A GOLDEN GUIDE

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GOLDEN NATURE GUIDES
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Golden, Golden Guide, and Golden Press®
are trademarks of Western Publishing Company, Inc.
by
FRANK D. VENNING
Illustrated by
MANABU C. SAITO
Under the general editorship of
VERA R. WEBSTER
� GOLDEN PRESS • NEW YORK
Western Publishing Company, Inc.
Racine, Wisconsin
FOREWORD
Of all the plants in the world, few are more remarkable
than cacti"for their strange forms, spectacular flowers,
and amazing adaptations for survival. Originating as
small leafy jungle trees, they first adapted over the
aeons to life in the desert. But during further ages many
again adapted to other conditions, so that modern cacti
are by no means all desert dwellers.
Some species became tolerant to cold, and now grow
in grasslands on the plains a, nd prairies, or live high up
in the mountains, . even far above the timberline. Others
now prefer the seacoast, while still others have returned
to the jungle, where they take the form of scrambling
vines, or cling as air-plants high in the forest trees. Yet
within all these diverse habitats, most cacti are highly
adapted to occupy special ecological niches in the en­
vironment-niches where they can avoid competition by
living under conditions so difficult or unusual that few
other plants can survive or prosper there.
This book surveys the Cactus Family by illustrating and
describing selected species and varieties to show the
range of form and adaptation within it, and includes
many species and varieties native to the United States.
F. D. V.
Copyright © 1974 by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved,
including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, including
the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical
device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction
or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device, unless permission in
writing is obtained from the copyright proprietor. Produced in the U.S.A. Pub­
lished by Golden Press, New York, N.Y. library of Congress Catalog Cord
Number, 74-76431
C ONT E NT S
FOREWORD ....
THE ORI GI N OF CACTI
ADAPTATI ONS FOR SURVI VAL .
ABERRANT FORMS OF CACTI .
CLASSI FI CATI ON OF CACTI
GLOSSARY
DESCRI PTI ONS OF CACTI
Pereskia
No paleo
Opuntia
Cereus .
Epiphyllum and allied genera .
Echinocereus .
Echinopsis and allied genera
Chamaecereus
Mammillaria
Gymnocalycium
Ferocactus ................ ......... .
Echinocactus
......... ...... 103
.......... 112
.. 116
..120
Stenocactus . ............................... ................ 126
Notocactus and Parodic ...... ... ...... .... ......... 128
Melacactus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Scleracactus
Pediocactus .
.......... ....... 136
138
Thelocactus .
Neallaydia
Ancistrocactus and Laphophara
Coryphantha .
Aztekium and Obregania
leuchtenbergia and Strombacactus.
Ariocarpus
BI BLI OGRAPHY
I NDEX .
. ..... 140
. . . . . . . . 142
..1 58
T H E O R IGIN O F C AC T I
Cacti originated in the Americas, most probably in Mex­
ico, but now range from British Columbia to Massachu­
setts, and all the way down to Patagonia, near the tip
of South America. Our knowledge of their history is
incomplete, because few cacti ever inhabited sites where
fossil formation could occur; studies of continental drift
and climatic changes during geologic times give some
insight into their development:
Before the rise of flowering plants, when cone-bearing
trees dominated the earth, all of the land was united as
a single super-continent with a warm moist climate,
surrounded by a single ocean. Then, about 135 million
years ago, as dinosaurs declined and the insects arose,
flowering plants began to compete with the conifers;
at the same time, rifts appeared in the earth's crust. The
northern and southern land-mass split apart, and a rift
also appeared between Africa and South America.
North America split from Europe 80 million years ago,
and also began drifting west.
By 65 million years ago, the North and South Atlantic
Oceans had taken shape, South America and Africa
were 2000 miles apart, flowering plants dominated the
landscape, and the universal warm moist climate ended.
Broad bands of dry climate gradually appeared on each
side of the 30th parallel in the northern and southern
hemispheres, and the stage was set for the cacti to'
appear. But apparently all the ancestral prototypes were
isolated in the Americas, or evolved there after the
continents had drifted apart.
It is thought that the ancestors of the highly special­
ized modern cacti were small leafy trees with a woody
trunk, not too different from some present-day Pereskias
4
(Pages 10- 1 1}. These ar e mostly drought- avoi di n g
plants; t hey s i mply s h ed t hei r l eaves and go dor mant
dur i ng t he dry season . Ot hers have sli ght l y t hi ckened
leaves t hat store small reserves of wat er.
Only t wo fossi l cacti have ever been found. The old­
est, from Utah, li ved a bout 50 mi lli on year s ago i n t he
Mi ddle Eocene. I t was a flat - j oi nted plant much li k e a
pr i ckl y pear but wi t h more pr i mi ti ve frui ts, confi r mi ng
t hat some cacti were speci ali zed for li fe i n a n ar i d en­
vi ron ment t hat long ago. The other fossi l, from Ari zona,
i s of a r ecent Opunt i a from t he Plei stocene, less than
2 mi lli on year s old .
ADAPTATIONS FOR SURVIVAL
As t he American deserts came into being, cacti con­
fronted an environment of i nt ense sunlight , low humi dity,
hot dry winds, scanty rainfall, an d ext reme fluctuat i ons
between day and night -time t emperatures. Survi val un­
der t hes e conditions meant resolvi ng two problems:
how to han dle excessive heat, and how to avoid dryi ng
up. Adaptation required t he abi li ty t o make contin ual
adj ust ment s to prevent i nt ernal temperat ures from be­
comi ng lethal, while losing as little wat er as possi ble.
It s hould be kept in mi nd that chlorophyll, t he pigment
n ecessary for photosynt hesis, appears green to t he eye
because it absorbs much of t he bl ue-viol et and s hort red
rays of the s pectrum, but reflects most of the green rays;
a part of t he absorbed radi ant ener gy i s converted to
heat, causing a pl ant to heat up i ns i de. Dur i ng t he day,
lar ge Opuntias an d barrel cacti become 1 8
°
to 27° F
hotter tha n t he surrounding air. (Experi ment s show t hat
some Opuntias can survive i nt er nal t emperat ures ap­
proaching 1 45
°
F, whi ch i s above t he let hal maxi mu m
for man y ot her cacti .)
5
A basi c way i n whi ch cacti have adapted i s by modi ­
fyi ng t hei r for ms so as to r educe t he amount of exter nal
surface in relati on t o their total volu me. Th i s l ed t o a ban­
doni ng green leaves, tra nsferri ng photosynt hesi s t o t he
stem, and t he stems becoming mor e and mor e globe-l i ke
i n many speci es. I n addi ti on, cacti developed mecha­
n i s ms for r educi ng t h e heat load.
Pri ckly pears oft en posi tion t hei r joints wi th t he flat
si des faci ng east and west; t hus t he i nt ense midday
sunli ght only st r i kes t he t hi n upper edge of t he pads .
Some developed pi g ments t hat reflect part of t he red
or blue li ght; ot hers have t i ny surface hai rs t hat scat ter
some of t he incoming radiation.
Cactus spines are actual l y highl y modified l eaves;
beside affording physical protection, t hey absor b and
refl ect much l ig ht, keeping t he underlying tissue as much
as 20° F cool er t han it woul d be if they were l acking.
The spines, bristl es, and hairs t hat ador n cacti al so trap
a thin l ayer of ai r next to t he stem, which acts as i nsul a­
tion an d s l ows heat transfer.
Cact i al so have mechani s ms for col l ecti ng an d con­
serving water. The absorbi ng roots, mostly in t he upper
soil, can make fuller us e of li ght rai ns of sli ght penetra­
t i on . Many young cacti have down- poi nt i ng s pi nes t hat
act as dri p-ti ps; t hese collect fog, dew, or li ght rai n an d
chan nel it t o t h e roots. An d most cacti h ave an abun­
dance of water-storage t i ssue i n t hei r stems or roots,
wi th reinforced walls to prevent i ts collapse when water
reserves are l' ow.
The stomates, or por es t hrough which cacti br eat he
and exchange gases with t he ai r, ar e sunken i n pi t s
bel ow t he stem surface, r educing water vapor l oss from
30 to 70 percent . Those of cacti can cl ose dur i ng the h eat
of t he day, when t he transpi rat i on r at e woul d be hi gh.
6
The cel l s ap is muci l agi nous, and as water reserves
are used the protopl as m becomes t hi ck and vi scous,
bi ndi ng the dwi ndl i ng water more and more ti ghtl y.
And s ome cacti can mai ntai n a consta nt water bal ance
by oxi di zi ng t hei r stored s ugar. I n one experi ment,
Opunt i a joi nts were kept i n t he dar k for 5 mont hs at
82° F; t hey mai ntai ned a constant i nt er nal water bal ­
ance dur i ng t he whol e t i me, al though t hey l ost water
const ant l y through trans pi rati on .
Al l t hese marvel ous adaptati ons for survi val i n a hos­
ti l e envi ron ment car r i ed a "pri ce tag : " t he mor e spe­
ci al i zed a cact us became i n handl i ng excessi ve h eat an d
conservi n g water, t h e mor e i ts l i fe processes and growth
rate were forced to sl ow down. In turn, the sl ow rate
of growt h restri cts abi l i ty to compete a mong ordi nary
faster-growi ng l eafy pl ants i n a more moi st envi ronment.
And some cacti have become so hi ghl y adapted to a spe­
ci fi c habi t at t hat i f even a sl i ght change were to occur i n
t he envi ron ment, t hey woul d pr obabl y face ext i ncti on .
ABE R R AN T F OR MS OF C AC T I
In cacti t hat g row a s col umns o r gl obes, each stem h as
a s i n gl e del i cate growi n g poi nt at t h e t i p, us ual l y wi thi n
a s l ight depression, and protected by a mas s of fel t,
wool , and s pi nes . But occasi onal l y t he growi ng poi nt i s
i njured an d i ts cel l s begi n di vi di ng asymmetri cal l y; t he
new growth takes monstrous for ms or twi sts l i ke a cork­
screw. Th e growi n g poi nt may gr adual l y tur n into a
growth l i n e, for mi ng crests, fans , or domes at t he top
of t he pl ant .
Some cactus seed l i ngs ar e born wi t hout chl or ophyl l .
In nat ure t hey die whi l e ti ny, after cons uming the food
stored i n the s eed. But t hey l i ve an d grow indefi ni t el y i f
grafted onto a green cactus rootstock.
7
C L AS S IF IC AT ION OF C AC T I
When the Conquistadors landed in the Americas, they
were astonished by the cacti. Examples sent to Europe
amazed botanists and laymen alike, and truly seemed
to be plants from a New World. Their spines suggested
they were somehow like thistles; when Linnaeus founded
the present system of plant classification in 17 53, he
grouped them under the name Cactus, from the ancient
Greek word kaktos, meaning thistle. Ever since, this plant
family has been the Cactaceae, a single plant a cactus,
more than one plant cacti. They are not too closely re­
lated to any other family, and are placed in a separate
Order, Cactales, within the Class Dicotyledonae (the
flowering plants whose seeds have two cotyledons, or
seed leaves).
In addition to naming plants, classification forms a
framework upon which all other knowledge of plants is
arranged so it can be readily found when needed. To
provide a usable framework, plants must be grouped
to show the natural relationships between them. And
within each family, classification should conform with
prevailing practice throughout the world as a whole for
naming the entire Plant Kingdom.
During the first half of this century, radical systems
of cactus classification were published, creating vast
numbers of new genera and species, many based on
trivial or unstable characteristics, thus obscuring natural
relationships within the family. Today, cacti are receiv­
ing painstaking study and careful revisions in classifica­
tion. The scientific names of cacti used in this book agree
with the conservative revisions that have thus far been
made in the family. As additional revisions occur, nota­
tions to that effect will be included.
8
GLOSSARY
Acute, termi nat i ng in a s harp
or wel l - defned angl e.
Annulate, mode u p of hori ­
zont al r i ng- l i ke bonds .
Apex, t he t i p or s u mmi t of a
structure.
Areole, i n cacti , a cl earl y de­
fned s mal l area t hat may
bear fel t , hai r, spi nes, g l o­
chi ds, fowers, or new
bran ches.
Axi l , t he u pper angl e t hat a
st ruct ure makes wi t h t he
st em to whi ch i t i s attached.
Cephalium, a per manent head
wi t h a woody core t hat de­
vel ops at t he stem apex
when a pl ant i s mat ure;
bears t he fowers and f rui ts.
Coalesce, to grow together.
Corymb, a s hort brood fower­
cl us ter i n whi ch the l ower
fowers open frst.
Deciduous, f al l i ng of at ma­
t uri ty, or at certai n seasons .
Diurnal, day- bl oomi ng.
Epiphyte, growi ng on other
pl ants, but not parasi ti c.
Glaucous, covered by a wh i t­
i s h " bl oom" t hat rubs of.
Glochid, a t hi n barbed bri stl e,
produced i n t he oreol es of
Chol l as, Pri ckl y Pears, an d
a few ot her cacti .
Monotypic, havi ng one s peci es .
Nocturnal, ni ght- bl oomi ng.
Ofshoot, a new pl ant ar i si ng
f r om t he mot her pl ant.
Ovary, t he l ower swol l en port
of t he pi st i l, contai ni ng
ovu l es; after fert i l i zati on,
t he ovul es devel op i nto seeds
and t he ovary i nto t he frui t .
Panicle, a si mpl e elongate cl us­
ter of fowers, the l ower-most
openi ng frst.
Perianth, t he sepal s and petals
col l ecti vely; sai d of cact us
fowers where there i s a
gradual trans i ti on from se­
pal -li ke to petal - l i ke ports.
Persistent, remai ni ng attached.
Pistil, t he f emal e por t of t he
fower; t he ovary at its bose
becomes t he f r uit, t he stigma
at its t i p is the pol l en re­
ceiver, which the t ubul ar
style con nects t o the ovary.
Porrect, standi ng perpendi cul ar
t o t he s u rface.
Pseudocephalium, a "f al se
head, " a temporary modi f­
cat i on of t he st em at fow­
eri ng; i t does not preven t
f urther growth of t h e green
stem, as does a cepholium.
Scale, a s mal l vesti gi al l eaf.
Scrub, a regi on of low, often
dense st u n ted bus hes .
Sepal, one of t he outer seg­
ments of t he peri ont h.
Stamen, t he pol l en-beari n g
( mol e) port of t h e fower.
Stigma, the pol l en- recei ver at
t he t i p of t he st yl e.
Stolon, a hori zont al stem at or
bel ow ground t hat produces
a new pl ant at i ts ti p.
Style, el ongate con necti on be­
tween t he ovary and sti gma.
Tuber, u ndergrou n d s t em us ed
as a storage organ.
Tubercle, a nipple-like protru ­
si on from st em or frui t .
Zygomorphic, bi l ateral l y sym­
metrical .
9
PERESKIA, a Tropical American genus of leafy trees,
shrubs, and vines, more closely resembles ordinary
woody plants rather than cacti. Pereskias are living
examples of nonsucculent primitive cacti from which
the succulent species evolved. They have sharp smooth
unsheathed spines on the trunk, branches, and in the
leaf axils. leaves are alternate, broad, fat, deciduous
or rather feshy; fowers are solitary or in corymbs or
panicles. The edible fruits can be leafy.
Most Pereskias root easily from cuttings and are
often used as living fenceposts or for hedges, and as
rootstocks for grafting ornamental epiphytic cacti.
1 0
PERESKIA GUAMACHO, Guo­
macho, a little tree u p t o 1 6
feet hi gh, i s common along t he
semi-arid Caribbean coast of
Col ombia and Venezuela. The
bark of trunk and branches is
yellowis h- green, on which the
old areoles stand out like s mal l
knobs f lied with brown felt
and rigid spines. I n t he dry
season t he l eaves are dropped;
t he tree fowers prof usely be­
fore refoliating. The fowers
close at night, opening again
t he next morning at 9 am.
The tru n k, u p t o 1 5 inches in
diameter, is us ed for wood.
P. ACULEATA (prickly) , Bar­
bados Gooseberry, Lemon Vi ne,
or Blade Apple, begins life as
an erect s hrub, but later grows
clambering branches over 30
feet long that scal e rocks,
walls, and trees. The showy
lemon-scented blossoms are
followed by clusters of yellow
berries eaten t hroughout t he
West I ndies ; t he leaves are
cooked as a pot herb i n Brazil.
There are also white and yel­
l ow-fowered races. Long in c ul­
tivation, t his species was grown
at t he Royal Gardens at Hamp­
t on Court before 1696.
NOPALEA, closely related to Opuntia, difers in that
the sepals and petals do not open, but remain upright
and closely oppressed around the numerous stamens
and the style, which are much longer thon the petals.
N. COCHI NELLI FERA, the Co­
chi neal Cact us, had l ong been
grown i n ' 'nopal ri es ' ' by t he
Aztecs before Cortez conquered
Mexi co in 1 5 1 8 . Smal l cottony­
whi te patches on t he j oi n ts
were brushed of, crushed, an d
steamed, rel eas i ng t he scarl et
dye Cochi neal . The Crown or­
dered al l t hat coul d be ob-
12
tained, and plantings were
made in the Old and New
Worlds. Only in 1 703, by oid
of a microscope, were the
while growths found to be in­
sects (females of Coccus cacti
scale), not part of Nopalea it­
self. The industry waned after
the discovery of aniline dyes;
now revived in the Canaries.
OPUNTIA ( Cholla; Prickly Pear ) is native to much of
the Western Hemisphere, ranging from Massachusetts
to British Columbia, and southward to the Straits of
Magellan. Individual species vary from 20-foot trees
with spreading crowns to small ground-hugging
plants a few inches high.
The stems and branches are chains of ribless joints
that are globular, cylindrical, or fattened, usually
very feshy, but sometimes woody. If tubercles are
present they are separate, not fused together, with
the areole uppermost. Areoles are rather uniformly
distributed over the fat-sided species.
On new growth, a leaf develops just beneath each
creole; these leaves are usually small feshy awl-like
appendages from % to 1 inch long, rarely to 2
inches, that are quickly shed as the joint matures.
Areoles are commonly armed with from 1 to 15 or 20
spines that emerge from the lower side of the creole;
a few species are spineless. The spines vary greatly in
color, length, and texture; mostly they are smooth,
but sculptured or barbed in a few. The areoles of all
Opuntias are armed with tufts of glochids: tiny barbed
bristles, easily detached, that readily penetrate the
skin and work their way into the fesh.
Flower-buds appear from within the areoles lo­
cated near the top of joints grown during the previ­
ous season. Flowers are diurnal and may last several
days. The tube is very short above its connection to
the ovary, with the stamens attached to this part of
the tube; it is deciduous after fowering.
The ripe fruits are either feshy or dry; they are
often bright-colored and long-lasting, making some
species more attractive when in fruit than when in
fower. Their areoles may be hairy or spiny.
1 3
OPUNTI A ECHI NOCARPA ( s pi­
ny- fruited) Silver or Gol den
Chol l o is an intricatel y­
branched shrub or dwarf tree
of gravel l y or sandy soil s of
the Sanoran, Moj ave, an d Col o­
rado Deserts between 1 000
and 5600 feet el evation. I t
ranges from NE Baj a Cal ifor­
nia an d W Sonora, Mexico,
across SE Cal i fornia, S Nevada,
SW Utah, and W Arizona.
I ts branches, l ike those of
al l Chol l as, are tubercu l ate and
14
circu l ar in cross- section. The
dense awl - shaped s pines, 3
to 1 2 per areol e, are strai ght
an d unbarbed, 3 , to 1 Y2 inches
l ong. I ndivi dual pl an ts are
either sil ver or gol den- s pined.
As in al l Chol l as, t he epider­
mis of each s pi ne separates into
a t hin papery sheat h; sheat hs
are cons pi cuous an d persi st ent ,
t he same col or as t he s pi ne.
Flowering in mid-s pring, t he
dry t an deci duous frui t s ri pen in
earl y s u mmer.
0. SPI NOSI OR ( f ul l of spi nes),
Cane Chal l a, prefers deep sai l s
of desert grassl ands at 2000
to 6500 feet el evati on. From
Sonora and Chi huah ua, Mex­
ico, i t ranges north i nto SE
Arizona an d SW New Mexico.
A l i tt l e tree wi th a short
thi ck tru nk and l ong branches,
rendered conspi cuous by whorl s
of short joi n ts at right angl es
to t he mai n branches and i ts
gray or purpl i sh-gray spi nes.
The joi nts, mostl y 5 to 1 2
i nches l ong and about an i nch
t hi ck, are st udded by smal l t u­
bercl es. The short barbed
spines, 1 0 to 20 per areol e,
have dul l t an sheat hs. The l acy
wooden i n ner core of t he stems
i s prized f or maki ng canes.
The 2- i nch fowers appear i n
spri ng; t hei r col or vari es be­
tween pl ant s, from purpl e and
red to yel l ow, green, or rarel y
whi te. The strongl y-t u bercu l ate
feshy oval fru i ts are yel l ow,
spi nel ess, 1 3; i nches l ong.
1 5
OPUNTI A I MBRI CATA ( overl ap­
pi ng, referri ng to t he appear­
ance of the t ubercl es I Coyo­
nostl e; Tree Chol l a, grows at
el evati ons of 4000 to 6000
feet, preferri ng s andy or grav­
el l y soi l s of the grassl ands. I t
i s fou nd mostl y E of t h e Rock­
ies, fram central Mexico to SE
Col orado and SW Kansas, i n­
c l udi ng W Okl ahoma and t he
W hal f of Texas.
Tree Chal l as h ave cyl i ndri cal
j oi nts 5 to 1 5 i nches l ong and
16
about an i nch t hi ck, wi t h
very promi nent shar pl y- rai sed
t ubercl es. The strongl y- barbed
spi nes, 1 0 to 30 per areol e and
J t o 1% i nches l ong, are al ­
most needl e- l i ke but s l i ghtl y
fattened, wi t h dul l t an papery
s heaths that l ast about a year.
The fowers, 2 to 3 i nches
wi de, appear i n l ate spri ng.
The yel low spi nel ess frui t s, t o
1 ' i nches l ong, are feshy,
st rongl y t ubercu l ate; t hey hol d
t hrough wi nter.
0. VERSI COLOR ( vari ousl y col ­
ored, referri ng to t he fowers )
cal l ed Staghorn Chol l a, grows
i n deep sandy soil s of can­
yons , val l eys, and washes of
t he Arizona Desert i n N So­
nora and sout h- cent ral Arizona.
Adul t pl ants are s mal l trees,
the u l t i mat e branches remi ni ­
scent of a s t ag' s antl ers.
The j oi nts, mostl y 5 to 14
i nches l ong and l ess than 1
i nch t hi ck, have fai rl y promi ­
nent l ong t ubercl es. The spi nes,
7 to 10 per areol e, are s hort,
s l i ghtl y barbed, and l ose t hei r
s heat hs wi t hi n a mont h or two.
The fowers, 1 � to 2� i nches
wi de, appear i n spri ng; each
pl ant has i t s own col or, varyi ng
f r om purpl e, red, and r ose t o
yel l ow, orange, bronze, brown ,
or green. Th e branches t en d to
take the s ame color as t he
fowers i n wi nter or duri ng
drought. The frui ts persi st for
several years ; new frui ts some­
t i mes devel op from t he ol d.
17
OPUNTI A FULGIDA ( gl i steni ng,
referri ng t o t he spi nes ) cal l ed
J u mpi ng Chol l o, often forms
forests on sandy desert soi l s at
1 000 to 3000 feet el evation.
Ranges from Si nal oa, Mexico,
northward to central Ari zona.
The j oi nt s , 2 t o 6 i nches
l ong an d t o 2 i n ches thi ck,
wi th l arge mammi l l ate tuber­
cl es, are al most hi dden behi nd
t he dens e barbed spi nes. A
puf of wi nd, or t he vi brati on
18
of a footstep wi l l detach t he
termi nal joi n ts, wh i ch q ui ckl y
root and propagate the pl ant.
If touched or dropped on mon
or an i mal , t h e fes h i s pi erced.
Floweri ng extends f r om earl y
spri ng to September. The j u icy
frui ts, us ual l y spi neless, are
hel d on the pl ant and sought
by grazi ng ani mal s. The are­
al es of old frui t s bear fowers,
i n t urn for mi ng new frui t s
l i n ked to the ol d.
0. BI GELOVI I ( for Jacob M.
Bi gel ow, 1 786- 1 8 79, Ameri can
botani s t ) cal l ed Teddy Bear
Chol l a; Bal l Chol l a, has vi ci ous
strongly barbed spi nes, very
hard to remove from ski n or
fesh. Its j oi nts "j u mp" at a
bare touch.
Thi s chol l a grows i n rocky
or gravel l y soi l s, from Sonora
and N Baj a Cal i forni a, Mexi co,
north over the Col orado Desert
and l ower Ari zona Desert, i n
SE Cal i forni a and W and S Ari ­
zona, at el evati ons of 1 00 to
3000 feet. On mount ai n s l opes
or hi l l s , i t grows on t he warm
s unny southern si de.
Branches of t hese mi ni ature
trees are muc h s horter t han
t he central tru nk. The ul t i mate
j oi nts are 3- i nch s pheres.
The ti ny rou nd feshy frui t s,
l ess t han an i nch wi de, are
h idden by t he spi nes of the
joi nt s; l ast for one wi nter.
19
OPUNTI A LEPTOCAULI S ( with
t hi n stems ) al so cal l ed Desert
Chri stmas Cactus, Tasaj i l l o, and
Tesaj o, us ual l y grows among
the desert scrub on pl ai ns and
bolloml ands at el evati ons of
200 to 3000 feel. It ranges
wi del y, from Puebl o, Mexi co,
to W-cenlral Ari zona, east to
SW and S-cenlral Okl ahoma,
and over W and S Texas.
Thi s tru nkl ess chol l a i s a
bus h or erect s mal l s hrub, t he
mai n branches composed of
20
t hi n cyl i ndri cal j oi nts to 1 6
i nches l ong, wi th dense woody
cores. Tu bercl es are obscure,
and ·the j oi nts are s mooth .
Each areol e produces j ust one
needl e- l i ke sl i ghtly barbed
spi ne 1 to 2 i nches l ong. lat­
eral joi nts are onl y 1 Ia 3
i nches l ong, l ess than \- i nch
t hi ck, at fr s t s pi nel ess.
