no . Identifying the situation correctly will help women acknowledge what to do next. The power of priming will provide women with associations of overcoming sexual harassment. Can we increase the number of women that confront their harasser using priming? Manipulating a women¶s experience prior to being interviewed may influence her responses and reactions during the harassing interview.
The three interviewers will also be dressed alike. Interviewers will receive directions on how to ask the questions will be as well as instructions on how to interact with the participants. marital status. This will be done in order to avoid the suspicion that could be created by only recruiting women applicants. will call the number appearing on the advertisements and posters to schedule an interview for the research assistant position. The interviewers will be informed on proper body language to exhibit during the interview. Three men will be recruited and trained as interviewers. At this point the men will receive an explanation of the experiment and will be discarded. Interviewers. how to behavior and how to respond to .Priming. as well as men. 2001). All participants in the study will experience the same interview. Women. This is done in order to keep the interviewer condition constant and the interviewer¶s behavior as similar as possible for all participants. religion. The interviewers will all be given the same training and instructions on how to conduct the interviews. Sexual Harassment 8 restrictions on race. ethnicity. The interviewers will be recruited from an off-campus location in order to insure that the participants do not personally know their interviewer (Woodzicka & LaFrance. Women will be accepted and will go on to schedule their interviews. Although this experiment is only interested in obtaining women as participants. or the participant¶s social economic status. sex limitations will not be included in the description of the job. The three men will be similar in physical appearance and will be around the same age (in their 30¶s). regardless of which interviewer conducted their interview. and will not appear on the posters or help wanted advertisements. still under the impression that they are applying for a job. a dress shirt and a plain sweater (Woodzicka & LaFrance. 2001). Materials. Their outfits will consist of a pair of dress pants.
The proposed study will use the same set of questions as previously formulated and used by Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001). As determined by Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001). They will receive instructions of how to smile. Interview Questions. Experimenters are to be excluded from taking a double role as the interviewer. They will not be told that the interview was recorded until after the study is concluded. Sexual Harassment participants. when to keep eye contact. to avoid contaminating the results due to prior knowledge and participant expectations. Interviewers will also not be informed of the hypothesis of this experiment and will conduct their interviews under a blind condition. The recorded interview will be checked to insure that the interviewers have conducted the interview in the correct manner. ³Do you have a boyfriend?´ 2. ³Do people find you desirable?´ 3. Provided in their article are the sexually and non-sexually harassing questions. Three of the questions will contain subtle sexual harassment. consisting of a total of sixteen questions per interview (See Appendix A). and the 9 appropriate physical contact (Woodzicka & LaFrance. The only physical contact that will be experienced between the participants and the interviewers will consist of the introduction handshake only. Interviewers will not be aware of the cameras. 2001). Each interviewer will be videotaped by hidden cameras throughout the interview. the sexually harassing questions consisted of: 1. ³Do you think it is important for women to wear bras to work?´ The three sexually harassing questions will be spread out among the standard interview questions. . Each interview will consist of sixteen questions . Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001) devised interview questions used in their experiment Real Versus Imagined Gender Harassment (2001). Interviews that do not follow the criteria will be discarded from the experiment entirely.Priming.
will also be featured in this magazine. The coders will review each recorded interview in order to analyze and match participant¶s behaviors and responses into the correct coded categories. Confronting the sexual harassment will include the following: negative counter. written by women authors.Priming. The participants and interviewers will not be informed of the video cameras until after the interview is conducted and the experiment is completed. The two coders will also record how many women answer the questions . and the results will be presented qualitatively. Several hidden video cameras will be used to record each interview. Following in Woodzicka and LaFrance¶s (2001) footsteps. The cameras will be purposely positioned in order to record several viewpoints of the participants¶ responses as well as the interviewer¶s behavior and the overall environment of the classroom. The categories include six main responses and reactions (See Appendix B). leaving the interview and reporting the harassment. True life stories about overcoming sexual harassment. The participant¶s behavior will be measured and analyzed. The behavioral responses of the women will be recorded and analyzed using a coding process. The ³Empowered Woman Magazine´ will consist of empowering literature and inspiring images of women in the workplace. two raters will code the verbal and behavioral responses of each women right after their interview is concluded. Measures for Recording and Analyzing the Coded Responses of Participants All interviews will be conducted in the same room at Stony Brook University. Categories were previously formulated in Woodzicka and LaFrances¶s (2001) study with the purpose of describing the behavioral reactions of the women throughout the interview. Sexual Harassment Priming Stimulus The priming method that will be used in the study will be introducing 10 women to positive images and words of a magazine.
