FCAT 2.

0 READING Test Item Specifications Grades 3–5

To offer students a variety of texts on the FCAT 2.0 Reading tests, authentic and copyrighted stories, poems, and articles appear as they were originally published, as requested by the publisher and/or author. While these real-world examples do not always adhere to strict style conventions and/or grammar rules, inconsistencies among passages should not detract from students’ ability to understand and answer questions about the texts. Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of all copyrighted material and to secure the necessary permissions to reprint selections. In the event of any questions arising as to the use of any material, the publisher expresses regrets for any inadvertent error and will make the necessary correction(s) in future printings. Copyright Statement for This Office of Assessment Publication Authorization for reproduction of this document is hereby granted to persons acting in an official capacity within the Uniform System of Public K–12 Schools as defined in Section 1000.01(4), Florida Statutes. The copyright notice at the bottom of this page must be included in all copies. All trademarks and trade names found in this publication are the property of their respective owners and are not associated with the publishers of this publication. Permission is NOT granted for distribution or reproduction outside of the Uniform System of Public K–12 Florida Schools or for commercial distribution of the copyrighted materials without written authorization from the Florida Department of Education. Questions regarding use of these copyrighted materials should be sent to the following: The Administrator
Office of Assessment
Florida Department of Education
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0400
Copyright © 2010
State of Florida
Department of State

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Introduction Mission Statement Origin and Purpose of the Specifications Scope of this Document Overall Considerations Criteria for Selecting FCAT 2.0 Reading Texts Types
Sources
Characteristics
Content
Modifications
Text Features
Diversity
Reading Level
Length of Texts
Review Procedures for FCAT 2.0 Reading Review of Reading Selections Review for Potential Bias Review for Community Sensitivity Review of Test Items Criteria for FCAT 2.0 Reading Items Item Style and Format
Scope of Items
Cognitive Complexity of FCAT 2.0 Reading Items Item Difficulty
Cognitive Complexity
Universal Design
Guidelines for Item Writers
Guide to the Grade-Level Specifications Benchmark Classification System Definitions of Benchmark Specifications Specifications for Grade 3 Specifications for Grade 4 Specifications for Grade 5

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FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

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A–1 B–1 C–1 D–1 E–1 F–1 G–1

Appendix A: FCAT 2.0 Topics Florida’s Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS), Grades 3–10 Appendix B: Reading Content Assessed by the FCAT 2.0 Appendix C: FCAT 2.0 Reading Reporting Categories and Content Focus Chart Appendix D: FCAT 2.0 Reading Glossary Appendix E: FCAT 2.0 Reading Passage and Item Rating Forms, Grades 3–10 Appendix F: FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Design Summary Appendix G: FCAT 2.0 Reading Texts, Grades 3, 4, and 5

FCAT 2.0 R EADING TEXTS
G–2 G–5 G–7 G–8 G–11 G–13 G–14 G–16 G–19 G–22 Grade 3 Grade 3 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 4 Grade 4 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 5 Grade 5 Swim, Baby, Swim! Birds Do It! RECYCLE! The Better Birdhouse! Across the Blue Mountains Learning to Sing Play a Game Living on the Edge of Danger What Is an Ecosystem? The Great Garden Experiment Your Bicycle Helmet

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FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

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INTRODUCTION
In recent years, two realities focused attention on the need to reevaluate Florida’s Sunshine State Standards. First, in 2005, outside consultants reviewed the 1996 Sunshine State Standards and suggested that the benchmark language offer greater specificity to indicate clearly what teachers should teach and what students should be able to do. Second, federal legislation through the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) holds schools and school districts accountable for how well each child is learning, which further emphasized the need to hone expectations for all students. In January 2006, the Florida Department of Education (DOE) committed to a six-year cycle of review and revision of the K–12 content standards. The language arts standards were rewritten, and the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) for language arts were adopted by the Florida State Board of Education on January 25, 2007 (available online at: http://www.floridastandards.org/Standards/FLStandardSearch.aspx). The NGSSS are divided into benchmarks that identify what a student should know and be able to do at each grade level. This document, FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications Grades 3–5 (Specifications), provides information about the benchmarks, the stimulus types, and the test items designed to assess the NGSSS for language arts. The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test® 2.0 (FCAT 2.0) measures achievement of Florida students in writing, reading, mathematics, and science. End-of-course (EOC) assessments measure achievement of Florida students who have completed coursework in Algebra 1, Geometry, Biology, and U.S. History.

Mission Statement
Although not all benchmarks lend themselves to large-scale testing, successful schools recognize the need for students to master all of Florida’s standards. The increased rigor exemplified in the NGSSS will enhance student performance in a rapidly advancing, global environment.

Origin and Purpose of the Specifications
The Florida Department of Education and committees of experienced Florida educators developed and approved the Specifications. The Specifications is a resource that defines the content and format of the test and test items for item writers and reviewers. Each grade-level Specifications document indicates the alignment of items with the NGSSS. It also serves to provide all stakeholders with information about the scope and function of the FCAT 2.0.

Scope of this Document
The Specifications provides general and grade-specific guidelines for the development of all test items used in the FCAT 2.0 Reading test for Grades 3–5. Two additional Specifications documents provide the same information for Grades 6–8 and 9–10. The Criteria for FCAT 2.0 Reading Items section addresses the general guidelines used to develop multiple-choice items. The Cognitive Complexity of FCAT 2.0 Reading Items section addresses item difficulty and cognitive complexity. Information about reading reporting categories is provided in Appendix C. Additional information about test design is provided in Appendix F. The Guide to the Grade-Level Specifications section provides an explanation of the reading benchmarks assessed by the test and identifies the ways in which each benchmark is assessed. This section also provides content limits and text attributes.
FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 1

Overall Considerations
This section of the Specifications describes the guidelines that apply to all test items developed for the FCAT 2.0 Reading test. Overall considerations are broad item-development guidelines that should be addressed during the development of multiple-choice test items. Other sections of this document relate more specifically to the particular aspects of item development (for example, content limits). 1. Each item should be written to measure primarily one benchmark; however, other benchmarks may also be reflected in the item content. 2. Items should be grade-level appropriate in terms of item difficulty, cognitive demands, and reading level. 3. At a given grade, the items should exhibit a varied range of difficulty. 4. The reading level of items should be on or below the grade level of the test, with the exception of items that require the student to use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases, which may be two grade levels above the tested grade. 5. Items should not disadvantage or exhibit disrespect to anyone in regard to age, gender, race, ethnicity, language, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, occupation, or geographic region. 6. Items should require students to apply the reading skills described in the NGSSS benchmarks from lower grade levels. Skills previously taught in lower grades will continue to be tested at higher grade levels. 7. Some items may include an excerpt from the associated passage in addition to the item stem. 8. Items should provide clear, concise, and complete instructions to students. 9. Each item should be written clearly and unambiguously to elicit the desired response.

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FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

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Types The purpose of FCAT 2. The table below shows the percentages of FCAT 2. it is important to select high-quality FCAT 2.0 Reading: social studies.CRITERIA FOR SELECTING FCAT 2. provide information. The texts should have identifiable key concepts and relevant supporting details. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 3 . In addition. Reading texts may be either literary or informational. websites. They provide insight. speeches. they will read informational texts with increasing frequency—in and out of school. Another form of informational text includes functional reading materials (e. Informational texts must include a variety of grade-appropriate information sources—both primary and secondary. poetry. language is used to solve problems. foreign language. therefore. the texts should address the NGSSS subject areas that are not directly assessed by FCAT 2. As students progress beyond the early grades. In informational texts. the percentage of informational texts students will encounter on FCAT 2. biographies. physical education. the arts. Literary texts should address a variety of themes appropriate for and interesting to students at the designated grade level.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. health education.g..0 R EADING TEXTS Reading texts form the basis for assessing the benchmarks identified in the NGSSS. drama). The texts should also represent different points of view while including issues and problems that persist across time. and present new ideas about the subject matter.0 Reading items on a test for literary and informational texts by grade. Excerpts from literary texts must reflect qualities of good literature.0 Reading texts.0 Reading is to measure student achievement in constructing meaning from a wide variety of texts. how-to’s) encountered in real-world situations. raise questions. essays. or inspiration and include fiction and some types of nonfiction (e.. therefore. Grade 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Literary Text 60% 50% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% Informational Text 40% 50% 50% 50% 60% 60% 70% 70% FCAT 2.g. and vocational education.0 Reading increases as they move up through the grades. Literary texts focus on the art of language as their medium. science. entertainment.

fldoe. 4 | FCAT 2. graphs.g. and plays can be expected to make up only a small portion of the texts used on FCAT 2. journals.. Crickets.. letters • Essays (e. Published selections from the public domain will be selected from a wide variety of sources that are not likely to be familiar to students. warranties. Poems.0 Reading..pdf. persuasive. tall tales • Legends • Myths • Fantasy • Drama • Excerpts from longer works Nonfiction • Biographical and autobiographical sketches • Diaries. manuals. contracts.The following table lists examples of literary and informational texts that may be represented on FCAT 2. These selections should represent a wide variety of contexts and NGSSS subject areas. charts. analytical.g. tables. and must have their resumés approved by the DOE. diaries Secondary Sources/Nonfiction • Magazine articles • Newspaper articles • Editorials • Encyclopedia articles Functional Materials • Consumer documents (e. Bill of Rights) • Essays (e.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.. fables. Types of Literary Text Fiction • Short stories • Poetry • Historical fiction • Fables • Folk tales. memoirs. applications) • Embedded in text (e. or as closely and reasonably as can be accomplished. The contractor is responsible for identifying a team of commissioned reading text authors.g.org/fcat2/pdf/ReadingAppendixA. Highlights. informational. illustrations. scientific) • Letters. personal and classical narratives) • Critiques Types of Informational Text Primary Sources/Nonfiction • Historical documents (e. Commissioned texts produced by the contractor for Florida’s assessments and related products will be the property of the DOE.g. captions. fliers • Schedules • Website pages Sources Texts should be noncopyrighted selections in the public domain or commissioned by the contractor expressly for Florida. These will be utilized on tests as they were published. text boxes) • How-to articles • Brochures. historical. journals. etc. such as Smithsonian.0 Reading.g. Resumés should include detailed information about authors’ publications. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . samples of their work... maps. located at http://fcat. These authors should have been previously published in a critically reviewed publication. photographs.

Commissioned materials written specifically for the FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 5 . The public domain selections must reflect the characteristics of good literature. The contractor must submit examples of prospective authors’ works as the examples appear in publications with their names in the bylines (or copyright statements).0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Public domain selections will be reviewed for any bias and sensitivity issues and grade-level appropriateness. FCAT 2. The selection of public domain works should follow the same rigorous process as do all other types of reading selections. References to trademarks. including details and idea development. Items should also be developed for shorter selections that can be paired with selections of similar topics. and brand names should be checked by the contractor’s legal department for permission to use. Content Content should be based on topics located at http://fcat. They must also contain recognizable key concepts. the DOE may require at least two additional sources to verify the information in the text. Texts must contain sufficient content. If there is any question about the accuracy of content. During the initial development of items. and end. 15 to 20 items should be written for a reading selection of medium or longer length. middle. stand-alone pieces. The contractor may use teachers from outside of Florida (no current public Florida teachers may write items) as writers/internal reviewers. exemplify all the elements of good writing. Characteristics Selections must be well-written and authentic. Texts with controversial or offensive content should not be included on the test. and meet the requirements for complete selections with a readily identifiable beginning. and stylistically consistent. or the contractor may use trained college-level instructors (from within or outside of Florida currently employed by a college or university) as writers/reviewers. The format (i. The material should present subject matter that is of high interest and pertinent to students’ lives.. Also. Vocabulary should be checked against accepted published word lists to ensure it is appropriate for the intended grade level.0 should reflect the same qualities and tone of good literature and include informational materials that are grade-level appropriate. Material that requires the reader to have prior or specialized knowledge that is not contained in the main text should include the necessary information in a separate insert.org/fcat2/pdf/ReadingAppendixA. such as an introduction or a text box. logically arranged.pdf. to serve as a basis for at least 8 to 12 test items. Excerpts must function as intact. texts should be conceptually appropriate and relevant and should reflect real-world settings and events that are interesting to students and not limited to classroom or school-related situations.and where other samples can be found. Confusing or emotionally charged subjects should also be avoided. Texts should be interesting and appealing to students at the grades for which the selections are intended. Texts at a given grade level should include a range of age-appropriate selections that are representative of the material students may be expected to read and comprehend. the presentation of the text and graphics) should be grade-level appropriate.e. They should be cohesive. commercial products.fldoe.

(Footnotes are counted in the total word count of the text but are not tested in items. correct answer.g. always having male doctors and female nurses). Diversity Texts should bring a range of cultural diversity to the test. however. and situations should reflect the variety of interests and backgrounds that make up Florida’s student population. selections about culture. socioeconomic status. and schedules. reading level. including gender. (See the Reading Level section below.) At Grade 3.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. it may be tested. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . charts. If a reference to color is used in an item. keys. texts should also be free from any bias or stereotyping (e. or geographic region. or multiple-choice distractors are dependent upon recognition of color. legends. tone. and other graphic stimuli must have appropriate labels. All graphics should help students understand the text and/or provide information supplemental to the text. Texts should be written by and about people of different cultures and races. of the text. 6 | FCAT 2.. Item writers must not develop items where the stimulus.) Footnotes may be used at Grade 4 and above. Text Features Graphics should be included with texts wherever possible. maps. website features. however. and/or captions. illustrations. disability.or region-specific topics should not create an advantage or disadvantage for any particular group of students with a particular characteristic. Selections may need to be edited simply to satisfy length requirements. Florida educators use professional judgment and experience to determine whether the reading level of each selection is suitable for the grade level of the test. Graphics should also reflect multicultural diversity and avoid gender stereotyping. These kinds of texts must contain sufficient information to allow a student to answer the accompanying test items. etc. words will be explained using editorial brackets within the body of text. text boxes. Graphics may include photographs. Decisions about the appropriateness of vocabulary are based on professional judgment and commonly accepted published word lists. During the text review process. or footnote a word or phrase that is above grade level. tables. ethnicity. Indices of reading levels may be used to assist in making judgments about a text’s appropriateness. Because such indices often vary widely in their results. clarity. replace. Any modifications must be reviewed carefully to ensure they do not significantly alter the meaning. religion. When reading indices are used.Modifications A public domain or commissioned text or excerpt that is otherwise appropriate may be modified to remove. advertisements. the color must be labeled with appropriate text. graphs. multiple indices should be applied to the text. Except as appropriate for historically accurate public domain pieces. Characters. Reading Level The reading level of each selection should be appropriate to the tested grade level. Maps. All artwork must be high quality. Individual words or phrases no more than two grade levels beyond the tested grade may be used to assess benchmarks that include the use of context if the context is sufficient to determine the meaning of the unfamiliar word or phrase. Selections for a given grade should represent a range of reading levels suitable for the beginning and through the end of the tested grade. race.. graphs. if the word or phrase has sufficient context. settings. the nature and limitations of each index will be taken into account when interpreting results.

Grade 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Range of Number of Words per Text Average Number of Words per Text 100–700 100–900 200–1000 200–1100 300–1100 300–1200 300–1400 300–1500 500 500 600 700 700 700 900 1000 FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 7 . Texts’ lengths must not exceed the maximum number of words allowed at each grade level. The table below suggests approximate average lengths of texts. however.Length of Texts The length of reading selections should vary within grade levels and increase across grade levels.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. poems may be shorter than the minimum indicated.

all reading selections and items must pass several levels of review as part of the FCAT 2. Criteria for Selecting FCAT 2. Reviewers are asked to consider the variety of cultural. Of extreme importance is the vital role the educators play in determining the appropriateness of selections for test use. philosophical. hurricanes. Examples of sensitive topics for Florida students may include wildfires. 8 | FCAT 2. the review committee will be informed of any historical impact and necessary information that is required for them to make a fair assessment of the selection. and socioeconomic.0. in conjunction with the DOE and FCAT 2. After the initial selection process. With the addition of public domain works. their parents.0. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Each factor considered in this review process is identified in the previous section. ethnic. potential bias. all reading texts are reviewed for content characteristics. Test items are written for the types of texts that meet FCAT 2. the committee must reach a consensus as to whether a particular selection will be used on the FCAT 2.0 Reading Texts.0 R EADING Before appearing on FCAT 2. racial.0 development process. and any issues of concern to Florida stakeholders.0 Reading tests. and other members of Florida communities. geographic. Review of Reading Selections A committee made up of select Florida educators with experience and expertise in language arts and reading instruction at the appropriate grade levels review reading selections for potential use on the FCAT 2. and religious backgrounds throughout Florida and to determine whether the subject matter will be acceptable to Florida students. Florida educators and citizens. After reviewing reading selections. whereas bias may. Reviews also include consideration of issues relevant to individuals with disabilities. religious. linguistic. Concerns expressed during the reviews must be resolved satisfactorily before item development begins. or other topics that may be considered offensive or distracting to students.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Review for Community Sensitivity Florida citizens associated with a variety of organizations and institutions review all selections for issues of potential concern to members of the community at large. The purpose for this review is to ensure that the primary purpose of assessing reading achievement is not undermined by inadvertently including in the test any material that is deemed inappropriate by the committee. Review for Potential Bias Reading selections are also reviewed by groups of Florida educators representative of Florida’s geographic regions and culturally diverse population. Issues of sensitivity are distinct from bias because sensitivity issues do not necessarily affect student success on an item.0 criteria. regional.REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR FCAT 2. Selections are reviewed for the following kinds of bias: gender.0 contractors. scrutinize all material prior to accepting it for placement on the tests. political.

Review of Test Items The DOE and test contractors review all test items during the item development process. FCAT 2. as defined by the grade-level specifications for test items.0 items are field tested in Florida to ensure clarity of items before they count toward a student’s score. Content specialists and copy editors review and edit items. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 9 . judging them for overall quality and suitability for the tested grade level. FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. This review focuses on validity and determines if an item is a valid measure of the designated NGSSS benchmark. In the event an item does not test well. it is either deleted or revised. Revised items will again require field testing prior to being scored. Separate reviews for bias and sensitivity issues are also conducted. Groups of Florida educators and citizens are convened to review the items for content characteristics and item specifications.

14. Answer choices such as Not enough information or Cannot be determined should not be used. 5. . item stems may be constructed using more than one sentence.CRITERIA FOR FCAT 2. This should be done sparingly. Because directions are given to students both before each reading selection and before the items. BEST). OPPOSITE. FIRST. and LEAST.” in the stimulus. duplicating words from excerpted text used in a MC item). Incorrect answer choices (distractors) should be on or below grade level. . Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . NOT. Item stems can be written to direct students to a specific portion of the text instead of using an excerpt or quotation in the stem. MOST. 13. 3.. 10. it is generally not necessary to begin an item with “According to the passage .0 Reading includes one type of test item: multiple-choice (MC). All of the above. also referred to as a clang (i. . EXCEPT. . EXCEPT. Graphics referenced in a test item will not be presented within the item itself.g. uppercase type may be used to emphasize key words in items (e. there will be a need to use the phrase “as used in the passage . Answer choices should not include: No change needed.).. 15. 9. 8.0 R EADING ITEMS FCAT 2. . use The students will make changes so that they .. see Appendix F. General Guidelines 1. On the rare occasion a multiple-choice item asks a question involving the word NOT. 4.g. 6. Items should avoid clueing. Distractors should be text based or plausible according to the text. etc. 10 | FCAT 2. Plural forms should be used whenever possible to avoid gender-specific pronouns (e. 7. As deemed grade-level appropriate. Correct as is. or LEAST. using vocabulary and sentence structure appropriate for the assessed grade level. 2. In Grades 3 and 4. None of the above. . 11. .e. the word should be emphasized by uppercase type.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Item stems should be expressed either as a question or in an open-ended format. Items should be clear and concise. In Grade 5. . 12. Masculine pronouns should not be used to refer to both sexes. instead of The student will make changes so that he . As needed. Items should be written to measure the knowledge and skills in the designated benchmarks with the underlying expectation that students demonstrate critical thinking. items calling for comparison or contrast should use all uppercase letters for the words ALIKE and DIFFERENT.” Occasionally. in answer choices (options). . MAIN. For more information about test design. items should use all uppercase letters for the words OPPOSITE. Item Style and Format This section presents stylistic guidelines and formatting directions that should be followed while developing multiple-choice test items.

MC items should have four answer choices (A.. play.e. or F. Answer choices of more than one word should be arranged by length: short to long or long to short. 4. the term sentence should be used. in which case the fourth option is the outlier. 6. Outliers may contain grammatical clues and may involve answer choices that are longer or more specific than other answer choices. G. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 11 . MC items should take approximately one minute per item to answer. story. Outliers should be avoided because they are answer choices that clue or draw the student’s attention away from the other answer choices. D. B. In poetry. One-word answer choices should be arranged alphabetically and be balanced in the use of words beginning with a vowel or a consonant. 11. the quoted text should be referred to as an excerpt. or poem. 9. When just one sentence is quoted. may all be different parts of speech. webpage). depending on the position of the correct answer. brochure. I for alternating items). functional material should be referred to by its specific format (e. 10. options may all be the same part of speech. The benchmarks serve as the objectives to which the test items are written. In Grade 3. For all grades. 5. the term excerpt should be used. These benchmarks are introduced at one grade with the understanding that they will be assessed at higher levels of difficulty in each succeeding grade. which gives the NGSSS benchmarks for these grades. 2. MC items should be clearly identified and have only one correct answer. When ellipses are used to indicate an omission within a quoted sentence. Distractors should be incorrect and plausible based on the passage but not necessarily based on explicit details.0 Reading for Grades 3–10 is presented in Appendix B. H. article. the term line or lines should be used when referring to a quotation from a poem. or may represent two parts of speech twice). as shown in Appendix B. specific word relationships used to determine the meaning of vocabulary). Answer choices that are opposite of correct answer choices should not be used as distractors. MC items are worth one point each. Distractors should relate to the context of the selection. In Grades 6–10. Scope of Items The scope of FCAT 2. Grades 4–10 should use the terms passage. 3. C. Answer choices should be parallel in reference to parts of speech (i. or poem should be used when referring to a reading selection. schedule.g.. 7. 8. A common type of outlier occurs when a date or proper noun appears in only one of the four options. FCAT 2. except in items assessing synonyms or antonyms.g. In most cases.. play. article. if more than one sentence is quoted from the passage or article. Some of the NGSSS benchmarks are assessed across Grades 3–10. There may be additional specifications or restrictions by grade level (e.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. answer choices should be parallel in concept and format and should be arranged vertically beneath the item stem. these are given under the content limits in the benchmark pages.Multiple-Choice (MC) Items 1. or in three of four options. flier.

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. B. item difficulty refers to the actual percentage of students who chose the correct answer.0 items is currently categorized in two ways: item difficulty and cognitive complexity. 12 | FCAT 2.2 The rationale for classifying an item by its DOK level of complexity focuses on the expectations made of the item. 1 2 Bloom.S. and others.COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY OF FCAT 2. but the complexity of the items remains independent of the particular curriculum a student has experienced. High-complexity items may require a student to analyze and synthesize information.0 R EADING ITEMS The degree of challenge of FCAT 2. analyze.0 based on the NGSSS and their grade-level appropriateness. After an item appears on a test.. The distinctions made in item complexity ensure that items will assess the depth of student knowledge at each benchmark.0 items is initially estimated by committees of educators participating in Item Content Review meetings each year. The categories—low complexity. Between 40 percent and 70 percent of the students are likely to respond correctly. understand. Norman L. moderate complexity.edu/WAT/index. Webb. knowledge. In the early years of the FCAT program. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Test items are chosen for the FCAT 2. http://www. committee members make a prediction of difficulty based upon their knowledge of student performance at the given grade level. and high complexity—form an ordered description of the demands an item may make on a student. Moderate-complexity items may require multiple steps. The cognitive complexity of an item depends on the grade level of the assessment. 2 Feb. however. Bloom’s Taxonomy is difficult to use because it requires an inference about the skill. Item Difficulty The difficulty of FCAT 2.. and do). 1956.wcer. University of Wisconsin-Madison. low-complexity items may require a student to solve a one-step problem. New York: McKay. not on the ability of the student. Beginning in 2004. As each test item is reviewed. 2006. and background of the students responding to the item. Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) levels. Cognitive Complexity Cognitive complexity refers to the cognitive demand associated with an item.aspx.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. The intent of the item writer weighs heavily in determining the complexity of an item. On any given assessment. “Webb Alignment Tool” 24 July 2005. the Florida Department of Education (DOE) used Bloom’s Taxonomy1 to classify test items. Challenging Less than 40 percent of the students are likely to respond correctly. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. Norman L. what the item requires the student to recall.wisc. The classification scheme used for this prediction of item difficulty is based on the following: Easy Average More than 70 percent of the students are likely to respond correctly. When classifying an item’s demands on thinking (i. the cognitive complexity of a multiplechoice item may be affected by the distractors. an item that has a high level of cognitive complexity at one grade may not be as complex at a higher grade. it is assumed that the student is familiar with the basic concepts of the task. the DOE implemented a new cognitive classification system based upon Dr. Wisconsin Center of Educational Research.e. For example. et al.