Fl ower col or vari es from
yel l ow to green or bronze. The
fruits hol d over wi nter; conspi c­
uous when t he desert i s drab.
0. RAMOSI SSI MA ( much·
branched ) al so ca l l ed Di amond
Chal l a, grows i n sandy desert
washes and an the desert foor
at 1 00 to as much as 3000.
feet el evati on, from NW Sonora
to the S Moj ave and Col orado
Deserts, S Cal i forn i a, S Nevada,
and W Ari zona.
Ei t her s hr u bby, matted, or
tree- l i ke, t he mai n branches
much rebranched, thi s chol l a i s
a mong the l east s uccu l ent; the
i n ner core of you ng s hoots be·
comes wood wi th i n a year.
The j oi nts are 2 to 4 i nches
l ong and '- i nch thi ck, covered
by fat di amond- s haped tu ber·
cl es wi th areol es i n notches at
the upper ends. Spi nes cl u ster
1 to 4 per creol e, but onl y 1
devel ops, from 1 Y2 to 2'
i nches l ong, wi th many barbs
and a thi n con spi cuous s heath .
Fl owers ore borne on s hort
l ateral branches. The many
stamens gi ve t hem a yel l ow
hue; actua l petal col or vari es.
21
OPUNTI A ERI NACEA ( l i ke a
hedgehog) var. ursi na (bear.
l i ke), known as Gri z.zl y Bear
Cactus, grows on rocky hi l l si des
i n t he Mojave Desert at 4000 to
5500 feet el evati on
, i n N Ari ·
zona, SW Utah, S Nevada and
SE Cal ifornia.
This fat- jointed prickl y pear
is notabl e for l ong tawny-white
fexi bl e spi nes t hat cover t he
bases of t he l ower j oi nts. Some
of these s pi nes are 3 or 4
inches l ong i n wi l d pl ant s; in
22
fne cul tivated sel ections they
ore more t han twice thi s
lengt h. The joints t hemsel ves
are el ongated, 4 to 5 i nches
l ong and 1 to 2 i nches wide.
The pl ants form cl umps a
foot high and a yard or more
wide; as one nears a sl ope
where it is growing, the hil l ­
sice appears t o be covered by
patches of s now.
The browni s h- tan frui ts, dry
when ri pe, are densel y s pi ned
ond deci duous.
0. RUFIDA ( reddi sh -brown ,
referri ng t o t h e glochi ds) also
known as Bl i nd Pri ckl y Pear
i nhabi ts rocky desert hi l l si des
and ri dges at el evati ons of
1 900 to 3360 feet i n t he States
of Chi huahua and Coah ui l a,
Mexi co, and the Bi g Bend re­
gion of Texas. I t sel dom grows
more t han 20 mi l es north of
the Ri o Grande.
Thi s 6-foot s hr ub devel ops
a defn ite trun k, and has l arge
round fat j oi nts from 3 to 1 0
i nches across. Thei r col or vari es
from bl ue- green to gray-green,
and t hei r s urface i s rendered
du l l by a coveri ng of hai r.
The spi nel ess areol es are
l arge and cl ose together, fl l ed
by a conspi cuous hemi s pheri cal
tuft of s hort sl ender gl ochi ds
t hat are easi l y detached. Graz­
i ng cattl e rel i sh feedi ng on the
j oi nts and t he s mal l feshy
bright r ed f r ui t of t hi s cactus ;
the glochi ds readi l y penetrate
t he eye an d bl i nd t hem.
23
OPUNTI A BASI LARI S ( pertai n­
i ng t o t he bos e, referri ng to
the low spreadi ng habi t of
branchi ng ) known as Beaver­
Toi l Cactus grows on sandy,
gravel l y, or rocky soi l s i n or
near t he desert, mostl y between
sea l evel ond 4000 feel, rarel y
to 9000 feet el evati on . I t
ranges over N Sonora and S
Cal iforn i a to S Nevada, S Utah,
and W Ari zona.
The Beaver· Tai l i s a vari abl e
speci es t hat f orms c l u mps on l y
24
6 to 1 2 i nches hi gh but up to
2 yards across . Typi cal l y, t he
form of t he s pi nel ess j oi nt s i s
suggesti ve of a beaver' s t ai l .
The surface i s vel vety, t he are­
al es cons pi cuous and depressed,
ful l of troubl esome gl ochids .
At mat uri ty t he l- i nc h frui ts
are dry, t an or l i ght gray, f ul l
of nearl y ci rcul ar bone·wh i te
or pal e gray seeds.
Var. fre/easei i s armed wi th
spi nes on j oi nts and frui t; var.
aurea is yellow-fowered.
0. VI OLACEA var. santa rita
( far t he Sant a Ri t a Mou n tai ns
near Tucson , Ari zona, i n t he vi ­
ci ni ty of whi ch i t was di scov­
ered ) Purpl e Pri ckl y Pear, one
of t he most or nament al of t he
Opunt i as, devel ops a tru n k and
s omet i mes becomes l arge and
tree- l i ke. I t grows i n s andy or
grav
e
l l y soi l s i n N Sonora, S
Ari zona, S New Mexi co, an d
i n Texas W of t h e Pecos Ri ver,
at el evati ons of 3000 to 5000
feet, at t he desert ' s edge.
The nearl y ci rc ul ar j oi nts, 6
to 8 i nches wi de, are u s u al l y
s pi nel ess. A few needl e- l i ke
spi nes, 1 per creol e, may oc­
cur on the u pper margi n of the
pad, these are from 1 � to 2�
i nches l ong.
The r ed or reddi s h- pur pl e
feshy frui t s are oval , to 1 Y2
i nches l ong.
Thi s c ac t us l i ves wi t h i n nar­
row envi ron ment al l i mi ts, an d
i s n ot tol eran t of drought or
of too much moi st ure.
25
OPUNTI A MACRORHI ZA ( I orge
roots) Pl ai ns Pri ckl y Pear, a
cl ump-for mi ng s peci es usual l y
onl y 3 to 5 i nches hi gh but the
c l umps to 6 feet wi de, i s com­
mon on t he Great Pl ai ns gross­
l ands and t he hi gh pl ai ns of
the West at el evati ons of 2000
to 8000 feet
,
from E Cal i forni a
to Sout h Dakota. Al t hough rare
on the prai ri es, i t occurs east­
word to S Mi chi gan, W Oh io,
W Mi ssouri , W Arkansas, and
loui si ana, central and S Texas
26
and occurs across most of t he
northern par t of Mexi co.
The mai n ·root or roots are
tuberous, but t he roots put
down by t he prostrate j oi nts
are fi brous. The j oi nts are 2 to
4 i n ches l ong and 2 to 3 i nches
wi de. Most of t he spi nes come
from the upper areol es, 1 t o
6 per creol e, needl e- l i ke u p t o
2'/• i nches l ong,
The purpl e or pur pl i sh-red
frui ts, to 1 1h i nches l ong, are
fl eshy and bear gl ochi ds.
0. FI CUS-I NDI CA, I ndi an Fi g ;
Napal de Casti l l a, t hou gh t to
be nati ve Ia Mexi co, is fou nd
al l aver t he tropi cs and very
mi l d- temperate parts of t he
worl d. I t has l ong been grown
for i ts f r ui ts and for forage.
The pl an ts are tree- l i ke, to
over 1 5 feet hi gh, wi t h a fool·
t hi ck tru n k 2 to 4 feet l ong.
The fes hy obl ong j oi nt s, 1 to 2
feet l ong and 8 to 1 6 i nches
wi de, may h ave no, a few, or
many spi nes, dependi ng on
whi ch of t he many horti cul t ural
vari eti es or hybri ds i s i nvol ved.
Al l have n u merous gl ochi ds,
t hat drop of as t he j oi nt ages.
I t has escaped and runs wi l d
al ong t he Medi terranean, t he
Red Sea, and i n Mexi co and
Hawai i ; i t has become a nox­
i ous weed i n Sout h Afri ca and
parti cu l arl y i n Aus tral i a, where
cattl e, s heep, emus , and ot her
ani mal s eat t he f r ui t and
s pread seed to over 1 , 000, 000
new uni nfested acres each year.
27
CEREUS, as interpreted by modern taxonomists, con­
tains an undetermined but large number of species
ranging from California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas,
and Florida southward into Chile and Argentina; six­
teen species are native or introduced and established
as a part of the fora of the United States.
Cereus is characterized by elongated ribbed stems
which branch slightly to freely. Mature stems are
from 15 to 100 times as long as their diameter, i.e.,
from 1 to 50 feet long, and from % inch to 2 Y feet
in diameter. Ribs vary from 3 to more than 20, so
that in cross-section the stems have prismatic to cylin­
drical outlines. The stems expand and contract as
water is absorbed, stored, and used. Leaves are not
produced on the new growth of mature stems, but do
occur on seedling Cereus.
The smooth straight needle-like spines, from 1 to
many per areole, are usually between 1/16 of an
inch to 3 inches long, but a few species have 8- to
1 0-inch spines, the largest in the Cactus Family.
Flowers are produced on the old growth of preced­
ing seasons, and therefore are below the growing
apex of the stem or branch. Buds develop in felted
areas at least within the edge of the spine-bearing
part of the areoles, or merge into it. Most species
have showy fowers, but they vary greatly in size;
the majority are from 1 to 6 inches wide when fully
open, but some have fowers a foot long and equally
wide. In form the fowers are essentially tubular, but
the part above the ovary is almost tubeless in some,
funnel-form in others, long and trumpet-like in a few.
At maturity the fruit is feshy and often edible. Its
skin may be with or without tubercles, scales, hairs,
spines, or a combination of these.
28
C. NUDI FLORUS ( naked- fow­
ered ) Fl or de Copa ( Gobl et­
Fl ower) i s t he most tree- l i ke
Cereus . Ol d pl ant s devel op a
t hi ck u pri gh t cyl i ndri cal tru n k
wi t h a sol i d wood core,
s heat hed by fne- grai ned gray­
i s h- brown bark, wi t h dense
cl us ters of s harp ri gi d spi nes
i n t he areol es. Wi t h age some
areol es devel op i nto rounded
knobs protr udi ng from t he bark.
The muc h - branched s pread­
i ng crown reaches a hei gh t of
over 30 feel and i s us ual l y as
brood as t he pl ant i s lol l . The
branches ar e made u p of nu ­
merous j oi nt s wi th 3 t o 5 wi ngs,
a sl ender woody care, and l ow
scal l ops on t he wi ng margi ns.
The bi rc h- scen ted fowers are
noctur nal . The f rui ts resembl e
avocados, and are t he l argest
Cact us frui t s known .
Th i s s peci es i s common on
t he coasts of Cuba and Hi s ­
pani ol a, from Havana Provi nce
eastward.
29
CEREUS JAMACARU, Manda­
caru, o s nat i ve to t he notori ous
"dry pol ygon" of northeastern
Brazi l , where i t often domi n­
at es t he l andscape a l ong t he
coast and i n t he ari d i n teri or.
Boards cut from i ts woody
tru n k are made i nto boxes,
crates, and pi ct ure frames.
The cou n try peopl e use t he
wood as cross - pi eces on whi ch
t o l ay t he roof t i l es.
The dense compact crown of
upri ght branches reaches 30
30
feel i n hei ght . Branches h ave
4 Ia 6 ri bs ; when young t he
ri bs are t hi n, hi gh, very bl ue
i n cal or, wi t h wavy margi ns .
Ol d stems and branches are
covered wi th spi nes up to 8
i nches l ong. The noctur nal fow­
ers, each a foot l ang, are
borne in profusi on ; t he bri ght
r ed oval frui ts are esteemed.
The farmers pl ant Manda­
car u i n hedges, and i n t i mes of
drought cut t he branches to
feed t hei r l i vestock.
C. HEXAGON US ( s ix- angl ed )
Bl ue Cereus , nat i ve Ia t he
sout hern West I ndi es and
northeastern South Ameri ca, i s
muc h admi red and frequentl y
pl anted i n dooryards and parks
wi t hi n i ts range. Al t hough ol d
pl ants are tree- l i ke and re­
ported to reach al most 50 feet,
average s peci mens are us ual l y
l ess t han hal f t hi s hei ght , col ­
umnar i n form, us ual l y branc h­
i ng near t he bas e from a s hort
woody tru n k.
The branches, a di s ti nct
bl ue- green, are made up of
s hort ri bbed j oi nts about 5
i nches t hi ck, often have 6 ri bs,
but t he ri bs vary from 4 to 7
on i ndi vi dual j oi nt s. Young
j oi nt s ar e spi nel ess or carry
few very s hort spi nes, but ol d
branches bear cl us ters of u n ­
equal spi nes t o 2' i nches l ong.
The nocturnal fowers, 8 to
1 0 i nches l ong, cover the pl ant
when i t bl ooms ; t he pal e red
oval frui ts have edi bl e pul p.
31
CEREUS REPANDUS ( wi t h wavy
margi ns, referri ng to t he s i l ou­
ette of t he branches ) Codus hi ,
of t he ar i d pl ai ns of nort h­
western Venezuel a and t he
Net herl ands Ant i l l es, forms
thi ckets on Curacao, where i t
i s i mportant economi cal l y. The
st rong woody tru nk, 1 2 t o 1 6
i nches t hi ck, provi des boards
for maki ng s mal l decorati ve
tabl es, chests, and chai rs .
The col umnar branches reach
to 35 feet, are about 4 i nches
32
thi ck, wi t h 9 t o 1 2 ri bs wh i ch
are i rregu l arl y constricted and
bear oreol es set wi t h cl us ters
of spi nes up to 2' i nches l ong.
The fesh of t he branches i s
a st apl e food of Curacao, sol d
fresh or as dry gran u l ar pow­
der. When added to boi l i ng
water and cooked, i t forms a
muci l agi nous green soup stock
wi th a mi l d asparagus favor.
The fesh i s al so used as
soap; i t foams readi l y and di s ­
sol ves grease.
C. PERUVI ANUS ( of Peru, a
mi s nomer ) Hedge Cact us, i s
t hought t o be nati ve t o Ur u­
guay, but i t has been wi del y
cul t i vated for s uch a l ong t i me
t hat i ts ori gi n i s i n dou bt. Typ­
i cal l y col u mn ar and u pri gh t ,
densel y branc hed at or near t he
base, i n age i t f orms a compact
crown to nearl y 50 feet.
Young bra nches are 4 i nches
t hi ck wi t h 6 t o 8 fat r i bs , a
l i ght green, c hangi ng to bl ui s h
gray i n t he second season. The
t i ps ar e covered wi t h brown
fel t i ntermi xed wi th l onger
f ufy strands . Mat ure l i mbs are
l i ght grayi s h- green, to 8 i nches
t hi ck. Needl e- l i ke s pi nes to 1 Y
i nches l ong are in c l usters of 5
to 1 0 per creol e.
The s l i ght l y fragrant noct ur­
nal fowers, 6 i nches l ong, are
bel l - l i ke, not openi ng wi de.
The f r ui ts are par t l y t u bercl ed.
As i s true of most Cereus ,
branch cutti ngs root readi l y and
ar e used f or hedges.
33
CEREUS PECTEN-ABORI GI NUM
( abori gi ne' s comb ) I n di an' s
Comb; Hai rbrus h Cact us, a tree­
like Mexi can s peci es from t he
States of Chi h uah ua, Sonora,
Col i ma, and Baja Cal i forn ia,
forms a woody tru n k 3 to 6
feet hi gh and a foot t hi ck.
Branches have 1 0 ar 1 1 r i bs;
each ri b has a narrow groove
ru n n i n g dawn its out er edge i n
wh i c h t h e areol es are seated.
Fl ower- produci n g areol es are
34
fl l ed with dense reddi s h or
browni s h wool and devel op
browni s h c u s hi ons con n ected t o
t he areol es bel ow; ot her are­
al es are fl l ed wi t h gray wool .
Spi nes are i n c l u sters of 8 to
1 2, us ual l y s hort.
The di urnal fowers are onl y
2 t o 3 i nc hes l ong. The fru i t
i s covered by 5 - i nch yel low
bri stl es ; t hese dry f rui ts are
used by the nati ve women of
Baja Cal i forni a as combs.
C. CHRYSOMALLUS ( gol den
feece ) , no l i ve to t he stoles of
Puebl o and Oaxaca, Mexi co, i s
a characteri st i c pl ant on t he
mes as arou n d Teh uac6n . Ful l y­
grown s peci mens are massi ve
col u mnar tree- l i ke pl ants , t he
6-foot tru n k and ol der branches
st out and woody. Ol d pl ants
h ave compact cyl i ndri cal crown s
over 50 feet h i gh and 1 6 feet
wi de, made up of h u n dreds of
erect stems .
The stems ar e g l aucous
gr een i n col or wi t h 1 1 to 1 4
ri bs; t he areol es are st udded
a l ong t he outer edge of t he
ri bs. There are 1 2 s l ender ra­
di al and 3 cen tra l s pi nes per
creol e; one of t he l atter i s very
l ong, to over 5 i nches .
The noctur nal fowers, born e
near t he top of t he s tem, are
often hi dden i n i t . The f rui ts
mat ure an d burs t open j us t one
mont h af t er foweri ng.
35
CEREUS GI GANTEUS (gigantic)
Saguaro, the State Flower of
Arizona.
From the headwaters of the
Yaqui River in southern So­
nora, the Saguaro. ranges
northward across the Arizona
Desert and the upper edge of
the Colorado Desert to the be­
ginning of the Colorado Pla­
teau in central Arizona, at ele­
vations of 600 to 3600 feet.
This range includes southeast­
ern California n, ear the Colo­
rado River, from the Whipple
Mountains to the Laguna Dam.
Large Saguaro forests are
common in southern Arizona
and Sonora, but the species is
by no means continuously dis­
tributed throughout its range.
It is restricted to rocky or grav­
elly soils of the hills, canyons,
and along desert washes. It sel­
dom occurs on alluvial soils,
seemingly because these do not
provide adequate anchorage for
the plant.
Saguaros lack taproots, and
although the lateral roots radi­
ate out for a distance of 50 to
60 feet, they lie only a few
inches beneath the soil. Strong
winds are common in rainy
weather throughout its range,
and the rocky soils give better
support to the tons of stem
swaying in the wind than do
rain-softened alluviums.
Although not the largest of
cacti (Cereus pringlei of Mexico
is larger, and the largest cac­
tus known), adult Saguaros are
truly gigantic awe-insporong
plants 50 feet high, the trunk
21/ feet thick, the base of the
upraised 0rms curving outward
36
high overhead, the whole cactus
weighing TO tons. This weight
is supported by a cylinder of
12 or more woody rods extend­
ing up the entire stem, with
succulent tissue both to the in­
side and out. The wood, im­
pregnated with silicon, quickly
blunts woodworking tools.
Saguaros grow very slowly.
After 2 years, plants are '1•-inch
tall; at 1 5 years, barely 1 fool;
by 40 years, not more than
TO feet. AI 60 to 70 years and
from 2 to 3 times a man's
height, the first branch buds
appear near the top. Plants usu­
ally have 1 to 5 branches
and little rebranching. Mature
plants are 1 50 to 200 years
old.
In Arizona, flowering is from
late April through June; buds
are crowded in a wide circle of
up to 300 just below the
branch tips
,
but only about a
third of them develop fully.
Flowers open in late evening
and remain open until early
afternoon of the next day. Self­
sterile, they are pollinated by
bees, white-winged doves, and
nectar-drinking bats.
The egg-shaped fruits, 2 to
3 inches long, ripen in July;
the skin splits and curls back,
exposing the vivid red pulp.
Papago Indians make a heavy
syrup and on intoxicating wine
from them; their harvest marks
the Papago New Year.
Gila woodpeckers dig nest
holes in the soft pulp of the
stems; the raw surface callouses
and grows corky, making a per­
fect jug. Pima Indians use these
for water-bottles.
CEREUS GEOMETRI ZANS ( sym­
metri c ) Padre Nuestro ( Our Fa­
t her ) , i s a cam man cactus of
the Mexi can t abl el and from
San Luis Potosi to Oaxaca. Ma­
t ure pl ants are tree- l i ke, 1 5
feet hi gh , wi t h a s hort def ni te
trun k an d muc h- branched
spreadi ng top.
The bl ui s h- green branches, 2
to 4 i nches t hi ck, have 5 or 6
rounded ri bs wi t h broad i nter­
val s. They are gl aucous, wi t h
a bri gh t bl ui s h- whi te "bl oom"
from t he waxy cuti cl e t hat pro-
38
!eels t hem; in wi nter the col or
deepens to s moky vi ol et. The
areol es bear 5 s hort radi al
spi nes and one cen tra l dagger­
l i ke s pi ne one i nch l ong.
Smal l myrtl e- l i ke di ur nal
fowers, s l i ght l y over an i nch
wi de, appear singl y or i n two' s
f r om t he u pper part of t he
areol es. The edi bl e ol i ve- l i ke
frui t s, ca l l ed Gorambu l l os, ore
sol d i n t he Mexi can markets ;
they are eaten fres h , or dri ed
and used i n much t he same way
as are rai s i ns .
C. LANATUS ( wool l y) Peruvi an
Ol d Man ; Cotton Bol l , from t he
dr y Andean u pl ands of s out h·
ern Equador and nor t her n Peru ,
h as two di st i nct growth h abi t s :
t he pl ants may be erect col ·
umns t o 1 2 feet hi gh, some·
t i mes wi t h a few s i mpl e up­
r i ght branc hes, q t hey are tree­
l i ke, wi th many 3- foot hori ­
zon tal branches that curve up­
ward and become erect at t he
stem t i p.
Stems an d branches h ave 20
low rou n ded r i bs beari n g rows
of rat her l arge areol es spaced
\-i nch apart. The areol es carry
Iorge cl usters of s hort needl e­
l i ke radi al s pi nes , and a s i ngl e
central s pi ne u p to 2 i nches
l ong. The areol es al so produce
abundant l ong whi te h ai rs,
compl et el y hi di ng t he st em ti ps
u nder a massi ve growth of
wool and s pi nes .
Fl owers, produced on one
si de of t he st em from a pseudo·
cephal i u m, are about 2 i nches
wi de. The s mal l edi bl e frui t s
are sweet and j ui cy.
39
CEREUS SCHOnl l ( for F. Ar­
t hur Schott, pl ant col l ector wi th
t he Mexi can Boundary Survey)
Seni ta, grows in both heavy
and sandy soi l s i n Baja Cal i ·
fornia and t he Sonoran Deserts
at el evati ons of 1 500 feet or
l ess; i ts natural range crosses
the border i nto western Pi ma
County, Ari zona.
Seni t as are trunkl ess, wi t h
el ongated col u mnar branches
most l y ari si ng from near the
base, i n age formi ng col oni es
40
from 6 to 21 feet hi gh and u p
t o 1 5 feet i n di ameter. Branches
are about 5 i nches t h i ck, wi t h
5 to 9 promi nent ri bs.
The areol es of young
branches carry c l usters of about
8 to 1 0 s hort s tout s pi nes wi th
bu l bous bases, but when
branches reach foweri ng age,
each new creol e produces a
tuft of 30 to 50 twi sted bri stl e­
l i ke spi nes u p to 3 i nches l ong.
The s mal l nocturnal fowers
emi t an evi l scent.
C. THURBER! ( for George Thur­
ber, 1821-1890, botani st wi th
the Mexican Bou ndary Survey)
Organ-Pipe Cactus ; Pitahaya,
grows at el evati ons of 1 000
to 3500 feet on t he rocky and
s andy h i l l s, mesas, and val l eys
i n t he deserts of Baj a Cal i for­
ni a and western Sonora, north­
ward to western Pi ma and
sout hwestern Pi nal Counti es,
Arizona.
These are l arge col umnar
pl ants 9 t o 20 feet hi gh and
6 t o 18 feet i n di ameter, wi th
numerous l arge upri ght fu ted
branches ari si ng at or near
the base, resembl i ng organ
pi pes. The stems, t o 8 i nches
thi ck wi t h 1 2 to 19 l ow
rounded ri bs, carry numerous
needl e-l i ke half-i nch spi nes at
t he areol es.
The 3-i nch noctur nal fowers
may remai n open t he next day.
At mat uri ty the 3-i nch frui t s
are ol i ve-green, covered by
dense deci duous spi nes.
41
CEREUS SENI LI S ( wh i te- hai red
or ol d ) Ol d- Man Cact us . Seed­
l i ng Ol d- Man Cacti are favored
by cactophi l es, but t hei r growth
i s so sl ow ( between % and 1
i nch a year ) t hat mat ure speci ­
mens ore sel dom seen. Where
nati ve in t he stales of Guana­
j ualo and Hi dal go, Mexi co,
t hey cover the steep l i mestone
s l opes of t he river val l eys wi t h
t hei r tol l st at el y col u mns. Large
pl ants, nearl y 40 feel hi gh mus t
be several h u ndred years ol d.
42
The s t ems s el dom branch
above ground l evel , but branch
freel y from t he base whe
n
ol d.
The 20 to 30 r i bs bear cl osel y­
set areol es f l l ed wi t h wavy
whi te wool . When 1 8 feel hi gh
and fr s t ready t o fower, a
pseudocephal i um of spi ral l y­
arranged t u bercl es rat her t han
r i bs appears at t he st em t i p.
From i ts areol es grow masses
of dense lawny wool , s hort
bristl es, and the noct urnal fow­
ers; frui t about 1 i nch l ong.
C. MACROSTI BAS ( l i teral l y,
" bi g bed of st raw" ( Gr. ) ,
probabl y referri ng to t he en­
l arged s pi ny areol es ) . Thi s un­
us ual s peci es i n h abi ts h i l l si des
on t he edges of t he Peruvi an
Coastal Desert t hroughout west­
ern Peru u nder condi t i ons of
extremel y l ow rai nf al l . I ts moi s­
t ure i s l argel y provi ded by fog,
dew, mi st, or occasi onal wi nter
dri zzl e. I ts s urrou ndi ngs are
rocky and barren. I n thi s en­
vi ronment growth i s s l ow.
These are stocky erect col ­
u mnar cacti wi t h many basal
branches, 6 to 1 3 feet h i gh .