Group 1: Prime participants will be introduced to ³Empowered Woman Magazine´ prior to their interview. Participants randomly selected for Group 1: Prime will be given a copy of ³Empowered Women Magazine´ by the female research assistant. 2001). and categorizations of the women¶s responses will also be analyzed. while Group 2: Non-Prime will not receive the prime/magazine. The participants will be given directions to the pre-interview waiting room. Sexual Harassment and how many refuse to answer. At this point participants will be randomly assigned into either of the two groups. education and ethnicity (Woodzicka & LaFrance. reasons. Group 1: Prime or Group 2: Non-Prime. as well as forms that inquire about the participant¶s personal information such as their location. After politely asking the participant to take . Random assignment will be allocated by the female research assistant who will use her computer to discretely access Research Randomizer Online.Priming. where they will be met by a female research assistant. The independent variable that will be manipulated is the presence of the magazine. This will be a cross-sectional experiment and the interviews will take place during normal job interview times. The dependent variable that will be measured and recorded is the women¶s reactions and responses during the sexually harassing interview. Using two coders enables the calculation of interobserver 11 reliability and comparisons of coder¶s observations. Mailing addresses will also be collected over the phone in order to mail participants forms to be completed and brought to the interview. in order to randomly dispense participants into their group. A fake job application will be included. Procedure Interviews will be scheduled by a female research assistant who will set up the interview times and gather the participant¶s information.
The college had received an abundance of copies and they are now distributing them to any visitors of the college. After the magazine conversation. The participants will only be greeted by the research assistant and asked to have a seat in the waiting room. their forms and interview tapes will be destroyed.Priming. All information that will be collected and used in the experiment will remain confidential. Sexual Harassment a seat in the waiting room. and if they choose so. and the experiment will be revealed to them. After the sixteen-question interview is concluded. Each participant will be held twelve minutes in the waiting room until the research assistant informs them that the interviewer is available to see them. The research assistant will inform the participant in a casual manner that the magazine is new and promoting itself with free magazines. where they will have their ³job interview´. no action will be taken by the research assistant in terms of the magazine. Group 2:Non-Prime will not receive the magazine. At this time the participants will be told the true nature of the interview. A predesigned dialog will be written for the research assistant to rehearse. The option to be removed from the experiment will also be presented. the research assistant will then escort them down the hall to the interview room. the research assistant will lead the participants of both groups out of the interview room and back into the waiting room. After being held for the full twelve minutes in the waiting room. so that the experience remains a constant variable for each participant in Group 1: Prime. 12 For participants randomly assigned to Group 2: Non-Prime. Participants will then be asked to give their consent to be included in the experiment. The research assistant will then walk the participants down the hall to the interview room. they will not receive the prime. the research assistant will hand them the ³Empowered Women Magazine´. talking will be limited between the participant and the research assistant. .
participants will report either. Ethnicity of participants will display diversity within the sample. percentages of their responses will be calculated. African American (XX %). These percentages will exceed 100%. Percentages will be calculated independently for Group 1: Prime (n=XXX) responses. Percentages of the participant¶s coded responses will be calculated and represented in categories. or competed a degree prior in their life (XX %). with an average age of XX years (M=XX. Location of the recruitment posters will be on a university campus. and multiple times (See Table 1). The categories to describe the behavioral reactions of the participants will be broken down and provided as percentages (See Figure 1). Priming women with empowering images will influence the amount and degree to which women stand up against sexual harassment. being currently enrolled in college (XX %).XX). and for Group 2:Non-Prime (n=XX) responses. Native American (XX %) or other (XX %). The sample will be examined via Chi-Square analysis for independence.Priming. twenty-five participants will receive priming with empowering images prior to a sexually harassing interview and twenty-five will not. will be between 18-29 years of age. Asian American (XX %). . through the method of random assignment. therefore a large percentage of participants will report either. After analysis and coding of the participant¶s reactions. Latin American (XX %). married (XX %) or single (XX %). because participants can and will response in multiple ways. Participants will also provide personal information such as marital status.XX. Sexual Harassment Results 13 Of the fifty women that will participate in this experiment. Participants will be asked to self-identify themselves as European American (XX %). SD =XX. Participants volunteering in this experiment. recently graduated from college (XX %).
