Astrophys Space Sci (2007) 307:29–34 DOI 10.

1007/s10509-006-9238-1

O R I G I NA L A RT I C L E

Jet Deflection by a Quasi-Steady-State Side Wind in the Laboratory
David J. Ampleford · Andrea Ciardi · Sergey V. Lebedev · Simon N. Bland · Simon C. Bott · Jeremy P. Chittenden · Gareth N. Hall · Adam Frank · Eric Blackman

Received: 16 May 2006 / Accepted: 18 August 2006 C Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006

Abstract We present experimental data on the steady state deflection of a highly supersonic jet by a side-wind in the laboratory. The use of a long interaction region enables internal shocks to fully cross the jet, leading to the development of significantly more structure in the jet than in previous work with a similar setup (Lebedev et al., 2004). The ability to control the length of the interaction region in the laboratory allows the switch between a regime representing a clumpy jet or wind and a regime similar to a slowly varying mass loss rate. The results indicate that multiple internal oblique shocks develop in the jet and the possible formation of a second working surface as the jet attempts to tunnel through the ambient medium. Keywords Hydrodynamics . ISM . Herbig . Haro objects . Methods . Laboratory . Stars . Winds . Outflows 1 Introduction Astrophysical observations have shown that some jets produced by protostars are not straight, and instead exhibit a steady curvature over a significant fraction of their length
D. J. Ampleford ( ) Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123-1106, USA e-mail: damplef@sandia.gov A. Ciardi Observatoire de Paris, LUTH, Meudon, 92195, France S. V. Lebedev · S. N. Bland · S. C. Bott · J. P. Chittenden · G. N. Hall Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, UK A. Frank · E. Blackman Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, US

(many jet radii). Deflected jets normally occur as a pair of counter-propagating jets from a common source. These deflected bipolar jets fall into two categories – those with Sshaped (Reipurth et al., 1997) and those with C-shaped symmetries (Bally and Reipurth, 2001). The mechanisms behind the deflection of the C-shaped jets has been the subject of various studies; these studies have indicated that the deflection of the many of these jets cannot be explained by an ambient magnetic field (Hurka et al., 1999), photo-ablation of the surface of the jet (Bally and Reipurth, 2001), or a pressure gradient in the ISM (Canto and Raga, 1996). It has emerged that the most likely explanation for the deflection of these jets is the effect of a ram pressure due to a side-wind as discussed by Balsara and Norman (1992) and Canto and Raga (1995). For protostellar jets such a wind may be produced by differential motion of the source star and the surrounding interstellar medium. This is substantiated by observations which show that within a nebula many C-shaped jet structures are present, each with the jets deflected back towards the central star forming region, hence the effective wind is produced by the motion of the stars outward through the ISM (Bally and Reipurth, 2001). In previous experiments we have studied the deflection of highly supersonic jets in the laboratory using conical wire array z-pinches and a photo-ablated CH foil (Ampleford et al., 2002; Lebedev et al., 2004; Frank et al., 2005). The previous work indicated that these experiments are in the correct parameter regime to study the propagation of astrophysical jets in a side-wind, similar to the mechanism for deflection of Cshaped jets (the experiments aim to model the propagation of one of the jets far from the source; the formation mechanism and other jet are neglected). An important feature observed in the previous experiments was the presence of shocks in the jet during the deflection (as also shown by simulations utilizing astrophysical codes (Frank et al., 2005; Lim and
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30 Fig. 1 (a) The experimental setup used by Lebedev et al. (2004), (b) illustration of requirements for a shock to cross the jet and (c) the setup used in this paper. The target is long compared to the jet diameter, and angled to provide a uniform wind density on the jet

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Raga, 1998)). In this paper we will use a modification of the experimental setup used by Lebedev et al. (2004) to study the deflection of a supersonic radiatively cooled jet by a side wind that is steady state on the typical time scale of the jet; shocks are allowed to fully evolve within the jet while the jet is still subjected to a constant side wind. 2 Criteria for producing a steady state deflection and experimental setup In order to determine whether the interaction of a jet in a side wind is steady state it is useful to consider an oblique shock in the jet. If the jet is still influenced by the wind for the full spatial scale required to allow a shock to fully cross the jet then the interaction can be considered steady state. A shock will cross the jet in a time tcross = φj , vs (1)

where φ j is the jet diameter and vs is the transverse velocity of the shock (see Fig. 1b for the setup and parameters discussed). The maximum time that the jet is influenced by the sideL wind (of axial extent L) is v j . Hence for a shock to be allowed to cross the jet (and potentially be reflected or break-out) the transit time of the shock should be less than the time that the jet is influenced by the wind: φj L > vj vs φj cs (2) (3)

where it has been assumed that the transverse shock in the jet is weakly driven, so the shock velocity vs can be approximated as the sound speed cs . This can be reformulated to incorporate the definition of the internal Mach number of the v jet (the axial Mach number) M = csj : L φj M (4)