Th e foot - t hi ck st ems h ave 4 to
6 ri bs separated by broad i n­
terval s . The unus ual areol es,
about an i nch apart, enl arge to
i nch - wi de s pheres of brown
fel t, or, on ol d pl ant s, may
el ongate t o over 2 i nches . Of
t he 1 2 or more s pi nes at an
areol e, one or two l engt hen up
to 1 0 i nches, and ar e t he l ong­
est cact us spi nes known .
43
CEREUS ALAMOSENSI S ( of Al ­
amos, Sonora, where frst di s­
covered ) Ci na, ranges from
Nayarit northward through
Si nal oa Ia southern Sonora,
Mexi co.
Cinas are s l ender col umns
u p to al most ' 1 0 feet hi gh but
onl y 3 i nches t hi ck, wi th from
5 to 8 bl untl y-rounded ribs.
Smal l areol es, spaced about an
inch apart al ong t he ri bs, carry
from 1 1 to 18 s harp spreadi ng
radi al spines and 1 to 4 much
44
stouter central spi nes wi th a
l ength of 1 to 2 i nches.
As t he pl ants grow tal l , the
stem curves or bends over unti l
i t touches the ground ; i t then
roots near t he ti p and forms
new pl ants . Thi s habi t gi ves ri se
to l arge cl us ters of Ci nas same­
t i mes 25 feet i n di ameter.
The di urnal t ubul ar fowers
vary from 2 to 4 i nches l ong,
and open t hei r petal s obl i quel y
at t he t hroat. The gl obul ar red
frui t measures 2Y2 i nches.
C. BAUMANNI I ( for Charl es
and Constant i ne Bau mann,
French n u rserymen ) Fi recracker
Cact us; Scarl et Bugl er, rangi ng
from nort hern Argent i na i nto
Ur uguay, Paraguay, and sout h­
eastern Bol i vi a, has been
known and cul ti vated for mare
than a cent ury.
The t hi n col umnar s tems ,
onl y 1 1 i nches t hi ck, reach a
hei ght af 6 feel; it someti mes
has a few s l ender u pri ght
branches at t he base, paral l el
t o t he mai n stem. The st ems
h ave 1 2 to 1 6 l ow broadl y­
rou n
d
ed ri bs di vi ded by deep
grooves. The cl osel y s paced
areol es bear cl us ters of 1 5 to
20 t hi n s harp spi nes up to an
i nch and a h al f l ong.
The di urnal fowers are zyg.
omorphi c, up to 3 i nches l ong,
wi th an S-shaped t ube t hat
ends i n a sl ant i ng mout h. The
petal li ps do not open aut ­
ward, but remai n poi nted for­
ward. Bl ooms i n s u mmer.
45
CEREUS LAMPROCHLORUS ( green
torch) , from nort hern Argent i na,
i s s i mi l ar i n habi t t o t he
t wo precedi ng speci es , but i s
a more robust , st out er pl ant,
often used as a rootstoc k for
del i cate you n g sci ons
.
I t s u p­
ri gh t cyl i n dri cal stems, 3 to 61h
feet tal l , are 6 to 8 i nches t hi ck,
at f i rst u nbranc hed, but l ater on
branc hi ng from t he base. New
growth i s br i ght green, con­
trast i ng shar pl y wi t h t he drab
green al der growt h.
46
St ems have f r om 1 0 to 1 7
low ri bs t hat are con s pi cuous l y
wavy when you n g, becomi n g
rounded and s moot her wi t h
age. The areol es, about %- i nch
apart, are armed wi t h 1 1 to 1 4
s hort strai ght s har p- poi nted
radi al spi nes, some st rong an d
ri gi d, ot hers bri st l e- l i ke. Th e 4
central spi nes, to 3.- i nch l ong,
are somewhat st ronger.
The s howy nocturnal fowers,
to 1 0 i nches l ong and 6 i nc hes
wi de, are borne freel y.
C. ERUCA ( to bel ch ) Chi r i nol o;
Creepi ng Devi l , crawl s over
the wi nd- dri fted sand of t he
coastal pl ai n s of Baj a Cal i for­
ni a and Magdal ena I s l and l i ke
monstrous caterpi l l ars. The
st ems, 3 to 9 f eet l ong and 3
i nches t hi ck, h u g t he s and ex­
cept for t hei r u prai sed heads.
The st ems root al ong t he
l ower si de, s l owl y growi ng
forward as t he ol d s t em gradu ­
al l y di es beh i nd. Wh en a st em
meets on obstructi on such as
o l og, rock, or fel low cact us, i t
rai ses i ts head, grows u p one
si de and down t he ot her, and
by dyi ng at t he r ear l i teral l y
but s l owl y crosses t he obstacl e.
These cact i ten d to grow i n
groups and ar e s and bi nders,
prevent i ng erosi on and accumu ­
l at i ng wi nd- blown s and. Desert
foxes di g t hei r burrows among
t he formi dabl e s pi ny st ems.
The attracti ve fowers, u p t o
5 i nches l ong and 2 i nches
wi de, are di u rnal .
47
CEREUS MARTI ANUS (for Karl
F
.
P. von Marti us, 1 794- 1 868,
Bot any Professor ot Mun i ch
and fou nder of t he Fl ora Brasi ­
l i ensi s).
Thi s cactus of central Mexi co
i s a sl ender vi ne- l i ke pl ant t hat
creeps aver t he grou nd, c l i mbs
roc ks and trees, and al so grows
as an epi phyte, hangi ng from
the tru n ks an d l i mbs of trees.
Th e pl ant sends aut aeri al roots
al l al ong the stem, serve for
anchorage and adsorpti on.
48
The stems ar e occasi onal l y
branched, about '!•- i nc h wi de
and several feet l ong
,
wi t h 5
to 8 low rou nded ri bs. The
areol es, about 1h- i nch opart,
carry 6 to 10 short spi nes,
needl e- l i ke to mere bri st l es.
The t ubul ar di urnal fl owers,
3 Ia 4 i nches l ang, are pro­
duced profusel y. I ndi vi dual
fl owers open ear l y i n t he morn­
i ng and remai n open several
days. The spi ny frui ts are %­
i nch gl obul ar berri es.
C. FLGELLI FORMI S ( whi p- l i ke )
Rat-Tai l Cactus, is s i mi l ar i n
growth habi t t o t he precedi ng
speci es, but i s better known .
It has been cul tivated t hrough­
out Mexi co, Central , and Sout h
America f or i ts fowers, appar­
entl y s i nce pre-Col umbi an
ti mes, and i s not known i n t he
wi l d state. I t probabl y ori gi ­
nated i n Mexico.
Young pl ants hol d t hei r
stems upward, but they ore
weak and become prostrate as
they el ongate. The 1 0 to 1 2
low ri bs are s l i ghtl y t u bercl ed;
t he areol es, %- i nch apart, bear
8 to 1 2 radi al and 3 or 4 cen ­
tral spi nes.
The 3-i nch di urnal fowers
appear i n February and March ;
i ndividual fowers stay open for
3 or 4 days. The 1- i nch round
red bri stl e-covered frui ts have
yel l ow pul p.
Hybri ds wi t h ot her Cereus
have produced many f or ms i n a
variety of h ues.
49
CEREUS EMORYI ( for li eut . - Col .
Wi l l i am H. Emory, 1 8 1 1 - 1 8 8 7,
in charge of t he Mexi can
Boundary Su rvey ) Vel vet Cac­
t us, grows at el evati on s of 200
feet or l ess on sandy dry hi l l s
and bl u fs near t he coast from
Del Mar, San Di ego County,
Cal i forn i a, sout hward i nto
northwestern Baj a Cal i for ni a.
I t i s common on Santa Catal i na
and San Cl emente I s l ands.
Thi s cact us i s a s hr ub wi t h
s prawl i ng branches covered by
50
dense cl ear yel l ow s pi nes t hat
hi de t he j oi nt s ; i n age t he
spi nes bl acken. I t mu l t i pl i es by
s endi ng out branc hes f r om be­
neat h t he s and, for mi ng col o­
ni es several yards i n di ameter.
The cyl i ndri cal j oi n ts are 1 to 2
feet l ong an d 1 V to 2 i nc hes
t hi ck, wi t h 1 2 t o 1 6 i nconspi cu­
ous ri bs. Spi nes are cl us tered
20 to 30 per creol e; the 2 - i nc h
ch i ef one ben t backwar d, t he
others poi nt i ng i n al l di rect i ons.
I t fowers i n May.
C. SPEGAZZI NI I ( for Carl os
Spegazzi ni , 1 8 5 8 · 1 92 6, Argen·
t i ne botani s t ) i s nat ive to
t he s ub· t ropi ca l seasonal l y· ari d
Chacos of nort heastern Argen·
t i na and Paraguay. The pl ants
are erect when young, but t he
s t ems an d bran ches begi n to
bend or c urve as t hey reac h
several feet i n l engt h. The
stems are about an i nc h wi de,
strongl y 3· angl ed, wi t h toot hed
margi ns ; t he ti ps of t he teeth
bear the oreol es.
Spi nes on you n g bra nches
ar e brown or bl ack, onl y 3 to
on oreol e, but 3 more devel op
i n t he or eol es on t he ol der
part s of t he st ems.
The gray- green fower buds
and t he open fowers are hel d
ri gi dl y erect, bu t af t er cl osi ng
t hey t ur n an d poi nt downward.
As a pot- pl ant , i t i s pri zed
for i t s marbl ed stems. Free­
bl oomi ng, i t bears two or more
crops of 4- to 5- i nch noctu r nal
fowers i n ear l y s u mmer.
51
CEREUS CAVENDI SHI I ( for Wi l ­
l i am G. S. Cavendi s h, 1 790-
1 85 8 , 6t h Du ke of Devon s hi re )
ranges from nort hern Argent i no
an d Paraguay i nto Brazi l ( Sao
Pau l o) ; i t s northern l i mi ts are
u n certai n.
The l ong s l ender cyl i ndri cal
stems , up to 1 0 feet l ong and
about an i nch wi de, most l y
branch from near t he base an d
s prawl t o form an open s pread­
i n g s hr ub, or c l amber over t he
s urrou ndi ng vegetati on t o form
52
t hi ckets. The 9 o r 1 0 ri bs are
l ow and rou nded, wi th s mal l
areol es about % - i nc h apart
and set wi th 8 to 1 2 needl e­
l i ke radi al s pi nes and 1 to 3
cent ral spi nes to 3A- i nch l ong.
Thi s s peci es i s consi dered to
be the most prol i fc bl oomer of
al l cact i . The t ubul ar fowers,
4 to 5 i nches l ong, open at .
ni ght and appear abundant l y
from Apri l to September.
The 2- i nc h pl u mp round red
f rui ts are s pi nel ess.
C. SERPENTI NUS, Snake ar Ser­
pent Cactus, i s a common Mex­
i can garden fower. Al t hough
fou n d hal f-wi l d i n hedges or
r u n n i n g over abandoned wal l s ,
i t i s nat known as a wi l d pl ant .
At frst a col u mn ar u pri gh t
c l u mp of stems 3 feet h i gh , bu t
l at er on h an gi ng or creepi ng
as i t el ongates t o 1 0 feet. Un­
derground, i t forms a cl u ster of
l arge t urni p- l i ke t u bers at t he
base af t he stems ; t hese are
water and food- storage organs .
The s i n uous s t ems , 1 to 2
i nches t h i ck, have 1 0 to 1 3 l ow
rou nded ri bs. The cl osel y- set
fel ted areol es bear about 1 2
spi nes to 1 i nch l ong, varyi ng
from needl e- l i ke to bri stl es.
A prof usi on of 6- i nc h noc­
t urnal fowers appear i n May
and J u ne, and emi t t he most
del i ci ous perf ume af al l cact i .
Fru i ts set freel y; t hey ri pen to
1 Y2- i nch red ova l s covered by
deci duous spi nes. The pu l p i s
red, seeds few but l arge.
53
CEREUS POSELGERI ( for Hei n­
ri ch Posel ger, di ed 1 883, Ger­
man cactal ogi s t ) Sacasi l , i n­
habi t s s emi - desert s c r ub and
brus hl ands af sout hern Texas
near the Ri a Grande, and of
the stales of Tamau l i pas ,
Nuevo Leon, an d Coahui l a i n
nort heastern Mexi co.
Fram a cl uster of t uberous
roots near t he s urface of t he
soi l i t s ends u p t hi n round
stems a l i t t l e t hi cker t han a
l ead penci l and up Ia 2 feel
54
l ong. The st ems and branches
are t hi n and s pi nel ess at t he
base, t h i cker towards t he t i p
and hi dden by t he spi nes fat ­
t ened agai nst i t . A common
pl ant but hard to f nd, as i t
grows u n der scrub an d rests i ts
st ems i n t he l ower branches.
The di urnal 1 '- i nch fowers
appear from February to Apri l .
They open about noon and
cl os e at ni ght, each one open­
i ng and cl osi ng i n t hi s way
for several days.
)
-
l

 
i
_
<�
C. GREGGI I ( for Dr. J . Gregg,
s t udent of cacti and pl ant ex­
pl orer af nort hern Mexico)
Desert Ni ght- Bl oomi ng Cereus ,
grows among bus hes and
s h ru bs al ong f ats and was hes
i n t he deserts of northern
Mexi co from Sonora to Tamau­
l i pas, and across southern Ari ­
zona, Ne
W
Mexi co, and Texas
to t he
P
ecos Ri ver.
The sl ender dark bri ttl e stems
ari se from a h uge t ur ni p- s haped
tuber t hat can wei gh over 40
pou nds . The Mexi cans and n a­
tive I ndi ans know it as " Sara­
matraca, " and us e it for medi ·
ci nal purposes .
Fl oweri ng occurs l ate i n May
or in J u ne, an d mast of t h e
fowers open on j us t one or two
ni ghts of the year. They begi n
openi ng an hour before s u n ­
down, cl os i ng soon after s u n ­
ri se. A s i n gl e bl oom scents t h e
ai r for a h u n dred feet arou nd
wi th a s pi cy arbut us - l i ke per­
f ume. The red frui t i s del i ci ous .
55
CEREUS BONPLANDI I ( for
Ami e J . A. Bonpl ond, 1 773-
1 8 58 , French nat ur al i s t and ex­
pl orer ) Mi dni ght Lady, grows
among trees and s h rubs i n t he
Chacos of nort hern Argent i na
an d Poroguay, and ranges i n to
sout hern Brazi l . I ts grayi s h­
green s tems , t o 1 0 feet l ong
and onl y 1 to 2 i nches t hi ck,
are st rongl y 4-an gl ed.
Pl ants are branched from t he
base and frs t erect, t hen arc h­
i n g an d s prawl i ng or cl amber -
56
i ng, or i f wi t hout s u pport
fn al l y prostrate and creepi ng.
The areol es, '- i nc h apart, are
armed wi th 6 Ia 8 n eedl e- l i ke
spi nes u p to 1 Y2 i nc hes l ong.
The fowers, 6 to 9 i nches
l ang and as wi de, open after
dark and cl ose soon after s u n ­
ri se. The mai n foweri ng peri od
i s May and J u ne, but under
favorabl e condi t i ons i t fowers
freel y al l year. The s pi nel ess
but scal y red gl obu l ar frui t s,
about 2 i nches l ong, are edi bl e.
CEREUS LEMAI RE I ( for Charl es
Lemai re, 1 8 00- 1 8 71 , Bel gi an
botani s t ) Ni ght - Bl oomi ng Cere­
us, a very beaut i f ul speci es
from Tri ni dad and Tobago, has
l ong been known i n cu l ti vat i on _
I n i t s nati ve habi t at i t grows
as a sl ender hi gh-cl i mbi ng vi ne,
scal i ng t he t r ee tru n ks by
means of copi ous aer i al root s.
The i nc h- wi de st ems are J­
angl ed, but t he ri bs are t hi ck­
ened at t hei r base so t hat t he
stem i s vi rtual l y triangu l ar i n
cross-secti on. The areol es,
about an i nch apart, us ual l y
have 2 very s hort s pi nes wi t h
bul bous bases. The ri b margi ns
ar e sl i ght l y rai sed u nder t he
areol es, produci ng a somewhat
notched or toot hed aspect.
The nocturnal fowers, al ­
mos t a foot l ong, are u n us ual
i n havi ng forked st i gma- l obes.
Fort unatel y, the bl ooms are not
strongl y scented, as t hei r odor
i s u npl eas ant_ Frui ts are ob­
l ong, purpl e when ri pe.
57
CEREUS SPECI OSUS ( showy)
Xool ocot l ; Sonia Marta; Sun
Cereus, native t o central Mex­
ico, i s common on stony soi l s
and outcrops i n t he Val l ey of
Mexica, and an t he rocky
s lopes of the s urroundi ng
mountai ns.
These pl ants branch freely
at the base, formi ng large
masses of succu l ent stems that
cl i mb over t he rocks, hol di ng
on by sendi ng out roots here
and there al ong t hei r l ength.
58
The i nch-thi ck branches are
strongl y angl ed, wi th 3 to 5
wavy ri bs; the ol der parts are
bri ght green, contrast i ng wi th
t he reddi sh ti ps. Areol es are
often over an i nch apart, wi th
many s hort needl e- l i ke spi nes.
Di urnal fowers appear
t hroughout spri ng and each
one l asts several days. Thi s
fower, known t o horti cul t uri sts
si nce 1 803, has been much hy­
bri di zed wi th speci es of Epi ­
phyl l um and other cocti .
-
C. OCAMPONI S ( of Ocampo,
probabl y referri ng to the town
i n SW Tamau l i pas, Mexi co) is
nat known as a wil d pl ant.
Some European botani sts de­
scri be i t os native to Col ombi a,
but Colombi an botani sts are
sure i t ori gi nated el sewhere.
This and a few other Cereus,
described as di st i nct s pecies,
resembl e C. undatus (p. 60).
Cereus ocamponis has strongl y
3-angled el ongated cl amberi ng
stems and branches that run
over rocks and wal l s. You ng
stems are bri ght green with
deep wavy ribs, the areol es at
the bottom of each wave; ol d
stems turn dul l bl ui s h-green,
and t he ri b mar gi ns become
brown and horny.
The noct urnal fowers are a
foot l ang and equal l y broad.
The oval frui t, over 4 i nches
wi de, i s covered by broad over­
l appi ng red scal es with poi nted
ti ps. The wi ne- red pul p i s
bl and and sweet.
59
CEREUS UNDATUS ( wavy, re­
ferri ng to the ri b margi n s )
Queen of t h e Ni ght, carri ed
rou n d t he worl d by t he Span i s h
and Port uguese i n the 1 6th
Cent ury, i s wi del y cul ti vated
and now h al f- wi l d i n al l tropi ­
cal cou n tri es. Tru l y wi l d pl ants
are in t he mountai n forests of
Marti n i que, and two wi l d forms
common to Yucatan.
Thi s cact us i s a l ong- stemmed
hi gh-cl i mbi ng vi ne·, often 20 to
40 feet l ong, wi th aeri al roots.
60
The stems are mostl y 3- angl ed,
t he t hi n i nc h-wi de ri bs have
wavy margi ns t hat become
hor ny i n age. Huge noct ur nal
fowers appear i n s u mmer.
Thi s pl ant forms t he cel ebrat­
ed hal f - mi l e hedge around
Puns hou Col l ege, Honol u l u ,
pl anted i n t he 1 8 30' s by Si byl
M. Bi ngham, whi ch produces
as many as 5000 fowers a
ni ght dur i ng foweri n g season.
The rosy frui ts have del i ci ous
cri sp whi te pul p.
C. MARTI NI ! , a muc h- branched
cl amberi n g Argent i ne s peci es,
i s very free-foweri n g and easy
to c ul ti vate.
You n g stems are vi gorous,
l ess t han an i nch t hi ck, 4- or
5- angl ed, i n age el ongat i n g
t o 6 feet or more an d becom­
i ng n earl y cyl i ndrical . The are­
al es bear a few s hort radi al
spi nes and 1 s t out cent ral
spi ne about an i nch l ong ; ol d
branches are nearl y s pi nel ess.
The fowers are noct urn al ,
about 8 i nches l on g, wi t h
scal es on bot h t he fower-t u be
and ovary carryi ng t ufts of
brown fel t i n t hei r axi l s. Flow­
er col orati on di fers between
i ndi vi du al pl ant s ; i n some, t he
broad i n ner pet al s ar e pure
whi te, in ot hers s ufused wi t h
pi nk as i l l us trated.
The bri l l i ant carmi n e fru i ts,
1 Y2 i nches wi de, retai n t he
s mal l scal es t hat were on t he
ovary, and t he wi t hered fower
remai ns at t ached to i ts apex.
6 1
CEREUS ERI OPHORUS ( wool
beari n g ) J fj i ro, grows i n for­
ests and t hi ckets t hroughout
Cuba and t he I s l e of Pi nes, and
occasi onal l y on rat her open
hi l l si des as wel l .
The pl ants are us ual l y l ess
than 3 feet hi gh, bus hy, wi th
bri ght green erect or uprai sed
cyl i ndri cal stems and branches
1 � i nches t hi ck. The 8 or 9
ri bs are promi nent , wi t h rat her
deep grooves bet ween t hem.
The areol es ar e about an i nch
62
apart, each wi t h 6 to 9 s harp
spi nes up to 1 � i nches l ong.
You n g fower buds or e
swat hed i n l ong bri ght whi t e
wool whi ch grows i n t he oxi l s
of t he scal es on t he fower- t ube;
i t i s most l y s hed as t he buds
reach f ul l s i ze and open. The
f u nnel - formed fowers, 5 t o
1 0 i nches l ong, are n octur nal .
The br i ght yel l ow globose
frui t s, over 2 i nches wi de, h ave
s mal l t ufts of s h ort whi te hai rs
scattered over t he s ki n.
C. ERI OPHORUS var. FRAGRANS
( fragrant ) has a l i mited nat u­
ral range and i s i n danger of
exti nction. I t i nhabi ts Atl anti c
coastal hammocks of hi gh sand­
dunes, ki tchen mi ddens, and
coqui na l edges i n mi d- peni nsu­
l ar Fl ori da, f r om Mosqui to I n­
l et t o St . Luci e Sound. Much of
t hi s ocean front i s rapi dl y be­
i ng devel oped and "i mproved"
by cutti ng these j ungl e ham­
mocks, and t hi s cactus i s be­
comi ng harder to fnd.
Thi s variety difers f r om t he
species proper i n t hat t he stems
reach a l engt h of 15 feet, are
frst upri ght, then recl i ni ng or
conspi cuousl y cl amberi ng as
t hey el ongate. The 1 0 to 1 2
ri bs bear areol es contai ni ng 9
to 13 sharp needl e- l i ke spi nes.
The fowers are nocturnal ,
bel l - shaped when open, 6 t o 8
i nches l ong, and fragrant ; t he
i nner petal s vary f r om whi te to
pi nk. The mat ure frui ts are dul l
orange i n col or.
63
CEREUS STENOPTERUS ( narrow­
wi nged, referri ng to the ri bs )
grows as a weak vi ne in the
forests of Costa Rica; i ts l i ght
green J- angl ed st ems ar e eas­
i l y overl ooked u n l ess t he pl ant
i s i n fower.
The stems, 1 V i nches wide,
produce aeri al roots spari ngl y,
and t he pl ant i s not a vi gorous
cl i mber. Areol es are sl i ghtl y
rai sed ol ong t he edge of the
3 t hi n ri bs, and armed wi th 1
to 3 s mal l yel l ow spi nes.
64
The noctu rnal fowers, about
4 i nches l ong and 6 wi de, open
wel l after dark and cl ose earl y
the next morni ng; they are gen­
eral l y compl etel y cl osed by 9
am. These fowers are di sti nc­
ti ve i n several ways : t he fow­
er-tube above the ovary i s
s hort, onl y '-i nch i n l engt h ;
t he peri ant h-segments are al l
s i mi l arl y l i near i n form, and
al l the same col or. Thi s spe­
ci es i s easy to grow as a pol
pl ant, and fowers frequentl y.
C. URBANI ANUS ( for I gnat i us
Urban , 1848-1931, German
botani s t ) i s a cl i mbi ng or cl am­
beri ng vi ne of Cuba an d Hi s­
pani ol a wi th aeri al roots, often
reachi ng i nto t he treetops, or
trai l i ng over rocks or s hr ubs
when growi ng in t he open.
The stems and branches, over
an i nch t hi ck, are much el on­
gated and s uccul ent , us ual l y
wi th 4 or 5 ri bs, but someti mes
wi th 3 or 6. The l i ght green
stems occasi onal l y become a
deep re
d
di sh-purpl e throughout
the entire pl ant. The smal l
whi te-fel ted areol es bear cl us­
ters of short spi nes at t he u p­
per si de, and l onger whi te bri s­
tl es or hai rs whi ch poi nt back­
ward from the l ower si de.
The nocturnal fowers, up to
1 2 i nches l ang, have nearl y a
hundred t hi n orange- brown
peri anth segments s urrou ndi ng
the whi te i nner petal s. Areol es
on the fower- tube and ovary
bear l ong whi te tufts of hai r.
65
CEREUS TONDUZI I ( for A. Ton­
duz, Costa Rican natural i st, ·
who di scovered if in 1 8 9 8 ) Flor
de Bai l ari na ( Bal l eri na- Fl ow­
er) i s a cl i mbi ng free- dwel l i ng
cactus from the hi gh mountai n
sl opes on the Paci fc si de of
Costa Ri ca, l i vi ng i n rather dry
woodl and j ust bel ow the cl oud
forests.
The pl ant i s a branchi ng epi ­
phyte, t he j oi nts 4 to 1 6 or
more i nches long, cyl i ndrical at
the base, mostl y 3- angled
66
above, about an i nc h thi ck.
Areoles are sl i ghtl y rai sed,
produci ng fai nt notches on the
margi ns. Young areol es h ave
1 to 6 s hort bri stl e- l i ke spi nes,
easi l y detached and soon l ost;
ol d stems are spi nel ess. Aeri al
roots abound.
Flowers i n spri ng, so freel y
that the buds hide t he stem; the
3- i nch f u n nel form fowers have
dark sharp spi nes and luffs of
black wool i n areol es on t he
fower- t ube and ovary.