2 (1. N =50) =X. unfortunately in reality they do the opposite. Therefore. This finding will support the hypothesis that exposing women to positive images prior to a sexually harassing interview will increase the quantity of women who confront the sexual harassment. Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001) revealed in their study that women predicted that they would confront sexual harassment. Participants in Group 1: Prime condition will react against the sexual harassment more than participants in Group 2: Non-Prime (See Figure 2). Significant differences will be shown between groups. Results will show that actual responses and reactions against sexual harassment will be more frequent from the participants who received the prime than those who did not experience the prime. In the actual .05. the results will show that speaking up and displaying forceful responses or reactions against sexual harassment is dependent on group selection. Discussion The expected results of this study will indicate that priming women with the ³Empowered Women Magazine´ increases the amount of women that stand up to sexual harassment during a job interview. Using an independent Chi-Square. The relationship between group membership and participant¶s responses to confront sexual harassment will show to be significant.Priming. priming women with empowering images prior to a sexually harassing interview will increase the amount of women that confront the harassment. indicating membership to Group 1: Prime is dependent on participants responding against sexual harassment. with Group 1: Prime having a larger effect on participants speaking out against sexual harassment. Group 1: Prime or Group 2: Non-Prime.XX. Sexual Harassment 14 The independent and dependent variable in this experiment contain categorical data and a Chi-Square will determine the relationship between membership of group and confronting sexual harassment. p < 0.
In the present study. Confirming Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001) results. analyze. and not be able to record the immediate or natural behavioral reactions of women in a sexually harassing situation (Woodzicka & LaFrance. via hidden video camera. Sexual Harassment 15 situation. The use of observation will increase the external validity and impact of this experiment. observation. the proposed study is predicted to indicate that women do not respond against the harassment. and code the immediate responses from the participants. Self-reported measures are currently the most common and frequent techniques that are used to study the topic of sexual harassment (Woodzicka & LaFrance. featuring empowering images of women in the job place. The present study will not only reconfirm Woodzicka and LaFrance¶s (2001) study. increases the amount of women that confront and stand up to sexual harassment. provides only a limited view of the topic being studied. This study can also provide further insight into the immediate behavioral responses from women in a realistic situation. will be used to capture. will not directly confront sexual harassment. than the current methods that are used to research sexual harassment. 2005). Priming women with a magazine. Observation will allow us to evaluate a more realistic view of how women respond to sexual harassment. describe. but it will also provide a remedy.Priming. It is expected that women who will not be exposured to the prime. The focus of the proposed study will be concentrated on the immediate responses of participants and will be able to capture women¶s instant and genuine . women do not act or respond the way that they had imagined. 2005). or other self-reporting accounts. as well as true life stories about overcoming sexual harassment. A major strength of this study will be the method and measures used to report and record the results. Relying mostly on survey methods. These methods may not be focused on. The proposed study will expand on Woodzicka and LaFrance¶s (2001) procedures and results. imagined scenarios.
The methods used in this study. in order to minimize confounding variables. women outside the United States. and use of multiple observers. memory or 16 description of the event. There may also be disagreements between the two observers which can be evaluated and compared against each other. Using more than one observer adds strength to this study because it enables assessment of interobserver reliability. This gives the study strength in that it rules out extraneous variables due to environmental stimulus. will also be a strength of this study. the use of observation over self-reported measures increases the validity and is a major strength of this experiment. Another limitation due to sampling procedures that will involve mainly recruiting participants from a university and surrounding area. An important limitation of this study that should be noted is that the implications and results will only be valid for women from the United States. Sexual Harassment responses to sexual harassment. Educated college students may be more inclined and equipped to experience the . such as the coded responses categories. in a realistic situation and natural environment. interviewer and interview questions will all remain constant for each participant. Participants will all experience the same interview in the same environment. The interview environment. and should not be applied to. Procedures that will be used in the proposed study will be pretested and conducted.Priming. Again. Cultural differences in other countries make this study invalid for. Our participants will be predominately college students. are also strengths of this experiment. Using the coded response categories for describing the women¶s responses. Missed or overlooked behavior will be double checked and evaluated by a different person. Self-reported measures may also carry a bias due to the reliance on participant¶s personal recall.