Satisfying Equation (4) guarantees that the interaction is steady state (it should be noted that not satisfying Eq. (4) does not necessarily indicate that the interaction is not steady state). Depending on the clumpiness of the jet and wind, it is possible that C-shaped protostellar jets could fall into the steady-state and non-steady-state regimes. For the case discussed by Lebedev et al. (2004), assuming the jet remains in a constant wind density for the full length of the foil (L ∼ 5 mm), then the length of the interaction was ∼10 jet diameters, however the jet Mach number was 20 (the actual Mach number depending on heating of the jet during the interaction). This does not satisfy Equation (4), so shocks were unlikely to be able to cross the jet, and the experimental data suggests that they did not (Lebedev et al., 2004). To explore a steady state interaction a longer interaction region is required. The overall experimental setup used in this paper is broadly similar to that used by Lebedev et al. (2004). Current produced by the MAGPIE generator (1MA, 240ns described by Mitchell et al. (1996)) is passed through a conical arrangement of 16 fine tungsten wires (each 18 μm in diameter). The current and self-generated magnetic field of the array produce a J × B force that acts on the low density coronal plasma which surrounds each static wire producing a steady flow of plasma (Lebedev et al., 2002a). This Lorentz J × B force has components which are both radial and axial (Fig. 1a). The formation of a conical shock on the array axis thermalizes the kinetic energy associated with the radial component of the velocity, leaving the axial component unaffected (Canto et al., 1988). At the top of this conical shock a pressure gradient is present which accelerates the flow; strong radiative cooling enables the formation of a highly supersonic (Mach number M 30), well collimated outflow (Lebedev et al., 2002b). Data from two diagnostics will be discussed in this paper. A 532 nm, 0.4 ns Nd-YAG laser is used for laser shadowgraphy, with a schlieren cut-off of 1 × 1020 cm−3 . An XUV imaging system which is sensitive to photon energies hν > 30 eV and has an integration time of 3 ns (Bland et al., 2004) is also fielded. Following the previous discussion of the ability of shocks to cross the jet in a characteristic time-scale, we note that the

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jet production process continues for many shock crossing times (i.e. the jet itself can be considered steady-state if no interaction occurs). Previously jets produced by this method have been used to explore various aspects relevant to the understanding of protostellar jets, such as the effect of radiative cooling and the effect of symmetry of convergent flows on jet production (Lebedev et al., 2002b; Ciardi et al., 2002), the effect of angular momentum on the jet (Ampleford et al., 2006a), the effect of an ambient medium on jet propagation (Ampleford et al., 2005) and the effect of a side-wind on the jet (Lebedev et al., 2004). To impose such a side wind on the jet a CH foil is photo-ablated by soft X-ray emission from the wire array; the expansion of the foil causes the wind to impact on the jet, as discussed in more detail by Lebedev et al. (2004). In this paper we expand on our previous discussion of jet deflection experiments, with the aim of investigating the dynamics of jet deflection in a regime that is more suited to some astrophysical jets, namely in a configuration which allows shocks to propagate across the jet whilst the jet is still under the influence of the side-wind. To increase the axial extent of the wind the size of the foil is increased, however to ensure that the jet is propagating through a near-constant wind density it is necessary to angle the foil with respect to the initial jet axis (Fig. 1c). This alteration to the foil angle also changes the position of the stagnation point (the point where the velocities of the of jet and wind are perpendicular) so it can be better diagnosed. The jet and wind parameters are expected to be broadly similar to those discussed by Lebedev et al. (2004).

et al., 2004), with numerous structures now present between the jet and foil. For clarity this image has been repeated in Fig. 2b, with the many different features that will be discussed drawn and labelled. The axial position of the tip of the curved portion of the jet (at the left of the interaction) corresponds to the expected axial position of the tip of a jet propagating in vacuum. At the base of the target we expect a downward component to the wind (due to the angle of the foil and divergence). On the schlieren image (Fig. 2a) two shocks are present where the expanding wind meets the upwards travelling halo plasma surrounding the jet as it exits the wire array (labelled Halo shocks in Fig. 2b). The lower of these two shocks is a shock in the halo and the upper is a reverse shock in the wind (they are marked Halo shock and Wind shock respectively in Fig. 2d). In the next three sections we will describe the other structures observed in the interaction. 3.1 Internal oblique shock formation On the high magnification image (Fig. 2d) we see that there is an internal shock in the centre of the jet (labelled OS1).