C. TUNI LLA ( for t he vernacul ar
Spani s h n ame, meani ng " l i ttl e
cactus frui t" ) Tu ni l l a, a fast­
growi ng tropical epi phytic vi ne
from t he j ungl es of Panama
and Costa Ri ca, i s sel dom seen
i n cul tivation . I t cl i mbs by
means of aerial roots ; st ems
and branches hang from t he
tru n ks and l i mbs of trees.
Young pl ants have nearl y
cyl i ndri cal stems; i n adul ts the
st ems are usual l y strongl y 4-
angl ed, rarel y from 2 - t o 5-
angl ed. The fel ted areol es carry
tufts of 6 to 1 2 short sti f
spi nes wi t h bul bous bases,
spreadi ng i n al l di rections .
Thi s speci es fowers prof use­
l y; t he rosy noctu r nal fowers,
about 3 i nches l ong, are borne
s i ngl y at t he areol es and emi t
a pl easi ng fragrance. The oval
t ubercu l ate frui ts, ] 3, i nches
l ong and l l wi de, hove a
s mooth s hi ny l i ght pi nk s ki n
and a f ew areol es beari ng
wool an d about 6 br i st l es.
67
CEREUS SETACEUS ( bri st l y)
Card6 Ananaz ( Pi n eappl e Cac­
t us ) Braz. , i s a st rong cl i mber
rangi ng from cent r al Brazi l i nto
Argent i na, much c ul ti vated i n
Sout h Ameri ca and somet i mes
hal f- wi l d i n ot her cou n tri es.
The el ongate stems and
branches, 1 - 3 i nc hes t hi ck, are
3-5 angl ed, but 3 i s t he us ual
condi ti on . Areol es fr s t bear
1 0- 1 5 whi te deci duous bri stl es,
fol l owed by a few s hort coni ­
cal s pi nes wi t h swol l en bases.
68
The foot- l ong noctu r nal fow­
ers are fol l owed by l arge yel ­
l ow t ubercul ate frui t s, about
4 i nches l ong and 3 wi de. The
areol es at t he t i ps of t he t u­
bercl es bear deci duous s pi nes
over hal f an i nc h l ong. The
exqui si t e favor of t he pul p
makes t hem so sough t f or by
mon keys t hat i t i s hard to fnd
a ri pe f r ui t on wi l d pl ants .
Thi s speci es i s c ul ti vated f or i t s
frui ts, whi ch bri ng a good pri ce
i n Sout h Ameri can mar ket s.
C. WI TI I ( for Mr. N. H. Wi t t
of Moncus , Brozi l , who col ­
l ected i t f or botan i cal s t udy)
grows around tree· t r u n ks i n t he
Varzea forest s of Amazonas
an d Par a, Brazi l ; t hese forests
al so surround the /gap6 ( per­
manent swa mpl and ) . Trees of
Varzea forest s are di s t i nct from
u pl an d j u n gl e s peci es.
Thi s cact us has j oi n ted l eaf­
l i ke fat t ened stems , rarel y wi t h
3 angl es. The j oi nt s, to 1 6
i nches l ong an d 4 wi de, c l i ng
by aer i al roots from t he u n der
si de of t he mi dr i b. Areol es,
about Y2- i nch apart, have com­
pact t ufts of whi te wool an d 2 0
or more t h i n bri t t l e pri ckl y
s pi nes f r om � t o 2 i nches l ong.
Th e 9- i n c h noctu r nal fowers
appear at l ateral areol es. The
s mal l oval f rui t i s t u bercl ed,
wi t h wool l y h ai rs and s l ender
yel l ow s pi nes at t he oreol es.
Thi s speci es i s a " l i n k " be­
t ween Cereus and genu s Epi ­
phyl l u m ( see t he next page ) .
69
EPI PHYLLUM, wi th about 20 species, ranges from
Mexico th rough Central America i nto tropi cal South
Ameri ca. These Cacti are upri ght fat- stemmed much­
branched pl ants of epiphytic habit, growi ng on trees
but not parasitic, obtaining the moi sture necessary
for thei r development from the ai r .
The main stem is often a thin woody cyl i nder, but
the branches are usually much fattened and l eaf-l ike,
wi th scal l oped or toothed margins and smal l areol es
in the notches along the margi n. True leaves are l ack­
ing. Mature plants lack spines, which are represented
i n seedlings and juveni l e forms by slender bri stl es.
Fl owers ari se from the marginal areol es; the tube
i s always longer than the diameter of the open fower,
i n some greatl y elongated. Fl owers i n some species
nocturnal, in others diurnal, either odorless or very
fragrant, usually showy, simi l ar to those of some spe­
cies of Cereus. The frui t i s edi ble.
E. OXYPETALUM ( s harp- pet­
al ed ) i s "Ni ght - Bl oomi ng Cer­
eus " to i n n u merabl e Ameri cans
who grow i t as a hous e pl ant .
I n mat uri t y a s t out pl ant over
6 feet tal l , wi t h n u merous l eaf­
l i ke si de branches carri ed i n
t h e s a me pl ane as t h e mai n
st em. Huge fowers appear from
May to November.
E. PHYLLANTHUS ( l eaf-fower­
i ng, referri n g to fowers from
l eaf-l i ke branches) var. piftieri
( for Henri Pi tti er, botani st ,
1 857- 1 950) i s common i n j u n ­
gl e on t he At l ant i c si de of
Costa Rica bel ow 3000 feet. I t
forms dens el y- br anched masses
on - trees. The 3'- i nc h fowers
are the s mal l est i n the genus .
70
E. DARRAHI I ( for Ch arl es Dar­
rah, En gl i s h cact us f anci er,
1 844- 1 903 ) bl ooms freel y
duri n g l at e s u mmer an d earl y
f al l . I n di vi dual fowers open at
eveni ng and remai n open from
40 to 48 hours, emi t t i ng a de­
l i ci ous honeysuckl e fragrance.
The f r ui t s, green i n col or, are
tart an d agreeabl e.
E. ACKERMANNI I ( for George
Ackerman n , who di scovered i t
i n Mexi co i n 1 8 2 8 ) has been
grown ever s i nce, but wi l d
pl ants were recent l y redi s cov­
ered i n Vera Cruz an d Oaxaca,
between 6000 an d 8 000 feel
above sea l evel . Fl owers are
di urnal . Forma candida, of Chi­
apes, is whi le- fowered.
pri zed
for t he s pectacul ar vari ety of
form an d col or of t hei r fowers,
were frst devel oped by Euro­
pean breeders in the 1 9t h Cen­
t ury. Earl y crosses with s pe­
ci es of Cereus produced a race
of day- bl oomi ng l arge-fowered
cacti , easy to grow, somet i mes
cal l ed "orchi d cacti . " Strong-

growi ng pl ants, t hey
more room t han t he overage
house pl ant . l at er crosses wi t h
s peci es of R h i ps al i s ( pp. 7 4-
76 ) an d Nopal xochi a ( p. 77 )
gave a race o f compact habi t ,
perfect f or i ndoors. Today over
3000 regi stered hybri ds are
cu l ti vated ; fowers vary from
i nc h to a foot i n di ameter.
RHIPSALI S, broadly interpreted, contains about 70
mostly epiphytic species of di verse form. The stems are
jointed and much- branched; joints may be either
slender and thread-li ke, or stout and sti f. They may
be cyli ndrical, angled, or much fattened and leaf­
like. Areoles are tiny, borne along the margins of
fat- j oi nted species, but along the midribs or scattered
irregularly i n others, and carry hai rs, wool, bri stles,
spines, or a part of these.
The fowers, small in comparison with those of other
cacti, have- relatively few petals and usually lack a
tube. In most species they open only once, day or
night, and remain open from 1 to 8 days. The fruit
is usually a juicy globular berry with sticky seeds.
Ranging from Florida, Mexico, and the West I n­
dies through continental America to Argentina, a few
are also found in Africa and Ceylon, probably be­
cause seed stuck to the feet of birds of passage.
R. HOULETTI ANA ( for Hou l ett,
a French gardener) Snowdrop
Cactus, i s epi phyti c an trees i n
t he mount ai ns of sou th-central
Brazi l at el evat i ons of 3000
feet . The pl ant , resembl i ng an
Epi phyl l um, has s tems over 6
feet l ong, cyl i n dri cal bel ow but
fat t ened above, wi t h l eaf- l i ke
branches.
R. WARMI NGI ANA (for Jo­
hannes Warmi ng, Dani s h bot­
an i st, 1 84 1 - 1 924) Popcorn
Cactus , from Mi nas Gerai s ,
Brazi l , i s erect when you ng,
spreadi ng or hangi ng wi t h age.
The el ongat ed j oi nted bran ches
are ei t her fl at or sharpl y 3- or
4-angl ed. Hyaci nt h- scented fl ow­
ers; fru i t s are purpl e.
74
R. PACHYPTERA ( t hi ck- wi nged )
has erect or pendant muc h­
branched st ems t o 3 feel l ong,
composed of broad t hi ck j oi nts
whi ch are us ual l y fat but oc­
casi onal l y J-ang l ed. The j oi nts,
2 to 8 i nches l ong and up to 5
i nches broad, become t i n ged
wi th pur pl e i f grown i n strong
l i ght . I t i s al so Brazi l i an.
R. PARADOXA ( u n u s u a l ) Chai n
or l i n k Cact us, hangs i n l arge
cl us ters of spari ngl y- branched
stems 3 feet l ong, made u p of
s hort 3- wi nged j oi nt s t hat are
twisted as t hey l i n k together,
so t hat the angl es of one j oi nt
al tern ate wi t h a fat si de of
t he next . Brazi l i an, wi t h t he
fowers 3 of an i nc h wi de.
RHI PSALI S GRANDI FLORA
( l arge-fowered ) , from t he
stole of Ri o de J anei ro, Brazi l ,
hos s t
o
u t t ubul ar j oi n ted st ems
to 3 feet l ong and over %
of an i nc h i n di ameter. I t s
branches are hel d wi del y a part;
t he ul ti mat e s hort branc h l ets
ore whorl ed at t he st em ti p.
The f ai nt l y- scented wheel ­
s haped fowers ar i se i n mi d­
wi nter f r om areol es scattered
oi l al ong the j oi nt s ; they are
nearl y 1 i nc h wi de.
76
R. CEREUSCUL ( l i ke a l i t t l e
wax candl e ) Ri ce Cact us, forms
erect c l u mps 2 feet hi gh on
forest t rees from Uruguay t o
cent ral Brazi l . The t hi n rou nd
st ems an d branches are
crowned by cl u sters of s hort
an gl ed t wi gs whi ch carry t i ny
bri st l es i n t he areol es.
Un l i ke most Rh i psal i s, t hi s
s peci es produces fowers at or
near t he branch t i ps. The frui ts
are whi te berri es whi ch resem­
bl e t hose of mi stl etoe.
NOPALXOCHIA, a genus of dubious validity, contains
one or two species formerly classifed as Epiphyllum.
When fully open, the fowers are as wide or wider than
the fower tube is long. E. ackermannii (p. 70) is some­
times put into Nopalxochia.
N. PHYLLANTHOI DES ( Phyl l an ­
t hus l i ke) Deut sche Kai seri n
( German Empress ) has a di s ­
cont i n uous nat ur al ra nge: i t i s
fou n d i n t he st at e af Puebl o,
Mexi co, at 5000 f eet el evati on ,
and a l so i n t h e Magdal ena
Val l ey, Col ombi a, where i t i s
c al l ed " Rabo de I gu an a" ' ( li z­
ard ' s-Tai l ) . One of t he ol dest
of cu l ti vated cact i , frst de­
scr i bed by Her nandez i n 1 65 1 .
77
SCHLUMBERGERA contains a few epiphytic Brazilian
cacti with branched stems made up of short mostly
fattened joints with scalloped or toothed margins.
Allied to both Epiphyllum and Zygocactus, the ter­
minal s harp-petaled fowers and the fruits are distinc­
tive. The fruits are held by the pl ant long after maturing.
S. GAERTNER! ( for Gaertner,
who di s covered i t ci rca 1 8 8 2
near Bl umenou, Sao Paul o, Bra­
zi l ) Easter Cact us , is an up­
ri gh t t ree- dwel l i ng pl ant wi t h
78
hangi ng branc h- ti ps . Termi n al
j oi nts often have bri st l es at t he
t i p. The fowers, to 3 i n ches
broad, are produced i n prof u­
s i on duri ng Marc h an d Apri l .
ZYGOCACTUS is a monotypic genus from the Organ
Mountains, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, epiphytic on trees.
Similar in habit to Schlumbergera, the stems branch
by forking, and are composed of numerous short fat
joints that become rounded in age. Fl owers are ter­
minal, tubular, and conspicuousl y zygomorphic.
Z. TRUNCATUS ( cu t of s quare,
referri n g to t he j oi n t t i ps )
Crab Cact us , l ong grown for
i t s l ate f al l fowers, has been
s o much hybri di zed wi th s pe-
ci es of Epi phyl l u m, Sc h l u mberg­
era, on d Cereu s t hat t ypi ca l
pl ants are rarel y seen. Over
200 vari eti es are c u l t i vated ;
f r ui t s . onl y if cros s - pol l i nated.
79
ECHINOCEREUS ( Hedgehog Cacti ) contains between
20 and 30 species, some with many botanical va­
ri eties. The species range from near Mexico City north
to California, South Dakota, and Oklahoma.
The stems of some are sol itary, of others branching
and clump- forming, sometimes of 500 stems. The
larger stems are cyl indric, 2 to 24 inches long, 1 to
4 inches thick, with 5 to 1 2 ribs composed of tubercl es
that coalesce from half to nearly al l their height. The
spines are smooth; central spines are fattened or
needl e- l ike, the radial s always needle-like.
Flowers are borne on old growth and are located
below the stem apex. The fower buds push through the
epidermis just above the spiny areole and are not at­
tached to it; fowers leave a persistent scar on the
stem. The fowers are from % to 5 inches across.
The fruits are feshy when ripe, gl obul ar or oval ,
from % to 2 inches long, % to 1 % inches wide; their
skin has deciduous spine-bearing areoles.
E. TRI GLOCHI DI ATUS ( wi t h J
barbed bri st l es ) Cl aret-Cu p,
s hows how o s i ngl e s peci es can
vary. The typi cal form ran ges
from NE Ari zona and S Col o­
rado to W-centrol and cen tral
New Mexi co, has few st ems, 5
to 8 t u bercul ate ri bs, an d J­
an gl ed s pi nes.
VAR. MOJAVENSI S, Moj ave
Hedgehog forms c l u mps up to
500 st ems, us ual l y has 9 or
1 0 tu bercul ate ribs, and twi sted
central spi nes. I t grows i n S
Nevada, SE Cal i for ni a, NW
Ari zona, and SW Uta h at el e­
vat i ons of 3500 to 8 000 or
even 1 0,000 feet.
80
VAR. MELANACANTHUS ( wi t h
bl ack s pi nes ) Red Hedgehog,
al so forms cl u mps of 500 stems ,
mostl y wi t h 9 - 1 0 tu berc u l at e
ri bs, and defexed cent ral
spi nes. I t ran ges from upl and
Ari zona, cen tral Utah , S Col o­
rado and SW Texas to Du­
rango, Mexi co.
VAR. NEOMEXI CANUS, New
Mexi can Cl aret-Cup, makes
s mal l c l umps of 5 to 45 st ems,
has 8 - 1 2 but usual l y 1 0 ri bs,
t he tubercl es obscure, i ts cen ­
tral spi nes needl e- l i ke. I t grows
from NW Mexico across Tran s ­
Pecos, Texas t o S New Mexi co
an d SE Ari zona.
 
ECHI NOCEREUS BLANCKI I ( for
P. A. Bl anck, a Berl i n phar ma­
ci st ) Devi l ' s Fi nger, s h ade- l ov­
i ng, graws at l ow el evat i ons in
fne soi l s i nsi de t h i ckets i n NE
Mexi co a n d S Texas.
T
h
e pl ant s have many st ems,
the j oi nt s most l y 2- 6 i nches
l ong wi t h 5- 6 ri bs, whi ch are
promi nent an d strongl y t u ber­
cul ote on new growt h, i ndi s ­
t i nct on ol der parts. Fl owers
open about noon an d cl ose
about 5 pm for 3 consecu tive
days. I t sel dom sets frui t .
82
E. BLANCKI I var. ANGUSTI CEPS
( narrow-headed ) Yel l ow Al i ­
cache i s a s u n - l ovi ng vari ety
restri cted to l i gh t sandy l i me­
s t one l ooms and desert con ­
di t i ons at l ow el evat i ons i n S
Texas, from Bexar Cou n ty
sout hward; di fc ul t to c ul t i vate.
Thi s vari ety forms s mal l
c l umps of 1 t o 1 0 st ems ; t he
j oi nt s, from 4· 7 i nc hes l ong
and to 1 V  i nches wi de, are
soft, weak, and s prawl i ng, wi th
7-9 strongl y tu bercul ate ri bs.
The fowers are fragrant .
E. PENTALOPHUS ( fve- crested )
Al i coche grows i n fn e s oi l s
from NE Mexi co i n to S Texas .
Th e s tems branch t o form
c l u mps ; t he j oi nt s , to 4 i nches
l ang an d 1 i nch t hi c k, have 4
or 5 l ow ri bs and res embl e 4
or 5- s i ded pri s ms . J oi nts root
at the areol es , an d ol d c l u mps
are 1 0 to 1 5 feet acros s .
The fower s , 3 to 4 i nc hes
wi de, a ppear i n May ar J une.
The oval f r ui t , to Y- i nch l ong,
i s green wi t h br own s pi nes and
mosses of whi te wool .
E. VI RI DI FLORUS ( green -fow­
ered ) Green Pi taya, r anges
f r om Sout h Dakota to E Wyo­
mi ng, E Col orado, Okl ahoma,
New Mexi co, an d t he Texas
Pan h andl e; i t s vari et i es range
t o t he Bi g Bend, Texas .
The s t ems are sol i tary or i n
c l umps of 6 or l es s , cyl i n dri ca l ,
t o 3 i nc hes ta l l and to 1 V
i nc hes wi de, wi t h 1 0 to 1 4 r i bs .
The i nc h - wi de fowers ap­
pear i n Apri l or May. The ova l
f rui t i s a h a l f - i nc h l ong, wi t h
wh i te wool an d whi te s pi nes .
83
ECHI NOCEREUS PECTI NATUS
( comb- l i ke ) Comb Hedgehog.
Typi cal pl ants i n habi t l i mest one
hi l l s and fat s, both i n grass­
l and and desert , from San Lui s
Potosi , Mexi co, to SE Ari zona,
and a l ong t he Ri o Grande,
Texas, east to Maveri ck Cou n ty.
The stems, sol i tary or wi t h 2
or 3 branches , are 4 - 1 2 i nches
ta l l , up to 4 t hi ck. I t has 3-5
central spi nes set i n 1 or some­
t i mes 2 verti ca l rows, and 1 2 -
1 6 radi al s per areol e.
84
E. PECTI NATUS var . WENI GER!
( for Del Wen i ger, Ameri can bi ­
ol ogi st ) Comb Hedgehog i s
found i n nort hern Coahui l a,
Mexi co, an d i n Texas on t he
Edwards Pl at eau i n Terrel l , Va l
Verde, and Su tton Counti es.
I ts st ems ar e si mi l ar to t hose
of t he typi cal form, but t he 1
to 3 as hy- whi te cent ral spi nes
are al ways set i n 1 verti cal
row, and t he 1 4 to 1 6 r adi al s
oft en curve back so t hat t hei r
t i ps are down between t he ri bs.
E. PECTI NATUS var. NEOMEXI ­
CANUS ( of New Mexi co) Texas
Rai n bow Cact us , ran ges from
Chi huahua, Mexi co, i n to SE
Ari zona, and from SE New
Mexi co to Cu l berson and Brew­
ster Cou nt i es, Texas.
Ol d pl ants may devel op 5
or 6 stems , 3 or 7 to 9 cen tra l
spi nes in 2 or 3 verti cal rows ,
an d 1 8 - 2 2 radi al s per creol e;
t hese an d t he yel l ow fowers
make thi s vari ety di st i nct from
t he others.
E. PECTI NATUS var. RI GI DI SSI ­
MUS ( very s t i f s pi nes ) Ari zon a
Rai n bow Cact us grows from
nort hern Ch i h u ah u a and So­
nora, Mexi co, to 5 Ari zona an d
SW New Mexi co.
The areol es h ave no central
s pi nes ; t he 1 8 - 2 2 radi al s ore
i n on orderl y orroy, i n al ternat ­
i ng band of red and whi te.
As i s t r ue of mos t Hedgehog
Cact i , t he st i gma- l obes remai n
cl osed u n ti l t he pol l en i s n o
l onger vi abl e i n t h at fower.
85
ECHI NOCEREUS LLOYDI I ( for F.
E. L l oyd, 1 868 - 1 947, Canadi an
botani st , who di s covered i t ) ,
from SE New Mexi co and Pecos
Cou n ty, Texas , grows in grav­
el l y or s andy soi l s at about
3000 feet el evat i on.
The pl ants are at fr st sol i ­
t ary, becomi ng l arge before
branc hi ng to form c l umps of
5 or 6 st ems, whi c h are cyl i n ­
dri c, t o 8 i nches hi gh an d 4
t hi ck. The 1 2 ri bs h ave rou nd
areol es beari n g 2- 5 cent ral
s pi nes and 8- 9 radi al s .
86
E. SCHEER I ( for Frederi ck
Scheer 1 79 2 - 1 868, Germa n
botani s t ) from cent ral Chi h ua­
h ua, Mexi co, has l ong fower­
t ube, to a l most 5 i nches.
The pl ants branc h freel y
f r om t he base, formi n g dense
c l u mps . The s t ems ei t her l i e
fat, curve u pward, or are erect.
They are about 8 i nches l ong
and a n i nc h t hi ck, s l i ght l y t ap­
ered t oward t he t i p, wi t h 8 - 1 0
low ri bs. The areol es h ave 3
red central s pi nes and 7- 9
whi te- t i pped radi al s .
E. CHLORANTHUS ( green - fow­
ered ) grows i n l i mest one at el ­
evat i ons of 3000 t o 4500 feel,
rangi ng from northern Mexi co
Ia SE New Mexi co and Ia Texas
wes t of t he Pecos Ri ver.
The st ems, sol i tary or rarel y
wi t h 1 ar 2 branches , are 3 - 7
i nc hes h i gh , 2Y2 - 3 t hi ck, wi t h
1 0 to 1 4 ri bs. Areol es have
5-6 cent ral s pi nes ; t he 1 5- 2 0
radi al s pi nes, set i n 2 rows, are
so dense t hey hi de t he st em.
The i nc h-wi de fowers are green
to bronze or red- brown .
E. ROETTERI ( for Pa u l u s Roeller,
arti st, who drew the cacti of
t he Mexi can Bou n dary Survey )
is today a rare s peci es, known
onl y f r om SE New Mexi co.
The stems are sol i tary, to 6
i nches tal l an d 3 i nc hes t hi ck,
wi t h 1 0- 1 3 t u berc ul ate r i bs .
The areol es are ar med wi t h 2- 5
s t out cent r al s pi nes an d 8 - 1 5
radi al s, some of whi ch are very
tiny and bri st l e- l i ke; al l t he
s pi nes have bu l bous bases.
The bri l l i an t purpl e fowers
are 2 to 3 i nches l ong.
87
ECHI NOCEREUS REI CHENBACHI I
( for H. L. G. Rei chenbach,
1 793 - 1 8 79, Germ o n botani s t
and zool ogi s t ) lace Cact us,
common on l i mestone or gyp·
sum h i l l s, i s s hown wi t h 3 of
i ts vari eti es. Typi cal forms
range from cen tral Texas north
over most of Okl ahoma.
Stems are sol i tary or i n
c l u mps, us ual l y 3· 5 i nches t al l
( rarel y to 1 6 ) , 1 · 2 i nches
wi de, wi t h 1 2- 1 8 r i bs . The are·
ol es l ack cent ral spi nes; radi al s
curve i n a l ow arc.
8 8
VAR. ALBI SPI NUS ( whi te·
spi ned ) , of t he Okl ahoma an d
Texas Panhandl es, often
branches freel y to form dense
c l u mps of s tems , of t en s mal l er
than t he typi cal form, 3· 6
i nches tal l and 1 i nch t hi ck.
The areol es h ave 1 - 3 central
spi nes; t he 1 2 · 1 4 st rai ght ra·
di al spi nes, not com.b- l i ke i n ar­
rangement , are s pread out al l
arou n d t he creol e. Th e s pi ne
t i ps var y i n col or between i n·
divi du al pl ants, an d may be
whi te, red, yel l ow, or brown.
VAR. PERBELLUS ( very beaut i ­
fu l ) i s found i n SE Col orado,
E New Mexi co, and NW Texas.
The stems , ei t her sol i tary or
i n branc hi ng c l usters, are us u­
al l y not over 4 i nches hi gh,
wi t h 1 3- 1 5 l ow broad ri bs.
Cen tral s pi nes 0- 1 , so t i ny as
t o be easi l y overl ooked. The
1 2 to 1 6 or 20 strai ght r adi al
spi nes spread a l i t t l e i rregu­
l ar l y; t hey vary f r om pi nk to
straw-col or. Thi s vari ety, a fa­
vori te of col l ectors, fowers
freel y from March to J u ne.
VAR. PURPUREUS ( pur pl e )
Bl ack lace Cact us, from t he
Wi ch i ta and Gl as s Mount ai ns
of western Okl ahoma, i s hard
to fnd i n t he wi l d, and sel dom
seen i n cact us col l ecti ons .
The st ems an d growth h abi t
are s i mi l ar to t ypi cal pl ants .
There are 0- 3 cen tral s pi nes
and 1 4- 2 2 radi al s per creol e,
curved and comb- l i ke, but t he
outer part of each s pi ne i s a
dark pur pl e to nearl y j et bl ack.
The pur pl e fowers are ei t her
green- or red- t hroat ed.
89
ECHI NOCEREUS ENGELMANNI I
( for George Engel man n , 1 8 09-
1 8 84, cactol ogi st , Mi s souri Bo­
tani cal Garden) var. acicu/aris
( needl e-l i ke) Strawberry Hedge·
hog grows most l y i n the Ari ­
zona Desert ; ot her vari et i es
range from N Baj a Ca l i forn i a
on d N Sonora to S Ca l i for ni a
and Uta h .