When this is the case.1. observe. Caution must be used in referring to the table (page 15) that describes activities at each cognitive complexity level. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 13 . though some benchmarks call for items at varying levels. Chitty and Chatty fly ahead and then lead the way to a house.0 Reading low-complexity items require students to recall. which begins on page 68. or represent basic facts. writers should take care to cover the range of levels that are appropriate and not create items only at the lower ranges. FCAT 2. B.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. these items are classified at the highest level of complexity demanded by the item. D. Low Complexity FCAT 2.4. This table is provided for ease of reference. A low-complexity item requires only a basic understanding of text— often verbatim recall from text or simple understanding of a single word or phrase. Items should generally be targeted to the highest level of complexity as appropriate to the assessed benchmark. In most instances. Miss Bilberry climbs a tree and tells everyone where to go. Miss Bilberry and her animals use the blue mountains as a guide. question.The pages that follow illustrate some of the varying demands that items might make at each complexity level for FCAT 2. Item writers are expected to evaluate their items in terms of cognitive complexity and include this on the item template. Note that items may fit one or more descriptions. 100000414905 PASSAGECODE: ABM04 How do Miss Bilberry and her animals finally find their way out of the tall flowers? A. ★ C.7. Chester and Cecilie find their way and then call the others. but the ultimate determination of item complexity should be made considering the overall cognitive demand placed on a student. Another table (page 16) provides the breakdown of the percentage of points by cognitive complexity level. For more information about this item type. Below is an example of a low-complexity item that is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8.0 Reading. For a low-complexity item.3. see Benchmark LA. the student would be expected to demonstrate simple skills or abilities.

C. A young bird falls into a pond by accident as he learns to fly. generalize. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . A young bird thinks he is a fish and learns to swim. classify. students may also be required to explain.2. or interpret. Students may be asked to explain. dirty and dull modern and popular ordinary and simple expensive and wonderful 14 | FCAT 2.0 Reading high-complexity items make heavy demands on student thinking. B.4. Depending on the objective of a particular moderate-level item. C. They may be asked to perform complex analyses of the connections among texts. 100000477471 PASSAGE CODE: LTS04 Read the following sentence that describes the picture in the article.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. or make multiple connections. compare.1. organize. Students are expected to make inferences within the text and may encounter items that include words such as summarize. FDOEID: 03LAA221M1062 CID: 228700 PASSAGE CODE: SWI03 Which sentence BEST tells what the story is about? A. A young bird tries to catch a fish by jumping in the water. which begins on page 86. High Complexity FCAT 2. see Benchmark LA. A young bird tries to fly to a marsh but falls into a pond. Extravagant costumes and beautiful songs help turn Carol into a star in the opera Otello.7. Students may also be asked to take information from at least one portion of the text and apply the information to a new task.3. For more information about this item type.Moderate Complexity FCAT 2. For more information about this item type. ★ D. gather. Baby.2. which begins on page 34. Swim!” on page G–2. Below is an example of a moderate-complexity item that is based on “Swim. see Benchmark LA. describe. ★ D. infer.1.0 Reading moderate-complexity items require two steps: comprehension and subsequent processing of text. Students must be able to support their thinking. B. and display. Use the picture to help tell what the word extravagant means. High-complexity items require several steps involving abstract reasoning and planning. A. Below is an example of a high-complexity item that is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11.3. Items may involve identifying the theme and the implicit main idea and making complex inferences within or across texts.

• Determine an author’s purpose. moderate. however. • Determine how details support the main idea. • Identify figurative language in a text. • Analyze cause-and-effect relationships. • Identify the main idea. • Recognize text structures/ patterns of organization in a text. FCAT 2. caution must be used in referring to this table describing activities at each cognitive complexity level. • Analyze word structure to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. • Compare word meanings.. High Complexity • Analyze the use of figurative language in a text. • Analyze similarities and differences. • Identify cause-and-effect relationships. The following table is provided for ease of reference. graphs. chart. • Recognize elements of plot. • Describe and illustrate how common themes are found across texts.Items developed for each selection should be written to reflect a range of low. • Determine the validity and reliability of information within/across texts. • Evaluate strong vs.0 Reading Activities Across Cognitive Complexity Levels Low Complexity • Identify the correct meanings of grade-level appropriate words. • Recognize the correct order of events in a text. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 15 . • Determine how text features (e. graphs. subheadings). Examples of FCAT 2. • Demonstrate an understanding of plot development. weak arguments in a text.. make inferences. • Identify similarities and differences. • Locate details in a text. subheadings) contribute to a text. • Describe and analyze the characteristics of various types of literature. perspective. and high complexities. Moderate Complexity • Use context clues to identify the meanings of unfamiliar words. • Draw conclusions. • Determine an author’s main purpose or perspective. charts. The ultimate determination of an item’s cognitive complexity should be made considering the intent of the overall cognitive demand placed on a student. • Recognize summary statements pertaining to a text. charts. diagrams. diagrams.g. • Identify and analyze the meaning of affixes and words and phrases with Greek/Latin derivations. • Interpret the information found in text features (e. or diagram. and/or bias and describe how it affects the text. • Locate details on a graph. • Determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.g.

the test maximizes readability. not on assumptions about the student’s approach to the item. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . The DOE trains both internal and external reviewers to revise items. and test development includes a review for potential bias and sensitivity issues. The table below presents the range for the percentage of points by cognitive complexity level on each FCAT 2. allowing for the widest possible range of student participation. these elements are carefully monitored. but not limited to.Items are classified on the cognitive demand inherent in the test item.0 Reading. Item writers must attend to the best practices suggested by universal design. type size. and fairness.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and • consistently applied concept names and graphic conventions. To support the goal of providing access to all students. including. but not limited to • reduction of wordiness. legibility. and graphics.0 Reading test. clarity. 16 | FCAT 2. including those with disabilities and nonnative speakers of English. spacing. line length. Universal design principles also inform decisions about test layout and design.0 Reading Percentage of Points by Cognitive Complexity Level Grade(s) 3 4 Low Complexity 25–35% 20–30% 15–25% 10–20% 10–20% 10–20% Moderate Complexity 50–70% 50–70% 50–70% 50–70% 50–70% 45–65% High Complexity 5–15% 10–20% 15–25% 20–30% 20–30% 25–35% 5–7 8 9 10 Universal Design The application of universal design principles helps develop assessments that are usable by the greatest number of test takers. • selection of reader-friendly construction and terminology. Throughout the development process for FCAT 2. • avoidance of ambiguity. FCAT 2. including. and compatibility with accommodations. The review processes and field testing are used to ensure appropriateness.

Item writers for FCAT 2. When this is the case. Item writers should know and respect the guidelines established in the Specifications as well as appreciate the spirit of developing test content that allows students to perform at their best. Item writers are expected to evaluate their items in terms of item difficulty and include this information on the item template. It may be necessary to provide sources verifying why a correct answer is correct as well as why other answer choices are incorrect. and • have an equal balance of male and female names and include names representing different ethnic groups in Florida. • include items of each cognitive complexity (approximately 25% low. When submitting items. though some benchmarks call for items at varying levels. Because items are rated by committees of Florida educators following submission to the DOE. Items should generally be targeted to the highest level of complexity as appropriate to the assessed benchmark. Item writers are expected to provide sources for all verifiable information included in the item. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 17 . Item writers are expected to evaluate their items in terms of cognitive complexity and include this on the item template. Item writers must indicate which option is the correct answer. as well as Internet sites operated by reputable organizations. such as universities. and journals respected by the reading community. • have an approximate balance of the correct response between the four answer choices for multiple-choice items. magazines. Item writers are also expected to use their best judgment in writing items that measure the reading benchmarks of the NGSSS without introducing extraneous elements that may interfere with the test’s validity.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.0 Reading must submit items in a particular format and must include the following information about each item. writers should take care to cover the range of levels that are appropriate and to not create items only at the lower ranges. Item submissions should • include items of varying difficulty. Acceptable sources include up-to-date textbooks. 50% moderate.Guidelines for Item Writers FCAT 2. familiarity with the directions for rating items (found in Appendix E) would prove useful to all item writers. item writers must balance several factors.0 Reading item writers must have a comprehensive knowledge of the assessed reading curriculum and a strong understanding of the cognitive abilities of the students taking the test. and 25% high). Sources Correct Response Item Difficulty Cognitive Complexity Submission of Items FCAT 2. All appropriate sections of the template should be completed before the items are submitted. Format Item writers must submit items in the agreed-upon template.

(4) Writing Applications. 3. 6. (5) Communication. • The number in the third position (second number) represents the Strand. • The number in the fifth position shows the specific Benchmark that falls under the specified strand and within the standard.6. The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words. In Language Arts.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 3 Subject Area Language Arts Benchmark “The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.3. LA. (3) Writing Process.0 assesses six strands: (1) Reading Process. LA for Language Arts).g.” GRADE 3 Strand 1 Standard 6 LA. Literary Analysis (Strand 2). and (6) Information and Media Literacy. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . the FCAT 2. • The number in the fourth position of the code represents the Standard for the benchmark.3 Reading Process The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. or category of knowledge. (2) Literary Analysis. • The number in the second position (first number) represents the Grade Level.. 1.1.” Grade 3 Strand Standard Reading Process “The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.0 Reading assesses Reading Process (Strand 1). to which the benchmark belongs. • The two letters in the first position of the code identify the Subject Area (e. 18 | FCAT 2. FCAT 2.GUIDE TO THE GRADE-LEVEL SPECIFICATIONS Benchmark Classification System Each benchmark in the NGSSS is coded with a system of numbers and letters. and Information and Media Literacy (Strand 6).

For some benchmarks.. and reporting are Vocabulary. the following information is provided in each grade-level Specifications section. additional information is provided to clarify specific directions in developing test items. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 19 . The clarification statement explains how the achievement of the benchmark will be demonstrated by students for each specific item type. Strand Standard Benchmark A strand is a broad category of knowledge within a content area in the NGSSS. The sample items are presented in a format similar to the test. The four reading reporting categories used for FCAT 2. indicate areas of the benchmark that will not be assessed.0 design. in some cases.g. and the correct answer for each sample item is indicated.0 item. The distractor attributes give specific descriptions of the distractors for items at each grade level. Literary Analysis— Fiction/Nonfiction. charts.0 at Grades 3–10. Such groupings are indicated in the benchmark statement. scoring. In some cases.g. Sample multiple-choice items that assess each benchmark are provided at each grade level.. The texts may also contain certain stimuli that contribute to the development of items (e. Benchmarks are grade-level specific statements of expected student achievement under each reading standard. Clarification statements explain what the student will do when responding to items of each type.Definitions of Benchmark Specifications The Specifications documents identify how Florida’s NGSSS benchmarks are assessed on the FCAT 2. and Informational Text/Research Process. two or more related benchmarks are grouped together because the assessment of one benchmark necessarily addresses another benchmark. The content limits define the scope of content knowledge that will be assessed (e. Text attributes define the types of texts that will be used in the development of items. graphs). Each standard is a general statement of expected student achievement within a strand at each grade level in the NGSSS. The content focus defines the specific content measured by each FCAT 2. Reading Application. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Distractor Attributes Sample Items FCAT 2. The strands are the same for all grade levels.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. specific elements that can be compared or contrasted) and. including appropriate context or content suitable for assessing the particular benchmark. For each benchmark assessed in reading. illustrations with captions.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRADE 3 20 | FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .0 Reading Test Item Specifications.

6.3.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary GRADE 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary Benchmark Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.5. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.g.4. • Base Words • Affixes • Roots (Grade 5) Content Focus • Context Clues Grade 4 LA.3.4. synonyms.7 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.4. loud).6.8 LA.7 Grade 5 LA.6. The student will determine the correct meaning • Multiple Meanings of words with multiple meanings in context.3 LA.5.11 The student will use meaning of familiar roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.8 LA.5.6.1.1.5.1.6.1. blaring.6.3.5.6.g.4. The student will use knowledge of antonyms.1.1.6.1.3. • Shades of Meaning loud).1.6.8 LA..g.5.9 FCAT 2..6.1. loud). The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.9 Grade 5 LA.6. • Analyze Words in Also assesses LA.1.6.6 The student will identify Text shades of meaning in related words (e.. blaring.1. and homographs to determine meanings of words.3 LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 21 .1. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.1. Also assesses LA.1. homophones. Also assesses LA.6.3.6.1.7 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.1.6.6.9 • Antonyms • Synonyms Grade 4 LA. blaring.3 LA.4. Also assesses LA.

Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. The student.3. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.3 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.3.6. Other stimuli may include. contextual meanings drawn from the text but unrelated to the assessed word or test item.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.6. LA.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.1. will identify the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Excerpted text should contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word.3 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. Context Clues Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess words unfamiliar to most students.3. meanings of the assessed word that are correct but are not appropriate for the context surrounding the word.6. the text should contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word. but are not limited to. and sufficient context must be present for students to determine the meaning of the word.1. The assessed word should be no more than two grade levels above the tested grade. using context clues.3 BENCHMARK LA. but are not limited to • • • • incorrect meanings of the assessed word. illustrations with captions. Texts must contain a word unfamiliar to most students.1. and charts. 22 | FCAT 2. graphics. If an item stem directs the student back to the text to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word.

D. Sample Item 2 Context Clues The sample item below is based on “Swim. Baby. an otter came streaking through the water. C. B. to dive down and swim under him to move quickly forward and grab him to jump out of the pond and splash him to turn around and swim away from him FCAT 2. D. the wet blackbird would be hers—feet. It bent. What does the word sagged mean as used in the sentences above? ★ A. It dripped. But the branch sagged under his weight.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. His toes grabbed a long thin willow branch that hung out over the water.3 Sample Item 1 Context Clues The sample item below is based on “Swim.3. It grew.6. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 23 .0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Baby. C. It disappeared.1. feathers. Swim!” on page G–2. 100000257012 Read these sentences from the story. and all! But just as the bass was about to lunge for the bird. What is the meaning of the word lunge as used in the sentences above? A. With one more powerful swish of her tail and a snap of her jaws. Swim!” on page G–2. 100000257013 Read these sentences from the story. ★ B.

g.3. -est..g.. -ness). -ful.7 The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words. Texts must contain appropriate words to assess knowledge of base words or affixes. un-. dis-. and charts. and base words.6.1.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. but are not limited to • • • incorrect meanings of words. Simple analysis and/or inference may be required. -ly. non-). graphics. Contractions (e. illustrations with captions.1.7 BENCHMARK LA. mis-. Other stimuli may include. but are not limited to.g.g.3. they’re. same tense).3. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. it’s) should not be assessed. Base Words Affixes Grade-level appropriate texts should contain vocabulary for assessing prefixes (e. re-.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. Assessed words should be no more than two grade levels above the tested grade. -er. same affix... Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 24 | FCAT 2.1. pre-. The student will identify familiar base words with prefixes and/or suffixes to determine the meanings of complex words in a text. suffixes (e.6. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Excerpted text should contain the assessed word to provide clear and sufficient context.7 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. LA. words with construct similar to the correct response (e. -less.6. in-. -able. -or. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Distractor Attributes Distractors may include.

Which word has the SAME base word as collection? A.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 100000256992 Read this sentence from the article. collar collector conclusion condition Sample Item 4 Affixes The sample item below is based on “Swim. Swim!” on page G–2. You can make a collection box of stuff to leave for birds so they can help themselves. D. ★ D. C. The little brown bird held tightly to a stem and flapped his wings. B.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 25 .1.” what does tightly mean? A.7 Sample Item 3 Base Words The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. C. Baby. If tight means “firm. to make firm able to be firm one who is firm in a way that is firm FCAT 2. ★ B.6. 100000257014 Read this sentence from the story.3.

Contractions (e. synonyms.6. The student will use antonyms and synonyms to determine the meaning of a word within a text.8 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. Antonyms Synonyms Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess antonyms and synonyms. they’re.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.1.6. but are not limited to.g. Wording should be similar to means almost the same as or has the opposite meaning of.. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 26 | FCAT 2. graphics. Simple analysis and/or inference may be required to comprehend the meaning of the word.3. it’s) should not be assessed. The terms antonym and synonym should not be used in the stem construction. and homographs to determine meanings of words. Texts should contain appropriate words to assess knowledge of antonyms and synonyms at grade level.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.3.8 BENCHMARK LA.8 The student will use knowledge of antonyms.1. Homophones and homographs should not be assessed. Other stimuli may include. illustrations with captions. LA. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. homophones.3.6.1. and charts.

noticed.g.3.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Sample Item 5 Antonyms The sample item below is based on “Swim. spilled D. words and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the assessed word or test item. Baby. hung C.. Which word has the OPPOSITE meaning of the word wildly? A. words constructed similarly to the correct response (e. meanings of the assessed words that are correct but are not appropriate for the context. bravely ★ B. Swim!” on page G–2. Which pair of words from the story have almost the SAME meaning? ★ A.1. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect meanings of assessed words. screamed. Note: When constructing answer choices using word pairs. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 27 . dropped. grabbed. faithfully D. calmly C.6. merrily 100000257637 100000257015 Sample Item 6 Synonyms The sample item below is based on “Swim. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. saw B.8 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Now his parents circled wildly above him. squawking and shrieking. the words within the pair should be the same part of speech. same affix. same tense). struggled FCAT 2. Baby. Swim!” on page G–2. Read this sentence from the story.

3.3. and peek all refer to the concept of looking.3.6. the student will analyze the word or phrase to determine small.. but each word has a different meaning or connotation). Also assesses LA. Content Limits 28 | FCAT 2. Excerpted text must contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e. Other stimuli may include.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.9 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.1.6. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .1. subtle differences in meaning between related words (e. Content Focus Multiple Meanings Analyze Words in Text Shades of Meaning Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess words with multiple meanings or shades of meaning. The words should be assessed using words at or below grade level. graphics. LA.6.6.g. loud)..g. Clarification The student will analyze words that have multiple meanings and determine the correct meanings of the words as used in the text. illustrations with captions. Texts should contain words with multiple meanings or shades of meaning and must provide clear and sufficient information or context for the student to determine the correct meaning.1. glance.9 The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.1. blaring. For shades of meaning.9 BENCHMARK LA.3. and charts. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. glare. but are not limited to.

incorrect connotation of a word based on the use of the word in the text (use only to assess shades of meaning).0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 29 .Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. The wild kitten would not let us pet it. We saw the most beautiful flowers growing in the wild. Which meaning of the word station is the SAME one used in the sentence above? ★ A. area B. office D. 100000256993 Read this sentence from the article. same affix. Scientists think that the white stuff reminds birds of cotton fluff they find in the wild. B. Which sentence uses the word wild the SAME as it is used in the sentence above? A.6. C.. but are not limited to • • • • • correct meanings of the assessed word but inappropriate to the text. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.g. FCAT 2. ★ D. situation Sample Item 8 Multiple Meanings The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. My uncle makes us laugh with his wild stories. job C. 100000256994 Read this sentence from the article. The swimmer enjoyed playing in the wild waves. Keep your bird station away from places where cats hang out.1.3. words constructed similarly to the correct response (e. same tense). Sample Item 7 Multiple Meanings The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5.9 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. meanings drawn from the text but unrelated to the meaning of the assessed word or test item.

Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . B. Now the little bird’s parents hopped around the cattails and called to their baby. The teacher called my name twice. a young blackbird clung to a cattail stem near his nest.3. to show that the blackbird grips the stem tightly to show that the blackbird causes the stem to sag to show that the blackbird is ready to fly from the stem to show that the blackbird hugs the stem in a playful way 30 | FCAT 2. D. 100000466893 Read this sentence from the story. My coach called the plays to the team.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. The new puppy was called Spot by the children. alarm dislike uncertainty worry Sample Item 11 Shades of Meaning The sample item below is based on “Swim.9 Sample Item 9 Multiple Meanings The sample item below is based on “Swim. Swim!” on page G–2. What feeling does the word junk create? A. C. D. they also need to use lots of natural materials. C. Which sentence below uses the word called the same way it is used in the sentence above? ★ A. ★ B. Baby. Why does the author use the word clung instead of “held on” in the sentence above? ★ A.6. Even though birds can help us recycle some of our junk by using it to build nests.Grade 3 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. B. 100000256995 Read this sentence from the article. Swim!” on page G-2. One summer morning. 100000292748 Read this sentence from the story. D. Baby. C.1. Sample Item 10 Analyze Words in Text The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. Susan called me on the phone to talk.

5. summarizing.3 Grade 4 LA. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text.5.3. including but not limited to main idea.4. 3 within one text.7..5 • Cause and Effect • Text Structures/ Organizational Patterns (e.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application GRADE 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application Benchmark Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. definition/explanation. comparison/ contrast. including but not limited to main idea.1. summarizing. Grades 3–5 .7. question/answer. listing/description) • Themes (Gr.1.7.1.7.7 The student will compare and contrast elements.1.1. and identifying relevant details.1.1. chronological order of events. and sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text. inferences.7 LA. • Compare (similarities: settings.5 LA. 4–5 within/across texts) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.7. 3 within one text.g.1.4 LA. setting.1..1.7.7.3. inform. implied message.7. characters. explain) and how an author’s perspective influences text.1.3. 4–5 within/across texts) • Topics (Gr.. 3 within one text.3. to inform.3 • Main Idea (stated or implied) • Relevant Details • Conclusions/ Inferences • Chronological Order Grade 5 LA. Content Focus • Author’s Purpose • Author’s Perspective Grade 3 LA. Gr. Gr.3 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. cause/effect.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.7. Gr.4.7. The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring. The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e. characters. entertain.1. and chronological order of events.g.5. • Contrast (differences: The student will compare and contrast elements Gr.5.4. 4–5 within/across texts) Florida Department of Education | 31 FCAT 2.7. entertain. cause/effect.4 LA.g. Gr.g..6 The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections. strongly implied message and inference.5.g. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text. 3 within one text.7 LA.1. to persuade.6 LA.6 LA. relevant supporting details. sequence of events.7.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text.1. and problems in two texts.1. and paraphrasing.1.4.4.5.3. paraphrasing.7.4 LA.2 LA.2 LA. The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.4.1.7. Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. comparison/contrast.3.1. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text. relevant supporting details. problems).7. in multiple texts. Gr. The student will compare and contrast elements in 4–5 within/across texts) multiple texts (e..7.7.7.5 LA.

7. Texts may include.g. persuasive articles. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. illustrations with captions. or explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text.1. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: Distractors should not be a list of general categories (e. entertaining. but are not limited to. conveying a particular mood.2 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. to persuade) but should include specific examples related to the text.. The student will identify the author’s purpose or perspective. LA.g. to inform. to inform.2 BENCHMARK LA.. informing. including. The author’s purpose and perspective should be recognizable within texts. but are not limited to. telling a story. Texts should be literary or informational. incorrect interpretations of the author’s purpose or perspective. incorrect analysis or evaluation of the impact of the author’s purpose or perspective. but not limited to. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Author’s Purpose Author’s Perspective Grade-level appropriate texts used in assessing author’s purpose should contain an identifiable author’s purpose for writing.7. or explaining. graphics.3. and informational articles.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e. Other stimuli may include.1.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.3.3. The student will analyze the impact of the author’s purpose or perspective within a text. entertain. 32 | FCAT 2.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. and charts. diaries. but are not limited to • • • • facts and details that do not support the author’s purpose or represent the author’s perspective.7.1.

Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. 100000257000 What is the MOST LIKELY reason the author wrote the story “Swim. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 33 .1. If people would try bird watching. Birds prefer natural materials in their nests. Birds create trash for us to recycle. Sample Item 14 Author’s Perspective The sample item below is based on “The Better Birdhouse!” on page G–7. D. C. Birds show us how to recycle. Baby. Baby. ★ C. D.3.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. to show how pond animals live to tell about a bird learning to fly to explain why fish hunt young birds to describe how animals raise their babies Sample Item 13 Author’s Perspective The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. they would like it.2 Sample Item 12 Author’s Purpose The sample item below is based on “Swim. B. C. Swim!” on page G–2. ★ B. Birds need our help to build their nests. 100000256986 With which statement would the author of this article MOST LIKELY agree? ★ A. B. FCAT 2. Bird watching should be done in a forest or park. If children want to build birdhouses. they can do it alone. D. 100000292733 With which statement would the author MOST LIKELY agree? A. Swim!”? A. Building a birdhouse can be very expensive.7.

7. students will identify chronological order (sequencing of events).7. but are not limited to.7.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Other stimuli may include.3. or make appropriate inferences within grade-level appropriate texts. and charts.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. draw logical conclusions. Texts should include a main idea (stated or strongly implied). Paraphrasing should not be assessed. identifiable chronological order (sequence of events). illustrations with captions. relevant supporting details. Items may assess a student’s ability to identify a strongly stated main idea. In addition. texts may include a clear. In addition. The student will determine the main idea (stated or implied).1. and chronological order of events. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 34 | FCAT 2.3 BENCHMARK LA. and an identifiable chronological order that will enable students to draw logical conclusions and make appropriate inferences. locate relevant details and facts.3 The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text. LA.1.1.3 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Main Idea (stated or implied) Relevant Details Conclusions/Inferences Chronological Order Grade-level appropriate texts should include an identifiable main idea (stated or strongly implied) and relevant details from which students may draw logical conclusions or make appropriate inferences. graphics. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.3.3. relevant details. including but not limited to main idea. strongly implied message and inference.

events that are drawn from the text and presented out of order.3 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Swim!” on page G–2. in the farm pond D. Swim!” on page G–2. D. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 35 . Note: Items should not assess a student’s ability to identify details of least importance when assessing a main idea statement. Be careful where you land. ★ B. He is saved by an otter. or are a specific fact. B. Baby.3. Stay close to your nest. He reaches the shore. incorrect interpretations of the main idea that are too broad. Sample Item 16 Relevant Details The sample item below is based on “Swim. D. The marsh is safer than the pond. Swimming is easier than flying.7. on the shore ★ B. Swim!” on page G–2. Note: A main idea should be stated in a complete sentence. Baby. He learns to swim. C.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Sample Item 15 Main Idea The sample item below is based on “Swim. incorrect inferences or conclusions based on details found in the text. 100000257002 At the end of the story. He is fed by his parents. too narrow. FCAT 2. but are not limited to • • • • • details that do not support the main idea. on a willow branch Sample Item 17 Chronological Order The sample item below is based on “Swim. Baby. 100000257003 What happens AFTER the baby bird falls into the pond but BEFORE he is noticed by the bass? ★ A. where does the young bird finally feel safe? A. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. C.1. 100000257001 What is the MOST important lesson the young bird learns in this story? A. in the cattails C.

2 and the content focus of character development and/or character point of view. Other stimuli may include. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . the student may need to discern a causal relationship implied in the text through the assimilation of facts and details provided.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.1. 36 | FCAT 2. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. LA.7. Texts should include an identifiable cause-and-effect relationship that may be stated or implied.7. but are not limited to • • • incorrect causal relationships based on the text.1.2. Cause and Effect Grade-level appropriate texts used in assessing cause-and-effect relationships should contain identifiable causal relationships embedded in the text and/or contain sufficient facts and details to assist students in discerning implied causal relationships.3. incorrect rationales and/or interpretations of implied causal relationships. Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: When constructing cause-and-effect items using literary texts.4 BENCHMARK LA. graphics. Additionally. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships within texts. illustrations with captions.3.4 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. and charts.3.1.7. Texts should be literary or informational.3. but are not limited to.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.4 The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text. it is preferred that interactions and situations between characters be attributed to Benchmark LA.1.

They are telling their son to fly to the marsh.7.3. C. They are thanking the otter for chasing the fish. They are yelling at their son for falling in the pond. ★ B. Baby. C. He is learning how to swim. It is short. His wings get tired from flying. Swim!” on page G-2. 100000256987 What probably causes birds to choose white yarn over other colors for building their nests? A. D. Sample Item 19 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “Swim.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Sample Item 20 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “Swim. They are trying to frighten away other animals. It looks like cotton in the wild.1.4 Sample Item 18 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. B. 100000257004 Why does the little bird fall in the pond? ★ A. FCAT 2. D. B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 37 . It is warm. It looks like lint from a clothes dryer. 2282997 Why do the young bird’s parents call and scream AFTER he makes it to the shore? A. D. His wing tips dip too low in the water. Swim!” on page G–2. ★ C. He slips off a thin branch. Baby.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.

question/answer.3.1 for informational text. one that utilizes sequence of events.2. Other stimuli may include.6. cause/effect.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.3. listing/description) Text structures found within grade-level appropriate texts should be identifiable and may include. comparison/contrast. a literary text may occasionally be appropriate (e.3. but are not limited to.g.7. comparison/contrast. comparison/contrast.g..1 for literary text and in LA.5 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. graphics..3. Text features should not be assessed in this benchmark but will be assessed in LA. Text structures must be clearly evident as indicated by signal words and phrases.3.1.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.7. and sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text. LA. illustrations with captions. definition/explanation. cause/effect.1. The student will identify the text structures/organizational patterns and determine how they impact meaning within texts.7. however. but are not limited to. Texts should contain an identifiable organizational pattern. and sequence of events (chronological order). Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.1. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .5 The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e. Text Structures/Organizational Patterns (e.1. and charts.2. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 38 | FCAT 2. cause/effect.. comparison/contrast. or cause/effect). Informational texts are more suited than literary texts toward item development for this benchmark.5 BENCHMARK LA. sequence of events.g.

cause/effect. by listing the steps birds use to build nests B. by providing detailed directions D. by explaining how birds recycle materials to build nests D.7.3. comparison/contrast) within the organizational pattern. compare/contrast. incorrect sequence of events (chronological order). cause/effect). by solving safety problems B.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Sample Item 21 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. incorrect relationships (e. 100000292732 How does the author MOSTLY explain how to build a birdhouse? A.. by contrasting the different materials birds use to build nests Sample Item 22 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “The Better Birdhouse!” on page G–7.. incorrect details drawn from the text. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.5 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. by identifying natural materials ★ C. sequence of events [chronological order].g. Note: Distractors should include a brief elaboration on how the organizational pattern impacts meaning in the text and should not be a list of general categories (e. by comparing different types of birds FCAT 2.g.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. How does the author organize “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!”? A. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 39 .1. by comparing the different nests birds build ★ C. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect interpretations of text structures/organizational patterns.

but are not limited to • • • • • facts and details that may contribute to but do not significantly support the theme or topic. friendship). and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Themes (Grade 3 within one text) Topics (Grade 3 within one text) Grade-level appropriate texts used to assess themes or topics must have a clear and identifiable theme or topic.6 BENCHMARK LA. or ideas drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.3. but are not limited to. the rewards of old age.6 The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections.. never give up) or topics (e. and charts. or Old age can be a time of great satisfaction).g. Note: A topic should be stated in a word or phrase. students are required to work within only one text. Texts should be literary or informational. LA. Note: In Grade 3. 40 | FCAT 2. a summary statement that is unrelated to the overall theme. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. graphics. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.g. citizenship. The student will identify themes (e. save our Earth.7. recycling. childhood.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.. Note: A theme should be stated in a complete sentence or a phrase (e.7.1. Other stimuli may include. Note: Theme is neither the story’s plot (what happens) nor the story’s topic expressed in a word (e.1.g. facts.6 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text..7.3. Texts should include a readily identifiable theme or topic. freedom) that may be stated or implied within a text.1. details. incorrect interpretations of the theme or topic. illustrations with captions..3.g.

Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 41 .0 Reading Test Item Specifications.6 Sample Item 23 Themes The sample item below is based on “Swim.1.3. ★ C. B.7. 100000292738 What is the theme of the story? A.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. C. collecting trash protecting nature recycling in nature decorating with scraps FCAT 2. Keep away from your enemies. D. Stay close to your home. D. ★ B. Swim!” on page G–2. 100000256989 What topic is covered in this article? A. Baby. Sample Item 24 Topics The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. Learn from your experiences. Listen carefully to your parents.

1.1. LA.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. setting.3. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .7. and charts within one text.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.3. alike or different is the preferred wording for this benchmark. subject. Similarities and differences should not be assessed together in a single item. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. When constructing a test item.. graphics. in Grade 3. Note: In Grade 3.1. and main idea. author’s perspective.7.7. students are required to work within only one text. Texts should include elements that compare or contrast.7 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. or problems). situations involving one or more characters changing over time should be assessed under LA. these words should appear in all capital letters. character. however.2 and the content focus of character development. but are not limited to. Other stimuli may include. author’s purpose.7 BENCHMARK LA.2.g. but are not limited to. and problems in two texts. To assess this benchmark within a text. Content Focus Content Limits Compare (similarities: Grade 3 within one text) Contrast (differences: Grade 3 within one text) Grade-level appropriate texts should include elements that can be compared or contrasted and may include. between two settings. characters.3.3. When constructing compare-and-contrast items using literary text.7 The student will compare and contrast elements. items should be based on elements that can be compared or contrasted. 42 | FCAT 2. The student will identify similarities between elements within one text or will identify differences between elements within one text (e. settings. characters.1. illustrations with captions.

a person who buys things at a store Sample Item 26 Compare The sample item below is based on “Swim. similarities or differences that are drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. 2282848 How are the otter and the bass ALIKE? ★ A. They try to warn the little bird. a bird that can write B. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. B. Note: When constructing a comparison item. 100000256990 Read this sentence from the article “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” Yarn is big on an oriole’s shopping list when nest building. D.3. What is the author comparing an oriole to in the sentence above? A. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect comparisons. Swim!” on page G–2. a bird that collects paper C. incorrect contrasts. They look for food. FCAT 2.7 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. They swim slowly in the pond. a person who lives in a house ★ D. Baby. When constructing a contrast item. distractors should not compare elements. C. Sample Item 25 Compare The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5.1. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 43 . distractors should not contrast elements.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.Grade 3 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. They chase the little bird.7. facts and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.

7 • Descriptive Language (e. and problem/resolution in a variety of fiction. explain. sections.7 LA. feelings. text boxes) 44 | FCAT 2. metaphor. and use information from text features (e. plot.2 • Character Development • Character Point of View • Setting • Plot Development • Problem/Resolution Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. transition words/phrases. diagrams.2.g. charts. mood.1 • Text Features (e. graphs. headings.2. diagrams. personification) Grade 3 LA. captions.4.2.4. subtitles. subheadings. charts.5.3. symbolism). illustrations). Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. charts. Content Focus Grade 4 LA. illustrations). The student will locate. setting. character development. character development. The student will identify and explain the elements of plot structure.2. metaphors.1.5. glossary. imagery) • Figurative Language (e. personification. and objects. charts. table of contents. italicized text.1 Grade 5 LA. table of contents. titles.2.1. headings. illustrations. simile.2 The student will identify and explain the elements of story structure.2. similes.3. glossary.g. headings. graphs. The student will locate and analyze the elements of plot structure.. including character/ character development.g.. headings.g. problem/ resolution.2. The student will identify and explain the purpose of text features (e.3.2... explain. graphs.1.1.2. illustrations). subheadings. idiomatic. glossary. and examine how it is used to describe people. and use information from text features (e.7 LA. tables. and theme in a variety of fiction.2.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction GRADE 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction Benchmark Grade 3 LA.. index. problem/resolution. and theme in a variety of fiction. including exposition.g..g. maps..0 Reading Test Item Specifications.1. The student will locate.2.2 Grade 5 LA. diagrams. including exposition.5. graphs. rising/falling action. setting. and figurative language (e.4.g.2. setting.1 Grade 4 LA.1. table of contents.

nonfiction (e.3. plot development.) Text Attributes Texts should be literary and may include. details.g.2 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 1 The student identifies. the student will identify how story events in the text contribute to problem/resolution.1. In addition. setting. but are not limited to. items should be based on one text that contains a variety of literary elements.1. and charts.. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. or problem/resolution. inaccurate interpretations of character.3. setting.3.7. problem/resolution). (Theme is tested under LA.3. biographies. character point of view. Students should not be tested on exposition or theme. Other stimuli may include.. The student will also identify and interpret other literary elements. and problem/resolution. and problem/resolution in a variety of fiction. and drama.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.2 The student will identify and explain the elements of story structure.6. fiction. but are not limited to • • • • details that may contribute to but do not significantly support plot. To assess this benchmark. Florida Department of Education | 45 Benchmark Clarification Content Limits FCAT 2. analyzes. plot. or ideas drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.g. character development.1. character development. The student will identify and interpret elements of story structure within a text. Note: In Grade 3. including character/character development. graphics. plot development. and plot within a text. but are not limited to. poetry. point of view. character point of view.2.2.2 BENCHMARK LA.1. students are required to work within only one text. illustrations with captions. facts. such as character development. Grades 3–5 . Content Focus Character Development Character Point of View Setting Plot Development Problem/Resolution Texts should be grade-level appropriate and contain identifiable literary elements (e. setting. LA. setting.2. diary entries). and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection.

3.2 Sample Item 27 Character Development The sample item below is based on “Swim. Baby. then they are restless. ★ C. First they are nervous. Swim!” on page G–2. First they are peaceful. C. First they are calm. Baby. Sample Item 28 Character Development The sample item below is based on “Swim. B. 100000257007 Which word BEST describes the parents in this story? A. brave curious gentle protective Sample Item 29 Problem/Resolution The sample item below is based on “Swim. then they are frightened. C. finding the marsh drying his feathers getting out of the pond escaping from the otter 46 | FCAT 2.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. B. D. 100000257006 What is the young bird’s MAIN problem in the story? A. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .0 Reading Test Item Specifications.2. Baby.1. then they are anxious. Swim!” on page G–2. Swim!” on page G–2. B. 100000257005 How do the parents change from BEFORE the baby bird falls into the pond to AFTER he lands on the shore? A. then they are relaxed. ★ D. First they are protective. ★ D.

g.2. biographies. imagery) and figurative language (e. The student will identify and interpret the author’s use of descriptive or figurative language and will determine how the author’s use of language impacts meaning in grade-level appropriate texts. nonfiction (e..3.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. symbolism).2. imagery) Figurative Language (e.g. and charts. Descriptive Language (e. similes. personification). Distractor Attributes Distractors may include.1.7 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 1 The student identifies.3.. LA. personification) Grade-level appropriate texts should contain clear examples of descriptive language (e. fiction. and examine how it is used to describe people. inaccurate interpretations of descriptive language or figurative language.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. feelings. Idioms and symbolism should not be assessed. metaphors. but are not limited to • • • examples of descriptive language or figurative language drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. personification.1. graphics. poetry.g.g. illustrations with captions. mood. metaphor.. but are not limited to.. idiomatic.1. simile. Other stimuli may include. and drama. metaphor. and objects. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.2.7 The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. analyzes.g. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2.g. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 47 ..3. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection. diary entries). and figurative language (e. Text Attributes Texts may be literary or informational and may include. mood.7 BENCHMARK LA.. simile. but are not limited to.

They shrieked and screamed and darted about in the branches while the young bird swam on. But there was nothing they could do to help him. 100000292739 Read the following sentences from the story.1. angry) in a text. happy. ★ D. Swim!” on page G–2. 100000257008 Read these sentences from the story. the bird’s frantic parents were watching from the willow tree. Baby.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. C. gloomy joyful proud scary Sample Item 31 Figurative Language The sample item below is based on “Swim. they must be balanced with two figurative language distractors. Swim!” on page G–2.3. Sample Item 30 Descriptive Language The sample item below is based on “Swim.2.g. The correct answer determines the content focus for the item. How is the author comparing the little bird’s parents to human parents? A. Note: Distractors may also include all descriptive language examples or all figurative language examples. distractors should not be a list of words but should include specific examples related to the text. like humans feeding their children like humans warning their children like humans teaching their children like humans comforting their children 48 | FCAT 2. Meanwhile.. Now the little bird’s parents hopped around the cattails and called to their baby.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. B. Baby.7 Note: If two descriptive language distractors are used. Note: When assessing the author’s mood (e. ★ B. sad. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . C. What mood does the author create by writing that the bird’s parents shrieked and screamed? A. D. whenever possible.

drama) and literary nonfiction texts (e.2. indices. diagrams.2. and text boxes. poetry. nonfiction (e.1 The student will identify and explain the purpose of text features (e. diary entries).g. and expository texts to demonstrate an understanding of the information presented. captions.g. but are not limited to. charts.1 BENCHMARK LA.3. tables.. Text Attributes Texts should be literary and may include.. and key/guide words should not be assessed. subheadings. table of contents. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of nonfiction. graphs. analyzes. charts. headings. glossary.2. maps. italicized text. captions. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 49 . diagrams. diary entries. autobiographies..0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g. illustrations.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. headings. narratives.g. illustrations). diagrams. graphs. memoirs). sections. titles. biographies.1 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 2 The student identifies. or drama.2. LA. poetry. headings.2.. subtitles. identifiable text feature or a variety of text features. subtitles. The student will identify and determine meaning from a variety of text features.2. Stimuli found in texts may include titles. biographies. glossaries. subheadings. fiction. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2.3. Tables of contents.3. sections. text boxes) Text features should be assessed within grade-level appropriate literary fictional texts (e. maps. informational. Texts should include a single. charts. tables. graphs. Text Features (e. italicized text. illustrations.g..

Sample Item 33 Text Features The sample item below is based on “Swim. Sample Item 32 Text Features The sample item below is based on “Swim.. incorrect or irrelevant information drawn from text features.. 100000257011 What is the purpose of the illustration on the second page of the story? A. answer choices may be developed from other areas of the text but should be parallel and balanced. to show how the baby bird escapes the bass ★ D. Baby.?.. 100000257010 Which sentence from the story BEST describes what is happening in the illustration on the first page of the story? A. He dipped his wing tips low into the water. Baby. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Swim!” on page G–2 and references the illustration on page G–2. He fluffed up his feathers. Note: Items should not ask the student for literal references.. The little bird blinked his dark eyes and looked around..1 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include.3.. B. but are not limited to • • • • facts. to show who helps the baby bird C. The little brown bird held tightly to a stem and flapped his wings.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. In which chapter would you find. to show how the baby bird reaches the shore 50 | FCAT 2.2. details.Grade 3 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. Swim!” on page G–2 and references the illustration on page G–3. or other information drawn from text features but unrelated to the test item. or In what kind of reference book would you find information about. to show why the baby bird slips B. C.?. incorrect analysis and interpretation of text features. such as • • • On what page would you find. ★ D. subheadings/captions).2.g..? Note: When assessing a text feature (e. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .

Grade 3 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process GRADE 3 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process Benchmark Grade 3 LA.. maps. titles. diagrams.5. including but not limited to being informed.g..4. conducting interviews. illustrations. sections. problem solving. preparing to take a test. The student will read and interpret informational text and organize the information (e. and conclusions). text boxes) Grade 5 LA. headings.1 The student will read informational text (e. manuals) and organize information for different purposes. performing a task). following multi­ step directions. making a report. and performing a task.1 Grade 5 LA.2 • Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information (within/across texts) FCAT 2.6. tables.3. captions. timelines. italicized text. performing a task.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g. charts. The student will read informational text and text features (e. evaluating the validity and reliability of information in text by examining several sources of information. Organize Information • Text Features (e. predictions.... following multi-step directions. use outlines.6. graphs. preparing to take a test.g. subheadings.2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 51 . The student will read and record information systematically. being informed.1.6. Content Focus Grade 4 LA.1.1. graphs. charts. illustrations. Interpret. graphics. diagrams) to organize information for different purposes (e. subtitles. format. and graphic organizers) from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (e.. creating a report.6.g. multi-step directions.1 • Locate.g.g.5. legends. conducting interviews. supporting opinions.

preparing to take a test. Text Attributes Texts should be informational. following multi-step directions. websites.6. LA. Clarification Content Limits 52 | FCAT 2. illustrations. captions. Content Focus Locate. The student will identify and determine meaning from a variety of text features. how-to articles. graphs. consumer documents.3.g. headings.Grade 3 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA. illustrations. italicized text. how-to articles.. Stimuli found in texts may include titles. websites.. graphs. tables.1.1 BENCHMARK LA. text boxes) Text features should be assessed using grade-level appropriate texts that may include.1 The student will read informational text (e.3. making a report. subtitles.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g. diagrams. headings. diagrams. brochures. subheadings. and text boxes.g. brochures. conducting interviews. students are required to work within only one text. captions. italicized text. including but not limited to being informed. consumer documents.6. charts. fliers.. fliers. other real-world documents). Making a report.1. Interpret. conducting interviews. subtitles. preparing to take a test. manuals) and organize information for different purposes. graphs. and performing a task. and performing a task should not be assessed. grade-level appropriate informational articles and functional reading materials (e.g. Organize Information Text Features (e. titles. other real-world documents). but are not limited to. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .. subheadings.1. maps. Texts may include. charts. charts.6. identifiable text feature or a variety of text features. Note: In Grade 3. but are not limited to. tables.1 Strand Standard Benchmark 6 Information and Media Literacy 1 The student comprehends the wide array of informational text that is part of our day to day experiences. Texts should include a single.3. sections. informational articles and functional reading materials (e. sections. maps.

or In what kind of reference book would you find information about. to make the birdhouse look larger C. Interpret. incorrect or irrelevant information drawn from text features..1 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. but are not limited to • • • • facts.. Organize Information The sample item below is based on “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” on page G–5. Sample Item 34 Locate.6..?.. In which chapter would you find.Grade 3 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA. For The Birds! ★ D. to make the birdhouse stronger B. incorrect analysis and interpretation of text features.?.. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.. subheadings/captions). Picky B. What A Yarn C. and moss listed in the Materials you will need section? A. what is the purpose for the twigs. grass. 100000256991 Under which heading would you MOST LIKELY find information on materials birds find in the wild? A. or other information drawn from text features but unrelated to the test item. 100000257019 Based on the flier.1. to make the birdhouse look more natural FCAT 2. Picky.? Note: When assessing a text feature (e. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 53 . such as • • • On what page would you find. answer choices may be developed from other areas of the text but should be parallel and balanced. to make the birdhouse more beautiful ★ D.. details.3. Do It Naturally Sample Item 35 Text Features The sample item below is based on “The Better Birdhouse!” on page G–7.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Note: Items should not ask the student for literal references.g.

0 Reading Test Item Specifications.SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRADE 4 54 | FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .

4. • Analyze Words in Also assesses LA.5. homophones.8 LA.3.3. blaring.4.1. Also assesses LA.6.4. synonyms.1.1.g. blaring.6.1.3 LA.1.6.1. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.1. • Base Words • Affixes • Roots (Grade 5) Content Focus • Context Clues Grade 4 LA.1..6.3 LA.6.7 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.g.3. and homographs to determine meanings of words. Also assesses LA.5. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6.8 LA. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.9 Grade 5 LA.3. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e. • Shades of Meaning loud). Also assesses LA.6.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary GRADE 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary Benchmark Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.5.6.6.1.6.1.1.5. blaring.9 FCAT 2.7 Grade 5 LA.1.. loud).3.4..11 The student will use meaning of familiar roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.6.1.6 The student will identify Text shades of meaning in related words (e.4.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.5.1. The student will determine the correct meaning • Multiple Meanings of words with multiple meanings in context.8 LA.1.6.6.6.9 • Antonyms • Synonyms Grade 4 LA.1.g.6.5.6. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 55 .3 LA. The student will use knowledge of antonyms. loud).7 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.