Sexual Harassment 17 full nature of the prime. results in negative consequences for women and inflicts them in a state of self-objectification. Perhaps the same experiment which recruits women for a K-Mart employee position or a Wall Street CEO might yield different results? By providing women with an empowering magazine we will awaken their awareness of the sexual harassment. . Also job description involving a research assistant position may attract a limited group of females.Priming. on magazine covers. Memories. Our bodies are used to sell everything from beer to toothpaste. With this in their frame of mind they are more likely to recognize and label sexual harassment when actually confronted by it. Roberts and Gettman (2004) attributed these increased levels of negative self views to the exposure of the prime. The majority of magazines today do not empower women. Priming women with empowering images is a relatively simple way to counteract a hazardous situation. Unfortunately the world we live in does the exact opposite. The mass media projects women in a demeaning way while reinforcing old fashion gender roles and idealistic stereotypes. Instead women¶s bodies are objectified and sexualized in the media. 1997). The objectifying words remind women and trigger thoughts. self disgust and appearance anxiety. It is up to further research to explore the use of this experiment in the other areas of the job force. By priming women with powerful images we are able to reverse the effects of selfobjectification. Roberts and Gettman (2004) found that subtle exposure to objectifying words. The unrealistic ideals that our society sets for its women are unreachable and leave women with a feeling of continuous failure to meet these unreachable standards (Fredickson & Roberts. memories and feelings of the harsh cultural demands that are inflicted on them by their own culture. recollections and associations provoked by the prime of empowering and overcoming the assault of sexual harassment are triggered. Some of these consequences include increased feelings of shame.
Much research has been done on the consequences of our current media values and not much has changed. This information can also be used by advertising companies. Highlighting the positive aspects of changing our media¶s portrayal and representations of women may help encourage and bring about change. and assertively confront sexual harassment. and the full potential of this experiment¶s results would be realized. Future studies can continue to explore the effects associated with positive priming and the implications can be related to real life. if this information and the concept of empowering women were assimilated into our society and culture as a whole. Perhaps studies. then women would constantly be receiving positive priming on a daily basis. Sexual Harassment 18 Women in our culture need to be empowered not exploited. recognize. It¶s time to change this standard. More importantly. . that show the results of the positive alternatives of media representation of women instead of the consequences of the current one.Priming. to design campaigns with the main focus of empowering the women of today. Training programs based on this logic can be developed to teach women how to self-prime. The way the media projects women sets a standard that society follows. such as the proposed study. will have a more powerful impact.
Do you have any questions for me? Note: Questions listed in bold are the sexually harassing questions. what would it be? 12. Do people find you desirable? 19 13. What do you like about research? 9. Note: Interview questions previously formulated by Woodzicka and LaFrance (2001). Tell me what strengths you have as a research assistant. If you had to describe yourself with one word. Sexual Harassment Appendix A Interview Questions 1. 11. Have you graduated from college? 6. What is/was your major? 7. Did you have a hard time finding us? 3. How would you characterize your passed working relationship with your co-workers? 14. How are you? 2. Where are you from originally? 4. Do you have a boyfriend? 5.Priming. Do you think it is important for women to wear bras to work? 15. What jobs or volunteer experience have you had? 10. Have you worked as a research assistant before? 8. . What would be the hardest thing in this job for you? 16.
tell off the interviewer. politely Ask why and answer Ask why and refuse to answer State that question is irrelevant 4. Sexual Harassment Appendix B Coded Behavioral-Responses Categories 20 1. Report to supervisor: Participants report the incident 7. Refuse to answer at least one question Note: Coded response categories previously devised in Woodzicka and LaFrance (2005). Leave interview: Participants physically walk out of the interview room 6.Priming. Refocus: Participants reinterpret the question in order to give the question confirmation or legitimacy 3. Positive Counter: ask why the question was asked. . Ignore/Do Nothing: Participants ignore the sexual harassment and answer the question 2. aggressively demanding the reason behind why the question was asked. Negative Counter: confronting the question. Tell Off (the interviewer) State that is it is ³None of your (the interviewers) business´ 5.