T h e st ems, u s u a l l y 5- 1 5 i n a
c l ump, are 6- 8 i nc hes l ong, to
2 t hi ck. Frui t s are hi ghl y pri zed
by the Pi ma I n di ans .
90
E. FENDLER! ( for Augus t Fen d­
l er, 1 8 1 3- 1 883, botani cal col ·
l ector) var. rectispi nus (strai ght­
s pi ned) Pur pl e Hedgehog, l i ves
i n grassl and, from 3900 to
6800 feet, in SE Ari zona, SW
New Mexi co, and from El Paso
to Cul berson Co. , Texas.
St ems are s i ngl e ( rarel y to
5 ) , 4- 1 0 i nches ta l l , about 2
t hi ck, wi t h 8 - 1 0 ri bs. Al l s pi nes
are st rai ght ; t he 1 cent ral per
creol e i s hel d st rai ght out at a
righ t angl e to t he stem.
E. BAI LEY! ( for Ver non Bai l ey,
1 8 64- 1 94 2 , chi ef fel d nat ur al ­
i s t , U. S. Geol ogi ca l Survey ) i s
restri cted to gr an i t i c mount ai n­
s i des of SW Ok l a homa, bu t i s
common i n t he Wi chi t a Mou n ­
t ai ns Wi l dl i fe Ref uge.
Rarel y sol i tary, formi ng
dens e c l u mps of 20- 30 st ems,
to 8 i nches ta l l and 3Y2 t hi c k;
s t ems have I 5 r i bs . Areol es
h ave 0-5 central s pi nes and 1 2-
28 r adi al s that i n terl ock wi th
t hose from t he adj acent areol es.
E. LEDI NGI I ( for A. R. ledi ng,
cact us ent hus i as t ) prefers s andy
or gravel l y mou n tai n s l opes at
4000 I a 6000 f eet el evat i on . I t
grows i n gr ass l an d, wood l an d,
an d c haparral i n SE Ar i zona.
Thi s cact us forms c l u mps of
4 t o 1 0 stems 1 0- 2 0 i nc hes
l ong an d u p to 3 i nches t hi c k,
wi t h 1 2- 1 6 r i bs . Areol es have
1 - 4 cen tra l s pi nes c urved at t he
bas e t o poi n t downwar d, pl us
9 - 1 1 radi al s ; s pi nes are yel l ow,
but bl acken i n age.
9 1
ECHI NOCEREUS ENNEACANTH­
US ( n i n e- s pi ned) Warty Hedge­
hog, grows on wel l - drai ned
gravel l y s l opes ; in Texas most l y
i n t he l ower Ri o Grande Va l ­
l ey wi t h i n 50 mi l es of t h e
ri ver an d E of t he Pecos ; i n
Mexi co i n Ch i h u ah u a, Coa h u i l a,
and Nuevo leon States.
Cl ump-for mi ng, wi th stems to
1 2 i nches long and 2 t hi ck,
mostl y wi t h 8- 1 0 r i bs ; 7- 1 2
spi nes per areol e. The fragrant
frui ts are del i ci ous.
92
E. ENNEACANTHUS var. STRAM­
I NEUS ( s traw- col ored } Spi ne­
Mound; Strawberry Cact us , l i ves
on very dry s andy or rocky
h i l l si des i n N Ch i h u ah ua, S
New Mexi co, an d west of t he
Pecos i n Texas.
Thi s vari et y forms mounds of
350 or more st ems, hi dden u n ­
der a mass of s pi nes .
Pl ant s fower i n spri ng a n d
set much f r ui t ; wh e n ri pe t hei r
ar oma and favor ore l i ke
strawberry preserves.
E. ENNEACANTHUS var. DU­
BI US ( d u bi ous ) , wi t h mu ch t he
same range as var. stramineus,
prefers t he s andy f ans at t he
base of t h e h i l l s , nearer t he
val l ey foor. I t farms l oose
c l u mps of fabby rec l i ni ng s t ems
not h i dden by t he s pi nes .
The t aperi n g s t ems , to 1 5 or
more i nc hes l ong an d 2 - 4 t hi c k,
h ave broad rou n ded r i bs . Th e
pl ants f ower an d fru i t s par i ng­
l y; t he fru i t s , covered by deci d­
u ou s s pi nes , are edi bl e.
E. DELAETI I ( far Fra n tz de laet ,
Bel gi an cact us deal er) Ol d
lady, from t he foot h i l l s of t he
Si erra Madre Or i ent al i n SW
Coa h u i l a, Mexi c o, resembl es a
young Cereus seni/is ( p. 42), i ts
stems hi dden by l ong wh i t e
curl i ng h ai r- l i ke bri s t l es.
Cl u mp-formi ng, t he st ems are
sel dom over 8 i nches tal l , wi t h
1 7- 2 0 ri bs ; t here are 4- 5 l ang
r ed bri s t l e- l i ke cent ral s pi nes
per creol e. The fowers open i n
t he forenoon an d cl ose at ni gh t .
93
ECHINOPSIS ( Hedgehog or Easter l i l y Cacti ) , wi t h
about 45 t r ue speci es a n d many for ms a n d hybri ds , i s
nati ve t o s out her n Sout h Ameri ca east of t he An des .
Stems are s ol i t ary or bra nched at t he bas e to form
clu mps , gl obular to cyl i n dri c i n for m, sel dom more
t h an a foot h i gh , wi th 9 to 24 s har p- ang l ed ri bs .
Areol es are ci rcul ar, di st i nct, bor ne on t h e ri bs, wool l y
or felt ed, a rmed wi t h 0 to 6 central s pi nes a n d 3 t o
1 6 radi al s . Al l spi nes are s moot h a n d needle- l i k e.
Fl ower buds ari se j us t above t he spi ne cl ust ers i n
old areoles on growth of previ ous s eas ons, but may
appear from near t he stem apex to wel l down to­
war ds t h e bas e. The fowers are us ua l l y l on g a n d
t rumpet - s haped, open i n g a t dus k o r a l i t t l e l ater a n d
remai n i n g open for 1 , 2, o r 3 days i f s at i sfactory
weat her prevai l s . The fower - t ube is sca l y; t h e sca l es
carry l ong h ai rs and a few r i gi d br i st l es i n t hei r axi l s .
The fr ui t s pl i ts open on one s i de when r i pe.
E. MULTI PLEX ( many- f ol ded,
referri ng to t he deep ri bs )
Pi n k Easter L i l y Cact us, of
sout hern Brazi l , wi t h stands
wi nters out - of - doors i n t he
mi l der ports of Canada. Pl ants
may form I orge c l u mps ; a
c l ump in a Los Angel es garden
bore 42 fower buds at once.
Fl owers frs t appear i n s pr i ng.
E. OBREPANDA ( t u rned u pward,
referri ng to t he recu rved s pi n es)
Vi ol et East er Li l y Cactus, of
Bol i vi a, has a gl obose or s ome­
what fatt ened st em wi t h 1 7-
1 8 thi n promi nent ri bs. The one
cen tra l s pi ne i s curved u pward.
The fowers, 8 i nches l ong,
hove on abundance of bl ock
wool on t he t ube.
94
E. SI LVESTRI I ( for Argent i ne
zool ogi st Phi l i p Si l vestri ) Whi le
Easter Li l y Cact u s , from t he
mount ai ns of NW Argent i no,
i s a compact - growi ng s peci es
2-4 i nches to l l wi t h 1 2 - 1 4 ri bs,
formi ng s mal l c l u mps . Fl owers
ore I orge, 6-8 i nches l ong an d
4 i nches wi de, produced freel y,
scentl ess day and ni ght.
E. TUBI FLORA ( t r umpet - fow­
ered ) Bronze East er Li l y Cact us,
from S Brazi l and NW Argen­
ti no, has gl obul ar fatt ened
st ems about 5 i nches wi de, us u·
al l y wi t h 1 2 s l i ght l y u n du l ate
ri bs. The s t ems branc h from t he
bos e, formi ng s mal l c l u mps .
The fowers, 6- 8 i nches l ong,
ar i s e at t he si de of t he s tem.
ECHI NOPSI S LEUCANTHA ( whi te­
fowered, somet h i ng of a mi s ­
nomer ) Rose Easter l i l y Cact us
i s nati ve to western Argent i na.
You ng s t ems become cyl i ndri c
and about 1 4 i nches tal l i n
age, wi th 1 2- 1 4 compressed
ri bs. The cl osel y- set areol es
carry 1 c u rved central s pi ne
and 8 much s horter radi al s .
Fl owers open i n t he after­
noon; cl os i ng t he next morn i ng
about 1 0 o'cl ock.
96
E. CALOCHLORA ( beaut i f ul
green ) Shi ni ng Bal l Cact u s ;
Chartreus e Easter li l y Cact us,
from Goi as, Brazi l , i s a tropi ­
cal fros t -sens i tive speci es. The
pl ants are s mal l s pheres 2- 4
i nches i n di ameter, wi t h 1 3
wi de ri bs. The areol es are
armed wi t h 3- 4 cent ral an d 1 0-
1 4 radi al s pi nes, al l s i mi l ar,
yel l ow, and needl e- l i ke. The
t ube of t he fowers i s covered
by fawn - col ored hai r .
E. OXYGONA ( s har p- angl ed,
referri ng Ia t he peri ant h - seg­
ments ) Red Easter li l y Cactus ,
rangi ng f r om S Brazi l across
Ur uguay to NE Argent i na, i s
a l so a col d- tol eran t speci es.
Stems are l arge fattened gl obes
1 0 i nches across, wi th 1 4 r i bs.
The spi nes are c l us tered obout
1 4 per oreol e. The fowers are
somet i mes near l y a foot l ong,
wi t h a very s l ender t ube and
pal e r ed peta l s .
E. AUREA ( gol den ) Gol den
East er li l y Cact us , from NW
Argent i na, has s tems onl y 2 - 4
i nches wi de, wi t h 1 4- 1 5 s harp­
edged r i bs separated by deep
i n terval s ; i t i s far s mal l er i n
proporti on t o E. oxygona tha n
t h e pai nt i ng i ndi cat es.
Fl owers are di u rnal , open i n g
for abou t 5 hours du ri ng t he
day. Thi s day- bl oomi ng trai t
l i nks i t to the next genus, Lo­
bivia; some are so cl assifed.
97
LOBI VI A ( Cob Cacti I inhabits the highlands of Peru,
Bolivia, and Argentina. The cacti included in this genus
are similar to, and were once classifed as Echinopsis;
they difer only in being smaller, day-fowering, and
in having a shorter foral tube.
The stems, globular to short-cylindric in form, are
either solitary or branched at the base to form small
clumps. The ribs are always distinct, from 1 0 to 50
or more, often wavy or broken into tubercles. The
areoles are usually very spiny, in some species so
much so that they hide the stem.
Flower buds arise on the sides of the stem from
old areoles on growth of the previous seasons, in
some species from near the apex, in others near the
base. Flowers are diurnal, funnel- form to bell-shaped,
with a short broad tube. As in Echinopsis, the tube
bears scales with long hairs in the axils, and the
small globular fruits split on one side when ripe.
l. AUREA ( gol den ) Gol den
Cob Cactus, contai ns t he forms
of Echinopsis aurea t hat have
t he s horter fower- t ubes. Stems
are s i mi l ar, gl obu l ar t o cyl i n ­
dri c, wi t h 1 4 t o 1 5 s harp-edged
ri bs and c l us ters of yel l owi s h ­
brown s pi nes i n t h e areol es .
Fl owers are s hort-fu n nel form,
gl ossy, l emon- yel l ow to gol den .
L. HERTRI CHI ANA ( for Wi l l i am
Hertri ch, 1 8 78 - 1 966, Cu rator,
Hu n ti ngton Bota ni c Garden s )
Scarl et Cob Cact us , a densel y­
c l u mpi ng s peci es f r om SE Per u,
has gl ossy l i ght green gl obul ar
s t ems t o 4 i nches wi de, wi t h
1 1 ac ute ri bs. The r i bs are
not ched above t he areol es wi t h
spreadi n g yel l ow spi nes .
98
l. FAMATI MENSI S ( of renown )
Or ange Cob Cact us , is native
to N Argent i na. The s mal l ova l
stem el ongates to 6 i n c hes wi t h
age, on d carr i es about 2 0 t u­
bercu l at e r i bs t hat ten d to
spi ral arou n d t he stem. Short
yel l ow spi nes f l l t he areol es.
Fl owers vary i n col or from yel ­
l owi s h to a deep red .
l. BACKEBERGI I ( for Curt
Backeberg, 1 8 94- 1 966, Ger­
man cact us col l ector ) Carmi n e
Cob Cact us, grows on t h e Al t i ­
pl ano near L a Paz, Bol i vi a, at
1 1 , 000 feet el evati on . Th e
pl ants ar e s mal l g l obes 2
i n ches in di ameter, wi t h 1 5
s pi ral ed not ched r i bs. The red
peta l s have a bl u i s h s heen.
REBUTI A ( Crown Cacti ) , from t he mountains of Peru,
Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, are small mostly clump­
forming cacti with globose to short- cylindric stems;
t hey resemble small Mammillarias ( pp. 1 03- 1 1 1 ) in
t hat t he unri bbed stems are covered by spirals of
nipples. Areoles are at t he tips of these t ubercles,
flled wit h clusters of 8 to 40 mostly short needle-like
spines. There are about 35 recognized species.
Flower buds arise from old tu bercles at t he base or
side of t he stem; the diurnal fowers are small, fun­
nel-shaped, and very beautiful. They close in t he eve­
ning and open again the next morning for several
days in succession. The fruits are small berries covered
by persistent wit hered scales.
R. SEN I Ll S ( ol d, whi t e- hai red )
Fire Crown , from N Argent i no
and Chi l e, f or ms cl umps of bl u­
i s h fatt ened gl obes covered
with cl usters of whi te to yel ­
l owi sh i n terl ocki ng spi nes. I t
has many horti cul t ural forms,
al l based on fower col ors.
R. PSEUDODEMI NUTA ( decep­
ti vely resembl i ng R. demi nuta)
Red-Gol d Crown , from N Ar­
gent i no an d S Bol i vi a, makes
c l umps of l ittl e 2- i nch grass­
green gl obes wi t h promi nent
t u bercl es set wi t h 2 - 3 central
an d 1 1 radi al spi nes, gl assy­
whi te t i pped by brown .
R . KUPPERI ANA ( for Prof. Kup­
per, Mu n i ch Botani c Garden )
Scarl et Crown, from Bol i vi a,
bl ooms freel y from Apri l to
Augus t ; even bl ooms as a t i ny
l - i nch pl ant . Stems are s mal l
gl obes wi t h s harp- poi nted t u­
bercl es set i n about 2 0 spi ral s.
1 00
R. VI OLACI FLORA ( wi t h vi ol et ­
col ored fowers ) Vi ol et Crown ,
from t h e Andes of Argenti na
and Bol i vi a at 9, 000 feet el e­
vat i on, i s a t i ny fatt ened g l obe
l ess than an i nch across, dense
wi t h 20- 25 spi ral s of t u bercl es.
I t does not c l ump.
R. PSEUDOMI NUSCULA ( decep­
ti vel y resembl i ng R. mi nuscule)
Cri mson Crown , of t he Argen­
t i ne Andes at 9, 000 feet el e­
vati on, f orms c l u mps of s mal l
gl obes, eac h u n der 2 i nches
wi de, wi t h 1 2- 1 6 s pi ral s of
dark green t u bercl es f ushed
wi t h red.
R. MI NUSCULA ( very s mal l )
R ed Crown, from NW Argen ­
ti na, forms t uft s of 2- i nc h
fatt ened gl obes covered by l ow
t u ber<l es i n 1 6- 2 0 spi ral s . The
fowers are freel y bor ne from
February to Apri l ; i ndi vi du al
fowers l as t several days.
1 0 1
CHAMAECEREUS is a monotypic genus from the Andes
in Tucum6n Province, Argentina, with cyl i ndric creep­
ing stems with a few l ow ribs; it branches from near
the base and forms small cl umps. Flowers arise singl y
at lateral areoles on the old growth of preceding
years. The globular fruits are dry and woolly.
C. S I LVESTRI I ( for Argent i ne
zool ogi s t Phi l i p Si l vestri ) Pee­
n u t Cact us, has soft feshy
fnger- l i ke j oi nt s 2- 4 i nches
l ong and %- i nch t h i ck, wi t h 6- 9
l ow t u berc u l ate ri bs. The t i ny
fel ted areol es carry c l usters of
1 0- 1 6 t hi n bri st l e- l i ke s pi nes
t hat r adi at e i n al l di recti ons .
1 02
Bel l - s hoped di ur nal fowers
appear i n earl y spri n g; the t ube
i s covered by scal es t hat bear
t ufts of dar k hai r i n t he axi l s .
When grafted on Pereskia
acu/eata stock (p. 1 1 ) , j oi nts
grow to over 1 2 i nc hes i n
l engt h and %- i nc h t h i ck, a n d
h u n dreds of branc hes devel op.
MAMMILLARIA ( Fi s h hook or Pi ncus hi on Cacti ) , wi t h
1 00 or more val i d speci es, ranges from Cal i for ni a t o
western Okl ahoma, t hen sout hward over Mexi co i n to
Cent r al Ameri ca; a few ar e nat i ve to t he Anti l l es an d
t he ari d nor t h coasts of Col ombi a and Venezuel a.
Fourt een speci es ar e i n di genous to t he Uni ted St ates .
Mammi l l ari as ar e s mal l pl ant s wi t h sol i tary or
cl ustered stems , when mat ur e t hey ar e gl obose, oval ,
cyl i ndri c, or t ur ni p- s haped . Most are 1 - 4 i nches tal l
and 1 - 3 i nches wi de, bu t a few grow t o 1 2 i nches
h i gh and 8 wi de. The s t em s urface i s covered by di s ­
t i nct separate t uber cl es wi t h s pi ne- bear i ng ar eol es at
t h e ti ps ; t he s pi nes are s moot h, wi t h a broad range of
col or s. Central s pi nes, i f present , may be strai gh t,
curved, or hooked, to 1 i nch l ong i n some; t he s hort er
needl e- l i ke radi al s, 1 0- 80 per areol e, ar e strai ght .
Fl ower buds ar e for med on t he ol d growth of pre­
vi ous seasons, and are l ocat ed bel ow t he st em apex.
They ori gi nat e down between t he t uber cl es, n ever
from the s pi ne- bear i ng areol es at t hei r ti ps, nor a re
t hey obvi ousl y connected to t he tu ber cl es i n a ny way.
They ar i s e from spi ne- or wool - bear i ng areol es on
t he st em bet ween t he t ubercl es .
Fl owers ar e di ur nal , us ual l y bel l - s haped, most l y
s mal l , from %- i nch to 1 i nch across, i n a few speci es
to 2 i nches broad. They open i n t he forenoon, an d
cl ose i n t he aft er noon of t h e s ame day, bu t may open
and cl os e i n t hi s way f or 2 or 3 successi ve days .
The s mal l f l es hy frui t s, f r om %- i nch to an i nc h l ong,
ar e g l obul ar t o el ongat e. They are s moot h- s k i n ned,
wi t hout scal es or ot her s urface appendages, an d do
not spl i t or open when r i pe.
Some s peci es hol d thi c k mi l ky l atex i n t hei r stems ;
al l ot her cacti have col or l ess watery s ap.
1 03
MAMMI LLARI A LONGI MAMMA
( l ong- ni ppl ed ) , fou n d from
Hi dal go, Mexi co to S Texas,
has s pheri ca l 4- i nc h st ems t hat
branch to f or m c l umps . The
cyl i ndri cal 2- i nch t u bercl es are
t i pped by 4- 1 5 radi at i ng
spi nes. The l arge 2- i nch fowers
often appear i n 3 ' s. Many va­
ri eti es are known.
M. GEMI NI SPI NA (twi n- s pi ned) ,
of nort h- cen tra l Mexi co, de­
vel ops beau t i f ul dome- s haped
c l umps of 50 or more st ems if
pl anted ou t-of-doors. Axi l s of
the coni cal t u bercl es are wool l y;
t hei r t i ps bear 1 6- 2 0 s hort
whi te bristl y radi al s pi nes and
2 - 4 bl ack- t i pped cent ral s 1 i nch
l ong. Fl owers i n f al l .
/
M. LASI ACANTHA ( rough ­
spi ned ) l i ves wi t h onl y t he top
of .i ts l - i nc h st em obove t he
l i mest one h i l l s ond mesas i n
desert an d gr assl ands a t
3000- 4300 feet el evat i on .
Whi te s pi nes , 50- 80 per are­
ol e, hi de t he st ems. !J:" ranges
from N Ch i h u ah u a i nto S New
Mexi co and t he Bi g Bend.
M. MI CROCARPA ( s mal l -frui t ­
ed ) Fi s h hook Cact us , has 1
pri nci pal hooked cen tra l s pi ne
per areol e, a f ew s horter
st rai ght cen t ra l s, an d 1 8 - 2 8
strai ght s preadi ng radi al s . The
s t ems , t o 6 i n ches hi gh ond 2
wi de, form c l u mps . I t ra nges
from central Ari zona to nort h ­
ern Sonora.
MAMMI LLARI A GUMMI FERA
( beari ng g u m) Bi znaga de
Chi l i tas ; Carol Cact us, wi t h
n u merous botani cal vari eti es,
ranges from N Mexi co i nto
Ari zona, New Mexico, an d
Texas . I t on d i ts vari eti es are
t he onl y n ative U. S. cacti wi t h
mi l ky l at ex i n t he t u bercl es.
The frui t s resembl e chi l i s .
1 06
M. GUMMI FERA var. MEI A­
CANTHA ( smal l er- s pi ned) , from
Arizona, New Mexi co, an d
Texas W of t he Pecos, prefers
stony soil s of l i mest one ori gi n.
I ts s t ems ar e us ual l y u n­
branched hemi s pheres to 6
i nches across, covered by h u n ­
dreds of pyrami d-l i ke t u ber­
cl es u n h i dden by the spi nes.
M. POTTSI I ( for J ohn Potts, o n
Ameri can mi ni ng engi neer who
al s o col l ected cacti ) , from t he
Bi g Bend, Texas , and NE Mex­
i co, l i ves i n gravel l y areas i n
t he desert at 2500- 3000 feet
el evat i on. I t somet i mes forms
s mal l c l umps ; stems are cyl i n ­
dri c, t o 4 i nches t al l , a n d u p
t o 1 •. i nches i n di ameter.
M. PROLI FERA ( formi ng of­
s hoots ) var. TEXANA ( of
Texas ) grows i n t he grass l ands
of NE Mexi co and S Texas . I ts
l i t t l e st ems, to 3 i nches h i gh
and an i nc h wi de, c l u mp t o
form mou n ds . Areol es have 8 -
1 0 dark-t i pped cen tral s pi nes ,
and 30- 60 whi te hai r - l i ke cu rl y
radi al s .
1 07
/
MAMMI LLARI A DI OI CA ( di oe­
ci ous, i . e. , i ndivi dual pl ant s hove
un i sexuol flowers), from both the
c oas t a n d des er t of NW Baj a
Cal i for n i a a n d SW Cal i forn i a,
forms cl umps of cyl i ndri c stems
4-6 i n ches h i gh . Fl ower col or
varies f rom yel low t o while; petal
mi dri bs may be purpl i sh or rose.
Central spi nes ore hooked.
  ;
M. MACRACANTHA ( l ong­
spi ned) , from Son l ui s Potosi ,
Mexi co, i s a fattened gl obe i n
age, about 3 i nches hi gh an d
6 wi de, wi t h I orge pyrami dal
t u bercl es ar med wi t h j us t 1 or
2 curved angl ed s pi nes per are­
ol e; i n t he wi l d t hey el ongate
to 2 i n ches, but not in '. ' c.op­
tive" pl ant s.
M. MAI NI AE ( for Mrs. F. M.
Moi n, who fr s t col l ected i t,
near Nogal es, Mexi co) grows
i n desert or gras s l and at 2000-
4000 f eet el evat i on, f r om Si n a­
l oa, Mexi co, t o S-central Ari ­
zona. The one hooked central
s pi ne per
.
areol e is pl aced so
t he hooks are al l t urned cou n ­
ter-cl ockwi se.

M. TETRANCI STRA ( four - spi ned,
referri n g to t he hooked bl ack
central s pi n es , general l y 4 i n
n u mber ) Cal i forni a Fi s h hook
Cactus, l i ves i n s andy deserts
at 450- 2400 feet el evati on, i n
S Cal i forni a, S Nevada, SW
Utah , an d W Ari zona. I ts seeds
are hal f - covered by a corky
ar i l nearl y as bi g as t he seed.
1 09
Although a great many species, varieties, and forms
of Mammillaria have been described, the basic struc­
ture or morphology of their stems, fowers, and fruits
is very much alike among all of them. The diferences
between them lie in the size, shape, and color of the
plants and their parts, and in the arrangement and
number of their spines. They are all neat compact
plants with a symmetry that delights the eye. The
spines, beautifully colored and arranged in intricate
patterns, vie with the circle of bright fowers and
fruits. These four species illustrate how strikingly their
superfcial appearance can vary.
MAMMI LLARI A ELONGATA
( el ongated ) Gol den Stars ; Gol d
Lace Cactu s ; Lady' s- Fi nger,
from E Mexi co, branches from
the base to form s mal l dens e
c l umps of del i cate s l en der
fnger- l i ke stems up to 4 i n ches
l ong but scarcel y more t han
Y2· i nch t hi ck. Tu bercl es, or·
ranged i n onl y o few spi ral s,
are t i pped by a st ar- l i ke c l us ­
t er of down - curved yel l ow
s pi nes t hat i n terl ock wi t h t hose
from adj acent t u bercl es, hi d­
i ng t he s t em i n gol d l ace.
M. CANDI DA ( wh i te- hai ry)
Snowbal l Cact us, from t he st at e
of Son Lui s Potosi , cen tral
Mexi co, when young i s a s i n ­
gl e l i tt l e s phere hi dden be­
neath t he wh i te s pi nes . When
ol der an d about 2 i nches wi de
i t bra nches t o f orm s mal l
c l umps , an d t he s tem el ongates
a bi t . Areol es at the ti ps of
the tu bercl es have over 50 hori ­
zont al bri st l y s pi nes and 8 - 1 2
s touter porrect cent ral s pi nes
often ti pped wi t h brown .