6. LA. and sufficient context must be present for students to determine the meaning of the word. will identify the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Texts must contain a word unfamiliar to most students.3 BENCHMARK LA. using context clues. illustrations with captions. but are not limited to. but are not limited to • • • • incorrect meanings of the assessed word.3 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.1.6. and charts.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. 56 | FCAT 2. Context Clues Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess words unfamiliar to most students.4. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . graphics. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. contextual meanings drawn from the text but unrelated to the assessed word or test item. If an item stem directs the student back to the text to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word.4. the text should contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word. Excerpted text should contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word.4. The assessed word should be no more than two grade levels above the tested grade.1.3 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. Other stimuli may include. meanings of the assessed word that are correct but are not appropriate for the context surrounding the word.6.1.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. The student. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.

hurt improve strengthen tire FCAT 2. You will only strain your voice. 100000259074 Read these sentences from the text box “Sing Like a Pro. She made the hammock out of rope. Sample Item 37 Context Clues The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11.6. She hung the hammock up. C.” If you’re singing in the school chorus.1. D. don’t try to sing louder than the person next to you. D. C.4.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.3 Sample Item 36 Context Clues The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. She lay down on the hammock and rested. which she strung between two swaying palms. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 57 . She sat in the hammock and rocked. 100000259036 Read this sentence from the passage. What does the word strain mean as used in the sentences above? ★ A. B. B. What does the word strung mean in the sentence above? ★ A.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. exactly as before. Miss Bilberry was so tired that she slept all afternoon in her hammock.

Texts must contain appropriate words to assess knowledge of base words or affixes.1. -able. un-.4.1. dis-.4.7 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.6..0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Simple analysis and/or inference may be required. Base Words Affixes Grade-level appropriate texts should contain vocabulary for assessing prefixes (e. it’s) should not be assessed. non-). LA. but are not limited to • • • incorrect meanings of words.7 The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.4. -ness). graphics.1. and charts. -est. same affix. but are not limited to. -ly. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .g.. in-. Other stimuli may include... Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. The student will identify familiar base words with prefixes and/or suffixes to determine the meanings of complex words in a text.g. they’re. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. and base words. words with construct similar to the correct response (e.g. Content Focus Content Limits 58 | FCAT 2. same tense). -ful.6. re-. suffixes (e.7 BENCHMARK LA. Excerpted text should contain the assessed word to provide clear and sufficient context. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. -less. pre-. -er.g. Assessed words should be no more than two grade levels above the tested grade. Contractions (e.6. illustrations with captions. -or. mis-.

When Miss Bilberry caught up they all unpacked the boxes and emptied the bags. B. D. red over disc cover Sample Item 39 Affixes The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. to take items out of a container to put items in a container again to give away items from a container to put items in a container beforehand FCAT 2. B.4. 100000259037 Read this sentence from the passage. Her voice teacher discovered that nineteen-year-old Carol had an exceptionally beautiful soprano voice—the highest singing voice for women. C.6. What is the base word for the word discovered? A.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 59 .1. ★ D.7 Sample Item 38 Base Words The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11. what does unpacked mean? ★ A.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. C. 100000466906 Read this sentence from the article. If packed means to put items in a container.

they’re.4.8 BENCHMARK LA.1.4. LA. homophones. it’s) should not be assessed.4. Texts should contain appropriate words to assess knowledge of antonyms and synonyms at grade level.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. Homophones and homographs should not be assessed.6. and charts. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .g. The student will use antonyms and synonyms to determine the meaning of a word within a text. synonyms. illustrations with captions. Simple analysis and/or inference may be required to comprehend the meaning of the word.8 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. and homographs to determine meanings of words.6. Antonyms Synonyms Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess antonyms and synonyms. graphics. but are not limited to.. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 60 | FCAT 2.1.1.8 The student will use knowledge of antonyms.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Other stimuli may include.6. Contractions (e.

same affix.g.8 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Which pair of words from the passage have almost the SAME meaning? 100000259038 A. fancy C.. Miss Bilberry lived in a pale yellow house at the base of the great blue mountains with a dog named Cecilie. pretty D. Which word has the OPPOSITE meaning of the word pale? ★ A. and two birds called Chitty and Chatty. climbed ★ D. sighed. dark B. bothered. unpacked FCAT 2. a cat called Chester. tiny Sample Item 41 Synonyms The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. snarled C. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.1. same tense). waved B.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. the words within the pair should be the same part of speech.4. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 61 . emptied. played. Note: When constructing answer choices using word pairs. words and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the assessed word or test item. words constructed similarly to the correct response (e. Sample Item 40 Antonyms The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. meanings of the assessed words that are correct but are not appropriate for the context. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect meanings of assessed words.6. 100000259039 Read this sentence from the passage.

4.9 BENCHMARK LA.6. Content Limits 62 | FCAT 2. LA.1. The words should be assessed using words at or below grade level. and charts.4.9 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.9 The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. illustrations with captions. For shades of meaning. and peek all refer to the concept of looking. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .6.6. subtle differences in meaning between related words (e.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.. but each word has a different meaning or connotation). glare. but are not limited to.4.g.4.g. glance. Clarification The student will analyze words that have multiple meanings and determine the correct meanings of the words as used in the text. Excerpted text must contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word.1.. Also assesses LA.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.1.6.1. blaring.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. the student will analyze the word or phrase to determine small. Content Focus Multiple Meanings Analyze Words in Text Shades of Meaning Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess words with multiple meanings or shades of meaning. Texts should contain words with multiple meanings or shades of meaning and must provide clear and sufficient information or context for the student to determine the correct meaning. Other stimuli may include. loud). graphics. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.

Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. 100000259076 Read this sentence from the article. “Put your heart into your singing and enjoy it. 100000259077 Read this sentence from the article. but are not limited to • • • • • correct meanings of the assessed word but inappropriate to the text. incorrect connotation of a word based on the use of the word in the text (use only to assess shades of meaning). Sample Item 42 Multiple Meanings The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11.6.g. “because singing is a great joy.9 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Talented singers have the power to affect us in many ways—emotionally. physically. same affix. Our lights blinked off when our block lost power. meanings drawn from the text but unrelated to the meaning of the assessed word or test item.1. outstanding FCAT 2.” What is the meaning of the word great as it is used in the sentence above? A.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. same tense). B. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. countless B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 63 . D. C.” says Carol. My friend did not have the power to finish the race. My teddy bear has the power to comfort me. words constructed similarly to the correct response (e.. important C. and mentally. Which sentence uses the word power the SAME way it is used in the sentence above? ★ A.4. Our government has the power to make laws. large ★ D. Sample Item 43 Multiple Meanings The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11.

the author shows that Cecilie is ★ A.” snapped Cecilie. strong. C. B. to show that the colony of ants exits the nest quickly to show that the colony of ants moves in a specific direction to show that the heat makes the ants uncomfortable in their nest to show that the ants become confused when they leave the nest Sample Item 46 Shades of Meaning The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. B. B.” snarled Chester. D. Why does the author use the word leapt in the sentence above? ★ A. daring. Why does the author use the word pouring instead of “crawling” in the sentence above? ★ A. “No it isn’t. 100000466904 Read these sentences from the article. worried. By using the word snapped instead of “said” or “replied” in the sentence above. C.1.6. FCAT 2. D. Each morning when the sun shone in her window.Grade 4 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. “This is the wrong way. D. 100000259040 Read this sentence from the passage. Then a few scouts give a signal. and hundreds of ants come pouring out.9 Sample Item 44 Analyze Words in Text The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 100000466905 Read these sentences from the passage. Their whole colony stays in the nest until the sand temperature outside gets to about 116 degrees. Miss Bilberry leapt out of bed. to show how happy Miss Bilberry is to show how jealous Miss Bilberry is to show how peaceful Miss Bilberry is to show how stubborn Miss Bilberry is Sample Item 45 Shades of Meaning The sample item below is based on “Living on the Edge of Danger” on page G–14.4. 64 cross. C. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | .

Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application

GRADE 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application Benchmark
Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.3.1.7.2 LA.4.1.7.2 LA.5.1.7.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.g., to inform, entertain, explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text. The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.g., to persuade, inform, entertain, explain) and how an author’s perspective influences text. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text, including but not limited to main idea, relevant supporting details, strongly implied message and inference, and chronological order of events. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text, including but not limited to main idea, relevant supporting details, implied message, inferences, chronological order of events, summarizing, and paraphrasing. The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring, paraphrasing, summarizing, and identifying relevant details. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text. The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e.g., comparison/contrast, cause/effect, and sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text.

Content Focus

• Author’s Purpose • Author’s Perspective

Grade 3

LA.3.1.7.3

Grade 4

LA.4.1.7.3

• Main Idea (stated or implied) • Relevant Details • Conclusions/ Inferences • Chronological Order

Grade 5

LA.5.1.7.3

Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5

LA.3.1.7.4 LA.4.1.7.4 LA.5.1.7.4 LA.3.1.7.5 LA.4.1.7.5 LA.5.1.7.5

• Cause and Effect • Text Structures/ Organizational Patterns (e.g., comparison/ contrast, cause/effect, sequence of events, definition/explanation, question/answer, listing/description) • Themes (Gr. 3 within one text; Gr. 4–5 within/across texts) • Topics (Gr. 3 within one text; Gr. 4–5 within/across texts) • Compare (similarities: Gr. 3 within one text; Gr. 4–5 within/across texts) • Contrast (differences: Gr. 3 within one text; Gr. 4–5 within/across texts)

Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5

LA.3.1.7.6 LA.4.1.7.6 LA.5.1.7.6

The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections.

Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5

LA.3.1.7.7 LA.4.1.7.7 LA.5.1.7.7

The student will compare and contrast elements, settings, characters, and problems in two texts. The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts (e.g., setting, characters, problems). The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts.

FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education | 65

Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application

LA.4.1.7.2

BENCHMARK LA.4.1.7.2
Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. LA.4.1.7.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.g., to inform, entertain, explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text. The student will identify the author’s purpose or perspective. The student will analyze the impact of the author’s purpose or perspective within or across texts. Author’s Purpose Author’s Perspective Grade-level appropriate texts used in assessing author’s purpose should contain an identifiable author’s purpose for writing, including, but not limited to, informing, telling a story, conveying a particular mood, entertaining, or explaining. The author’s purpose and perspective should be recognizable within or across texts. Texts should be literary or informational. Other stimuli may include, but are not limited to, illustrations with captions, graphics, and charts. Texts may include, but are not limited to, persuasive articles, diaries, and informational articles. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include, but are not limited to • • • • facts and details that do not support the author’s purpose or represent the author’s perspective; incorrect interpretations of the author’s purpose or perspective; incorrect analysis or evaluation of the impact of the author’s purpose or perspective; and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.

Clarification

Content Focus Content Limits

Text Attributes

Note: Distractors should not be a list of general categories (e.g., to inform, to persuade) but should include specific examples related to the text.

66

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FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education

Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application

LA.4.1.7.2

Sample Item 47 Author’s Purpose The sample item below is based on “Play a Game” on page G–13.
100000466907

Why did the author MOST likely write “Play a Game”? A. B. ★ C. D. to list the parts of a license plate to inform readers about field trips to give ideas for activities while traveling to entertain readers with a story about traveling

Sample Item 48 Author’s Purpose The sample item below is based on “Living on the Edge of Danger” on page G–14.
100000466909

Which statement BEST describes the author’s view of the silver ants? A. ★ B. C. D. The author respects the ants’ hunting skills. The author respects the ants’ ability to adapt. The author believes the ants live dangerous lives. The author believes the ants prefer high temperatures.

FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education | 67

and charts.1.1. summarizing.3 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. graphics. and paraphrasing.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. implied message.3 The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text. texts may include a clear. Main Idea (stated or implied) Relevant Details Conclusions/Inferences Chronological Order Grade-level appropriate texts should include an identifiable main idea (stated or strongly implied) and relevant details from which students may draw logical conclusions or make appropriate inferences. including but not limited to main idea. but are not limited to. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 68 | FCAT 2. chronological order of events.7. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . LA. Texts should include a main idea (stated or strongly implied). or make appropriate inferences within or across grade-level appropriate texts. draw logical conclusions. relevant details. Other stimuli may include. students will identify chronological order (sequencing of events). illustrations with captions.3 BENCHMARK LA. relevant supporting details. The student will determine the main idea (stated or implied). In addition. identifiable chronological order (sequence of events).0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Paraphrasing should not be assessed.4.4.7. and an identifiable chronological order that will enable students to draw logical conclusions and make appropriate inferences. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.4.1.7. inferences. In addition. Items may assess a student's ability to identify a strongly stated main idea. locate relevant details and facts.

too narrow.7. Note: Items should not assess a student’s ability to identify details of least importance when assessing a main idea statement. B. Miss Bilberry ends the journey where she began. FCAT 2. Miss Bilberry moves close to her old house. but are not limited to • • • • • details that do not support the main idea.3 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. or are a specific fact. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 69 . ★ D.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Sample Item 49 Relevant Details The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11. ★ D. Miss Bilberry has been tricked by her pets. 100000259078 Which is a way to improve your breathing for singing? A.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. 100000295123 Why are the mountains in front of the house once Miss Bilberry has moved? A. Let the air come out slowly.4. Note: A main idea should be stated in a complete sentence. B.1. C. Push the air out powerfully. C. Bring the air in noisily. events that are drawn from the text and presented out of order. Sample Item 50 Conclusions/Inferences The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. incorrect inferences or conclusions based on details found in the text. incorrect interpretations of the main idea that are too broad. Take the air in quickly. Miss Bilberry discovers different mountains.

Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .3 Sample Item 51 Chronological Order The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. Miss Bilberry announces the move. 70 | FCAT 2. Miss Bilberry thinks about her happiness. Everyone waves bye to the house. C. 100000259043 What happens AFTER everyone loads the cart with supplies but BEFORE everyone gets lost? A. Everyone helps pack boxes.1.4. ★ B.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. D.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.7.

2 and the content focus of character development and/or character point of view. FCAT 2.7. Additionally. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. but are not limited to. Texts should be literary or informational.4.7. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships within texts. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Texts should include an identifiable cause-and-effect relationship that may be stated and/or implied. it is preferred that interactions and situations between characters be attributed to Benchmark LA.4 The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text. illustrations with captions. LA.2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.4 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. but are not limited to • • • incorrect causal relationships based on the text.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.4 BENCHMARK LA.4. the student may need to discern a causal relationship implied in the text through the assimilation of facts and details provided.7.1. and charts. graphics.1. Cause and Effect Grade-level appropriate texts used in assessing cause-and-effect relationships should contain identifiable causal relationships embedded in the text and/or contain sufficient facts and details to assist students in discerning implied causal relationships. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 71 .1.4.1. Other stimuli may include. Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: When constructing cause-and-effect items using literary texts. incorrect rationales and/or interpretations of implied causal relationships.4.

★ D.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. You can damage your voice.4. B. You can hurt your abdominal muscles. She is looking for an exciting adventure. 100000295122 Why does Miss Bilberry want to move? A.” what might happen if you sing very loudly in a chorus? ★ A. She thinks she will be more content somewhere else. C. C. You can develop stronger lungs. She is lonely in the pale yellow house. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . B. You can sing higher than before.1.7.4 Sample Item 52 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11. D. She wants more space for her vegetable garden. 100000477470 Based on the text box “Sing Like a Pro.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Sample Item 53 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. 72 | FCAT 2.

1. The student will identify the text structures/organizational patterns and determine how they impact meaning within texts.1. and charts. but are not limited to. a literary text may occasionally be appropriate (e.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.1. cause/effect.1. LA. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.g.6. however.1 for literary text and in LA. but are not limited to. Text features should not be assessed in this benchmark but will be assessed in LA.7.g. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2. one that utilizes sequence of events.2.7.2.. and sequence of events (chronological order). listing/description) Text structures found within grade-level appropriate texts should be identifiable and may include.5 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text.g. cause/effect.4.4. graphics. sequence of events.7. illustrations with captions. Informational texts are more suited than literary texts toward item development for this benchmark.4. comparison/contrast. comparison/contrast.5 The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e.. Text structures must be clearly evident as indicated by signal words and phrases.4. definition/explanation. comparison/contrast.. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 73 . Other stimuli may include. Texts should contain an identifiable organizational pattern. cause/effect. Text Structures/Organizational Patterns (e. comparison/contrast.5 BENCHMARK LA.4.1 for informational text. or cause/effect). question/answer.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.

to let readers know that Miss Bilberry would probably move again C.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. sequence of events [chronological order]. 100000259063 How does the author help readers to BETTER understand how to play the license plate games? A. compare/contrast. ★ B.4. cause/effect. to let readers know that Chester realizes the truth about the new house Sample Item 55 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11. describe how Carol improved her voice. At the end of the passage.g. by listing name suggestions ★ B.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. C. comparison/contrast) within the organizational pattern. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .1. D. by giving the order of playing C. 100000259042 Sample Item 54 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. incorrect sequence of events (chronological order). 100000259080 The author organized the text box “Sing Like a Pro” to A.5 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. to show why Miss Bilberry was happy when they left the old house ★ D. incorrect details drawn from the text. give steps for breathing properly. by giving the consequences of a mistake 74 | FCAT 2. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect interpretations of text structures/organizational patterns.7. cause/effect). Note: Distractors should include a brief elaboration on how the organizational pattern impacts meaning in the text and should not be a list of general categories (e. why does the author repeat her description of the house? A.. by comparing areas of the country D. incorrect relationships (e. advise how anyone can sing better. Sample Item 56 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “Play a Game” on page G–13.. explain why Carol became a singer.g. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. to show why Chester was angry about moving from the house again B.

Themes (Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Topics (Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Grade-level appropriate texts used to assess themes or topics must have a clear and identifiable theme or topic. never give up) or topics (e. FCAT 2.1. Note: A topic should be stated in a word or phrase. incorrect interpretations of the theme or topic.6 BENCHMARK LA... the rewards of old age. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 75 .g.g. citizenship.7.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.1.g. Texts should be literary or informational. friendship). and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. details. freedom) that may be stated or implied within texts. but are not limited to.. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. or Old age can be a time of great satisfaction). LA. The student will identify themes (e.6 The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g. Texts should include a readily identifiable theme or topic.. and charts.6 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. facts. save our Earth. a summary statement that is unrelated to the overall theme. illustrations with captions. recycling. Other stimuli may include.7.4.7.4. graphics.4. childhood. or ideas drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. but are not limited to • • • • • facts and details that may contribute to but do not significantly support the theme or topic.1. Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: Theme is neither the story’s plot (what happens) nor the story’s topic expressed in a word (e. Note: A theme should be stated in a complete sentence or a phrase (e.

★ B.6 Sample Item 57 Themes The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. D. B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . how a silver ant survives predators of the Sahara desert the climate of the Sahara desert where a silver ant finds its food 76 | FCAT 2.1. Sample Item 58 Topics The sample item below is based on “Living on the Edge of Danger” on page G–14. C.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. C. 100000259044 What is the theme of this passage? A. 100000466908 What is the topic of “Living on the Edge of Danger”? ★ A.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Follow friends wherever they go. D. Include others in your decisions.4. Be happy with what you have.7. Everyone has a special talent.

Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. When constructing a test item.7. To assess this benchmark across texts. and charts.7 The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts (e. illustrations with captions. Texts should include elements that compare and/or contrast.2. similarities or differences is the preferred wording for this benchmark.7 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. Compare (similarities: Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Contrast (differences: Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Grade-level appropriate texts should include elements that can be compared or contrasted and may include. but are not limited to.1.7 BENCHMARK LA.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2.4. setting. Other stimuli may include. author’s purpose. author’s perspective. Similarities and differences should not be assessed together in a single item. items should be based on two related texts containing elements that can be compared or contrasted. but are not limited to. To assess this benchmark within a text.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.4. and main idea.4. LA.7. setting. character. graphics.1.1. problems). Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 77 . subject..4. The student will identify similarities between elements within or across texts or will identify differences between elements within or across texts.1.g.7. characters. items should be based on elements that can be compared or contrasted. situations involving one or more characters changing over time should be assessed under LA.2 and the content focus of character development. When constructing compare-and-contrast items using literary text.

She still wishes for companions. D. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . distractors should not compare elements. while the text box describes singing on pitch. while the text box describes the process for singing. while the text box describes singing on stage. She still wants to move. D. incorrect contrasts. facts and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. 78 | FCAT 2. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect comparisons. Note: When constructing a comparison item.4. The article describes a singer. The article describes pop singing.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. similarities or differences that are drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. 100000466910 How is the article “Learning to Sing” DIFFERENT from the text box “Sing Like a Pro”? A. distractors should not contrast elements. ★ B.7. while the text box describes opera singing. Her surroundings are the same. 100000259045 How is Miss Bilberry’s life at the new house SIMILAR to what it was before? A. Sample Item 60 Contrast The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11. ★ C. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. C. The article describes voice vibrations. Her pets are troubled. Sample Item 59 Compare The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8.1.Grade 4 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. The article describes singing in a chorus.7 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. When constructing a contrast item. B.

1. graphs.7 • Descriptive Language (e. glossary.. illustrations.2. italicized text. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 79 . subheadings. including exposition. mood. and examine how it is used to describe people.2.7 LA. imagery) • Figurative Language (e. table of contents. charts. sections.2 • Character Development • Character Point of View • Setting • Plot Development • Problem/Resolution Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction GRADE 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction Benchmark Grade 3 LA. character development. glossary. problem/resolution.1.g.. table of contents.g. personification) Grade 3 LA. and use information from text features (e. and objects. tables. diagrams. maps. charts. rising/falling action. explain. subheadings.5.3. headings.g.2 Grade 5 LA..2.g. transition words/phrases. plot.2. feelings. Content Focus Grade 4 LA.1.g.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. including exposition.. similes..4. graphs. The student will locate. and theme in a variety of fiction. The student will locate and analyze the elements of plot structure. headings. The student will identify and explain the purpose of text features (e.1 Grade 5 LA.g.2. metaphors. titles.2 The student will identify and explain the elements of story structure. diagrams.2. The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. The student will identify and explain the elements of plot structure. personification. charts.1. subtitles. idiomatic.2.3. and use information from text features (e. charts. symbolism).7 LA. The student will locate.2. simile. headings.5. glossary. problem/ resolution. diagrams.g. headings. explain.2. captions.. metaphor. and problem/resolution in a variety of fiction. table of contents. character development.4.1. including character/ character development.2. illustrations). illustrations). text boxes) FCAT 2. index. and theme in a variety of fiction.. setting.1. graphs.1 Grade 4 LA.1 • Text Features (e. graphs. setting.5.2.2.3. and figurative language (e. illustrations).4. setting.

1. problem/resolution).2 BENCHMARK LA. the student will identify how plot events in the text contribute to problem/resolution. nonfiction (e. To assess this benchmark within or across texts.4. Students should not be tested on exposition or theme.2. graphics.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. poetry. and character point of view within or across texts.2 The student will identify and explain the elements of plot structure. The student will also identify and interpret other literary elements.1. and theme in a variety of fiction. setting. analyzes. fiction. and drama.4. character development.2 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 1 The student identifies.) Text Attributes Texts should be literary and may include. biographies. problem/resolution.6. setting.1.4.g..4. or one text that contains a variety of literary elements. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 80 | FCAT 2.7. illustrations with captions. In addition.g. such as setting. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . including exposition. The student will identify and interpret elements of plot development within or across texts. and charts. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection. (Theme is tested under LA.1. character point of view. Character Development Character Point of View Setting Plot Development Problem/Resolution Texts should be grade-level appropriate and contain identifiable literary elements (e. LA. character development. character development.. plot development. diary entries). Other stimuli may include. but are not limited to.2.2. but are not limited to. items should be based on • • two texts with related literary elements.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.