3 Dynamics of jet propagation in a side-wind Figure 2a shows a schlieren image of the deflection of a jet in this modified configuration. In the image the jet is seen propagating vertically from array, which is below the base of the image. The side-wind is produced by photo-ablation of the CH foil and propagates right to left (away from the foil), with a small downward component. As the jet is subjected to the side wind the jet is steadily deflected in the direction of the wind motion, as drawn on Fig. 2b (see Lebedev et al., 2004 for a more detailed discussion of the basic deflection). The plasma jet in these experiments is highly supersonic, hence any perturbation to it, such as the ram pressure due to the side wind should generate strong shocks in the flow (as was observed by (Lebedev et al., 2004)). The schlieren diagnostic used in Fig. 2a is sensitive to density gradients in the plasma, such as those produced by these strong shocks. Correlation of these structures with increased XUV emission (Fig. 2c) is consistent with the thermalization of kinetic energy in these shocks. The interaction of the jet is much more complex than was seen in the previous study using a shorter wind (Lebedev

Fig. 2 Shocks within the jet shown in both (a) low and (d) high magnification schlieren images (both at 343 ns). (b) is a repeat of (a) with labels on the image which are discussed in the text. (c) shows an XUV emission image (Bland et al., 2004) at 380 ns

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As with the earlier experiments with a shorter interaction this is likely to be the oblique internal shock responsible for the initial deflection. We see that this internal shock is not straight, but instead bends each way by a few degrees. It is interesting to note that the most pronounced of these bends coincides with a continuation of the shock in the halo flow. Thus it is likely that this bend in the internal shock is associated with a change in the wind density and hence ram pressure – further experiments would be required to investigate the effect of variations in the ambient density. Further along the jet-wind interaction on the low magnification image we see that more structure is present; one obvious shock is labelled OS2. In this image it is unclear what the significance of this shocks is, however we can understand this better if we look at XUV emission. Figure 2c shows a gated XUV emission image from the same experiment, however 40 ns after the schlieren image. This image was taken at 22.5◦ from the plane containing the laser probe beam and foil, hence some emission from the surface of the foil can be seen in the XUV image. The structure seen in the XUV image is broadly similar to that in the schlieren image, however these shock features have developed slightly. Again we see the shock previously labelled OS2; it appears that this

is static in time, and remains almost parallel to the jet, so is likely to be a second internal oblique shock in the jet (OS2), further deflecting the jet.

3.2 Formation of a new working surface The nature of the shock WS2 becomes clear if we look at simulations of a jet in a side wind. Figure 3 shows a 2D slice taken from a 3D HD simulation of a jet propagating in a sidewind. For simplicity this simulation has a constant mass flux in the jet, constant jet injection velocity and uniform wind density and velocity. In these simulations we see that as the jet propagates the upwind surface becomes unstable and a second (and in the last frame a third) working surface begins to form. This is similar to what is observed in Fig. 2a and c – the feature labelled WS2 is likely to be the formation of this secondary working surface (the first working surface being at the head of the jet, labelled WS1). The development of this structure with time can be seen experimentally in Fig. 4, which shows a series of gated XUV images (for a different experiment). The development of a second working surface has also been observed for a different setup using a conical wire array (Ampleford et al., 2005).

Fig. 3 Simulations of a jet in propagating in a side-wind. 2D slice from a 3D HD simulation (Chittenden et al., 2004) with uniform jet and wind (i.e. different from the experiments)

Fig. 4 Development of the jet-wind interaction with time is shown experimentally by time resolved XUV emission (hν > 30 eV)

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ent ambient configurations (here and Ampleford et al. (2005)) both lead to the formation of secondary working surfaces in the jet. A laboratory 3D HD code has recovered many of the features of the present experiments; the data should provide a useful testbed for astrophysical computer simulations of such a case. Future experiments will aim to follow the evolution of shocks more closely and attempt to evaluate the shock jump conditions.
Acknowledgements This research was sponsored by the NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-F03-02NA00057 and in part by the European Communitys Marie Curie Actions – Human resource and mobility within the JETSET (Jet Simulations, Experiments and Theory) network under contract MRTN-CT-2004 005592. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Fig. 5 (a) Low and (b) high magnification schlieren images showing the interaction of the low density, un-collapsed tip of the jet (from a different experiment to all other images)

3.3 Interaction of a low density jet with a denser wind If we look above the tip of the jet on the earlier schlieren image (Fig. 2a) we see that more shocks have formed. The axial position of this material implies that it was ejected before the well formed jet that has previously been discussed (Lebedev et al., 2002b), and instead consists of material that reached the axis before the conical shock was well formed (Bott et al., 2006). On a different experiment we can see this interaction in more detail on a high magnification schlieren image (Fig. 5). This image shows the low density jet through shadowgraphy, and shocks through schlieren effect. We see that there are actually two shocks present. The shock furthest from the foil is an internal shock in the jet, producing yet another region of deflection. The closest shock to the foil is a reverse shock forming in the wind. It is believed that when this jet material passed through the lower area of wind the ambient material was of sufficiently low density that either there was not enough momentum in the wind at that time or the mean free path of the jet was too long to be deflected (i.e. a particle effect that cannot be modeled using a hydrodynamic simulation). Also on this experiment the low magnification schlieren image shows a well defined reverse shock in the wind near the first deflection of the jet. 4 Conclusions We have discussed experimental data for the deflection of highly supersonic jets by a cross wind where the cross wind is effectively continuous in relation to the typical spatial scales of the jet. Such a configuration could be of interest in modeling the propagation of a jet in a side-wind that is neither clumpy or gusty (experiments that reach the inverse regime were discussed in Lebedev et al. (2004)). The data has shown that many different shocks are formed in the interaction. It is interesting to note that experiments utilizing two very differReferences
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