1 1 0
M . PLUMOSA ( feat hery) Feat h­
er Cact us , an u n bel i evabl e s pe·
ci es from nort hern Mexi co, has
smal l much- branched s t ems t hat
form dens e c l umps u p t o 1 0
i nc hes across, compl etel y hi d­
den by t he "feat hers . " Th i s i s
t he onl y cactus known i n whi ch
t he i ndi vi dual spi nes ( 40 per
areol e ) are di vi ded or feat h­
ered. They are weak an d r ub
of eas i l y i f h an dl ed. I n t he
ci t y t he pl u mes s oon become a
di rty gray u n l ess grown u n der
an i nverted j ar.
M. BOMBYCI NA ( si l ky, refer­
ri ng to the s heen on the s pi nes)
Si l ky Pi ncus hi on, from Coa­
h u i l a, Mexi co, i s at frs t gl ob­
ul ar, becomi ng cyl i ndri c i n
age, formi ng h uge cl u mps. The
st ems are up to 8 i n ches tal l
and 2 wi de; t he axi l s of the
s hort con i cal tu bercl es are fl l ed
wi th dense t ufts of whi te wool ,
es peci a l l y near t he crown of
the pl ant . Areol es have 4
hooked cent ral s pi nes an d 30-
40 s preadi ng radi al s .
GYMNOCALYCIUM ( Chin Cacti ) is a South American
genus found east of the Andes, mostly in northern
Argentina, but also in Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay,
and southern Brazil; � few range south into  �ta­
gonia. Most grow in grassland at no great altitude,
although a few species range up to 1 0, 000 feet.
Chin cacti are mostly small globular plants, soli­
tary or clumping, with 5 to 3 2 tuberculate ribs. The
tubercles have a " chin" or swel ling just below the
areole. Some species have large tubercles that crowd
out of line, making the ribs hard to distinguish.
Flower buds arise in t he spine-bearing areoles, in
most species on new growth near the stem apex, in a
few laterally from old areoles. The funnelform fow­
ers have broad scales on the tube and ovary; there
are no hairs, bristles, or spines on fowers or fruits.
I ndividual plants and clones of most speci es are
sel f-sterile, and hybrids abound in thi s genus.
G. SCHI CKENDANTZI I ( for Fed­
erico Schi ckendantz, Argent i ne
botani s t , 1 8 37- 1 896 ) Whi te
Chi n, of nort hern Argent i na, i s
us ual l y a sol i tary s t em t o 4
i nches wi de on whi ch t he tu·
bercl es coal esce i nto 7 broad
ri bs. Fl owers, often borne by
ol d and new areol es, are whi te,
becomi ng pi nki s h as t hey age.
G. MI HANOVI CHI I ( for a s ai l ­
or , Mi hanovi ch ) Pl ai d Cact us ,
f r om t he Chaco Boreal of Para­
guay, i s us ual l y l ess than 2
i nches wi de, sol i tary, wi t h 8
promi nent s harp grayi s h- green
ri bs, often wi t h hori zont al
bands of a contras t i ng col or.
I ts fowers vary from pal e yel ­
l ow to browni s h - green .
1 1 2
G. DAMS I I , Da m' s Chi n, from
northern Paraguay, i s a s ol i ­
t ar y green gl obe, s omet i mes
s omewhat fatt ened, wi t h 1 0
tu bercu l at e ri bs and st rai ght
s hort spreadi ng s pi nes , al l
radi al s . I ts 2- i nc h wh i te fow­
er s are often t i n ged wi t h pi n k ;
t he fru i t s , an · i nch l on g and
hal f as wi de, are red when ri pe.
G. PLATENSE ( for Rio de I a
Pl at a, near whi ch i t was frs t
col l ected ) , ranges over most of
Argent i na, bu t i s near l y ext i nct
i n t he vi ci ni ty of t he ri ver. The
pl ants , 3- i nch fatt ened gl obes
wi th 8 - 1 2 broad l ow ri bs, grow
hal f-h i dden in the soi l . Stem
col or may be bl ue- green, pur­
pl e, or bronze.
f
GYMNOCALYCI UM LEEANUM
( for t he Messrs. lee of Ham­
mers mi t h Nu rseri es, W london,
fr st t o grow i t i n Europe ) , from
Ur uguay an d Argent i na, i s a
green gl obe wi t h 9- 1 1 broad
ri bs di vi ded i nto 6- si ded t u­
bercl es. Cl ump- formi ng, t he
new s t ems on s l ender st ol ons
qu i ckl y put down root s.
1 1 4
G. GI BBOSUM ( gi bbous, refer­
ri n g to t he promi nent "c hi ns " ) ,
from Argent i na, i s s pheri cal
when young, but cyl i ndri c i n
age, u p t o 8 i nches tal l . I ts sol ­
i tary stems h ave 1 2- 1 4 t u ber­
c ul ate ri bs. There are many
vari et i es of t hi s speci es, most
of t hem sel f - pol l i nat i ng. They
vary i n spi ne n u mber and col or.
G. DENUDATUM ( n aked, refer­
ri ng to the rel ati vel y few
s pi nes ) Spi der Cact us , from S
Brazi l , N Ur uguay, and adj a­
cent Argent i no, i s a portl y fat ­
t ened gl obe 2 - 6 i nches wi de,
t he tu bercl es coa l esced i nto 5- 8
broad l ow r i bs . I ts common
nome deri ves f r om t he 5- 8
curved s pi dery s pi nes .
G. SAGLI ONE, f r om t he An­
dean regi on of NW Argent i no,
i s t he l argest Gymnoco l yci u m
known ; i t s sol i tary gl obul ar
st ems reach 1 5 i nches acros s .
Stems h ove 1 3 - 3 2 r i bs , de­
pen di ng on t he s i ze of t he
pl ant , di vi ded i n to l arge rou n d­
ed t u bercl es . On l y l arger ol der
pl ants fower.
FEROCACTUS ( Barrel Cacti ) , wi t h 20 to 30 speci es, i s
fou n d from Cal i for ni a to Texas , t hen s out hward i n
wester n Mexi co and on t he Mexi can Pl ateau.
Ferocacti are normal l y unbranched; t hei r stems
are ei t her fattened gl obes, oval s , or cyl i n ders, from
6 i nches to 1 0 feet hi gh, and from 2 i nches to 2 feet
t hi ck. They h ave from 1 3 to 30 ri bs, composed of a l ­
most compl etel y coal escent t ubercl es, wi t h near l y
ci rcu l ar to e l l i pt i c areol es .
The s pi nes, i n a mu l t i t ude of col ors, may be s moot h
or wi t h cross- r i bs. Areol es nor ma l l y h ave 4 cent r al
s pi nes, rarel y 1 or 8, up to 6 % i nches l ong, whi ch
can be needl e- l i ke or fattened, and ei t her st rai ght,
curved, or hooked. Radi al s pi nes, 6 to 20 per a reol e,
ar e 3 to 3 i nches l ong, ei t her st rai ght or curved.
Fl ower buds form on new growt h of t he present
season near t he stem apex. Buds emerge from t he
t op of t he t u bercl es i n a fel te
d
area next to and
mergi ng wi t h t he s pi ne- beari n g part of t he areol e;
when t he fr ui t fa l l s i t l eaves a scar l asti ng for many
year s. The fowers, from 1 % to 3 i nches wi de, have
a s hort t ube s h aped l i ke an i nverted cone.
The frui ts, u n der 2 i nc h es l ong, a re fes h y an d cov­
ered by broad rou nded scal es ; t he wi t hered fower
t ube remai ns attached to t h em. They open when ri pe
by a short crosswi se or l engthwi se sl i t .
F. WI SLI ZENI J ( for Dr. F. A.
Wi sl i zen us, 1 8 1 0- 1 8 8 9, St .
Loui s physi ci an an d expl orer
of the sout hwes t ) Candy,
Sout hwestern, or Fi s h h ook Bar­
rel , i s nati ve i n t he Ari zona
and Ch i h u ah u an deserts at
1 000- 5600 feet el evat i on but
restri cted to ar eas receivi ng
1 1 6
s u mmer rai ns . I ts massive st ems
are 2- 1 0 f eet t al l and 1 - 2 feet
thi ck, wi th 20- 2 8 ri bs. I t
fowers prof usel y i n s u mmer.
The spi nes burn fercel y l i ke
a torc h; Texas cowboys so often
used i t for bonfres that the
state ordered a penal ty of $50
fo"r each cact us so bur ned.
FEROCACTUS COVI LLE! ( for
F. V. Covi l l e, 1 8 67- 1 937,
Ameri can bota ni s t an d Cu rator,
U. S. Not i onal Herbari u m)
Travel er' s- Compass ; Hermos i l l o;
Covi l l e' s Barrel , f r om S Arizona
an d adj acent Sonora, Mexi co,
has barrel - s haped or cyl i ndri c
stems 2- 8 feet hi gh and 1 - 2
feet t hi ck, wi t h 20- 30 ri bs .
1 1 8
The central s pi ne, 3- 4 i n ches
l ong, i s st rongl y cross- ri bbed,
fat on i t s u pper s u rface,
hooked or strongl y curved at
the ti p; these s pi nes were used
by the I n di ans for fs hhooks.
Thi s and some ot her barrel
cacti al l lean to the s out hwest
as t hey grow, earn i n g them the
name "Travel er' s-Compass . "
F. ACANTHODES ( acant hus ­
l i ke ) Cal i forni a Barrel , i s a
desert pl an t, us ual l y a s i ngl e
col u mn 3 - 1 0 feet tal l an d 1
foot t hi ck, wi t h 1 8 - 2 7 ri bs.
I t s cent ra l s pi nes are u n ­
hooked, t h e l owest 3- 6 i nc hes
l on g; it grows in gravel or rock
at 200- 2000 feet el evati on i n
Baj a an d SE Cal i forni a.
I n var . /econfei, of Sonora,
SE Cal ifor nia, S Nevada, SW
Utah and W Ari zona, t he
l ongest cent ral s pi ne i s 2- 3
i nches ; i t grows most l y at
2500- 5000 feet, but at 1 000-
3000 in part of Ari zona.
Var. eastwoodiae, of rocky
ledges at 1 300-3800 feet in 5
Ari zona, has yel l ow s pi nes .
1 1 9
ECHINOCACTUS ( Bar rel Cacti ) , a genus wi t h about
1 2 speci es, ranges fr om Cal i for ni a t o Texas, an d
sout h t o Queretaro, central Mexi co.
Some Ech i nocacti h ave s ol i t ary st ems, ot hers bra nch
to for m c l u mps . Mat ure stems vary fr om 2 i nches t o 2
feet t al l , and from 2 i nches to 1 foot t hi ck, depend­
i ng on t he speci es. Most h ave 8 to 27 ri bs formed by
a l most compl et el y coal escent t ubercl es, wi t h near l y
ci rcu l ar to e l l i pti c areol es.
Some speci es a re spi nel ess; i f spi ny, a l l of t h e
spi nes are a n n u l at e. Cent ral spi nes may be l acki n g;
i f present t hey are red, 1 to 4 per creol e, st rai ght
or curved, n eedl e- l i ke or fattened, from 1 to 3
i nches l ong. Radi a l spi nes, 5 to 1 1 per creol e, a re
l i ke t he cent ral s but s mal l er, % to 2 i nches l ong.
Fl owers an d frui ts a re bor ne on new growth i n t he
s ame way as i n Ferocactus ( p. 1 1 6 ) , an d t he fowers
are s i mi l ar i n for m, from 1 % t o 2 % i nches broad.
The frui ts, t o 2 i nches l ong, are dry when ri pe; t hey
are scal y, wi th l ong hai rs under t he scal es, somet i mes
hi di ng t he frui t i n a dense wool l y coat.
Most Ba rrel Cacti i n both genera g row very sl owl y.
Gr owt h may cease al t oget her duri n g years of drought,
to be res u med agai n when rai n ret ur ns . Some ca n
adsorb an d st ore enough water dur i ng wet per i ods
to l ast t h rough t he dry years.
E. POLYCEPHALUS { many- head­
ed ) of the Moj avea n Desert,
grows on rocky sl opes or i n
cl ays i n t h e deserts at 1 00-
2500 feet el evat i on, i n NW
Sonora, SE Cal i forni a, S Ne­
vada, and W Ari zona.
Thi s cact us f or ms c l u mps of
1 0- 30 stems, t he t al l est in t he
1 20
center; t he c l umps are up to 2
feet hi gh an d 4 feet across. As
i ts spi nes grow t hey are en­
cased i n a dens e l ayer of gray
f el t t hat peel s away i n s h eet s.
Var. xerant hemoides grows at
over 3 8 00 feet on s out h- fac­
i ng l edges, most l y i n NW Ar i ­
zon a; i t s spi nes are not hai ry.
ECHI NOCACTUS HORI ZON-
THALONI US ( havi ng a hori zon­
t al body) Eagl e Cl aws ; Tur k' s
Head; Devi l ' s Head grows i n
l i mest one ot 2 1 00-6500 feet
el evat i on, from Trans · Pecos
Texas ond S New Mexi co to
San L ui s Potosi , Mexi co.
The st ems of thi s cact us vory
from fat t ened gl obes to oval s
or col umns , from 6- 1 2 i n ches
t ol l on d 4- 6 i nc hes across, wi t h
7- 1 3 fat ri bs t hat are some-
1 22
t i mes cross- furrowed. I ts 3 cen ­
tral spi nes, on e of whi c h c urves
downward, are pal e gray or
bl ack on the s urface, but red or
red an d yel l ow u nderneat h . The
radi al s, 5- 8 per areol e, curve
s l i ght l y out ward.
The fowers, over 2 i nches i n
di ameter, a ppear i n J u n e an d
J u l y. I ts frui t s, fr s t j ui cy but
dry at mat uri ty, ar e covered by
soft whi te wool ; t hey open by
a pore at t he t i p.
E. TEXENSI S (of Texas) Horse
Cri ppl er; Man co Cabal l o; Dev·
i l 's Head; Devi l 's Pi ncus hi on,
grows f r om s ea l evel u p t o
3650 feet
,
an d ranges from
SE New Mexico and most
of Texas south across Coahui l a,
Nuevo L eon, and Tomaul i pas i n
Mexi co.
The stems of thi s pl ant are
5- 8 i nches hi gh and to a fool
wi de, with 1 3- 27 ri bs. There is
1 central s pi ne per creol e, 2- 3
i nches l ong, curved ri gi dl y
downward, and usual l y 6
spreadi ng unequal radi al s ,
from Y2 t o. al most 2 i nches l ong.
Al l t he s pi nes or e t hi ck, h eavy,
and i ron- hard ; t hey h ove l amed
many a s t eer i n Texas , and
cowboys u proot i t whenever
they see i t.
The fowers, over 2 i nches
wi de, appear from Apr i l t o
J u l y; each one l ast s 4 days,
cl osi n g at ni ght .
1 23
NOTE: These four speci es, great l y admi red an d wi del y
grown, ar e act ual l y l i ttl e Barrel Cact i pertai ni ng to
t h e genus Echi n ocact us . When 3 of t hem were frst di s ­
covered, t hey were descri bed as s peci es of Ech i no­
cactus (E. ornatus i n 1 828, E. asterias i n 1 845, and E.
capricorn i s i n 1 85 1 ) . The Bel gi an botan i st Charl es Le­
mai re frst descri bed the s peci es myriostigma i n 1 839
and created t he genus Astrophytum for i t; he moved
E. asterias to Astrophyt um i n 1 868. But no botani sts
consi dered Lemai r e' s genus Astrophytum as val i d (A.
myriostigma was put i nto Ech i nocactus by Sal m-Dyck
i n 1 845) unti l 1 92 2, when Bri tton and Rose revi ved i t
and al so put the other 2 speci es t here. Botani sts now
agree al l 4 ar e Ech i nocacti .
E. MYRI OSTI GMA ( wi t h myri ads
af spots ) Bi shop' s Cap, grows
in oak an d pine forest s around
San L ui s Potos i , Mexi co, at
7500 feet el evati on. Wi t h a
l ens i t s s pots are seen as tufts
of s hort gray hai rs. The gl obu­
l ar stems , us ual l y 5- ri bbed and·
to 6 i nches hi gh, are 6, 8 , or
1 0- ri bbed and to 2 feet t al l i n
s ome forms . I ts di ur nal bl ooms
appear i n May, J u ne, or J u l y.
E. CAPRI CORNI S ( goat - horned )
Goat ' s Horn Cact us, grows on
t he l i mest one and s l ate hi l l s
of Coah ui l a, Mexi co. Young
pl ants are fattened gl obes
wi th 7-9 s h arpl y- edged ri bs; i n
age the stems el ongate up to
1 0 i nches . At l east 6 vari eti es
are recogn i zed, based on di ­
versi ty of t he s pi nes : some are
al most s pi nel ess, others wi th
bri st l es, one wi th 1 5- 2 0 l arge
coarse "goat horns " at each
creol e.
1 24
E. ASTERI AS ( starred ) Sea
Urchi n Cact us ; Star Cactus, of
gras s l and or brus hl and at l ow
el evat i ons in Starr Co., Texas,
Nuevo leon, and Tamau l i pas
i s al ways s pi nel es s . I ts s tem,
us ual l y onl y 1 - 3 i nches t al l
and t o 3 wi de, i s di vi ded i n to
8 roun ded s egment s separated
by narrow grooves. I ts ti ny
green or pi n k frui ts are h i dden
i n t he wool of t he areol es.
E. ORNATUS ( or nate or
adorned ) Star Cact us, a desert
s peci es of Queretaro an d Hi ­
dal go, cen tral Mexi co, has s ol ­
i t ary st ems, g l obose when
young but cyl i ndri c wi t h age,
wi t h 8 promi nent ri bs. Some
f or ms are reported to become
2 feet tal l and a foot t hi ck.
The s preadi ng awl - l i ke s pi nes ,
5 - 1 1 per creol e, are al l radi ­
al s . When r i pe, t he f r ui t opens
at t he top i n t he s h ape of a
fve- poi nted st ar.
STENOCACTUS ( Br ai n Cacti ) , wi th a bout 30 speci es
cl osel y rel ated t o Echi nocactus, r anges from Hi dal go
an d Aguascal i entes to  oahui l a  Mexi co.
Most are s mal l sol i tary gl obul ar pl ant s wi t h 1 0 to
50 or 1 00 thi n wavy ri bs, gi vi n g them a wri n k l ed
brai n - l i ke appearan ce. The areol es, often on l y 1 or
2 on each ri b, have many u n hooked, most l y papery
fat s pi nes t hat often h i de t he pl ant . The s ma l l fowers,
on new growth as i n Echi nocactus, hol d t hei r pet al s
erect or on l y part l y expanded. The scal es on t he frui t
h ave no hai r or wool i n thei r axi l s .
The s l i ght di feren ces between many of t he de­
scri bed speci es makes i t di fcu l t to tel l t hem a part .
5. HASTATUS ( spear- spi ned ) ,
from Hi dal go, i s a sol i tary
fatt ened gl obe to 4 i nches tol l
and 5 wi de, wi t h 35 congested
steep wavy ri bs ; i t s oreol es
bear 5-6 s hort st rai ght or
sl i ght l y cu rved yel l ow r adi al
s pi nes, and 1 l ong brood up­
ri ght s pear- l i ke cent ral spi ne.
I ts f r ui t s ore dry at mat uri ty.

5. VI OLACI FLORU5 ( wi t h vi ol et
fowers ) , of Aguoscol i entes an d
Zacatecas, becomes col u mn ar
i n age. The overl appi ng spi nes
hi de i ts 35 deepl y wavy r i bs.
5. LLOYDI I ( far F. E. Ll oyd,
who frs t col l ected i t ) i s nearl y
gl obul ar, wi t h 50 or more t h i n
fol ded ri bs. Th e fowers h ave
two·cl eft sti gma l obes.
NOTOCACTUS ( Ba l l Cacti ) mos t l y grow i n gr ass l an d
at moderate a l t i t udes; t h ey are al l Sout h Ameri ca n,
fr om sout h of t he Equator, ran gi n g from cent ra l Br a­
zi l and s out her n Per u to sout h - cent ra l Argent i n a.
Th e s ol i t ary or branched stems of you ng pl a nt s
are s pheres or fat tened gl obes, i n age col u mn ar i n
some speci es. Mat ure stems vary fr om 2 i nches t o 6
feet t al l , a n d from 2 to 20 i nches t h i ck, wi t h 6 to
over 60 verti cal or spi r al ed ri bs, t he t ubercl es ei t her
al most compl etel y coa l escent or di st i n ct . Areol es a re
fel ted an d s pi ny; t he s pi nes, 3 to more t h an 40 per
areol e, vary from barel y vi si bl e br i st l es to 3- i nch awl s
or needl es .
Fl owers are f r om new growth i n or near t he cen t er
of the pl an t; t hey are s hort an d broad, s howy, wi t h
a scal y, bri st l y, an d hai ry fower - t ube and ovary; t he
sca l es, wi t h bri st l es, h ai rs, or dens e wool i n t hei r axi l s,
per si st on t he fr ui t s.
N. APRI CUS ( earl y, referri ng
t o t he May- J u n e bl oom ) Sun
Cup, of Ur uguay, f or ms s mal l
c l umps of fatt ened 2- i nc h
gl obes, s u n ken or cu pped at
t he apex, wi t h 1 5- 2 0 cu rved
semi - t u bercu l at e ri bs densel y
covered wi t h fexi bl e i nterl ock­
i ng s pi nes . The proporti onatel y
h uge fowers ore 3 i nches l ong
and equal l y wi de.
N. PATAGONI CUS (of Patago­
ni a ) grows i n barren pebbl y
washes or on rocky gl aci al de­
posi ts i n t he Chubut Val l ey of
Argent i no, us ual l y as a s l en der
erect cyl i nder to 2 feet h i gh ,
rarel y to 20 i nc h es t hi ck, wi t h
6- 1 0 st rai gh t or spi ra l ed wavy
ri bs. Areol es are cl ose- set , wi t h
some h ooked cent ral spi nes .
1 2 8
N. MAMMULOSUS ( n i ppl ed ) ,
of Brazi l , Ur uguay, an d Argen­
t i na, i s a sol i tary 3- i nch dar k
gr een or pu rpl i s h s phere wi t h
1 8 - 2 5 st rongl y n i ppl ed r i bs
al most hi dden by t he yel l ow­
i s h i n terl ocki ng s pi nes , 2 2 - 34
per creol e. I ts s at i n y yel l ow
fowers with pur pl e s t i gmas ap­
pear abu ndant l y i n J u n e and
J u l y. The ovary i s scal y.
N. OTTONI S ( for Fri edri ch
Otto, 1 78 2 - 1 856, German bot­
ani s t ) I ndi an Head, of Argen­
t i na, S Brazi l , Ur uguay, and
Paraguay, has many vari et i es,
al l free- foweri ng from J u n e t o
August . The i rri ta bl e s tamens
wr ap rou nd t he s t yl e i n 3- 6
seconds i f bl own on , r ubbi ng
pol l en onto t he st i g ma- l obes.
• • 41 •
  �  ­
- -. . �
NOTOCACTUS SCHUMANNI AN­
US ( for Karl M. Sch u man n ,
1 85 1 - 1 904, German cactal a­
gi s t ) Ci tron Bal l , from Para­
guay and NE Argent i na, i s frst
sol i tary and g l obose, l at er
el ongat i ng Ia 3 feet or more
and becomi ng bent or l yi ng
down, 4 to 1 6 i nches t h i ck,
wi t h about 30 l ow s harp ri bs.
1 30
N. HASELBERGI I ( for cactoph i l e
Dr. von Hasel berg of Stral s und,
Pomerani a ) Scarl et Bal l , from
Ri o Grande do Sur, Brazi l , i s a
sol i tary 5 - i nch gl obe wi t h
about 30 s emi - t u berc u l at e ri bs,
hi dden by t he si l very- whi te
bri st l y radi al s pi nes . Fl owers
vary from orange to fery red ;
t hey have 6 erect st i gma- l obes.
. .
N. LENI NGHAUSI I , Gol den Bal l ,
al so f r om Ri o Grande do S ur,
i s ready to fower and cl u mp
wh e n a 4- i nc h sphere. I ts 30
narrow ri bs appear hazy u n ­
de r t h e soft gol den down- poi nt ­
i ng s pi nes . I t s l owl y becomes
cyl i ndri c, t o 1 0 i nches hi gh i n
1 2- 1 5 years ; i n ol d age t o
over 3 feet.
N. SCOPA ( l i ke a brus h, refer­
ring to the s pi nes ) Sil ver Bal l ,
of S Brazi l and Uruguay, fn al ­
l y becomes an 1 8 - i nch col u mn .
T h e bri st l e- l i ke radi al s pi nes,
over 40 per areol e, hi de t he
30- 40 l ow rou n ded ri bs. I t has
many for ms , al l bas ed on s pi ne
col or and arrangement. Sti gma­
l obes about 1 0, al l red.
PARODI A grows most l y i n open pl ai n s a mon g scat ­
tered s h rubs or l ong grasses for protect i on from t h e
ful l s un, from nor t her n Argent i na to central Bol i vi a
a n d s out her n Brazi l , some at hi gh a l t i t udes.
These a re s ma l l gl obul ar or el on gat e cact i , us ua l l y
s ol i t ary, wi t h strai ght or spi ral ed t uberc u l at e ri bs .
Areol es cr own t he t ubercl es, and a re especi al l y s pi ny
and wool l y at t he t op of t he pl a nt ; many of t hem
have s ome hooked s pi nes .
The di ur nal fowers, l arge f or t he si ze of t he pl an ts,
devel op i n areol es of new t uber cl es near t he cent er
of t he stem, oft en 3 or more at on ce, and l as t several
days. The ovary is scal y, us ual l y wi t h whi t e wool a n d
bri st l es i n t h e sca l e axi l s . Frui ts are s ma l l a n d dry,
contai n i n g dust - l i ke seed.
Over 1 00 s peci es of Parodi a h ave been descr i bed,
many bas ed on tri vi al di ferences; val i d speci es pr ob­
abl y n u mber a rou n d t hi rty.