0 Reading Test Item Specifications.” sighed Chester. B. The mountains create curiosity. 100000470645 Why is the setting important to the main problem in the passage? A. or problem/resolution. C. D. The garden becomes too small. what bothers Miss Bilberry? A. She wonders why her new home is so familiar. Sample Item 63 Setting The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. or ideas drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.4. Sample Item 62 Character Point of View The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. She thinks that her cat really does not like his new home. D. 3018915 At the end of the passage. inaccurate interpretations of character.1.2. “This is the wrong way. FCAT 2. point of view. details. smiled to himself. Sample Item 61 Character Development The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. “Thank goodness for that. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. ★ C. C. plot development. but are not limited to • • • • details that may contribute to but do not significantly support plot. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 81 . ★ B. She feels she should have kept going to another house.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. The fields are overgrown with flowers. character development. D. the clever cat.” snarled Chester. facts. She believes the new house is not as nice. But Chester looked back sadly.2 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. setting. The house provides comfort. 100000466912 Which sentence from the story BEST explains what Chester thought about moving? ★ A. B. and problem/resolution. Chester.

They see the beautiful gardens around the mountains.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. ★ B.4. 100000259034 What happens when Miss Bilberry and her animals get lost in the tall flowers? A.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA.2. C. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . They learn that Miss Bilberry is a good tree climber. They decide to turn around and go back to their home. 82 | FCAT 2.1. D.2 Sample Item 64 Plot Development The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. They get confused and travel in the wrong direction.

and charts. and figurative language (e. metaphor. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits Note: If two descriptive language distractors are used.7 BENCHMARK LA. graphics. personification) Grade-level appropriate texts should contain clear examples of descriptive language (e..g. Descriptive Language (e. and drama. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.2. Text Attributes Texts may be literary or informational and may include.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.2..Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. metaphors. biographies.g. LA. Note: Distractors may also include all descriptive language examples or all figurative language examples. similes. imagery) Figurative Language (e. but are not limited to.1. imagery) and figurative language (e. poetry. distractors should not be a list of words but should include specific examples related to the text. they must be balanced with two figurative language distractors. symbolism). sad. Idioms and symbolism should not be assessed. happy. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. mood.. inaccurate interpretations of descriptive language or figurative language.. mood.7 The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. and examine how it is used to describe people. but are not limited to. fiction.g. FCAT 2. The correct answer determines the content focus for the item. Other stimuli may include. angry) in a text.. simile.1. and objects. personification. illustrations with captions.. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection.4. diary entries).4.g. personification).g. simile.2. feelings.7 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 1 The student identifies.. but are not limited to • • • examples of descriptive language or figurative language drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.g. analyzes. The student will identify and interpret the author’s use of descriptive or figurative language and will determine how the author’s use of language impacts meaning in grade-level appropriate texts. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 83 . idiomatic. whenever possible.1. Note: When assessing the author’s mood (e.g.4. nonfiction (e. metaphor.

Why does the author compare the road to something to try to beat? ★ A. and its cool veranda. 100000414902 Read this sentence from the passage. ★ D. 100000414907 Read this sentence from the article.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.4.7 Sample Item 65 Descriptive Language The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA.1.” What does it mean to put your heart into your singing? A.2. B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . 100000259071 Read these words from “Learning to Sing. C. What mood does the author create by using the words swaying palms? A. ★ B.” “Put your heart into your singing and enjoy it. to suggest that the games make traveling less boring to suggest that traveling is more comfortable when trips are short to suggest that the games help people get to know each other while traveling to suggest that traveling is more fun when people compete against each other 84 | FCAT 2. to sing loudly to sing sweetly to sing with power to sing with emotion Sample Item 66 Descriptive Language The sample item below is based on “Across the Blue Mountains” on page G–8. C. grateful peaceful sad weary Sample Item 67 Descriptive Language The sample item below is based on “Play a Game” on page G–13. C. B. its two swaying palms. Here’s a way to beat the road at its own game. He liked their quiet life in the pale yellow house with its broad-leaved tree. D. D.

2. D.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. ★ B.4. to imply that the trip takes forever to show that the bus ride is bumpy to indicate that the bus ride is boring to show that the children are impatient FCAT 2. The road stretches like a rubber band for miles and miles.7 Sample Item 68 Figurative Language The sample item below is based on “Play a Game” on page G–13.1.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 100000294952 Read this sentence from the article. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 85 . Why does the author compare the road to a rubber band? A. C.

. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 86 | FCAT 2.1 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 2 The student identifies.1 BENCHMARK LA. Text Features (e. but are not limited to. fiction. indices.2.4. illustrations). analyzes. poetry. maps. glossary..0 Reading Test Item Specifications. poetry. narratives. diagrams.g. The student will identify and determine meaning from a variety of text features. sections. charts. captions. tables. headings.2. titles. or drama. identifiable text feature or a variety of text features. and use information from text features (e.. biographies. sections..2.Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. subtitles. diagrams.4. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include.g. illustrations.g. incorrect or irrelevant information drawn from text features.2. informational. subheadings. captions. graphs.g. drama) and literary nonfiction texts (e. memoirs). table of contents. graphs. details.1 The student will locate. headings. italicized text.4. or other information drawn from text features but unrelated to the test item. nonfiction (e. explain. illustrations. diary entries). incorrect analysis and interpretation of text features. diary entries. maps. text boxes) Text features should be assessed within grade-level appropriate literary fictional texts (e. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .2. diagrams. biographies.. and key/guide words should not be assessed. glossaries. italicized text. subheadings.g. LA. but are not limited to • • • • facts. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Texts should include a single. subtitles. tables. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of nonfiction. Tables of contents.2. autobiographies. and text boxes. Text Attributes Texts should be literary and may include. and expository texts to demonstrate an understanding of the information presented. graphs. Stimuli found in text may include titles. headings. charts. charts.

. details on different types of singing FCAT 2.2.4. stories about famous singers B...Grade 4 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA.?.0 Reading Test Item Specifications..g..2. instructions on how to sing better D. such as • • • On what page would you find. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 87 .1 Note: Items should not ask the student for literal references. Sample Item 69 Text Features The sample item below is based on “Learning to Sing” on page G–11.? Note: When assessing a text feature (e.. subheadings/captions).?.. In which chapter would you find. facts about singing in the opera ★ C. or In what kind of reference book would you find information about. answer choices may be developed from other areas of the text but should be parallel and balanced. 100000259072 What information are you MOST likely to find in the text box “Sing Like a Pro”? A.

graphics. subtitles.. conducting interviews. headings. The student will read and interpret informational text and organize the information (e. including but not limited to being informed. sections.1 • Locate.5. The student will read and record information systematically.6.g. illustrations.1 The student will read informational text (e. following multi­ step directions.4. creating a report. italicized text.6. diagrams) to organize information for different purposes (e. tables. performing a task. diagrams. text boxes) Grade 5: LA. conducting interviews. and graphic organizers) from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (e. preparing to take a test. Content Focus Grade 4: LA. and conclusions). use outlines. illustrations.1.2.g.6. preparing to take a test. manuals) and organize information for different purposes.g. timelines. The student will read informational text and text features (e. evaluating the validity and reliability of information in text by examining several sources of information. charts. following multi-step directions. graphs...1.. captions. problem solving. titles. legends.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. supporting opinions. Organize Information • Text Features (e..g. multi-step directions.2 • Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information (within/across texts) 88 | FCAT 2. Interpret. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .. performing a task).3.5. format.g. predictions.1 Grade 5: LA.6.g. charts. graphs. making a report.Grade 4 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process GRADE 4 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process Benchmark Grade 3: LA. subheadings. and performing a task. being informed. maps.1.

italicized text. preparing to take a test. conducting interviews. tables. brochures. but are not limited to.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.4.6. legends.6.4. Text Attributes Texts should be informational. fliers. Interpret. italicized text. diagrams.. subheadings.1. fliers.1. charts. maps. preparing to take a test. format. brochures. identifiable text feature or a variety of text features. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 89 . and text boxes. subheadings.1 BENCHMARK LA. The student will identify and determine meaning from a variety of text features. captions.4. Texts may include. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2. titles. Making a report. how-to articles. following multi-step directions. grade-level appropriate informational articles and functional reading materials (e. illustrations.g. headings.g.g.g. consumer documents. how-to articles.. other real-world documents)..1. diagrams. headings. but are not limited to. Stimuli found in texts may include titles. text boxes) Text features should be assessed using grade-level appropriate texts that may include. illustrations. LA.Grade 4 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA. conducting interviews. informational articles and functional reading materials (e. being informed. sections. maps. Organize Information Text Features (e. creating a report.. graphs. diagrams) to organize information for different purposes (e. and performing a task should not be assessed.1 Strand Standard Benchmark 6 Information and Media Literacy 1 The student comprehends the wide array of informational text that is part of our day to day experiences. other real-world documents). sections. tables.6. captions.. websites.1 The student will read informational text and text features (e. graphics. subtitles. charts. Locate. illustrations. performing a task). subtitles. graphs. consumer documents. Texts should include a single.g. websites.

Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .0 Reading Test Item Specifications. or other information drawn from text features but unrelated to the test item.?..? Note: When assessing a text feature (e. to show that the games do not require specific surroundings 90 | FCAT 2..4. details.?. incorrect or irrelevant information drawn from text features. subheadings/captions).6. In which chapter would you find.. MATERIALS = NOTHING BUT TIME & IMAGINATION Why does the author include this section? A.Grade 4 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA. incorrect analysis and interpretation of text features... such as • • • On what page would you find.g.. Organize Information The sample item below is based on “Play a Game” on page G–13. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. to show that the games require little time or skill ★ B.. to show that the games require only knowledge of the rules D. to show that the games require few or no supplies C.1. answer choices may be developed from other areas of the text but should be parallel and balanced. or In what kind of reference book would you find information about. Note: Items should not ask the student for literal references.1 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. but are not limited to • • • • facts. 100000414908 Read this subheading from the article. Sample Item 70 Locate. Interpret.

0 Reading Test Item Specifications.SPECIFICATIONS FOR GRADE 5 FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 91 .

1.4.8 LA. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.6.5.6.8 LA.4.1.6.3 LA.9 Grade 5 LA. blaring.1.1.6 The student will identify Text shades of meaning in related words (e.5. Also assesses LA.5. • Analyze Words in Also assesses LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Also assesses LA.1.3.1.6.3.3. homophones.3.1.g.9 • Antonyms • Synonyms Grade 4 LA.6.5.g.1. The student will use knowledge of antonyms.4.7 Grade 5 LA. • Shades of Meaning loud).3 LA. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. loud).3 LA.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. blaring.. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.1.6.1..6.3.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.4.1.1.6. blaring.7 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.5. synonyms.11 The student will use meaning of familiar roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6. and homographs to determine meanings of words.6.1.1.6. • Base Words • Affixes • Roots (Grade 5) Content Focus • Context Clues Grade 4 LA.6.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.g.5.8 LA.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary GRADE 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary Benchmark Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.6.1.9 92 | FCAT 2.6.7 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.. The student will determine the correct meaning • Multiple Meanings of words with multiple meanings in context.1. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words. loud).6.6. Also assesses LA. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.4.

3 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. the text should contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word. illustrations with captions.5. Excerpted text should contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word. meanings of the assessed word that are correct but are not appropriate for the context surrounding the word. LA. Texts must contain a word unfamiliar to most students. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. and charts. Context Clues Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess words unfamiliar to most students.1.5. graphics. The student. If an item stem directs the student back to the text to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word.6. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 93 . but are not limited to • • • • incorrect meanings of the assessed word. FCAT 2. contextual meanings drawn from the text but unrelated to the assessed word or test item.1.6.3 BENCHMARK LA. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.1.6. will identify the meaning of an unfamiliar word. The assessed word should be no more than two grade levels above the tested grade. Other stimuli may include.5. using context clues. and sufficient context must be present for students to determine the meaning of the word. but are not limited to.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.3 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.

Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary

LA.5.1.6.3

Sample Item 71 Context Clues The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16.
100000262513

Read these sentences from the article. These diving mammals eat many different underwater animals, including sea urchins. Any large urchins that venture into nearshore waters where the sea otters dive are quickly eaten. What is the meaning of the word venture as used in the sentences above? A. B. ★ C. D. to swim lazily to float noisily to enter with risk to continue with energy

Sample Item 72 Context Clues The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16.
100000262514

Read these sentences from the article. A kelp forest slows ocean currents and makes waves smaller, creating pockets of calm water. Shrimp-like animals flourish in this quiet water and feast on dead kelp. What does the word flourish mean as used in the sentences above? ★ A. B. C. D. grow well seek warmth become silent avoid enemies

94

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FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education

Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary

LA.5.1.6.7

BENCHMARK LA.5.1.6.7
Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. LA.5.1.6.7 The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words. Also assesses LA.5.1.6.11 The student will use meaning of familiar roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words. Clarification The student will identify familiar base words or Greek or Latin root words with prefixes and/or suffixes to determine the meanings of complex words in a text. Simple analysis and/or inference may be required. Base Words Affixes Roots Grade-level appropriate texts should contain vocabulary for assessing prefixes (e.g., un-, pre-, dis-, con-, centi-, anti-, sub-, multi-, uni-, im-, de-, ex-, mis-, in-, non-), suffixes (e.g., -ful, -less, -ly, -or, -ious, -ion, -ment, -ist, -ible, -ian, -ness), roots, and base words. Assessed words should be no more than two grade levels above the tested grade. Contractions (e.g., they’re, it’s) should not be assessed. Excerpted text should contain the assessed word to provide clear and sufficient context. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. Other stimuli may include, but are not limited to, illustrations with captions, graphics, and charts. Texts must contain appropriate words to assess base words, affixes, or root words. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include, but are not limited to • • • incorrect meanings of words; words with construct similar to the correct response (e.g., same affix, same tense); and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.

Content Focus

Content Limits

Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary

LA.5.1.6.7

Sample Item 73 Base Words The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19.
100000262538

Read this sentence from the passage. Mr. Ballard disappeared, but we could hear him laughing. Which word has the same base word as disappeared? A. ★ B. C. D. appealing appearance disappointment disapproved

Sample Item 74 Roots The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19.
100000262539

Read this quotation from the passage. “I am going to become malnourished,” Dad said. “My body is crying out for a tender tomato or some crisp green beans. And all I get is zucchini.” The origin of the word malnourished is the Latin root -nourish, meaning to feed. What does malnourished mean? ★ A. B. C. D. to be underfed to eat until full to eat rich foods to be fed too much

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FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education

5.. Simple analysis and/or inference may be required to comprehend the meaning of the word.1. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect meanings of assessed words.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include.1. Contractions (e.8 BENCHMARK LA. Other stimuli may include. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational.6.g.6.. The student will use antonyms and synonyms to determine the meaning of a word within a text. the words within the pair should be the same part of speech. they’re.5.8 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. FCAT 2. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.5.1. same affix. Texts should contain appropriate words to assess knowledge of antonyms and synonyms at grade level. but are not limited to.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits Note: When constructing answer choices using word pairs.6. same tense).g. meanings of the assessed words that are correct but are not appropriate for the context. it’s) should not be assessed. synonyms. Homophones and homographs should not be assessed. illustrations with captions. and charts. homophones. LA. Antonyms Synonyms Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess antonyms and synonyms. words constructed similarly to the correct response (e. graphics. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 97 . and homographs to determine meanings of words.8 The student will use knowledge of antonyms. words and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the assessed word or test item.

100000262516 Which pair of words from the article are most OPPOSITE in meaning? A. Which word has almost the same meaning as the word rummaged as used in the sentence above? A. gnaw series. D. jumped ran saw searched 98 | FCAT 2. Mom and Dad rummaged through the racks of seeds like kids in a toy store. B.5. 100000262540 Read these sentences from the passage. system Sample Item 76 Synonyms The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .1. feast. our first shopping trip was to the Big Valley Hardware Store to pick out our garden seeds. single places.6.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. C. ★ B. pockets collection. C. ★ D.8 Sample Item 75 Antonyms The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. After we got settled.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.

and charts. For shades of meaning.9 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary. The words should be assessed using words at or below grade level. Other stimuli may include. subtle differences in meaning between related words (e. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. Texts should contain words with multiple meanings or shades of meaning and must provide clear and sufficient information or context for the student to determine the correct meaning.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. blaring.9 BENCHMARK LA. illustrations with captions.6. glare. loud). the student will analyze the word or phrase to determine small. Clarification The student will analyze words that have multiple meanings and determine the correct meanings of the words as used in the text.g.1.5. Excerpted text must contain clear and sufficient context for determining the meaning of the assessed word. LA..5..6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e. and peek all refer to the concept of looking.1.1. but each word has a different meaning or connotation).1. Content Limits FCAT 2.6.6.6.5. but are not limited to. graphics.5. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 99 .g. Also assesses LA.9 The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. glance.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Content Focus Multiple Meanings Analyze Words in Text Shades of Meaning Grade-level appropriate texts should be used to assess words with multiple meanings or shades of meaning.

” he said. He is trying to understand her.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . B. incorrect connotation of a word based on the use of the word in the text (use only to assess shades of meaning). He is rescuing her from work. 100000262541 Read these sentences from the passage. The determined runner crawled across the finish line. same tense). We bought the zucchini seeds. He is agreeing with her plan. 100 | FCAT 2. words constructed similarly to the correct response (e. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. C. He is defending her idea.5. ★ C. Mom got a determined look in her eyes. Sample Item 78 Analyze Words in Text The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. The short straw determined the winner.g. Sample Item 77 Multiple Meanings The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19..6. meanings drawn from the text but unrelated to the meaning of the assessed word or test item. The map determined the correct route to follow. same affix. “I don’t like zucchini much.9 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. 100000262542 What is Dad doing when he is “sticking up for Mom”? ★ A.1.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA. Which sentence uses the word determined as used in the sentences above? A. D. D. He determined the amount of money needed for the game. Dad looked at the picture on the front of the seed package. B. but are not limited to • • • • • correct meanings of the assessed word but inappropriate to the text.

6.Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary LA.1. Ballard would seem more certain about what to do. Ballard would seem less friendly. How would the effect of these sentences be different if the author had used the word “talking” instead of muttering? A. Mr. D. muttering to himself.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 100000466921 Read these sentences from the passage. “Don’t know what I’ll feed my pigs until I can find some corn for sale.5. Mr.9 Sample Item 79 Shades of Meaning The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. C. Ballard would seem less troubled. ★ B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 101 .” He walked away. FCAT 2. Mr. Ballard would seem to walk away more quickly. Mr.

Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. 4–5 within/across texts) • Contrast (differences: Gr.4.7. 3 within one text.7.1. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text. problems).4. summarizing.7. entertain. implied message.7.7. summarizing. settings.7..7 LA.1.1. sequence of events. 102 | FCAT 2.7 The student will compare and contrast elements. explain) and how an author’s perspective influences text. Gr. chronological order of events.4. characters.1.7.1. inferences. strongly implied message and inference. definition/explanation. comparison/contrast.7.5.1.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application GRADE 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application Benchmark Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.. 3 within one text. The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.1. Gr.4.1.7.5 • Cause and Effect • Text Structures/ Organizational Patterns (e. to inform. and problems in two texts. to persuade. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .1. 3 within one text.7.. comparison/ contrast.2 LA.4 LA.5 LA. 4–5 within/across texts) • Topics (Gr.3.7.g.7.5 LA. characters. including but not limited to main idea. The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring. 4–5 within/across texts) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.1.1. listing/description) • Themes (Gr.5. Gr.3.1.g.2 LA. The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts.7. relevant supporting details.g.3. and sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text..4.3 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.6 The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections. The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts (e. entertain.1. 3 within one text.6 LA.7 LA. explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text.3. 4–5 within/across texts) • Compare (similarities: Gr. and paraphrasing.5.3 Grade 4 LA.7.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.1. relevant supporting details. paraphrasing. and identifying relevant details.1. Content Focus • Author’s Purpose • Author’s Perspective Grade 3 LA.1. cause/effect.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text.. question/answer. The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e.1.3 • Main Idea (stated or implied) • Relevant Details • Conclusions/ Inferences • Chronological Order Grade 5 LA.7.7.4 LA. Gr.1.6 LA.7.g.4 LA.7. inform.3. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text.g. cause/effect. and chronological order of events.5. including but not limited to main idea. setting.4.5.3.5.

7. incorrect interpretations of the author’s purpose or perspective.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e. The student will identify the author’s purpose or perspective. Author’s Purpose Author’s Perspective Grade-level appropriate texts used in assessing author’s purpose should contain an identifiable author’s purpose for writing. FCAT 2.5. explain) and how an author’s perspective influences text. and informational articles. to persuade. The student will analyze the impact of the author’s purpose or perspective within or across texts.. graphics.7.1. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.. incorrect analysis or evaluation of the impact of the author’s purpose or perspective. but are not limited to.5. Texts should be literary or informational. to persuade) but should include specific examples related to the text. or explaining.1. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 103 . but are not limited to.g.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Other stimuli may include.2 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. persuasive articles. entertain. to inform.1. LA. but not limited to.g. but are not limited to • • • • facts and details that do not support the author’s purpose or represent the author’s perspective. and charts. The author’s purpose and perspective should be recognizable within or across texts. entertaining.5. conveying a particular mood. Texts may include. including. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: Distractors should not be a list of general categories (e. diaries.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.7. informing.2 BENCHMARK LA. illustrations with captions. telling a story. inform.

to make sure the foam pads are comfortable to explain how to check a helmet for the correct fit to clarify how the helmet strap should be fastened to make sure you hold your head still during the fit Sample Item 81 Author’s Perspective The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 100000294084 Why does the author include the section Five-Step Helmet Fit Test? A. Ecosystems need change in order to stay strong and healthy.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. D. Scientists should be able to predict the effects of changes on ecosystems. ★ B. D.2 Sample Item 80 Author’s Purpose The sample item below is based on “Your Bicycle Helmet” on page G–22. 104 | FCAT 2. 100000262521 With which statement would the author of “What Is an Ecosystem?” most likely agree? ★ A.1.5. C.7. B. C. Ecosystems can never be repaired once they have been damaged. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . People should avoid activities that may harm an ecosystem.

graphics. and identifying relevant details.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Clarification Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2.1. identifiable chronological order (sequence of events). In addition.1. summarizing. draw logical conclusions. LA. and charts.7. texts may include a clear. Paraphrasing should not be assessed. locate relevant details and facts.3 BENCHMARK LA.5.3 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. Other stimuli may include. students will identify chronological order (sequencing of events).1. or make appropriate inferences within or across grade-level appropriate texts. relevant details.5.7.5.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. but are not limited to. Main Idea (stated or implied) Relevant Details Conclusions/Inferences Chronological Order Grade-level appropriate texts should include an identifiable main idea (stated or strongly implied) and relevant details from which students may draw logical conclusions or make appropriate inferences. paraphrasing. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 105 . In addition. illustrations with captions. The student will determine the main idea (stated or implied). Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. Items may assess a student's ability to identify a strongly stated main idea.7.3 The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring. and an identifiable chronological order that will enable students to draw logical conclusions and make appropriate inferences. Texts should include a main idea (stated or strongly implied).

B. which event happened first? A. 106 | FCAT 2.5. Fish make their homes in kelp forests. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Otters nearly disappeared from the islands. A family moves to the country next to a pig farmer. but are not limited to • • • • • details that do not support the main idea. Sea urchin numbers grew around Shemya. ★ D.7. Sample Item 84 Chronological Order The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. B. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. C. Otters were protected on Amchitka. Hard-shelled animals live in kelp forests. Sample Item 83 Relevant Details The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. B. 100000262524 According to the article. A family annoys a pig farmer but helps him solve a problem. Sea urchins ate the giant kelp forests. C. ★ C. D. D. 100000262523 Which detail from the article helps show how a sea otter’s diet can protect kelp forests? ★ A. or are a specific fact.1. Sample Item 82 Main Idea/Essential Message The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. events that are drawn from the text and presented out of order. Note: A main idea should be stated in a complete sentence. incorrect interpretations of the main idea that are too broad. incorrect inferences or conclusions based on details found in the text. A family plants a garden and grows too many zucchini. Note: Items should not assess a student’s ability to identify details of least importance when assessing a main idea statement. Sea urchins eat and destroy kelp.3 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Shrimp-like animals eat dead kelp. too narrow. A family gets tired of eating zucchini every day.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. 100000262543 Which sentence best explains what the passage is about? A.

graphics.5.1.1.4 The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text.5.1. it is preferred that interactions and situations between characters be attributed to Benchmark LA. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Other stimuli may include.2.7.4 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. Texts should include an identifiable cause-and-effect relationship that may be stated and/or implied. illustrations with captions. FCAT 2.2 and the content focus of character development and/or character point of view. and charts.1. the student may need to discern a causal relationship implied in the text through the assimilation of facts and details provided.5. incorrect rationales and/or interpretations of implied causal relationships.4 BENCHMARK LA. Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: When constructing cause-and-effect items using literary texts.7. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 107 .Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Texts should be literary or informational.7. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. but are not limited to • • • incorrect causal relationships based on the text. but are not limited to. LA. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships within texts.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.5. Cause and Effect Grade-level appropriate texts used in assessing cause-and-effect relationships should contain identifiable causal relationships embedded in the text and/or contain sufficient facts and details to assist students in discerning implied causal relationships. Additionally.