S. & Weitzman.L. 17. Jaschik.F. (1988). Sex Roles.P. 61-76 Magley..Priming. (1997). 175198 . T. Bailey. Psychology of Women Quarterly. & Fretz. Y. 82. Psychological and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A MetaAnalytic Review. The incidence and dimension of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace. Hulin. 52.. M. N. Objectification theory. B..I .F.. Attitudinal and Situational Characteristics. S.. (1995). Examining the Job-Related. & Shupe. 578-589 Fitzgerald. F. L. S. 21. Chow.L.L.. Richards. Suhllman. (1995) The antecedent and consequences of sexual Harassment in Organizations: An Integrated Model. M.R.. B. Lam. 362-376. Toward understand women¶s lived experiences and mental health risks..J. & Koss.. B.J. 32. Psychology of Women¶s Quarterly. & Drasgow. F. Measuring sexual harassment: theoretical and psychometric advances. 17732006 Gutek.P. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. D... E. & Roberts. Ormerod. 25. L. Sex Roles. M. J. (1985) The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality.. Swecker. & Drasgow. (1991) Women¶s Perceptions and Labeling of Sexual Harassment.F.. (2008). Fredrickson.L. 425-445. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 28-48... 19-23 Koss. & Cheung. M. Journal of Vocational Behavior. C. Changed Women and Changed Organizations: Consequences of and coping with sexual harassment. M. 21 Fitzgerald. Sexual Harassment References Chan. Gelfand. 42.. (2005) Self-labeling sexual Harassment. M. 32. V. 9. 152-175 Fitzgerald. C.. Journal of Vocational Behavior.K. L. (1993). Journal of Applied Psychology. Gold. L.
T. L. & LaFrance. The Effects of Subtle Sexual Harassment on Women¶s Performance in a Job Interview.. & Baker. & Gettman.L.D.. Job-Related and Psychological Effects of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Empirical Evidence From Two Organizations. Woodzicka.. T. 84. Sex Roles. K.F. 82.. J.. . J. Journal of Applied Psychology. 390-402 22 Roberts. & LaFrance. Fitzgerald. (1997).. C. Real Versus Imagined Gender Harassment. 31. (2004). Journal of Social Issues. Hulin. 63-77.. A.F. L. 401-415 Terpstra.. Swan S. & DeNardo M..A. (1999) Outcomes of Self-Labeling Sexual Harassment. 17-27 Schneider. (2005).J.. M. 185-194 Woodzicka. D. Outcomes of sexual harassment charges. 53. V. (1988). Journal of Applied Psychology. J. Academy of Management Journal. Sexual Harassment Magely. D. Gender Differences in the Negative Effects of Priming a state of Self-Objectification.T.E. Mere Exposure.Priming. 51. Sex Roles. & Fitzgerald. M (2001).
Priming. Percentages will exceed 100%. Sexual Harassment Table 1 Percentage of Group 1: Prime and Group 2:Non-Prime Responses to Sexually Harassing Interview Questions Group 1:Prime Responses Ignore/Do Nothing Refocus Positive Counter Ask why and answer Ask why and refuse to answer State that question is irrelevant Negative Counter ³Tell off´ ³None of your business´ Leave interview Report to supervisor Refuse to answer at least one question (n=XXX) X X XX XX XX XX X X X XX X XX 23 Group 2: Non-Prime (n=XX) XX XX XX XX X X X X X X X X Note. .
depicting the number of women that confronted sexual harassment during the interview. Sexual Harassment Figure Captions Figure 1.Priming. Percentages of Group 1: Prime and Group 2:Non-Prime Responses to Sexually Harassing Interview Questions (Table 1). . Participants in Group 1: Prime will show increased levels of negative counters. Group 2: Non-Prime is predicted to only use ignoring and refocusing as strategies against the sexual harassment. Figure 2. A bar graph representing the percentages of responses by group. Group 1: Prime will show a greater number of responses in attempts to confront and speak up against sexual harassment than Group 2:Non-Prime. Group 2: 24 Non-Prime will report overall fewer responses confronting the harassment. Percentages will exceed 100% since participants will response in multiple ways. refusal to answer the questions and leaving the interview.
Group 1: Prime and Group 2: Non-Prime responses/reactions to sexual harassing questions during an interview.Priming. 25 Group 1: Prime Group 2: Non-Prime . Sexual Harassment Figure 1.
Responses total per group for Groups 1:Prime and Group 2: Non-Prime.Priming. depicting the number of women that confronted sexual harassment during the interview. Sexual Harassment 26 Figure 2. Responses Group 1:Prime Group 2: Non-Prime Group Membership .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.