P. MUTABI LI S ( changeabl e,
changi ng col or ) , from t he An·
dean foothi l l s i n Sal ta Prov­
i nce, Argent i na, becomes s l i ght·
ly el ongate, to 4 i nches tal l
an d 3 wi de. Each areol e i s
ar med by 50 t hi n whi te radi al
s pi nes an d 4 st outer central s
arranged i n t he f or m of a cross,
t he l ongest one hooked.
P. MAASSI I , Vermi l l i on Paro­
di c, of S Bol i vi a and N Argen·
t i na, i s s omet i mes fou nd i n
crevi ces i n t he rock at over
1 1 , 000 feet el evati on . I t i s a
yel l ow- green gl obe 4-6 i nches
tal l ; t he 1 3 t u bercu l at e ri bs
are promi nent at t he top of
t he s tem, f ai nt at t he base.
The 3- i nch curved cen tral
spi nes may hook.
1 3 2
P. AUREI SPI NA ( gol den- s pi ned)
Tom Th u mb Cactus, i s common
i n c ul ti vati on but rare i n Sal t a,
Argent i na, i t s n ative habi t at ,
where i t grows at al ti t udes of
9000 feet. Thi s sol i t ary gl obe
sel dom exceeds 3 i nches, and
begi ns foweri ng when l ess
t han an i nch hi gh. I t a l so has
hooks on some cen tra l spi nes.
P. SANGUI NI FLORA ( wi t h bl ood­
red fowers ) Cri mson Parodi c,
al s o from Sal t a, st arts as a
s phere, in age is a 4- 5 i nch
cyl i nder 2 or 3 i nches t hi ck.
The ri bs are spi r al s of promi ­
nent coni cal t u bercl es, s et wi t h
1 5 bri stl y whi te radi al spi nes
and 4 br own cent ral s , t he l ow­
est hooked. The fower s h ave
s i l ky petal s.
MELOCACTUS ( Mel on Cacti I , of s emi - ari d l ocat i ons,
r ange from Cuba down t he Ant i l l es to Venezuel a,
Col ombi a, and Brazi l , and fr om Mexi co to Hon duras .
Young Mel ocacti l ook l i ke young Barrel Cacti , wi th
9 to 20 ri bs an d spi ny areol es. But when ol d enough
to bl oom, t he cent r al fower- beari ng areol es f or m a
cephal ium or "head, " on top of t he pl ant; it l ooks
l i ke a compact mass of hai rs and bri stl es, but has a
woody core. Once for med, it becomes a per manent
feat ure of t he stem, whi ch i s t hen fu l l - si zed.
The t i ny fowers open i n mi d- after noon on top of
t he ceph al i um; t he cl ub- s haped frui ts are edi bl e.
M. MELOCACTOI DES ( resem­
bl i ng a Mel ocact us ) Cobe�a de
Frade, i s common on t hi n soi l s
of rocky outcrops from Pern am­
buco t o Ri o de J anei ro, Brazi l .
I t i s typi cal of t he s mal l er s pe­
ci es , i ts s tems to 4 i nches hi gh
and 6 wi de, wi t h 1 0 broad
ri bs, awl - s haped spi nes, on d a
s mal l (neat ceph al i u m.
M. I NTORTUS ( twi sted, refer­
ri n g to the ribs, whi ch are
s l i ght l y s pi ral ed in some s peci ­
men s ) Turk' s Cap, i s fou n d
from t he s out her n Bahamas to
Domi ni ca ; it i s a barrel - l i ke
cact us to over 3 feet hi gh, wi t h
1 4- 2 0 t hi ck deep ri bs ar med
by 1 0- 1 5 l ong s t out s pi nes per
creol e. I n age i t s cephal i um be-
comes tal l an d cyl i ndri c, mak­
i ng it l ook l i ke a Turki sh fez;
t he Turk' s I s l ands t ake t hei r
name from t hi s pl an t, and de­
pi ct i t on t hei r post age s tamps .
I n i t s mi ddl e range, from
t he Mana Passage to t he Vi rgi n
I s l ands , t he pl ants s how much
vari at i on i n t hei r spi nes from
one i sl and to a nother.
1 35
SCLEROCACTUS, 6 speci es, ra nges from s out heast er n
Cal i for ni a to norther n Ut ah, wester n Col or ado, nor t h­
wester n New Mexi co, and norther n Ar i zona.
Scl erococt i ore us ua l l y s ol i t ary, t h e stems ei t her
fat t ened g l obes, oval s , or cyl i n ders, from 2 t o 1 6
i nches h i gh an d 1 t o 6 i nc hes wi de. Thei r 1 2 t o 1 7
r i bs or e for med of t ubercl es t hat coal esce for h al f to
fou r- fft h s of t h e hei gh t of t he ri bs .
Areol es ore a rmed by comp l ex s pi nes, al l s moot h
and wi t h out cross - ri dges . Cent ra l s, i f prese n t, 1 t o 1 1
per oreol e, u s u al l y of 2 or 3 k i nds, one or more often
hooked, exas perat i n g to di s l odge if t ouch ed. The 6 t o
1 5 s hort er radi al s o re need l e- l i ke or fattened.
Fl owers are from t he n ew g rowt h as i n t h e genu s
Echi nocact us ( p. 1 20 ) , s hort - fu n n el for m, about 1 t o
2 i nches brood, an d di ur na l . The fr ui t s a re dry when
ri pe, n aked or wi t h a few sca l es, wi t h o n api cal cup
hi dden by t he persi st en t wi t hered fower - t ube.
S . MESAE-VERDAE ( of Meso
Verde, Col orado ) Mesa Verde
Cact us, i s one of our rarest
cacti , adapted to ext remel y al ­
kal i ne s oi l an d ext reme ari d­
i t y, fou nd onl y i n t he corners
of SW Col orado and NW New
Mexi co. The t u bercl es, separale
on you ng pl ants, coaesce i n to
1 3- 1 7 ri bs as t he pl
a �
ts age
and grow l arger.
S. WHI PPLE! (for A. W
.
Whi p­
pl e, 1 8 1 6- 1 863, Lt. , U. S. Army),
var. Roseus ( rosy) grows in s and
an d gravel near t he maj or water­
cou rses i n the l ower Navoj oa n
Desert at 3500- 6700 feet el e­
vat i on, i n S E Utah, W Col orado,
and N Ari zon a. Cyl i ndr i c i n age.
To 6 i nches t al l , 21h i nches t hi ck;
fl owers pur pl e, pi n k, or wh i te.
1 36
S . POLYANCI STRUS ( many­
s pi ned ) , of t he Moj avean Des­
ert at 2500- 7000 feel, Cal i ­
forn i a an d S Nevada, i s s h aped
l i ke a 6- i nc h pi neappl e. I ts
1 3 - 1 7 ri bs, on wh i ch onl y t he
t u bercl e t i ps are f r ee, are
barel y vi s i bl e u n der t he formi ­
dabl e s pi n es . Al l but 1 or 2
of t he 9- 1 1 l ong central s pi nes
per cr eol e are hooked.
S . WHI PPLE ! var. I NTERMEDI US
{ i ntermedi at e ) Devi l ' s Cl aw, i s
t he commonest va ri ety, ran gi n g
from E Utah and W Col orado
to N Ari zona and NW New
Mexi co, at 3500- 7000 feet
el evati on , wi t hs tandi ng mi nu s
20
°
F. I ts st ems are most l y 3- 8,
i nc h es l on g, 2- 4 t hi c k. Fl owers
are pu rpl e, pi n k , or wh i te.
PEDI OCACTUS, wi t h 7 speci es, is fou n d i n t he mou n ­
t ai ns of t h e Col umbi a Ri ver Bas i n an d t h e Gr eat Bas i n,
i n t he Rocki es, and on t he Col or ado Pl ateau, but 6
of t he 7 are restri cted to l i mi ted areas wi t h i n t hi s vast
range. Fou r of t hem were rece nt l y di scovered.
The stems vary from fattened gl obes t o cyl i nders,
from lf to 6 i nches tal l , and from 38 to 6 i nches t hi ck,
but most are very s mal l . The stems are r i bl ess, covered
wi th s pi ral l y- arranged t ubercl es, the areol es at t hei r
t i ps. The s pi nes tend to hi de the stems ; t hey are ex­
tremel y di verse in col or, number per areol e, l engt h,
texture, posture, and fat ness.
The di urn al fowers are from areol es on new t uber­
cl es near t he center of the pl ant; they are s mal l , from
2A to 1 i nch broad. The t i ny frui t s, dry when ri pe, a re
n a ked or wi th a few sca l es, wi th a s h al l ow api ca l
cup, openi ng round t he top a n d down one si de.
P. SI MPSONI I i s t he wi de- rang­
i ng s peci es, from E Oregon, S
I daho, and S Wyomi ng to W
Sout h Dakota ; and across W­
central Nevada to N Ari zona
and N New Mexi co. I t prefers
fn e dry soi l s hi gh in the Rock­
i es, at 6000-9500 feet i n s u n ­
ny l ocati ons. I ts stems are
most l y 1 - 5 i nches hi gh .
P. SI LERI (for A. L. Si l er, who
col l ected cacti f or botan i cal
st udy) grows i n t he Navaj oan
and Maj avean Deserts of SW
Ut ah and NW Arizona at
4700- 5000 feet el evati on. I ts
sol i tary stem is 2- 5 i nches hi gh,
2- 4 t hi c k, wi t h dens e spi nes.
Areol es have 3- 7 porrect cen ­
tral spi nes about an i nch l ong,
and 1 1 - 1 5 radi al s .
1 3 B
P. PEEBLESI ANUS ( for Robert
H. Peebl es, 1 900- 1 956, Amer­
i can botani st ) i s a ti ny gl obe
to 1 i nch h i gh , often pu l l ed
down i n to the ground i n dry
weat her wi t h onl y t he top
s howi ng. The typi ca l pl ants
l ack cent ral s pi nes , have 3- 5
radi al s , and are known onl y
from Navaj o Cou n ty, Ari zona.
P. PAPYRACANTHUS ( paper­
spi ned ) Grama- Grass Cact us,
grows on open fats i n wood­
l ands and grass l ands i n E- cen­
tral Ari zona and W New Mex­
i co at 5000- 7300 feet . I ts s ol i ­
tary fnger- l i ke st em, 1 - 3 i nches
tal l and l ess t han a n i nch
t hi ck, grow unseen i n or near
grama gras s ; i t s fat spi nes
mi mi c t he dry grass.
THELOCACTUS cont ai ns a few Mexi can speci es t hat
range from Ch i h ua h ua t o Tamau l i pas, s out h to Hi ­
dal go i n cent r al Mexi co; one of t hem crosses t he bor­
der i nto sout her n Texas .
Thel ocacti are sol i tary or cl ustered, i n for m hemi ­
s pheri cal to l ong- oval , 3 t o 6 i nches hi gh, 2 t o 8
i nches wi de, most l y wi th 8 to 1 2 ri bs di vi ded i nto
l arge, often spi r al ed, t ubercl es. The near l y ci rcu l ar
areol es at t he t ubercl e ti ps are armed wi t h 4 t o 2 1
spi nes ( 1 4 cent r al s, 3- 1 7 radi al s I .
Fl ower buds appear on t he
·
new growt h near t he
cent er of t he pl ant, from t he upper s i de of t he t u­
bercl e n ext t o t he spi ne- beari ng part of t h e creol e.
Fl owers are di ur nal , bel l - s haped, most l y s howy, to
over 2 i nches across. The fruits a re dry when ri pe,
wi t h from 5 to 20 scal es; t he wi t hered fower - t ube
remai ns attached to t hem. They open at t he base by
a di agon al s l i t or pore.
T. LEUCACANTHUS ( wh i te­
spi ned ) , from NW Hi dal go, i s
a c l ump- formi ng s peci es wi t h
s hort-cyl i ndri c st ems 4- 6 i nches
tal l . I ts 8 - 1 3 ri bs, somet i mes
spi ral ed, are composed of
bl unt- ended t u bercl es. Areol es
have a l one 2- i nc h dark cen­
tral spi ne and 7- 20 s hort ra­
di al s, yel l ow when young, but
gr ay i n age.
T. NI DULANS ( nes t-l i ke ) Bi rd ' s
Nest Cact us, of Coah u i l a, i s a
hemi s phere to 4 i nches hi gh,
but up Ia 8 wi de. The t u bercl es
are nearl y separate, the ri bs
i ndi st i nct. I ts s mal l spi nes
weather away, l eavi n g 4- 6
l arger on es at each areal e;
these fray i nto wool , and t he
pl ant l ooks nest - l i ke.
1 40
T. FOSSULATUS ( channel ed or
di mpl ed, referri ng to t he t i ps
of t he t ubercl es ) , from San
lui s Potosi , grows at about
7000 f eet el evati on. The st em
i s gl obose or fatt ened, to 6
i nches wi de. I ts l arge fabby
bronze- green t ubercl es are di m­
pl ed. The s u n ken areol es have
1 l ong cen tral s pi ne, 4- 5 u n ­
equ al radi al s .
T. BI COLOR ( two-col ored, re­
ferri ng to the fower ) Gl ary
of Texas, grows from central
Mexi co t o S Texas, where 2
varieties occur : var. schottii, with
the 4 central spi nes keel ed, to
PA inches long, and with 1 5- 1 7
radials; and var. favidispinus,
its central s u nder 1 i nch l ong,
with onl y 12-14 radi al s.
NEOLLOYDI A, wit h some 1 2 to 1 5 speci es, ranges
from Death Val l ey i n SE Cal ifor ni a to Texas, sout hward
t o nort her n Sonora and to San lui s Potosi .
These are s mal l , someti mes c l ump- for mi ng cacti
wi th oval to cyl i n dri c stems , mostl y 2 to 6 i nches
hi gh, rarel y to 1 5 i nches, and fr om 1 to 5 i nches
t hi ck, covered by separate or nearl y separate tuber­
cl es. The ci rcu l ar areol es at thei r ti ps a re a rmed wi th
1 to 8 cent ral and 3 to 32 radi al spi nes, al l strai ght,
i n an array of col ors.
Fl ower buds appear on new growt h near t he cen ­
ter of t h e stem from a fel ted a rea on t he u pper si de
of t he t ubercl e, l ocated s ome di st a nce from the s pi ne­
bear i ng areol e but connected t o i t by an i sth mus t hat
run s a l ong t he whol e t ubercl e; i t for ms a l ong nar­
row persi stent scar aft er s heddi ng t he fr ui t . Fl owers
are 1 to 3 i nches broad. The scal y dry frui ts ei t her
open at t he base, or by 1 to 3 l engt hwi se s l i t s.
N. CONOI DEA ( cone- l i k e)
grows on l i mest one from cen­
t r al Mexi co to Brewster, Pecos,
and Terrel l Cou n ti es, Texas . I ts
green st ems may form dense
c l u mps . Stems are to 4 i nches
hi gh and 2 wi de; tu bercl es
t end to organ i ze i nto ri bs. The
areol es mos t l y carry 4 dark cen ­
tral s pi nes an d 1 5- 2 8 radi al s .
N. I NTERTEXTA ( i nterwoven ,
referri ng t o t h e s pi nes ) Wh i te
Vi znagi t a, grows on l i mest one
i n gras s l ands at 3900- 5000
feet, from SE Ari zona to the
Texas Bi g Bend, and al so i n
Chi hu ahu a and Sonora. Upper
cen tral s and al l radi al s pi nes
ar e fat t ened agai ns t t he s t em;
l ower cent ral s ar e porrect.
1 42
N. MARI POSENSI S ( for t he
Mar i posa ( q u i cksi l ver ) Mi ne,
i n SW Brewster Co. , Texas,
near whi c h i t was frst di scov­
ered ) grows on l i mest one i n
t he desert at 2400-3 300 feet,
al so i n Presi di o Co. , Texas, and
i n Coah u i l a. Th e tu bercl es coa­
l esce at t he base; you n g pl ants
have 1 3 ri bs, ol d ones 2 1 .
N. JOHNSONI I ( for Joseph El ­
l i s Joh ns on, 1 8 1 7- 1 8 8 2, ama­
t eu r Utah botani s t ) Pi n k Vi zna­
gi ta, of t he Moj avean Desert,
from Death Val l ey to S Nevada,
SW Utah, and W Ari zona,
grows 4- 6 i nches t al l and 2- 4
wi de; ol d pl ants may reach 1 0
i n ches. I ts fowers vary from
magenta to yel l ow- green.
speci es i n S Texas or
Mexi co, is di st i nct : I n ol der pl a nt s, t he t u bercl e bases
coa l esce i n to ri bs; areol es of you n g st ems have 1 cen ­
t r al s pi ne, of ol d stems 3- 4, t h e l ower hooked, as may
be s ome of t he l ower 6- 22 radi al s . The frst fowers,
from new t u bercl es near the st em ti p, are adj acent
to t h e s pi ny part of t he areol e; i n l at er year s nearer
and near er t he base of new t ubercl es, but connected
to t h e areol e by a groove . The j ui cy frui t s do n ot open .
A. TOBUSCHI I ( for H. Tobus ch,
who di s covered i t i n 1 95 1 )
grows on l i mest one at about
1 500 f eel i n Ba ndera Co. ,
Texas . On l y a few h u ndred
pl ant s ore known to exi s t .
1 44
A. SCHEERI ( For Frederi ck
Scheer 1 79 2 - 1 8 68 , German
botani st) is found at l ow el eva­
t i ons from Val Verde to J i m
Wel l s an d Hi dal go Cos . , Texas ,
an d i n NE Mexi co.
LOPHOPHORA, a monot ypi c genus, g rows on l i me­
stone or l i me soi l s i n desert or scr ub at 500- 4000
feet, f r om near t he Ri o Gr ande i n Texas t o Queretaro,
Mexi co. Stems a re s ol i t ary or c l u mpi n g, hemi s pher es
or s hort cyl i n ders, 1 - 3 i nches h i gh , 2- 4 wi de, wi t h
5- 1 3 t u berc u l at e r i bs. Mat u re pl a nt s a re s pi nel es s .
The fl owers for m at t he t i p of new t uber cl es at t he
cent er of t he stem, next t o t he wool l y part of t he
a reol e. The bare frui t s are r ed and fes h y.
L . WI LLI AMS I I , Peyote, i s l i ke a
huge carrot wi t h onl y a button ­
l i ke top above ground. The dry
tops, or "Mescal But tons , " con ­
t ai n powerf u l h al l uci nogeni c
al kal oi ds ; i ts psychoocti vi ty was
known t o many I ndi an peo­
pl es i n pre- Col ombi an t i mes , to
whom i t i s s acred, wi th s u per­
nat ural t hera peut i c powers ; i t
i s bowed to i n reverence when
pas s i ng i t i n t he fel d.
1 45
CORYPHANTHA ( Pi ncus hi on Cacti I , wi t h between 20
and 30 speci es, ra nges f r om Al berta, Can ada, to cen ­
tral Mexi co. Fou rteen speci es are n ati ve i n t h e Un i t ed
Stat es, ra ngi ng from Oregon to Mi n nesota, sout h to
s out her n Cal i for ni a an d west er n Loui si an a.
These s ma l l ri bl ess t ubercu l ate cact i s uperfci al l y
resembl e Mammi l l ari as ( pp. 1 05- 1 1 1 ) , and are con­
fused wi t h them. Coryphant ha di fers as fol l ows :
The cent ral s pi nes, 1 - 1 0 or more per creol e, can be
strai g ht, curved, h ooked, or twi sted; i n s i ze a n d for m
t hey s hade i n to t he 5- 40 us ual l y strai ght radi al s .
Fl owers are on new growt h of t he cur rent seas on,
near t he s t em apex; i n mature stems, t hey ori gi nate at
t h e bas e of t he upper si de of t he t ubercl e, but are
con n ected to t he s pi ne- beari n g part of t he creol e by
a n arrow fel ted groove. On you n g stems , t h e buds
appear hal fway up t he s i de of t he t ubercl e. Tuber­
cl es of pl ant s too young to fower are n ot grooved.
C. MI NI MA ( s mal l est or l eas t )
i s known on l y f r om t he hi l l s of
Brewster Co. , Texas , where i t
grows at al t i t udes of 4000-
4300 feet. I ts sol i tary or few­
branched stems, up to an i nch
l ong an d hal f as wi de, have
some 2 0 spi nes per creol e, al l
l yi ng agai nst t he s t em, t he i n­
n ermost t hi c k, wi t h s harp t i ps.
C .. MACROMERI S ( wi t h I orge
parts, referri n g to t he t uber­
cl es ) Long Mamma, grows i n
cl ay or gravel i n t he desert at
2600- 4300 feet, from S New
Mexi co an d W of the Pecos i n
Texas, to Zacatecas , Mexi co.
The pl ants cl uster by buddi ng
new s t ems i n t he grooves of
l ower tu bercl es.
1 46
C. SCHEER! ( for Frederi ck
Scheer 1 79 2- 1 8 68 , German
botani s t ) , Needl e Mu l ee, wi t h
several vari et i es, ran ges from
SE Ari zona to the Davi s Mou n ­
tai ns of Texas, and t o N So­
nora and Ch i h u ah u a. Stems are
I orge for t he gen us , to 7
i nches t ol l and to 4 t hi ck. I t
fowers from Apri l t o J u l y.
C. MACROMERI S vor. RUNYO­
NI I ( for Robert Ru nyon, who
frst col l ected i t, i n 1 92 1 )
Dumpl i ng Cact us grows on
gravel or wh i te s i l t at l ow el e­
vat i ons i n extreme S Texas and
adj acent Mexi co. I t forms
cl u mps u p to 1 8 i nches wi de,
of stems that ori gi nate from
t he top of t he t aproots.
CORYPHANTHA SULCATA
( grooved l engt hwi se, referri ng
to t he t u bercl es ) Pi neappl e
Cact us, of S- cent rol Texas and
Nuevo Leon, Mexi co, grows
among j u n i pers, oaks, and
s h rubs on l i mest one h i l l s, and
i s not a st ri ct desert s peci es. I t
qui ckl y forms dense c l u mps of
new st ems whi c h bud from t he
grooves of ol d tu bercl es; t hese
l ow u n even c l u mps become over
2 feet broad. I ndi vi dual adu l t
st ems are us ual l y fat t ened, to
3 i nches t hi ck but sel dom t hat
hi gh . Ri pe f r ui t s ar e green.
1 48
C. VI VI PARA ( s prout i ng from
the parent , referri ng to t he
many ofshoots ) Spi ny Star,
wi th i ts vari eti es, i s fou n d from
Oregon and Al berta to Mi nne­
sota, sout h t o S Cal i forn i a, Kan ­
sas, Okl ahoma, Texas, New Mex­
i co, an d Ari zona. I t may form
c l u mps a foot hi gh and over
2 feet wi de of more t han 200
st ems. The 1 to 2 - i nch fowers
in some vari et i es open on j u s t
1 or 2 days of t he year, ot h ­
er s bl oom several t i mes i n a
season . Fl owers vary from pi n k
to red, l avender , or yel l ow.
C. STROBI LI FORMI S ( cone- l i ke)
i n h abi t s l i mestone of deserts
or gras s l ands at 2500- 5 1 00
feel, from SE Ari zona to t he
Bi g Bend Regi on of Texas , an d
sout h i n to Ch i h u ah ua. I ts st ems,
sol i tary or i n s mal l c l u mps, are
2-8 i nc hes h i gh , 1 - 2 wi de; t he
spi nes al most hi de t he st em.
Tu bercl es are crowded an d
t u r n u pward, over l appi ng each
ot her, l i ke t he segments of a
pi ne cone. Ol d st ems, u n l i ke
mos t speci es, hol d t he bas al
t u bercl es ; t hese harden an d
l ose t hei r s pi nes .
C. MI SSOURI ENSI S ( of Mi s ­
s our i , but referri ng to t he Ri ver,
on the h i gh h i l l s of whi c h i t
was di scovered ) Mi ssouri Pi n ­
c us hi on ranges wi del y over
gras s l ands and s hr u bby h i l l s
af t he Great P l ai n s , from Mon ­
t an a t o Mani toba and Mi n n e­
sota, s ou t h t o Ari zona and NW
Loui s i ana. I ts you n g s pi nes are
pu bescen t, covered by t i ny
wh i te hai rs vi si bl e wi t h a l ens.
The cri mson f r ui ts t ake nearl y a
year to r i pen, an d are often
seen on t he pl ant wi th i ts earl y
May fowers .
1 49
CORYPHANTHA RAMI LLOSA
( h avi ng many branches, a mi s ­
nomer ) grows on l i mest one i n
t he desert a t 2460- 3440 feet
el evati on. Mai nl y of Coah u i l a,
i t r anges nor t h i nto Brewster
and Terrel l Cos. , Texas . The
nearl y s pheri cal stem i s us ual l y
sol i tary or onl y s pari ngl y
branched, wi t h fattened t u ber­
cl es that overl ap u pward. Are­
al es have 4 pri nci pal and 3
accessory needl e- l i ke central
spi nes, and 9- 20 fattened
c urvi ng twi sted radi al s.
1 50
C. SNEEDI I ( for J. R. Sneed,
who di scovered i t ) grows on
l i mestone l edges i n desert and
grass at 42 60- 5400 feet on
t he Fran kl i n Mount ai ns, be­
tween Las Cruces, New Mexi co,
and El Paso, Texas . Never com­
mon, i t i s al most ext i nct i n i t s
nati ve si t e f r om i ndi scri mi nat e
col l ecti ng. Thi s l i t t l e cact us
makes dense c l u mps of 1 00 or
more stems; l i ke C. strobiliform­
is (p. 1 49), the basal tubercl es
are retai ned and become hard,
losi ng thei r spi nes.
C. ROBERTI ! ( for Robert Run­
yon , who di s covered i t ) J u n i or
Tom Th u mb Cact us, a l so prefers
l i mest one of desert or grass­
l and at about 1 000 feet el e­
vati on ; i t ranges from NE Mex­
i co i nto t he Ri o Grande Val l ey
f rom Val Verde I a Hi dal go Cos. ,
Texas. I ts l i t t l e s pi ny stems , s el ­
dom more t han 2 i nc hes hi gh
and u nder an i nch t hi ck,
qu i ckl y branch to f or m l arge
l ow i rregu l ar c l u mps , so s i mi l ar
t o t he rock and grass about
t hem t hat t hey are hard to see.