They like feeding zucchini to his pigs. large kelp forests. ★ B. They buy vegetable seeds from the store.5. C.7. They know little about growing zucchini. ★ D. groups of sea urchins. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . sea animals with shells. 108 | FCAT 2.4 Sample Item 85 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. D. 100000262525 The “pockets of calm water” near Amchitka Island are created by A.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. mud and sand.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Sample Item 86 Cause and Effect The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. Ballard laugh at Allison’s family? A.1. C. B. 100000477474 Why does Mr. They hate the smell of his farm.

Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. and sequence of events (chronological order). Informational texts are more suited than literary texts toward item development for this benchmark.5. Other stimuli may include. however. sequence of events definition/explanation. LA.2. and charts. question/answer. or cause/effect).5.5 Strand Standard Benchmark 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text.1 for literary text and in LA. Texts should contain an identifiable organizational pattern.g.1.5 BENCHMARK LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 109 . Clarification Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2.2. one that utilizes sequence of events. but are not limited to.1. Text features should not be assessed in this benchmark but will be assessed in LA.5. comparison/contrast. illustrations with captions.7..7. a literary text may occasionally be appropriate (e.5. listing/description) Text structures found within grade-level appropriate texts should be identifiable and may include.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.7.g.1. Text structures must be clearly evident as indicated by signal words and phrases.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. but are not limited to..5 The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e. sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text. The student will identify the text structures/organizational patterns and determine how they impact meaning within texts. cause/effect.1 for informational text.6. graphics. cause/effect.5.1. cause/effect. Text Structures/Organizational Patterns (e..g. comparison/contrast. comparison/contrast. comparison/contrast.

” Sample Item 88 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. Note: Distractors should include a brief elaboration on how the organizational pattern impacts meaning in the text and should not be a list of general categories (e.g. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .g. D.1. sequence of events [chronological order].. B. identifying various animals in ocean environments. providing details about how humans put nature back together. “Two weeks later. Ballard arrived with his truck and his hired hand and helped us load the zucchini. describing the differences between two island environments. incorrect sequence of events (chronological order). Sample Item 87 Text Structures/Organizational Patterns The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. “Then we got to work. incorrect details drawn from the text. 100000262526 The author shows that ecosystems are like a puzzle mainly by A.5 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. “Our garden grew fast.. listing the natural occurrences in the order they happen. especially the zucchini. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect interpretations of text structures/organizational patterns.7. compare/contrast. Mom picked the first zucchini. ★ C. cause/effect). incorrect relationships (e. comparison/contrast) within the organizational pattern. urgently picking every zucchini.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. cause/effect. “Mr.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.” D. 110 | FCAT 2.5.” ★ B. 100000262545 Which statement lets the reader know how the author organized the passage? A.” C.

1.6 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text.7. details.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Other stimuli may include.7.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.7. save our Earth.1. childhood. or Old age can be a time of great satisfaction).g. but are not limited to • • • • • facts and details that may contribute to but do not significantly support the theme or topic.g.g. facts. recycling. FCAT 2. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. Texts should include a readily identifiable theme or topic. or ideas drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. a summary statement that is unrelated to the overall theme. but are not limited to.5. graphics. Texts should be literary or informational. Note: A topic should be stated in a word or phrase. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include.5.. freedom) that may be stated or implied within texts.6 The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections. LA.6 BENCHMARK LA.1..5.. Themes (Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Topics (Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Grade-level appropriate texts used to assess themes or topics must have a clear and identifiable theme or topic. illustrations with captions. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 111 . the rewards of old age. never give up) or topics (e.. Note: A theme should be stated in a complete sentence or a phrase (e. and charts. friendship). The student will identify themes (e. citizenship. Content Focus Content Limits Text Attributes Note: Theme is neither the story’s plot (what happens) nor the story’s topic expressed in a word (e.g. incorrect interpretations of the theme or topic.

Activities shared with family members are enjoyable. B. Hard work pays off most of the time. ★ C. B. 100000466924 What is the main topic of “What Is an Ecosystem?” A. D.6 Sample Item 89 Themes The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. People should listen to their neighbors.7. ★ C. 100000262546 What is the best lesson that can be learned from this passage? A. the uncertain future of two ecosystems the location of two important ecosystems the surprising differences between two ecosystems the types of animals found in two different ecosystems 112 | FCAT 2. Sample Item 90 Topics The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.5.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Sometimes there can be too much of a good thing.1. D.

When constructing compare-and-contrast items using literary text. To assess this benchmark across texts. The student will identify similarities between elements within or across texts or will identify differences between elements within or across texts.7.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and main idea. Similarities and differences should not be assessed together in a single item. items should be based on two related texts that contain elements that can be compared or contrasted.5.2 and the content focus of character development. Compare (similarities: Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Contrast (differences: Grades 4–5 within/across texts) Grade-level appropriate texts should include elements that can be compared or contrasted and may include.5. graphics.5.7.1. setting. Content Focus Content Limits FCAT 2.1. Text Attributes Texts should be literary or informational. but are not limited to. LA. When constructing a test item.7 BENCHMARK LA.1. character.2. To assess this benchmark within texts. Texts should include elements that compare and/or contrast. illustrations with captions. author’s perspective.7 Strand Standard Benchmark Clarification 1 Reading Process 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text. but are not limited to. and charts.7 The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts. similarities or differences is the preferred wording for this benchmark. situations involving one or more characters changing over time should be assessed under LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 113 .7. subject. items should be based on elements that can be compared or contrasted. author’s purpose.5. Other stimuli may include.1.

provided a place for barnacles and mussels to grow. He hopes to eat several kinds of vegetables. D. ★ C. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.Grade 5 Reporting Category 2: Reading Application LA. Amchitka Island and Shemya Island both ★ A. incorrect contrasts. C. B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .1. Sample Item 91 Compare The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. D. were home to many sea otters. 114 | FCAT 2.7. Sample Item 92 Contrast The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. distractors should not contrast elements. 100000262548 How is Dad’s plan for the garden different from what actually happens? A. facts and details drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect comparisons.5. Note: When constructing a comparison item. He hopes Mr. provided a place for sea urchins to patrol. When constructing a contrast item.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. He wants to sell the zucchini to the neighbors. were surrounded by barnacles and mussels. distractors should not compare elements. He wants his children to do the weeding. B.7 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. 100000262527 Before the hunters arrived in the late 1800s. similarities or differences that are drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. Ballard will give him advice.

1 Grade 4 LA. table of contents. text boxes) FCAT 2. character development.4.1.g. charts.1. and theme in a variety of fiction. similes.4. rising/falling action. including exposition. table of contents. metaphor.. The student will locate. setting. tables. including exposition..2. and problem/resolution in a variety of fiction.1. maps.. problem/resolution. and figurative language (e. illustrations). graphs. illustrations).g. idiomatic..2.2. and objects.Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction GRADE 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction Benchmark Grade 3 LA.1.g.1 Grade 5 LA. plot.2. index. simile. diagrams.7 LA. The student will identify and explain the elements of plot structure. italicized text. mood.5. illustrations). setting. graphs.1. The student will locate and analyze the elements of plot structure. subtitles.2. headings.3. charts. diagrams.2.g. sections.7 • Descriptive Language (e. explain.2.3..5.2 Grade 5 LA. titles. setting. feelings. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 115 . personification. personification) Grade 3 LA. and theme in a variety of fiction. The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. charts. and use information from text features (e. headings. glossary.1.2.7 LA. The student will locate. character development.2 • Character Development • Character Point of View • Setting • Plot Development • Problem/Resolution Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. metaphors.g. and examine how it is used to describe people. illustrations. headings. and use information from text features (e. including character/ character development.1 • Text Features (e.g. symbolism). graphs. diagrams.2 The student will identify and explain the elements of story structure.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. imagery) • Figurative Language (e. glossary.2. table of contents. Content Focus Grade 4 LA.. The student will identify and explain the purpose of text features (e. transition words/phrases. charts.g.2. subheadings. explain.5. problem/ resolution. glossary.3. headings.2. subheadings. graphs.2. captions.4..

poetry. Students should not be tested on exposition. and theme in a variety of fiction. rising/falling action. but are not limited to. and charts.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.5. nonfiction (e. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection.1.1. but are not limited to.5.2.2 BENCHMARK LA. and drama. character point of view. LA. The student will identify and interpret elements of plot development within or across texts. setting.2 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 1 The student identifies. analyzes. Character Development Character Point of View Setting Plot Development Problem/Resolution Texts should be grade-level appropriate and contain identifiable literary elements (e. or one text that contains a variety of literary elements. illustrations with captions.1.2 The student will locate and analyze the elements of plot structure. setting. To assess this benchmark within or across texts.7. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . graphics. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 116 | FCAT 2.2. problem/resolution). character development. diary entries).Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. rising/falling action.5. the student will identify how plot events in the text contribute to problem/resolution. items should be based on • • two texts with related literary elements.. In addition. and character point of view within or across texts. fiction.2.5.) Text Attributes Texts should be literary and may include. biographies.g. problem/resolution. character development. Other stimuli may include. such as setting. plot development. (Theme is tested under LA. including exposition.. or theme. character development.1.g.6. The student will also identify and interpret other literary elements.

100000262534 Allison plans to get rid of the zucchini by A. B. C.2. alarmed but understanding. facts. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 117 . D. character development. FCAT 2. planting other types of seeds in the garden. furious but patient. feeding them to Mr. plot development.5. point of view. or ideas drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. pleased but concerned.2 Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. Sample Item 93 Character Point of View The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. B. setting. inaccurate interpretations of character. or problem/resolution. Ballard’s hungry pigs. Ballard’s opinion of the garden is A.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. ★ D. details. using them in recipes for the neighbors. Sample Item 94 Problem/Resolution The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. allowing the other crops to choke them.1. ★ C. and problem/resolution. but are not limited to • • • • details that may contribute to but do not significantly support plot. 100000262533 Dad’s attitude about Mr. uncomfortable but determined.

metaphors.2.. analyzes.g. but are not limited to.g.Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. and objects.7 BENCHMARK LA. metaphor. mood. and examine how it is used to describe people. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. simile. inaccurate interpretations of descriptive language or figurative language. Text Attributes Texts may be literary or informational and may include.1. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . personification). Other stimuli may include.1.g. similes. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 118 | FCAT 2.2. mood. fiction.5. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection. nonfiction (e. personification) Grade-level appropriate texts should contain clear examples of descriptive language (e.7 The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. diary entries). imagery) and figurative language (e... poetry. feelings. simile. biographies..g.. symbolism). Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. and drama. but are not limited to.g. but are not limited to • • • examples of descriptive language or figurative language drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item.1. Idioms and symbolism should not be assessed. and figurative language (e.g.7 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 1 The student identifies. personification. Descriptive Language (e.2. LA.5. The student will identify and interpret the author’s use of descriptive or figurative language and will determine how the author’s use of language impacts meaning in grade-level appropriate texts.. illustrations with captions. idiomatic. and charts. imagery) Figurative Language (e. graphics.5. metaphor.

sad.1. We stared at the zucchini patch. Sample Item 95 Figurative Language The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. C.Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 119 . they must be balanced with two figurative language distractors.5. D.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. angry) in a text. Note: Distractors may also include all descriptive language examples or all figurative language examples. 100000262535 Read this sentence from the passage. B. happy. C. Why does the author compare the zucchini patch to an army of green monsters? ★ A. Mom and Dad rummaged through the racks of seeds like kids in a toy store. An army of green monsters gleamed in the sun.g. whenever possible. ★ B. to indicate the large size and number of the zucchinis to suggest that the zucchinis are growing in the wrong place to express disappointment in the appearance of the zucchini patch to imply how colorful and shiny the zucchini patch looks in the daytime FCAT 2.2. 100000262536 Read this sentence from the passage.7 Note: If two descriptive language distractors are used. distractors should not be a list of words but should include specific examples related to the text. What characteristic applies to Mom and Dad and the kids in a toy store? A. confusion excitement innocence silliness Sample Item 96 Figurative Language The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19. The correct answer determines the content focus for the item. D. Note: When assessing the author’s mood (e..

illustrations.2. diagrams. poetry. narratives. poetry. tables. drama) and literary nonfiction texts (e.g. graphs.2. subheadings.g. maps. illustrations. LA.g.... and expository texts to demonstrate an understanding of the information presented.5. and determine meaning from a variety of text features. biographies. but are not limited to. subtitles. Texts should include a single. charts. captions. graphs. headings. diagrams. titles. Text Features (e.2. headings. analyzes. tables. The student will identify. Benchmark Clarification Content Focus Content Limits 120 | FCAT 2. glossary. explain. text boxes) Text features should be assessed within grade-level appropriate literary fictional texts (e. or drama.1 The student will locate. headings.2. Tables of contents. charts. identifiable text feature or a variety of text features. informational.5. graphs.2.g. autobiographies. subheadings. Text Attributes Texts should be literary and may include.g. subtitles.5. transition words/phrases. Stimuli found in texts may include titles. sections. charts. subheadings.2. and key/guide words should not be assessed.Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction LA. italicized text. fiction. glossaries. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of nonfiction.. and use information from text features (e. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . index. sections. biographies. captions. table of contents.. indices. diary entries). memoirs). maps.1 BENCHMARK LA.1 Strand Standard 2 Literary Analysis 2 The student identifies. illustrations). diary entries. nonfiction (e. analyze.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and text boxes. italicized text.

Grade 5 Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction

LA.5.2.2.1

Distractor Attributes

Distractors may include, but are not limited to • • • • facts, details, or other information drawn from text features but unrelated to the test item; incorrect analysis and interpretation of text features; incorrect or irrelevant information drawn from text features; and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.

Note: Items should not ask the student for literal references, such as • • • On what page would you find...?; In which chapter would you find...?; or In what kind of reference book would you find information about...?

Note: When assessing a text feature (e.g., subheadings/captions), answer choices may be developed from other areas of the text but should be parallel and balanced. Sample Item 97 Text Features The sample item below is based on “The Great Garden Experiment” on page G–19.
100000262537

The illustrations are important to the passage because they ★ A. contribute to the enjoyment of the passage. B. provide another way to explain how zucchini grows. C. suggest to readers that plants are easier to take care of than pigs. D. prove to readers that the family made mistakes when planting zucchini.

FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education | 121

Grade 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process

GRADE 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process Benchmark
Grade 3 LA.3.6.1.1 The student will read informational text (e.g., graphs, charts, manuals) and organize information for different purposes, including but not limited to being informed, following multi­ step directions, making a report, conducting interviews, preparing to take a test, and performing a task. The student will read informational text and text features (e.g., format, graphics, legends, illustrations, diagrams) to organize information for different purposes (e.g., being informed, following multi-step directions, creating a report, conducting interviews, preparing to take a test, performing a task). The student will read and interpret informational text and organize the information (e.g., use outlines, timelines, and graphic organizers) from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (e.g., multi-step directions, problem solving, performing a task, supporting opinions, predictions, and conclusions). The student will read and record information systematically, evaluating the validity and reliability of information in text by examining several sources of information.

Content Focus

Grade 4

LA.4.6.1.1

Grade 5

LA.5.6.1.1

• Locate, Interpret, Organize Information • Text Features (e.g., titles, subtitles, headings, subheadings, italicized text, sections, tables, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations, captions, maps, text boxes)

Grade 5

LA.5.6.2.2

• Determine the
Validity and Reliability of Information (within/across texts)

122

|

FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education

Grade 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process

LA.5.6.1.1

BENCHMARK LA.5.6.1.1
Strand Standard Benchmark 6 Information and Media Literacy 1 The student comprehends the wide array of informational text that is part of our day to day experiences. LA.5.6.1.1 The student will read and interpret informational text and organize the information (e.g., use outlines, timelines, and graphic organizers) from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (e.g., multi-step directions, problem solving, performing a task, supporting opinions, predictions, and conclusions). The student will identify and determine meaning from a variety of
text features.
Locate, Interpret, Organize Information
Text Features (e.g., titles, subtitles, headings, subheadings, italicized
text, sections, tables, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations, captions,
maps, text boxes)
Text features should be assessed using grade-level appropriate texts
that may include, but are not limited to, informational articles and
functional reading materials (e.g., websites, consumer documents,
how-to articles, brochures, fliers, other real-world documents).
Texts should include a single, identifiable text feature or a variety of
text features.
Making a report, conducting interviews, preparing to take a test, and
performing a task should not be assessed.
Text Attributes Texts should be informational.
Stimuli found in texts may include titles, subtitles, headings,
subheadings, italicized text, sections, tables, charts, graphs, diagrams,
illustrations, captions, maps, and text boxes.
Texts may include, but are not limited to, grade-level appropriate
informational articles and functional reading materials (e.g.,
consumer documents, how-to articles, brochures, fliers, websites,
other real-world documents).
Distractor Attributes Distractors may include, but are not limited to
• • • • facts, details, or other information drawn from text features but unrelated to the test item; incorrect analysis and interpretation of text features; incorrect or irrelevant information drawn from text features; and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text.

Clarification Content Focus

Content Limits

FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications, Grades 3–5

Florida Department of Education | 123

. 100000262552 What is the purpose of the subheadings listed in the section Fitting a Bike Helmet? A. between the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. along the coast of Canada. along the coast of Russia. such as • • • On what page would you find. to ensure that safety measures are taken when buying a bike helmet Sample Item 100 Text Features The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. or In what kind of reference book would you find information about. 100000262517 By reading the article and looking at the map. ★ D... 100000262518 What is the purpose of the illustration at the beginning of the article? A..0 Reading Test Item Specifications. you can tell that Shemya and Amchitka Islands are located A. between the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. to show the steps involved in fastening the straps of a bike helmet D. subheadings/captions). Sample Item 99 Text Features The sample item below is based on “Your Bicycle Helmet” on page G–22. B.?.g. to show different types of animals ★ B.. to show how living things interact C. to demonstrate the importance of the water D.1 Note: Items should not ask the student for literal references. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . answer choices may be developed from other areas of the text but should be parallel and balanced.?. C.? Note: When assessing a text feature (e.5. Organize Information The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16..Grade 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA.1. Interpret. to locate important suggestions for wearing a bike helmet C.6. In which chapter would you find. to demonstrate the similarities of the islands 124 | FCAT 2. to learn how to wear a bike helmet ★ B.. Sample Item 98 Locate.

2.2 BENCHMARK LA.6..5. Content Focus Content Limits Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information (within/across texts) Texts should be grade-level appropriate and present information in order to • • • • aid the student’s determination of validity and reliability of information.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. In addition.Grade 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA.2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 125 . and presentation of information. and reflect ideas that can be analyzed and evaluated. dependability) of information in texts by identifying supporting facts within or across texts.2 Strand Standard Benchmark 6 Information and Media Literacy 2 The student uses a systematic process for the collection. Synthesis should be assessed by identifying the relationships between two or more ideas. synthesize information).2. express a relationship between two or more ideas. The student will use a variety of techniques and strategies to analyze and evaluate information located within or across texts..6.e.5. LA. correctness or soundness) and reliability (i.e. Clarification This type of information may come from both primary and/or secondary sources. The student will identify the relationships between two or more ideas or among other textual elements found within or across texts (i. evaluating the validity and reliability of information in text by examining several sources of information.e.5. The student will identify the validity (i. processing.. FCAT 2.6. express a relationship among ideas and certain text features. the student may be asked to apply information from texts in a valid and/or reliable way.2 The student will read and record information systematically.

100000262551 The information in the article would be most useful in creating A. a booklet listing bicycle repair shops.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.Grade 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process LA. but are not limited to. diaries. Other stimuli may include. facts or details drawn from the text but unrelated to the test item. Distractor Attributes Distractors may include. a pamphlet showing the location of bicycle trails. but are not limited to. and charts. and historical documents. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .2. illustrations with captions.6. and magazine articles. a report explaining the importance of bicycle safety. journals. validity and reliability items should use direct quotations from the text in the answer choices. and clearly developed by the author in order to assess the validity and reliability of information. Primary sources may include. Secondary sources may include. B. incorrect interpretations of the accuracy of information found in the text. incorrect synthesis of information. graphics. a brochure advertising a local bicycle event. 126 | FCAT 2. eyewitness accounts of events. books. Evidence presented in texts should be logical. C.2 Text Attributes Texts should be informational but on occasion may be literary. newspapers. and plausible but incorrect distractors based on the text. but are not limited to.5. Note: Whenever possible. such as letters. encyclopedias. both may include either primary or secondary sources. Sample Item 101 Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information The sample item below is based on “Your Bicycle Helmet” on page G–22. internally consistent. but are not limited to • • • • • incorrect analysis of validity and/or reliability of the text. ★ D.

stories from books C. D. scientific research B. they never returned to Amchitka Island. 100000262519 What does the author use to support the information in the article? ★ A. B. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | 127 .2 Sample Item 102 Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16. they change constantly. Although Amchitka Island and Shemya Island have interactive ecosystems.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Shemya Island has many sea otters. Although Amchitka Island has always supported giant kelp forests.Grade 5 Reporting Category 4: Informational Text LA. Even though sea otters returned to Shemya Island after their numbers dwindled. personal observation D. ★ C.2. interviews with experts Sample Item 103 Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information The sample item below is based on “What Is an Ecosystem?” on page G–16.5. 100000262520 What information from the article supports the scientists’ conclusion that ecosystems are difficult to understand? A. the ecosystems are vastly different.6. Even though Amchitka Island and Shemya Island have similar offshore environments. FCAT 2.

A–1 | FCAT 2.pdf. or item contexts. GRADES 3–10 Topics.Grades 3–5 Appendix A FLORIDA’S NEXT APPENDIX A FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .org/fcat2/pdf/ReadingAppendixA. for FCAT 2.fldoe.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.0 T OPICS GENERATION SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS (NGSSS).0 assessment items can be found on the DOE website at: http://fcat.

6. blaring.5.1. Assessed by LA. loud).11. Assessed by LA. suffixes. B–1 | FCAT 2.5.6. LA..9.6. suffixes. Grades 9–10 LA. Also assesses LA.9.1.3.6.1.6. The student will: Grade 3 LA.1.6.g.11.1.5.6.5.6.1.7 identify and understand the meaning of conceptually advanced prefixes. LA.1.5.1.6.1.6. Grade 4 LA.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words. Also assesses LA.1.7 use meaning of familiar base words and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6.7..1. and root words.1. Grade 6 LA.910. blaring. LA. LA. blaring.6.8. suffixes.910. loud).11.910.11. Assessed by LA.6. LA.7.7.6.1.1. and root words. LA.6 identify shades of meaning in related words (e.3.8. Also assesses LA.6 identify shades of meaning in related words (e.4. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . LA.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words. LA.6 identify shades of meaning in related words (e. and root words.1.g.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 1 Reading Process BY THE FCAT 2.7 identify and understand the meaning of conceptually advanced prefixes.7 identify and understand the meaning of conceptually advanced prefixes. and root words.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.6.1.1.1.4.6.4.11.7 use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.7 identify and understand the meaning of conceptually advanced prefixes.9.6.6.6.6.3.6.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.4.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.6.1.g.3.1. Grade 5 LA. suffixes.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.6. LA.1.6.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.8. Also assesses LA.3 use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words.6. Grade 7 LA. Grade 8 LA.1.6.1.0 Standard 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.6.6.1. LA. Also assesses LA.1.7 use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.. loud).

1.6. B–2 | FCAT 2. Grade 5 LA.3. Grade 8 LA.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.3.8 use knowledge of antonyms.6. homophones. and homographs to determine meanings of words.6.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.6. LA.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. synonyms.1.910. LA.1. Grade 4 LA.6. and homographs to determine meanings of words.1.8 use knowledge of antonyms.6.8 identify advanced word/phrase relationships and their meanings.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.1.1.7. Also assesses LA.8.0 Standard 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.6.6.4.6.1.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.6.1.5.5. LA.5. Grade 6 LA.6. LA.1.1.6.6. The student will: Grade 3 LA.6.1.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. homophones.1.8 use knowledge of antonyms.1.910. Also assesses LA.8 identify advanced word/phrase relationships and their meanings. Grade 7 LA.4. LA.6.1.6.4.1. synonyms.6. Also assesses LA.6. LA.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 1 Reading Process BY THE FCAT 2.7. Grades 9–10 LA.6.8 identify advanced word/phrase relationships and their meanings.6.1. LA.6. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .6.9 determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context.8 identify advanced word/phrase relationships and their meanings.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.8. and homographs to determine meanings of words.1. synonyms. homophones.3.

6.g.6. B–3 | FCAT 2. Assessed by LA.11 use meaning of familiar roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.0 Standard 6 The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary.5. Assessed by LA.7.. Grade 7 LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education ..1.5. laissez faire.6.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.7. Assessed by LA. Assessed by LA..1. Grades 9–10 LA.1.6.7.7. mercurial. Greek.1.1.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 1 Reading Process BY THE FCAT 2.11 identify the meaning of words and phrases derived from Anglo-Saxon. RSVP).11 identify the meaning of words and phrases from other languages commonly used by writers of English (e.g.6. Grade 8 LA. and Latin mythology.11 identify the meaning of words and phrases derived from Anglo-Saxon.6.1.1.1.7.910.910.6.6. and Latin mythology.6.1. Assessed by LA.8. post facto.g.6. Grade 6 LA. ad hoc.7. Achilles’ heel) and identify frequently used words from other languages (e.1. Greek. croissant).8.11 identify the meaning of words and phrases derived from Greek and Latin mythology (e. The student will: Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.6.6.7.

inform.2 identify the author’s purpose (e. to persuade. summarizing.1.7.2 analyze the author’s purpose (e. inferences.4. LA.7.7.3. Grade 6 LA. LA. and identifying relevant details. or explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text.7.1.6.1. implied message.1.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. paraphrasing.7. entertain. entertain.3 determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring. or explain) and perspective in a variety of texts and understand how they affect meaning. strongly implied message and inference. and identifying relevant details. entertain. Grade 4 LA.2 analyze the author’s purpose and/or perspective in a variety of text and understand how they affect meaning. Grade 7 LA. LA. explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text. chronological order of events. paraphrasing.7.g. entertain. summarizing. including but not limited to main idea.. to persuade. relevant supporting details.910.g.3. The student will: Grade 3 LA. Grades 9–10 LA. Grade 8 LA. inform. to persuade.g. paraphrasing. LA.4.5.7..910.3 determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level or higher texts through inferring.3 determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text. inform. and chronological order of events. and identifying relevant details.7.8.7.1. to inform.0 Standard 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text.1.1. summarizing. paraphrasing..g.3 determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text.5. B–4 | FCAT 2.2 identify the author’s purpose (e.3 determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring.3 determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level or higher texts through inferring. explain) and perspective in a variety of texts and understand how they affect meaning.1.7. including but not limited to main idea.8.7.7.1.7. explain) and how an author’s perspective influences text.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 1 Reading Process BY THE FCAT 2. and paraphrasing.2 analyze the author’s purpose (e. LA. paraphrasing. summarizing. and identifying relevant details..1.1.1. entertain. Grade 5 LA.1. to inform.6. relevant supporting details.2 analyze the author’s purpose and/or perspective in a variety of texts and understand how they affect meaning. and identifying relevant details.g.7.. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . LA. summarizing.1. LA.7.2 identify the author’s purpose (e.3 determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level or higher texts through inferring. summarizing.7.

8. The student will: Grade 3 LA.5. comparison/ contrast.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g.1.3.1.4.7. lists) and text features (main headings with subheadings) and explain their impact on meaning in text.7.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text.1. B–5 | FCAT 2. argument/support. chronological order..7. cause/effect.7.. cause/effect.5 identify the text structure an author uses (e.g.7..7. comparison/ contrast.g.1. comparison/ contrast.5 identify the text structure an author uses (e. lists) and text features (main headings with subheadings) and explain their impact on meaning in text.1. Grade 5 LA. argument/support. comparison/ contrast.g. sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text.7.7.1.g.7.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 1 Reading Process BY THE FCAT 2. LA. lists) and text features (main headings with subheadings) and explain their impact on meaning in text.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text.1. cause/effect. chronological order.8.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text.7.g.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text.. chronological order. and sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text. LA. cause/effect.1.0 Standard 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text.7.6.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text. Grade 6 LA.5.5 analyze a variety of text structures (e. Grades 9–10 LA. cause/effect.7.1. cause/effect. sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text.7. LA. argument/support..g..1. LA.4. lists) and text features (main headings with subheadings) and explain their impact on meaning in text.910.910.1. Grade 8 LA. Grade 7 LA. comparison/ contrast. Grade 4 LA. comparison/ contrast. argument/support.1.4 identify cause-and­ effect relationships in text.1. comparison/ contrast.7.. LA.5 analyze a variety of text structures (e. chronological order.5 analyze a variety of text structures (e.7. cause/effect. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .6.5 identify the text structure an author uses (e.5 analyze a variety of text structures (e.3.1. LA. LA.7.

7 compare and contrast elements. setting.0 Standard 7 The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text.7..Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 1 Reading Process BY THE FCAT 2.7. setting.7. LA.. LA.3.7.7. settings.1.1. Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 LA. B–6 | FCAT 2.7 compare and contrast elements in multiple texts.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.7. The student will: Grade 3 LA. LA.910.5. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . and problems in two texts.3.7.4.7 compare and contrast elements in multiple texts. Grade 4 LA. problems).7 compare and contrast elements in multiple texts (e. characters.1. characters.7.6 identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections.1.6 identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections. LA.7 compare and contrast elements in multiple texts (e.7 compare and contrast elements in multiple texts.1.1.1.1.7.8.g.1.4. Grade 5 LA. LA.7.7 compare and contrast elements in multiple texts.6 identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections.5. characters.g.6.1. problems).7. LA.

resolution. resolution. including character/character development. including exposition. including exposition.2 identify and explain the elements of story structure. setting.2.2 locate and analyze elements of characterization.2.2 locate and analyze elements of characterization. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection.2. character development. character development. character development. problem/resolution.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and problem/resolution in a variety of fiction. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . setting.5.8.1. setting. Grade 7 LA.2.1. plot. conflict. and plot. Grade 8 LA. B–7 | FCAT 2. setting.4.6. problem/resolution.2 locate and analyze the elements of plot structure. setting.1. theme.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 2 Standard 1 Literary Analysis BY THE FCAT 2. and plot.1. Grade 5 LA. including rising action. Grade 4 LA. and other literary elements as appropriate in a variety of fiction.2 identify and explain the elements of plot structure. including rising action. and theme in a variety of fiction. and theme in a variety of fiction. theme.7.3.2. and theme in a variety of fiction.2 locate and analyze the elements of plot structure. rising/falling action.1.2. including exposition. conflict. analyzes. Grade 6 LA. conflict/resolution. and other literary elements as appropriate in a variety of fiction.0 The student identifies.1. rising/falling action. setting. Grades 9–10 The student will: Grade 3 LA.

g. hyperbole. analyzes.. setting. allusion. symbolism. personification.0 The student identifies. and explain and analyze different elements of figurative language (e. The student will: Grade 3 B–8 | FCAT 2. metaphor.2.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 2 Standard 1 Literary Analysis BY THE FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . simile. plot). point of view.g.1. characterization. Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grades 9–10 LA.. theme.910.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.5 analyze and develop an interpretation of a literary work by describing an author’s use of literary elements (e. imagery). and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection.

personification. idiomatic. and explain how they impact meaning in a variety of texts. identifying how word choice is used to appeal to the reader’s senses and emotions. Grade 8 LA..2. personification.. idiomatic.7 identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive.1.g.7 analyze.2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . feelings.7 identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. and objects. identifying how word choice is used to appeal to the reader’s senses and emotions.. and figurative language (e.1.1.7. and figurative language (e.7 identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. personification..4. and figurative language (e.g. Grades 9–10 LA. hyperbole). analyzes. and objects.0 The student identifies. identifying how word choice sets the author’s tone and advances the work’s theme.1. interpret.. The student will: Grade 3 LA. providing evidence from text to support the analysis.5. idiomatic.2. metaphors. symbolism). imagery. onomatopoeia. Grade 5 LA. personification.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g. Grade 7 LA.2. similes.910. irony. feelings.3. providing evidence from text to support the analysis. Grade 4 LA. tone.7 locate and analyze an author’s use of allusions and descriptive. metaphors.g. and evaluate an author’s use of descriptive language (e.7 locate and analyze an author’s use of allusions and descriptive. symbolism. alliteration. idiomatic. mood. idiomatic. B–9 | FCAT 2. and figurative language in a variety of literary text. common idioms. pun. Grade 6 LA. similes.1.8. and figurative language in a variety of literary text. metaphor. feelings. allusion). symbolism).2. figurative language (e. and figurative language in a variety of literary text.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 2 Standard 1 Literary Analysis BY THE FCAT 2. and objects. similes.7 locate and analyze an author’s use of allusions and descriptive.g. and examine how it is used to describe people.1.1. and examine how it is used to describe people. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of fiction and literary texts to develop a thoughtful response to a literary selection. metaphors. and mythological and literary allusions.6. and examine how it is used to describe people. idiomatic.2. symbolism).2.

2. graphs. illustrations. charts. Grade 6 LA. charts and graphs. key/guide words). headings. italics.1 locate.1 locate. headings. headings. table of contents. B–10 | FCAT 2. and analyze specific information from organizational text features (e. glossary.2.8.7.0 The student identifies.1 analyze and evaluate information from text features (e. index. and analyze specific information from organizational text features (e.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 2 Standard 2 Literary Analysis BY THE FCAT 2. table of contents. The student will: Grade 3 LA.g. explain. glossary.2. use.4.g.2. graphs.2. Grade 8 LA.. indices. captions. explain.g. and applies knowledge of the elements of a variety of nonfiction. table of contents.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. headings.2. and expository texts to demonstrate an understanding of the information presented. table of contents. index. use.2. transitional devices. subheadings). charts.2.g. bold or italicized text. bold print. bold print.. glossaries.. italics. illustrations).2.2. glossaries...1 identify and explain the purpose of text features (e.2. transition words/phrases. and use information from text features (e.. indices. table of contents. indices. key/guide words). bold print. table of contents. glossaries. and use information from text features (e.1 locate. diagrams. subheadings. key/guide words).g.2.3. captions. charts. glossary. Grade 4 LA.. Grades 9–10 LA. and analyze specific information from organizational text features (e. headings. informational. use. table of contents.2.1 locate. headings.g.5. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .2. illustrations).1 locate. italics. Grade 7 LA. graphs.g. glossary. captions. headings.910. diagrams. analyzes. Grade 5 LA.6. illustrations).

Grade 4 LA.1 read and interpret informational text and organize the information (e. charts. graphs) aid the reader’s understanding. captions. following multi-step directions.g.g.g. Grades 9–10 LA. captions.1 read informational text and text features (e. Grade 7 LA. charts.1 explain how text features (e.1. use outlines. creating a report.g.g.6. illustrations. performing a task). charts. charts.g.1. charts. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . captions. supporting opinions.1 explain how text features (e. problem solving.6. sub-headings.. conducting interviews. graphs. following multi-step directions.1.6.1 explain how text features (e.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 6 Standard 1 Grade 3 LA. Grade 8 LA. preparing to take a test.. illustrations. captions.6.1 explain how text features (e.g.3. conducting interviews. preparing to take a test.910. graphs) aid the reader’s understanding.4.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.7. and conclusions). timelines..1.g. Grade 6 LA. legends. The student will: B–11 | FCAT 2. BY THE FCAT 2. manuals) and organize information for different purposes. making a report.6. maps. illustrations. format. predictions. diagrams. Grade 5 LA.1.. and performing a task.5. illustrations.6.g. maps. maps. graphics.. performing a task. maps.6.. diagrams.1 read informational text (e.. being informed. diagrams.1. illustrations.0 Information and Media Literacy The student comprehends the wide array of informational text that is part of our day to day experiences.. diagrams) to organize information for different purposes (e.1. including but not limited to being informed. diagrams. multi-step directions. graphs) aid the reader’s understanding.6.8. sub-headings. and graphic organizers) from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (e. sub-headings. sub-headings. graphs) aid the reader’s understanding..

experts) that includes paraphrasing to convey ideas and details from the source. Grade 7 LA.5.6.7.2.6. and presentation of information. and evaluate the validity and reliability of information from multiple sources (including primary and secondary sources) to draw conclusions using a variety of techniques. processing. and correctly use standardized citations.910. main idea(s) and relevant details.6. and evaluate the validity and reliability of information in text. B–12 | FCAT 2. The student will: Assessed with LA.2 read and record information systematically.2 assess. synthesize.6.8. Grades 9–10 LA.. Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. analyze.g. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .5.2.Grades 3–5 Appendix B APPENDIX B: R EADING CONTENT ASSESSED Strand 6 Standard 2 Grade 3 BY THE FCAT 2. organize.0 Information and Media Literacy The student uses a systematic process for the collection.2. using a variety of techniques by examining several sources of information.6. websites.2. including both primary and secondary sources.2. using a variety of techniques by examining several sources of information. synthesize. encyclopedias. including both primary and secondary sources.2 organize.2 assess. organize.2 collect. Grade 6 LA.2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.6. evaluate and summarize information using a variety of techniques from multiple sources (e.2. and check the validity and reliability of information in text. evaluating the validity and reliability of information in text by examining several sources of information. Grade 8 LA.6.

• Base Words • Affixes • Roots (Grade 5) Content Focus • Context Clues Grade 4 LA.1.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e.0 R EADING REPORTING CATEGORIES AND CONTENT FOCUS CHART FCAT 2.6.7 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.1.1. synonyms.3 LA.7 The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words... blaring.1.6.5.9 Grade 5 LA.6. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.3.1.8 LA..3.7 Grade 5 LA. The student will use knowledge of antonyms.3.6.5.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.6.g.6.1. The student will determine the correct meaning • Multiple Meanings of words with multiple meanings in context.Grade 3-5 Appendix C APPENDIX C: FCAT 2. homophones.6.4.1.5.1.5.4. • Analyze Words in Also assesses LA.6 The student will identify Text shades of meaning in related words (e. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6. Also assesses LA. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. • Shades of Meaning loud).1.6.9 • Antonyms • Synonyms Grade 4 LA.6.4.g.6. blaring.1.5.9 FCAT 2.6.3.3. The student will use meaning of familiar base words and affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.6.11 The student will use meaning of familiar roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin to determine meanings of unfamiliar complex words.8 LA.5.6. Also assesses LA.1. loud).4. Also assesses LA. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | C–1 .3 LA.0 Reading Benchmarks Grades 3–5 Reporting Category 1: Vocabulary Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 LA.4.6 The student will identify shades of meaning in related words (e. The student will determine the correct meaning of words with multiple meanings in context. and homographs to determine meanings of words.1.3 LA.g.1.1.1. loud).6.1.8 LA.6. blaring.

1. implied message.7 The student will compare and contrast elements.7 LA.5. 3 within one text. problems).7. definition/explanation. Gr.1.3.4 LA.1. The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts (e. C–2 | FCAT 2.4.3 Grade 4 LA.4. chronological order of events.1.6 The student will identify themes or topics across a variety of fiction and nonfiction selections.1.1.3 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. sequence of events.4 LA. and paraphrasing. relevant supporting details.1.3. characters. and chronological order of events. and problems in two texts. listing/description) • Themes (Gr.5 LA.5..7. including but not limited to main idea.1.3.5 • Cause and Effect • Text Structures/ Organizational Patterns (e. Gr.. strongly implied message and inference. The student will identify cause-and-effect relationships in text.7.g. Content Focus • Author’s Purpose • Author’s Perspective Grade 3 LA.1.g.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. cause/effect. 3 within one text. summarizing.2 LA. 4–5 within/across texts) • Topics (Gr.7.g. The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.1. 4–5 within/across texts) • Compare (similarities: Gr. 4–5 within/across texts) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. entertain. 4–5 within/across texts) • Contrast (differences: Gr.7.4 LA.1.1.5 LA. 3 within one text. comparison/ contrast. The student will identify the text structure an author uses (e.7.7. Gr.7.7.3.7.7.4.4. summarizing.1.7. comparison/contrast.7 LA. explain) in text and how an author’s perspective influences text.3 • Main Idea (stated or implied) • Relevant Details • Conclusions/ Inferences • Chronological Order Grade 5 LA. cause/effect. Gr.2 LA.g.3.7.5. characters..0 R EADING REPORTING CATEGORIES AND CONTENT FOCUS CHART Reporting Category 2: Reading Application Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA.6 LA. question/answer. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text.Grades 3–5 Appendix C FCAT 2. entertain.6 LA.7.1. settings..3. and identifying relevant details.4. 3 within one text.g. paraphrasing. The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level text through inferring.5. Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. inform.7.7.1. explain) and how an author’s perspective influences text. relevant supporting details.5.7. The student will determine explicit ideas and information in grade-level text.1. including but not limited to main idea.1. inferences.5. setting. The student will compare and contrast elements in multiple texts.7. and sequence of events) and explain how it impacts meaning in text. to inform.1.2 The student will identify the author’s purpose (e.. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . to persuade.4.

illustrations).g.1. personification) Grade 3 LA. The student will locate. rising/falling action.. illustrations.2.2.g.2.g. setting.. The student will identify and explain an author’s use of descriptive. graphs. including exposition. character development. character development.4. charts.2.2.1. setting. glossary. table of contents. charts. charts. and objects.1. charts.3.. mood.5. metaphor. simile. including exposition. captions.2 The student will identify and explain the elements of story structure. problem/resolution.4. italicized text.2.0 R EADING REPORTING CATEGORIES AND CONTENT FOCUS CHART Reporting Category 3: Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction Grade 3 LA. explain. Content Focus Grade 4 LA. symbolism).2.2. graphs..1.5.1. headings.g. titles. table of contents. illustrations).2.2. and use information from text features (e. imagery) • Figurative Language (e. metaphors. text boxes) FCAT 2.g. index.. The student will locate. tables.1 • Text Features (e.2 Grade 5 LA.g. subheadings. diagrams. and figurative language (e.4.. headings. and theme in a variety of fiction. subtitles. idiomatic. explain. and use information from text features (e. graphs. diagrams. maps. graphs.Grades 3–5 Appendix C FCAT 2. and examine how it is used to describe people. including character/ character development.5.7 • Descriptive Language (e. diagrams.3. table of contents.g.1.1 Grade 4 LA. headings. illustrations). feelings. sections. The student will locate and analyze the elements of plot structure. glossary.2.1 Grade 5 LA. and theme in a variety of fiction.7 LA. The student will identify and explain the purpose of text features (e.2. problem/ resolution. headings. and problem/resolution in a variety of fiction. plot.3.7 LA. The student will identify and explain the elements of plot structure.2 • Character Development • Character Point of View • Setting • Plot Development • Problem/Resolution Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 LA. setting. transition words/phrases. subheadings.. glossary. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | C–3 . similes. personification.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.

.. Organize Information • Text Features (e. italicized text. text boxes) Grade 5 LA. predictions.6. graphics..Grades 3–5 Appendix C FCAT 2. making a report. The student will read informational text and text features (e. creating a report. timelines.. subheadings. supporting opinions.4. captions. headings. preparing to take a test.3. diagrams. following multi-step directions.g. conducting interviews.6.1. The student will read and record information systematically.. format. legends. Content Focus Grade 4 LA. sections. charts. maps. and graphic organizers) from multiple sources for a variety of purposes (e. performing a task).6. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . including but not limited to being informed. illustrations.g.6. preparing to take a test. being informed..0 R EADING REPORTING CATEGORIES AND CONTENT FOCUS CHART Reporting Category 4: Informational Text/Research Process Grade 3 LA. graphs.5. and conclusions).1 • Locate. manuals) and organize information for different purposes.2. and performing a task.5. Interpret. following multi-step directions. titles.g.1 The student will read informational text (e.1 Grade 5 LA.2 • Determine the Validity and Reliability of Information (within/across texts) C–4 | FCAT 2. use outlines. The student will read and interpret informational text and organize the information (e.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.g. charts. tables. illustrations.g. multi-step directions.1. evaluating the validity and reliability of information in text by examining several sources of information.g. conducting interviews. graphs. problem solving. performing a task.1. diagrams) to organize information for different purposes (e. subtitles.

groves ever green. Sometimes the author’s perspective is recognizable through the tone of a piece. parts are examined to understand how they work together to create meaning as a whole. Analyze—To analyze a literary work. place. Author’s bias—A personal judgment either for or against a particular person. The antagonist is often. usually of a consonant. Alliteration—The repetition of the same sound. Antagonist—A principal character or force in opposition to a protagonist. to deduce. the villain in a literary work. a set of circumstances. but not always. to contrast. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | D–1 . or a force within the protagonist.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. such as the prefix ad. Examples of analysis are to compare. Argument begins with a statement of an idea or opinion. Affix—A word part that cannot stand alone (morpheme) and that changes the meaning or function of a base word to which it is attached. The antagonist is usually another character but sometimes can be a force of nature. some aspect of society. Author’s perspective—The viewpoint that an author brings to a piece of writing. mythology. Allusions usually come from a body of information that the author presumes the reader will know. history. well-known person. Antonym—A word having a meaning opposite to that of another word. or to categorize. which is then supported with facts and logical reasoning to achieve its purpose. or event from literature. FCAT 2.0 Reading. An important skill of critical reading is the ability to detect an author’s bias and prejudice.and the suffix -ing in adjoining. Bias can be favorable or unfavorable and can be used to sway an audience. science. Example: The repetition of f and g in fields ever fresh.Grade 3-5 Appendix D APPENDIX D FCAT 2. sports. or the arts. at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other or at short intervals. Allusion—A reference to a statement. Argument/support—A text structure/organizational pattern that uses reason to try to lead a reader to think or act in a certain way. position. Argument may be found in a single text or paired texts in which opposing views are expressed.0 R EADING GLOSSARY The following glossary is a reference list provided for item writers and is not intended to comprise a comprehensive vocabulary list for students. The terms defined in this glossary pertain to the NGSSS in reading and language arts for Grades 3–10 and the content assessed on FCAT 2. or thing. or main character. politics.