C. CORNI FERA ( beari ng horn s )
var. ECHI NUS ( s pi ned ) grows
on desert l i mest one at 2 1 60-
4600 feet, f r om Ch i h u ah u a and
Coah u i l a t o El Paso, Howard,
Coke, and Val Verde Cos . ,
Texas . You n g st ems are s pheri ­
cal and sol i tary, el ongat i ng to
2 or 3 i nches and formi ng
c l u mps of 3- 6 stems . Areol es
have 3- 4 centra l s pi nes, one an
i nch l ong and porrect; t he 1 6-
2 6 radi al s l i e fat agai ns t t he
s t em and i n terl ock wi t h t hose
of adj acent areol es.
1 5 1
AZTEKI UM, a monotypi c gen us, was di scovered i n
Nuevo leon, Mexi co, i n 1 929, bu t has si nce al so been
found i n Guatemal a. The ri bs are much fu rrowed an d
fol ded. The fowers ar i se from the cent er of t he pl ant,
often several at once, have onl y a few stamens, wi th
the sti gma and styl e no tal l er t han t he stamens .
A. RI TTERI ( for F . Ri tter, wel l ­
known cactus col l ector ) i s t i ny,
j ust u n der 2 i nches across when
mat ure. The grooves and ri dges
of i t s 9 Ia 1 1 ri bs h ave been
l i kened to Aztec s cul pt ure. The
cl osel y-set wool l y areol es at
t he crown bear 1 t o 3 short but
s t out spi nes whi ch s oan shed.
The t i ny pi nk frui t i s hi dden i n
1 52
t he wool on t he crown , and
con tai ns mi n ute seeds .
When about 1 i n c h i n di ­
ameter t h e pl an t i s ready to
fower and gi ve ri se to c l u mps.
Fr om t hen on i t s growt h i s s l ow.
A day- bl oomer : t he Berl i n Bo­
tani c Garden had a c l u mp
whi c h opened 26 fowers al l an
t he s ame day.
OBREGONI A, wi t h on e speci es, is n at i ve to nort h ­
east er n Mexi co. I n c h aract er i t i s cl osel y rel at ed to
leucht en bergi a ( p. 1 54 ) , an d al so s h ows afni t i es
to Strombocact us ( p. 1 55 ) a n d Ari ocar pus ( p. 1 56 ) .
I t has a t h i ck t aproot, feshy t uber cl es t i pped by s pi ny
a reol es, and fowers from t he youngest t uber cl es.
0. DENEGRI I ( for Sr . De Negri ,
who was Mi n i ster of Agri cu l t ure
of Mexi co ol t he t i me of i t s
di scovery) i n h abi ts t he l i me­
st one desert of t he L l anos de
Jou move, i n SW Tamau l i pas.
The st ems are fattened
gl obes, grayi sh Ia dar k green,
sel dom over 2 i nches hi gh but
t o 3- 5 i nches wi de, wi t h l eaf-
l i ke sti f J- angl ed t ubercl es ar­
ranged i n spi ral s, the whol e
pl ant l ooki ng rat her l i ke an
arti choke. The Nah u at l I ndi ans
of Mexi co a l so c al l t hi s pl an t
" Peyot l , " and rel ate i t i n f ol k­
l or e and fol k medi ci n e to Pey­
ote ( p. 1 45 ) ; i t i s purported to
cont ai n h al l uci nogeni c a l ka­
l oi ds an d to be us ed s i mi l arl y.
1 53
LEUCHTENBERGI A, a monot ypi c genus fou n d from
4800 to 6000 feet el evat i on a round San Lui s Pot osi ,
Hi dal go, Mexi co, has a pars n i p- l i ke r oot , el on gat ed
fnger-l i ke t uber cl es wi th areol es at t he t i ps, and twi sted
papery s pi nes . Fl owers are borne near the ti p of young
t ubercl es cl os e t o t he center of t he pl ant .
L. PRI NCI PI S ( for Eugene de
Beauharnai s, Pri nce af Ei ch·
st adt and Du ke of Leuchten ­
berg, French st ates man, 1 78 1 ·
1 8 24) Agave Cact us. When
growi ng, t he pl an t spreads i t s
t u bercl es wi del y aport, but i n
dr y weat her t hey are hel d
erect and pressed toget her. Ol d
pl ants form woody tru n k- l i ke
bases by s heddi ng t he ol d t u·
1 54
bercl es, and ofs hoots may ari se
from t hei r axi l s . I n age pl ant s
can reach a hei ght of 28
i nches. The fragrant fowers are
not shed, but remoi n at t he
t i p of t he ol i ve- s haped groy
scal y frui t s. Agave Cact us has
been hybri dized wi th ferocac·
tus acanfhoces (p. 1 1 9); the
progeny are i ntermedi ate i n
character.
STROMBOCACTUS, also monotypic, has a strong tur­
nip-like root, a small depressed globular stem cov­
ered with spirally-arranged overlapping tubercles,
and a spine-bearing creole at the tip of each tubercle.
Flowers arise from the new growth at the crown. The
tiny seed are hard to distinguish with the naked eye.
S. DI SCI FORMI S ( sh aped l i ke
a di scu s ) grows an low cru m­
bl y s hal e ri dges on t he ban ks
of dry washes in Queretaro,
Mexi co, in very ari d desert.
Ol d s peci mens occasi onal l y be·
come gl obose and as muc h as
8 i nches tal l . The spi nes ca l ci fy
and are s hed from t he ol d
hard scal e- l i ke t u bercl es near
t he base of t he pl ant. The
crown i s s l i ght l y depressed and
fel ted wi t h whi te wool . The di ­
ur nal fowers appear i n earl y
spri ng; i ndi vi dual fowers st ay
open several days, and vary
from whi te to pal e yel l ow. The
f rui t s pl i ts l engt hwi se, exposi ng
seed so s mal l t hat i f l ai d end
t o end 76 seeds are requi red
to form a l i ne j ust one i nch
l ong.
1 55
ARI OCARPUS contai ns si x speci es of t r ue m1 m1 cry
pl ants al most t he exact col or of t he soi l i n whi ch t hey
grow. They are unbranched, wi th t hi ck carrot- l i ke roots
and a broad l ow top covered wi th over l apped but un­
fused t ubercl es . Fl owers ari se at t he wool l y bas e of new
t ubercl es near the center of t he pl ant.
A. FI SSURATUS ( fs s ured ) Liv­
ing Rock. Native to hot dry
barren l abl el ands of sout h­
western Texas ond northeast­
ern Mexi co at el evati ons from
1 500 to 1 0, 000 feet where
rain sel dom f al l s , t hese pl an ts
are easi l y mi st aken for t he
weathered l i mest one i n whi ch
t hey grow. The root con tracts
i n the dry season and pul l s t he
1 56
pl an t down i nto t he soi l . The
tu bercl es have porous u pper
s urfaces whi ch permi t absorp­
ti on of dew, often t he onl y
moi st ure avai l abl e. Growth i s
very s l ow. Fl oweri n g occurs
from Augus t to October; fow­
ers appear s i ngl y or i n 2 ' s or
4 ' s and remai n open 3 or 4
days in s uccessi on . The seed
remai ns vi abl e for years.
BI BLI OGRAPHY
Backeberg, Curt, DI E CACTACEAE; HANDBUCH DER KAKTE E NKU ND E ( 6
Vol s . ) , Gus tav Fi scher Verl ag, J ena, 1 95 8 - 1 962
Bens on, Lyman , THE CACT I OF AR I Z ONA, 3rd Edi t i on, Un i v. Ari zona
Pres s , Tucson, 1 969
Bens on, Lyman , THE NAT I VE CACTI OF CAL I F OR NI A, Stanford Un i v.
Pres s , St anford, Cal i forn i a, 1 969
Benson, Lyman, Cactaceae i n Correl l , D. S. , and M. C. Joh nson,
MANUAL OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF TEXAS, Texas Research founda­
t i on, Benner, Texas, 1 970
Borg, J oh n , CACT I , 4t h Edi t i on, Bl anford Press, London, 1 970
Bri tton, N. L . , and J . N. Rose, THE (ACTACEAE ( 4 Vol s. ) , Carnegi e
I n s t i t ut i on of Was hi ngt on, D. C. , 1 9 1 9- 1 9 2 3
Cactus and Succulent Journal (44 Vol s. ) , The Cact us a n d Succul ent
Society of Ameri ca, 1 32 West Uni on Street, Pasadena, Cal i forni a,
1 929- 1 972
Carl son , Raymond, THE FL OWER I NG (ACT US , McGraw- Hi l l Book Co. ,
New York, 1 954
Chi dami an, Cl aude, THE B ooK OF CACTI AND OTHER SuCCUL ENT S ,
Ameri can Gar den Gui l d an d Doubl eday & Co. , Gar den Ci ty,
New York, 1 95 8 .
Crai g, R. T. , MAMMI L L AR I A HANDB OOK , Abbey Garden Press, Pasa­
dena, Cal ifor ni a, 1 945
Cutak, Ladi sl a us, (ACT US GU I DE , D. Van Nostrand Co., Pri nceton, New
Jersey, 1 956
Hooge, Wal t her, CACTI AND SuCCUL ENTS, E. P. Dutton & Co. , New
York, 1 963
Hadl ey, Neil F. , 1 1 0esert species and adaptati on, " American Scientist
60 ( 3) : 338-347, 1 972
Hasel ton, Scott E. , E P I P HY L L UM HANDB OOK , Abbey Garden Press, Pasa­
dena, Cal i forni a, 1 946
Morton, J ul i a F. , "Cadushi (Cereus repandus Mil l .) A useful cactus of
Cu racao," Economic Botany 21 ( 2) : 1 85-1 9 1 , 1 967
Sch ul tes, Ri chard E., "The pl ant ki ngdom and hal l uci nogens" ( Part
I l l ), B ulletin on Narcotics 22 ( 1 ) : 28-56, 1 970
Schumann, Karl , GESAMTBE SCHR E I B UNG DE R KAKT E E N, Verl ag von J .
Neumann, Neudamm, 1 898, NACHTRAGE , 1 903
Subi k, Rudol f, CACTI AND SucCU L E NTS , Haml yn Publ . Co. , New York,
1 968
Thornber, John J. , and Frances Banker, THE FANTAS TI C (LAN, Macmi l ­
l an Co. , New York, 1 932
Weni ger, Del , CACTI OF T HE SouTHWEST, Univ. Texas Press, Aust i n,
1 970
1 57
Agave cactus, 1 54
Al i coche, 82, 83
Anci strocactus , 1 44
scheeri , 1 44
t obusc hi i , 1 44
Ari ocarpu s , 1 56
fs s urat us , 1 56
Astrophytu m, 1 25
Azteki um ri tter i , 1 52
Bal l cacti , 1 28- 1 3 1
Ba l l chol l a, 1 9
Barbados Gooseberry,
1 1
Barrel cact i , 1 1 6- 1 25
Beaver-Tai l , 24
Bi rd ' s Nest, 1 40
Bi s hop ' s Cap, 1 24
Bi znaga de Chi l i tos,
1 06
Bl ack Lace cact us , 89
Bl ade Appl e, 1 1
Bl i. nd Pear, 23
Bl ue Cereus , 3 1
Brai n cacti , 1 26 - 1 27
Cabe�a de Frede, 1 34
Cadus hi , 32
Cane chol l a, 1 5
Card6 Ananaz, 68
Cereus, 28- 69
al amos ens i s , 44
boumon n i i , 45
bonpl ondi i , 56
covendi s hi i , 52
chrysomal l u s , 35
emoryi , 50
eri ophorus, 62
v. frag rans, 63
er uca, 47
fogel l i formi s , 49
geometri zans , 38
g i gant eus, 36
g reg g i i , 55
hexagonus , 31
j amacaru , 30
l amprochl or us, 46
l anat us, 39
l emai rei , 57
macrost i bas, 43
marti an u s , 48
mart i n i i , 6 1
nudi forus, 29
ocamponi s , 59
pecten - abori gi n u m,
34
peruvi anus , 33
posel ger i , 54
pri ngl ei , 36
1 58
I NDEX
repondus , 32
schotti i , 40
sen i l i s , 42
serpent i nus, 53
setaceus, 68
speci os us , 58
spegozzi ni i , 51
stenopter us , 64
t hu rberi , 41
tonduzi i , 66
t u n i l l a, 67
undat us , 60
u rban i anus , 65
wi tt i i , 69
Chai n cact us , 74
Chamaecereus , 1 02
s i l vestri i , 1 02
Chi n cacti , 1 1 2- 1 1 5
Chi ri nol a, 47
Chol l a, 1 3- 21
Ci n o, 44
Cl aret- Cup, 80
Cob cacti , 98-99
Coccus cact i , 1 2
Coch i neal 'cactu s, 1 2
Comb Hedgehog, 84
Coral cactus , 1 06
Coryphant ha, 1 46- 1 5 1
corni fera
v. echi nus , 1 5 1
macr omeri s, 1 46
v. r unyoni i , 1 46
mi n i ma, 1 46
mi ssouri en s i s , 1 49
rami l l os a, 1 50
roberti i , 1 5 1
scheeri , 1 46
sneedi i , 1 50
strobi l i formi s , 1 49
s u l cate, 1 48
vi vi para, 1 48
Cotton Bal l , 39
Coyonos t l e, 1 6
Crab cactu s , 79
Creepi ng Devi l , 47
Crown cacti , 1 00- 1 01
Desert Chri st mas
cactu s , 20
Desert Ni ght - Bl oomi ng
Cereus , 55
Deutsche Kai seri n, 77
Devi l ' s Cl aw, 1 36
Devi l ' s fi nger, 82
Devi l ' s Head, 1 22, 1 23
Devi l ' s Pi ncushi on, 1 23
Di amond chol l a , 21
Dumpl i ng cact us , 1 46
Eag l e Cl aws, 1 22
Eas ter cactus , 78
Easter Li l y cacti , 94- 97
Echi nocactus , 1 20- 1 25
asteri as, 1 24
capri corn i s , 1 24
hori zonthal oni us , 1 22
myri osti gma, 1 24
or nat us , 1 24
pol ycephal us , 1 2 1
v . xeranthe­
moi des, 1 20
texens i s , 1 23
Echi nocereus , 80-93
boi l eyi , 91
bl oncki i , 82
v. angu st i ceps,
82
c hl oront h u s , 87
del aet i i , 93
engel manni i
v . oci cu l ori s , 90
enneocont h us , 92
v. dubi us, 93
v. strami neus , 92
fendl eri v.
rect i s pi nus , 90
l edi ngi i , 9 1
l l oyd i i , 8 6
pect i nat us , 84
v. neomexi conus ,
85
v. r i g i di s s i mu s ,
85
v. weni geri , 84
pental ophus , 83 •
rei chenbach i i , 88
v. al bi s pi nus , 88
v. perbel l us , 89
v. purpureus, 89
roetteri , 87
scheeri , 86
tri g l ochi di atu s , 80
v. mel anacant h u s ,
80
v. moi oven s i s , 80
v. neomexi conu s ,
80
vi ri di for us, 83
Echi nops i s, 94-97
aureo, 97
cal och l ora, 96
l eucantha, 96
mul t i pl ex, 94
obrepanda, 94
oxygona, 97
s i l ves t r i i , 94
tubi for o, 94
Epi phyl l u m, 70-73
ocker manni i , 70
darrahi i , 70
hybri ds, 72-73
oxypetal u m, 70
phyl l ant hus v.
pitti eri , 70
Feather cactu s , 1 1 0
Ferococtu s , 1 1 6- 1 1 9
acanthodes, 1 1 9
v. eastwood i ce,
1 1 9
v. l econtei , 1 1 9
covi l l ei , 1 1 8
wi s l i zen i i , 1 1 6
Fi recracker cactu s , .5
Fi s hhook cacti , 1 03- 1 1 1
fi s hhook cact us , 1 05,
1 1 6
F l or de Bai l ari no, 66
Fl or de Copa, 29
Garambul l o, 38
Gl ory of Texas , 1 40
Goat ' s Hor n, 1 24
Gol d lace cactu s, 1 1 0
Gol den chol l a, 1 4
Gol den Star s , 1 1 0
Groma- Grass cact us,
1 38
Gr i zzl y Bear, 22
Guamacho, 1 0- 1 1
Gymnocal yci u m, 1 1 2-
1 1 5
dams i i , 1 1 2
denudatu m, 1 1 5
g i bbos u m, 1 1 4
l eeanu m, 1 1 .
mi hanovi ch i i , 1. 1 2
pl atense, 1 1 2
sag \ i one, 1 1 5
s chi ckendantzi i , 1 1 2
Hai rbrus h cactu s , 3.
Hedge cactu s , 33
Hedgehog cacti , 80-97
Hermosi l l o, 1 1 8
Horse Cri ppl er, 1 23
I ndi an ' s Comb, 34
I ndi an F i g, 27
I ndi an Head, 1 28
J i j i ra, 62
J u mpi ng chol l a, 1 8
J uni or Tom Thumb, 1 51
lace cact us, 88
lady ' s Fi nger , 1 1 0
lemon Vi ne, 1 1
leuchten bergi a, 1 54
pri nci pi s , 1 5.
l i nk cact us , 74
Li vi ng Roc k, 1 56
lobi vi a , 98-99
aurea, 98
backeberg i i , 98
famati mens i s , 98
hertri chi ana, 98
Long Mamma, 1 46
lophophora, 1 45
wi l l i ams i i , 1 45
Mammi l l ar i a, 1 03- 1 1 1
bombyci na, 1 1 0
candi da, 1 1 0
di oi ca, 1 08
el ongate, 1 1 0
gemi ni spi na, 1 04
g u mmi fera, 1 06
v. mei acant ha, 1 06
l os i ocant ho, 1 05
l ongi mommo, 1 04
mocrocont ho, 1 08
moi ni ae, 1 09
mi c rocarpo, 1 05
pl umos e, 1 1 0
pott s i i , 1 07
prol i fera
v. texan a, 1 07
tetronci stro, 1 09
Manco ·cabal l o, 1 23
Mandacar U, 30
Mel ocactus, 1 34- 1 35
i ntortus , 1 35
mel ococtoi des, 1 34
Mel on cacti , 1 34- 1 35
Mesa Ver de cactu s, 1 36
Mescal Buttons , 1 45
Mi dni ght lady, 56
Mi s sou ri Pi ncus hi on, 1 49
Moj ave Hedgehog , 80
Needl e Mu l ee, 1 46
Neol l oydi a, 1 42- 1 43
conoi deo, 1 42
i ntertexto, 1 42
j ohns oni i , 1 42
mar i posen s i s , 1 42
New Mexi can Cl aret­
Cup, 80
Ni ght - Bl oomi ng
Cereus , 57, 70
Nopal de Cast i l l a, 27
Nopol ea, 1 2
coch i nel l i fero, 1 2
Nopal xochi a, 77
phyl l ant hai des, 77
Notocactus , 1 28- 1 3 1
opri cus , 1 28
hasel bergi i , 1 30
l eni nghaus i i , 1 3 1
mammul os us , 1 28
ottoni s , 1 28
patagoni cus , 1 28
schumanni anus , 1 30
scope, 1 31
Obregoni a, 1 53
deneg ri i , 1 53
Ol d lady, 93
Ol d Man, 42
Opunt i a, 1 3-27
bas i l ar i s , 24
v. aurea, 24
v . trel easei , 24
bi gel ovi i , 1 9
echi nocarpa, 1 4
er i nacea
v. ursi na, 22
fcus - i ndi ca, 27
f ul gi da, 1 8
i mbri cate, 1 6
l eptocau l i s , 20
macrorh i za, 26
ramos i s s i ma, 2 1
r ufda, 23
s pi nosi or, 1 5
versi col or , 1 7
vi ol acea
v. santa ri ta, 25
Organ- Pi pe cactu s , 41
Padre Nuestro, 38
Parodi c, 1 32- 1 33
au rei s pi na, 1 32
maas s i i , 1 32
mutabi l i s , 1 32
s angui n i fora, 1 32
Peanut cactu s, 1 02
Pedi ocactus , 1 38- 1 39
papyracont hus , 1 38
peebl es i anus , 1 38
s i l eri , 1 38
s i mps oni i , 1 38
Peres ki a, 1 0- 1 1
acul eata, 1 1
guamacho, 1 0- 1 1
Peruvi an Ol d Man, 39
Peyote, 1 45
Pi ncus hi on cacti ,
1 03 - 1 1 1 , 1 46- 1 5 1
Pi neappl e cact us , 1 48
Pi nk Vi znag i to, 1 42
Pl ai d cactus , 1 1 2
Pl ai ns Pr i ckl y
Pear , 26
Popcorn cactu s , 7 4
Pu r pl e Hedgehog , 90
Pur pl e Pri ckl y Pear, 25
Queen of t he Ni ght, 60
Rai nbow cacti , 85
Rat-Tai l cactus, 49
Rebuti a, 1 00- 1 01
kupperi ana, 1 00
mi nus cu l e, 1 00
pseudodemi nuta, 1 00
pseudomi n u scul a, 1 00
sen i l i s , 1 00
vi ol aci fora, 1 00
1 59
Red Hedgehog , 80
Rhi psol i s , 74-76
cerescul a, 76
g rondi fora, 76
houl et t i ana, 74
pochyptera, 74
paradoxa, 74
wormi ngi ona, 74
Rice cact us , 76
Socos i l , 54
Sag uaro, 36
Santa Marta, 5 8
Scar l et Bugl er, 45
Sch l u mbergera, 78
gaertneri , 78
Scl erocactus , 1 36- 1 37
mesae-verdae, 1 36
pol yanci stru s , 1 36
whi ppl ei , 1 36
v. i ntermedi us ,
1 36
Sea Urch i n cact us , 1 24
Sen i l e, 40
Serpent cact us , 53
1 60
Si l ky Pi ncus hi on, 1 1 0
Si l ver chol l o, 1 4
Snoke cactus , 53
Snowbal l cactus, 1 1 0
Snowdrop cactus, 74
Spi der cact us , 1 1 5
Spi ne-Mound, 92
Spiny Star, 1 48
Stog horn chol l o, 1 7
Star cactus , 1 24
Stenococt us , 1 26- 1 27
hastatus , 1 26
l l oydi i , 1 27
vi ol oci forus, 1 27
Strawberry cact us , 92
Strawberry Hedgehog ,
90
Strombocactus , 1 55
di sci formi s , 1 55
Sun Cereus, 58
Sun Cup, 1 28
Tosoj i l l o, 20
Teddy Bear chol l o, 1 9
Tesoj o, 20
B
Thel ococtus , 1 40- 1 4 1
bi col or, 1 40
v. favi di s pi nus ,
1 40
v. schoHi i , 1 40
fos s ul at us , 1 40
l eucoconthus , 1 40
ni dul ons , 1 40
Tom Thu mb cactus , 1 32
Travel er' s Compas s , 1 1 8
Tree chol l o, 1 6
Tuni l l o, 67
Turk ' s Cop, 1 35
Turk ' s Head, 1 22
Vel vet cactus , 50
Warty Hedgehog, 92
Whi te Vi znagi t a, 1 42
Xool ocotl , 58
Yel l ow Al icoche, 82
Zygocact us , 79
truncatus, 79
c D
G

CACTI
A GOL DE N NAT UR E GU I DE
FRANK D. VENNI NG, PhD, i s a pri vate cons ul tant i n Trop­
i cal Agri cul t ural Devel opment and Tropi cal Economi c
Botany. He was formerl y Head of the Swi ngl e Pl ant Re­
search Laboratory at the Uni vers i ty of Mi ami , and Deputy
Food and Agr i cul t ural Ofi cer, U. S. Agency for I nterna­
t i onal Devel opment to t he Uni ted Arab Republ i c. He has
performed numerous forei gn assi gnments for both publ i c
and pri vate botani cal devel opment agenci es. The reci pi ent
of many and var i ed professi onal honors, t hi s aut hor has
publ i shed some 60 techn i cal papers, art i cl es, and books,
broadl y concerni ng var i ous aspects of Devel opmental
Pl ant Anatomy, Pl ant Physi ol ogy, Hort i cul t ure, Agronomy,
and Pl ant Pathol ogy.
MANABU C. SAITO, outstandi ng botani cal art i st, was born
i n Tokyo, Japan. He st udi ed i ndust r i al des i gn at Pratt I nst i ­
t ute and recei ved hi s B. I . D. degree i n 1 957. Before con­
centrat i ng on botani cal pai nt i ngs, he worked as an i nter i or
desi gner . Mr . Sai t o has t ravel ed worl dwi de st udyi ng and
pai nt i ng exot i c fl owers, and t ravel s each s pr i ng to Tucson,
Ari zona to pai nt cact us fl owers as they bl ossom. Hi s fl ower
pai nt i ngs have been exhi bi ted at the New York and Brook­
l yn Botani cal Gardens, t he Hort i cul t ural Soci ety of New
York, the Hunt Botani cal Li brary i n Pennsyl vani a, and
Frame House Ga l l ery i n Loui svi l l e.
VERA R. WEBSTER, managi ng edi tor of al l sci ence publ i ca­
t i ons for Gol den Press, was a sci ence teacher for many
years before accept i ng a pos i t i on as head of t he sci ence
depart ment for a maj or publ i s hi ng company. For the past
decade she has been acti ve i n t he preparat i on of sci ence
books for al l ages, i ncl udi ng the publ i cat i on of one of t he
most wi del y used textbook seri es. She has t ravel ed exten­
s i vel y i n t he Uni ted States as a consul t ant to teachers, is a
l i fe member of the Nat i onal Sci ence Teachers Associ at i on,
and i s dedi cated to the goal of i ncreas i ng publ i c under­
standi ng of our nat ural envi ronment .
GOLDEN PRESS

NEW YORK
A GO�DEN GUI DE
CACTI
CACTI is a guide that i l l ustrates and describes the strange
modifications that may occur in a si ngl e plant fami l y in
its quest for survival i n diverse habi tats, ranging from
hot tropical rai nforests to the driest of deserts. I l l us­
trated in ful l color throughout, this book i ncl udes over
200 individual species and varieties i n order to encom­
pass the range of forms taken by these curious plants.

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