A writer may use clue words or signal words to alert the reader to these events. Character development—The method(s) a writer uses to create and develop characters. such as first. to express an opinion. Other words or word parts (affixes) can be added to base words to form new words (e. or to persuade readers to do or believe something. beliefs. D–2 | FCAT 2. such as like. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Chart—A type of graphic aid that presents information. or emotions that moves the plot forward in literary text. Almost every story has a main conflict (or problem)—a conflict that is the story’s focus. in contrast. shows a process. Cause and effect—Two events are related as cause and effect when one event brings about the other. feelings. but usually one is the most important. then. Character point of view—An important aspect within character development is character point of view. To develop a character. teach in reteach or teaching). feelings. similarly. forces. The purpose may be to entertain. or actions of a character may be used to reveal the character’s nature. Base word—A complete word that can stand alone. or actions of other characters may be used to develop a character.Grade 3-5 Appendix D Author’s purpose—An author’s purpose is his or her reason for creating a particular work. and in the same way. next. (c) the speech. motives. to explain or to inform. Conflict—A struggle or clash between opposing characters. Chronological order—The order in which events happen in time (sequence of events). compare/contrast writing may end with a conclusion that explains a decision or provides new understanding of the subjects. or makes comparisons. The viewpoint or voice of a character is developed by a writer and enables readers to better understand the events of a text through a character’s thoughts. the doctor said I couldn’t play baseball. (b) the speech. The writer uses transitions to signal similarities and differences.g. thoughts. the writer analyzes the reason(s) for an action. thoughts. finally. Cause and effect is also a text structure/ organizational pattern that presents relationships between ideas in a text. Comparison—The process of pointing out what two or more things have in common. or (d) the narrator may make direct comments about a character. As a text structure/organizational pattern.. usually in rows and columns. (a) a writer may describe a character’s physical appearance. etc. or analyzes resulting consequences to support a point. Compare/contrast—Writing that examines the similarities and differences between two or more subjects. Chronological order (sequence) is also a text structure/organizational pattern in which ideas are grouped on the basis of order or time. or actions. In this method of development. or decision.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. feelings. event. An author may have more than one purpose for writing. likewise. The following statement shows a cause-and-effect relationship: Because of my broken arm.

society as a whole. In the early part of the story. Evaluate—To form opinions about what is read. Descriptive language uses images that appeal to the reader’s senses. It can also be described as technical or common. care. For example. manuals. Descriptive language is used in fiction. drama. or any other expression that enables readers to infer the word’s meaning. warranties. or something in nature. a paragraph. A context clue may be a definition. External conflict—In an external conflict. establishes the setting. package inserts. an example. Diction can be broadly characterized as formal or informal. more technical. The concept is initially defined and then further expanded with examples. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | D–3 . They are intended for the buyers or users of the products or services and usually provide information about use.Grade 3-5 Appendix D Consumer documents—Printed materials that accompany products and services. abstract or concrete. thing. Exposition—In fiction. a sentence. When readers meet unfamiliar words. qualities. thereby making word identification more accurate. helping the reader to imagine how a subject looks. event. the structure of the plot normally begins with exposition. the exposition sets the tone. a writer for Scientific American would use a more formal. Context clues—Unfamiliar words are often surrounded by words or phrases called context clues that help readers understand their meanings. emotion. and restatements.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. a comparison or a contrast. Descriptive language—Language intended to create a mood. explanations. a synonym. The reader combines what he or she already knows with information from the text. Excerpt—A passage or segment taken from a text. nonfiction. and mood. FCAT 2. alliteration. Drawing conclusions—A special kind of inference that involves not reading between the lines but reading beyond the lines. or problems. or experience. or feels. Through this process readers may develop their own ideas about characters and events. context clues narrow the possible word choices. or assembly. and gives the reader important background information. person. tastes. Some common consumer documents are applications. and possibly more abstract diction than a writer for the science section of a local newspaper. which may be another character. Contrast—To emphasize the dissimilarities and differences of things. a character struggles against an outside force. and poetry. or an entire chapter. Diction—A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words and way of arranging the words in sentences. instructions. The length of the excerpt may be a phrase. events. smells. brochures. Readers can draw a conclusion from stated facts or facts they infer and then combine all the facts to support their conclusion. Definition/explanation—An organizational pattern that is devoted to defining a complex term or idea. place. operation. introduces the characters. sounds. and schedules. Some examples of descriptive language include imagery. and literal or figurative. labels. contracts.

Hyperbole—A figure of speech in which a statement is exaggerated for emphasis or for humorous effect. Fiction—Imaginative works of prose. During the falling action. contain both internal and external conflicts. conflicts are resolved and mysteries are solved. Flashback—An interruption in the action of a plot to tell what happened at an earlier time. It is used in all types of writing. Although fiction may draw on actual events and real people. Functional materials—A form of informational nonfiction (e. it springs mainly from the imagination of the writer. primarily the novel and the short story. and an external conflict often leads to internal problems. A flashback breaks the usual movement of the narrative by going back in time. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . and touch—to help the reader imagine exactly what is being described. brochures. Inference—The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true. The purpose is to entertain as well as enlighten the reader. Foreshadowing—A writer’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the plot.g. falling action is the action that occurs after the climax. See examples given in the table on page 4. Figurative language—Language that involves the use of words and/or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another and that is not meant to be understood on a literal level. Foreshadowing creates suspense and prepares the reader for what is to come. especially longer ones. Informational nonfiction—Writing that provides factual information and that often explains ideas or teaches processes.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. D–4 | FCAT 2. Imagery consists of descriptive words and phrases that re-create sensory experiences for the reader. Many literary works. Writers often use hyperbole to intensify a description or to emphasize the essential nature of something. Imagery usually appeals to one or more of the five senses—sight. hearing. For example. he/she is using hyperbole. fliers) encountered in real-world situations. and personification (The wind stood up and gave a shout). Functional materials also include consumer documents and workplace documents. how-to articles. taste. websites. but especially in poetry. if a writer says that a limousine is a mile long. Flashback usually gives background information that helps the reader understand the present situation. smell.Grades 3–5 Appendix D Fact—Knowledge or information that can be verified. The most common are simile (My heart is like a singing bird). or emotions within a single character. Imagery—Language that appeals to the senses. Internal conflict—A struggle between opposing needs.. the conclusions drawn from this process. metaphor (My soul is an enchanted boat). desires. Figurative language always involves some sort of imaginative comparison between seemingly unlike things. Falling action—In the plot of a story.

or give examples drawn from a text. FCAT 2. setting. features. pieces of information (facts. as. either between what one says and what one means (verbal irony). See examples given in the table on page 4. Literary nonfiction can include autobiographies. reasons. biographies. Exaggeration. sarcasm. figurative language. except that the characters. Irony involves the tension that arises from the discrepancy. Literary nonfiction—Like fiction. steps. and plot are real rather than imaginary. characters. The implied main idea is the main idea of a passage or an article that is not directly stated but formed from what is suggested by an author from the supporting details. The order of the facts may reflect the order of importance or simply another logical order. Literary device—A literary technique used to achieve a particular effect. For example. conflict. Instead. etc. Irony—A contrast between what is expected and what actually exists or happens. the moral Do not count your chickens before they hatch teaches that one should not count on one’s fortunes or blessings until they appear. Moral—A lesson taught in a literary work. A moral of a literary work should not be confused with a theme. and rhythm can help establish mood. a metaphor does not contain a word such as like. ideas. and essays. characteristics. such as a fable. details. than. This process involves making an inference beyond the literal meaning of a text in order to determine meaning. foreshadowing. Listing/description—In this organizational pattern. or between what occurs and what one expects to occur (situational irony). Unlike a simile.Grades 3–5 Appendix D Interpret—To translate. It may be the central idea of an entire work or a thought expressed in the topic sentence of a paragraph. Multiple meanings—The particular meaning of a word that is dependent upon how it is used in a sentence. setting. Main idea (stated/implied)—The main idea is the most important idea expressed in a piece of writing. Mood—The feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader. plot. Metaphor—A comparison of two things that have some quality in common. imagery. and point of view. Some examples of literary elements are theme.) are listed. it states that one thing actually is something else. and understatement are techniques writers use to express irony. such as descriptive language and figurative language. between what a character believes and what a reader knows (dramatic irony).0 Reading Test Item Specifications. The use of connotation. or resembles. Literary elements—Refers to the particular elements common to all literary and narrative forms. setting. examples. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | D–5 . analyze. Its purpose is usually to entertain or express opinions or feelings.

. and more.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Nonfiction includes a diverse range of writing and can be informational or literary in nature. meow.g. argumentative. human attributes are given to stars. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . mysteries of nature. (d) falling action. Personification—A figure of speech in which a nonhuman thing or quality is written about as if it were human. Rocks lie on their backs and the rock has an open wound are other examples. either as participants or as observers. autobiographies. or persuasive. In the phrase the blue stars shiver. The three main points of view in literary texts are omniscient. Prefix—A word part. Heroes and gods often figure prominently in myths. movie reviews. and events. such as dis. Common types of organizational patterns include chronological order (sequence of events). standpoint. and (e) resolution or denouement. the building blocks that serve every writing purpose—informative. Nonfiction can be a good source of information. Point of view—The vantage point from which a writer tells a story. advertising. and cause and effect.Grades 3–5 Appendix D Myth—A traditional story. diaries. There are five basic elements in a plot line: (a) exposition. Plot/plot development—The action or sequence of events in a story. (b) rising action. attached to the front of a root word to produce a derivative word or inflected form. notice gaps in the information provided. Organizational patterns—Text structures found in all types of nonfiction (and even some fiction). Primary source—Materials written by people who were present at events. and identify errors in logic. buzz. that deals with basic questions about the universe. speeches. Paraphrasing—Helps readers to clarify meaning by restating information in their own words. Plot is usually a series of related incidents that builds and grows as the story develops. (c) climax. speeches. although writers of nonfiction shape information in accordance with their own purposes and attitudes. Perspective—A position from which something is considered or evaluated. Letters. expository. Unlike fiction. places. third-person limited. nonfiction is mainly written to convey factual information. and photographs are examples of primary sources. D–6 | FCAT 2. usually of unknown authorship.in disbelieve. Onomatopoeia—The use of words whose sounds suggest their meanings (e. Nonfiction—Writing that tells about real people. compare/contrast. splash). which may attempt to explain such things as the origin of the world. and first person. but readers frequently have to examine it carefully in order to detect biases. true-life adventure stories. Predicting—A reading strategy that involves gathering and using text clues to make a reasonable guess about what will happen next in a story. or social customs. Some examples of nonfiction are newspaper articles.

Root word—In the English language. The protagonist is the character upon whom the reader focuses attention. or a question and an answer that responds to the question. The resolution comes after the climax and falling action and is intended to bring the story to a satisfactory end. An insight or a change as a result of the conflict is shown in the resolution. but not always. usually harsh. dynamic characters who change in some important way by the end of the story. Pun—Play on the multiple meanings of a word or on two words that sound alike but have different meanings. Knowing the meaning of a word’s root can help the reader determine the word’s meaning. Satire—Type of writing that ridicules human weakness. George Orwell’s novel Animal Farm uses barnyard animals to mock the way people abuse political power. then providing the reader with key information and support that answers those questions. the person who sets the plot in motion. Sarcasm—A form of verbal irony.Grades 3–5 Appendix D Problem/solution—A text structure in which the main ideas are organized into two parts: a problem and a subsequent solution that responds to the problem. Satires often try to persuade the reader to do or believe something by showing the opposite view as absurd or even as vicious and inhumane. The protagonist is often. Rising action—The events in a story that move the plot forward. overstating something to make it look worse than it is. or folly in order to bring about social reform. Rising action involves conflicts and complications and builds toward the climax of the story. most newspaper and magazine articles. textbooks. Encyclopedias. many roots are derived from ancient Greek and Latin languages. In informational nonfiction. Most protagonists are rounded. such as prefixes and suffixes. A root is a word part that cannot stand by itself and must be combined with other word parts. Protagonist—The main character in fiction or drama. Relevant details—A fact revealed by an author or speaker that supports an attitude or tone in a piece of poetry or prose. Example: I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. novel. One of the favorite techniques of the satirists is exaggeration. biographies. relevant details provide information that supports the author’s main point. the writers were not directly involved or were not present when the events took place. Grades 3–5 . Then it hit me. Resolution (or denouement)—The portion of a play or story where the central problem is solved. the hero in a literary work. Question/answer—An organizational pattern that involves the author posing questions about a particular subject or topic. Secondary source—Records of events that were created some time after the events occurred. and books and articles that interpret or review research are examples. vice. For example. in order to convey core meaning. or play. that is often used as an insult. Florida Department of Education | D–7 FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.

the reader combines or puts together information from two or more places or sources. -ing in walking. or -s in sits. present. and the beliefs. time of day.g. italic type. Setting can function in several ways in a text: it can provide atmosphere. —Maya Angelou). an object. Example: glance. tables. text boxes. Table—A type of graphic aid that presents a group of facts in rows and columns and demonstrates how the facts interrelate. and graphic aids. historical period (past. or future). occasionally/sometimes). subtle differences in meaning between similar words and phrases.. A symbol must be something tangible or visible. bulleted or numbered lists. Synonym—A word that has the same or almost the same meaning as another word (e. such as charts. or reveal character. sections. play. combining information from all areas to draw conclusions. Context clues help resolve which shade of meaning is intended. while the idea it symbolizes must be something abstract or universal. or poem. shaking like a freshly caught trout. parcel/package. glare. Shades of meaning—Shades of meaning are small.g. Text features—Design elements that include the organizational structure of a text and help make the key ideas and supporting information understandable. rob/steal. or a person) that functions in a text to represent something more than itself. illustrations. create conflict. The reader might also read information under pictures and on maps and charts.. timelines. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . When synthesizing. omitting unimportant details and information. Text box––A distinct section of a page that amplifies or highlights information found in the main text and often provides additional information. In a simile. such as -ness in gentleness.. At times. She stood in front of the altar. season of the year. Text features include headings. the comparison is conveyed by means of the word like or as (e.” the fragile ibis functions as a symbol of the frail little boy and his unusual nature. In James Hurst’s “The Scarlet Ibis. Summary statement—A general statement that presents the main points or facts in condensed form. subtitles. and standards of a society. Elements of setting may include geographic location. and peek all refer to the concept of looking but have a different meaning. an event. a dark forest has often been used as a symbol of being lost and confused in life. Symbolism—The use of something concrete (e. For example.Grades 3–5 Appendix D Setting—The time and place of the action in a story. D–8 | FCAT 2.g.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. the reader may be asked to look at how ideas or information in one text is presented similarly to or differently from that found in another text. titles. Simile—A comparison of two things that have some quality in common. serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending. and photographs. an animal. subheadings. Synthesize—A systematic process that involves identifying the relationships among two or more ideas. customs. Suffix—A word part that is added to the end of a root word. a setting.

Topic—The general category or class of ideas. office memos. A theme is a complex and original revelation about life that is usually unstated. Workplace document—Materials that are produced or used within a work setting. job descriptions. which is a rule of conduct. ironic. FCAT 2. Tone—An expression of a writer’s attitude toward a subject. as of a character in a story. training manuals. yet it is vital. and sales reports. to which the ideas of a text as a whole belong (e. Validity/reliability—A systematic process that involves evaluating whether or not information in a text is valid (correct or sound) and reliable (dependable). which is intended to shape the reader’s emotional response.. evaluating and applying that information.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. arguments. Word relationships—Analyses of word pairs used in a text that are connected by either a similar or opposite meaning. bitter. discussion. subject matter or central idea of a conversation. The reader engages in this process by checking specific information found in a text for its accuracy and dependability. counterarguments. tone reflects the feelings of the writer. playful. often stated in a word or phrase. and cruelty are often intermingled in human relationships. Trait—A distinguishing feature. cause/effect. the theme of “The Scarlet Ibis” by James Hurst might be expressed as Pride. or visual text. Theme—An underlying message about life or human nature that the author wants the reader to understand and that may give readers insight into the author’s view of the world.Grades 3–5 Appendix D Text structure—The temporal and spatial arrangement of elements in a written. Unlike mood. or the text structure of an argumentative essay might involve a linear arrangement of definitions.g. nor should it be reduced to a familiar saying or cliche. A theme is not the same as a moral. They include job applications. the text structure of a narrative film might involve moving back and forth among different time periods in recounting events. such as Crime doesn’t pay. oral. or a piece of writing). love. sarcastic. Common forms of text structure or organizational patterns found in written texts include compare/contrast. and rebuttal. chronological order. and argument/support. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | D–9 . Transition words/phrases/expressions—Words and phrases that indicate relationships between ideas in a paragraph or composition. Tone can be serious. evidence. and verifying the best supporting evidence based on correct and logical conclusions. or objective. For example. For example. humorous. usually to aid in the functioning of the workplace.

L? Is passage appropriate for the FCAT 2. Use the space below to suggest how the passage might be made usable. including HI. Is passage reading level appropriate? (Y/N) IF NO. L? If a passage is not appropriate. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .0 Reading Test Item Specifications. please explain why. what is the grade level.0 R EADING PASSAGE RATING FORM GRADES 3–10 ___________________________________ Reviewer’s Name (Print) Grade ______ Date _________________________ Please indicate the reading level and overall appropriateness of each passage.Grades 3–5 Appendix E APPENDIX E: FCAT 2. MED. MED.0? (Y/N) Passage Code IF YES. is level HI. include explanations as requested. E–1 | FCAT 2.

0 R EADING ITEM RATING FORM GRADES 3–10 Note: These categories have been placed on the chart to reflect the order in which items will be reviewed. excerpted text) Item ID Number One Correct Answer Measures Benchmark Appropriate Cognitive Complexity Appropriate Item Difficulty MC Options Plausible Item Clearly Worded Free of Clang/ Clueing Overall Rating* Additional Comments *RATING TERMS A=ACCEPT AM=ACCEPT WITH METADATA CHANGES AR=ACCEPT WITH REVISIONS RR=REVISE AND RESUBMIT R=REJECT/DELETE E–2 | FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .0 Reading Test Item Specifications.Grades 3–5 Appendix E FCAT 2. Adheres to Content Focus Sufficient Context Provided (vocabulary items.

and Informational Text/Research Process. Literary Analysis—Fiction/Nonfiction. The table below indicates the relative emphasis on each reporting category by providing the percentage of raw score points available in each category assessed on the FCAT 2.0 Reading is based on the benchmarks found in the Reading and Literature strands of the Language Arts NGSSS.0 design. Reading Application.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and reporting are Vocabulary. FCAT 2.0 Reading.0 at different grade levels.0 Reading Reporting Category Percentages Grades 3–5 6–7 8 9–10 Vocabulary 20% 20% 20% 20% Reading Application 30% 30% 25% 25% Literary Analysis Fiction/Nonfiction 30% 30% 25% 25% Informational Text/ Research Process 20% 20% 30% 30% F–1 | FCAT 2. scoring. As students progress through the grades.0 R EADING TEST DESIGN SUMMARY Number of Items The data in this table give ranges for the approximate number of multiple-choice items on FCAT 2. the percent may vary as much as 5%.Grades 3–5 Appendix F APPENDIX F FCAT 2. These ranges include both operational and field-test items.0 Reading 50–55 50–55 50–55 50–55 50–55 50–55 50–55 50–55 55–60 Reporting Categories for Reading Items FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . In each category. more emphasis is placed on higher-level thinking skills in the Informational Text/Research Process reporting category. The four reading reporting categories used for FCAT 2. Grade 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Retake FCAT 2.

Grades 3–5 Appendix F Duration of Test The table below displays the number of minutes allowed for regular test takers for each NGSSS test. Length of FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. All tests are administered in two sessions with the exception of the Reading Retake. A committee of Florida citizens and educators conducts a review of all reading selections and articles to ensure they are free of any bias to a particular group of students or of cultural insensitivity. The range of the number of words per selection allows a variety of texts. Grades 3–5 .0 Reading (in minutes) 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 Grade 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 FCAT 2. plays.0 Reading Texts Grade 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Range of Number of Words per Text Average Number of Words per Text 100–700 100–900 200–1000 200–1100 300–1100 300–1200 300–1400 300–1500 500 500 600 700 700 700 900 1000 Florida Department of Education | F–2 FCAT 2. and literary and informational pieces. which must be taken in one day.0 Reading Texts Proposed reading selections and articles are reviewed by Florida educators for quality and gradelevel appropriateness. to be included in the test. such as poetry. FCAT 2.

..................................... Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education ......................................G–22 G–1 | FCAT 2........................................G–13 Living on the Edge of Danger ..G–7 Grade 4 Across the Blue Mountains...................0 R EADING TEXTS GRADES 3..............................................G–2 Birds Do It! RECYCLE! ....................................................................................G–19 Your Bicycle Helmet ............................0 Reading Test Item Specifications........................................G–14 Grade 5 What Is an Ecosystem?.. Swim! .......................................... AND 5 Grade 3 Swim....G–11 Play a Game .....................................................................G–8 Learning to Sing ................................................................................................................................................................... Baby.......................G–5 The Better Birdhouse!.....................................G–16 The Great Garden Experiment ................................. 4.........................................................................................................................................Grade 3-5 Appendix G APPENDIX G FCAT 2....................................................................................................................................................

On a nearby cattail. The little bird blinked his dark eyes and looked around.Grade 3 Swim. Swim! 100000256998 Appendix G Swim. He slipped off the end of it and plopped down into the pond! Now the little bird’s parents hopped around the cattails and called to their baby. It hung crookedly in a clump of cattails on the edge of a farm pond. Swim! By Mary Leister One summer morning. The little brown bird held tightly to a stem and flapped his wings. a young blackbird clung to a cattail stem near his nest. but it was now brown and dry. All of a sudden. His toes grabbed a long thin willow branch that hung out over the water. He saw a world of green plants and sparkling water. But there was nothing they could do to help him. something really special happened—off he went flying through the air! He wobbled as he flew across the edge of the farm pond and looked for a place to land. But the branch sagged under his weight. His mother had woven the nest from fresh grasses. The little bird began to swim! He dipped his wing tips low into the water. Then something special happened again. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–2 . Then he flapped his wings again and gave a little push with his feet against the cattail stem. Baby. He fluffed up his feathers. Both parents clucked nervously as they watched their last baby learn to fly.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. his father’s yellow head glowed in the sun. Baby. When he pushed back FCAT 2.

and snapping turtles—would eat little birds whenever they had the chance. feathery wing tips coming toward her. As the young bird splashed his wings in the water. With one more powerful G–3 | FCAT 2. And some of the creatures—big fish. He swam slower and slower. She started to drift upward toward the struggling bird.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. By now the little bird’s wet feathers felt very heavy. But the baby blackbird wasn’t the only animal in the water. bullfrogs. The pond looked calm and quiet. Baby. Then the big fish saw tiny feet and wet. the bird’s frantic parents were watching from the willow tree. a female bass noticed the ripples he was making. Swim! Appendix G with all his might—just as though he were flying—he moved the tiniest bit toward shore. the bass kept moving toward him. and he was getting tired. As the little bird struggled along toward shore. The drops spilled over his back and soaked his last dry feathers. bright sparkling droplets showered on his head. Meanwhile. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . All the while. They shrieked and screamed and darted about in the branches while the young bird swam on.Grade 3 Swim.

The fish zipped away from the hungry otter and went to find cover in the weeds.Grade 3 Swim. with the permission of the publisher. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–4 . and all! But just as the bass was about to lunge for the bird. the National Wildlife Federation. he would stay away from the pond. Copyright 1990 by the National Wildlife Federation. So the little bird was safe from the fish! With a last push of his wing tips. Swim! Appendix G swish of her tail and a snap of her jaws. the wet blackbird would be hers—feet. As the young bird lay there. The next morning. their noise would frighten away any enemies. squawking and shrieking. There he dropped onto the damp clay soil in a wet heap of feathers. For the rest of that day the little bird rested in the shelter of the cattails. feathers. an otter came streaking through the water. Swim!” by Mary Leister. But now they also brought him all the insects he could eat. Then he stretched his wings and gave a little push with his feet against the damp clay of the shore. Meanwhile his parents still clamored and fussed. With luck. But for this day. the young bird flew away from the pond and headed for a marsh.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Reprinted from the May 1990 issue of Ranger Rick magazine. the young blackbird reached the edge of the pond. Now his parents circled wildly above him. Off he flew into a clump of cattails growing on the other side of the pond. Baby. He flapped out of the water and crawled up on shore. Baby. the rays of the summer sun warmed and dried him. “Swim. at least. as he would soon discover. There were plenty of dangers in the marsh. FCAT 2. He stood up and began to fluff out his feathers and straighten them with his beak. Off went the otter to search for the bass.

Chicks grow faster and are healthier when they are warm.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. But if you’re a bird.Grade 3 Birds Do It! RECYCLE! 100000256985 Appendix G Birds Do It! Recycle! Picky. Do It Naturally Even though birds can help us recycle some of our junk by using it to build nests. long grass. If you collect paper. But scientists know that the main reason birds build nests is to keep their babies safe. string or paper clips. What A Yarn Yarn is big on an oriole’s shopping list when nest building. your friends might call you a pack rat. too. moss. dried bark. They also learn to fly and leave the nests sooner than birds without warm homes. Picky Scientists have no idea exactly why birds choose certain objects to build their nests. Twigs. Scientists think that the white stuff reminds birds of cotton fluff they find in the wild. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . you’re just building the coolest house in the neighborhood! G–5 | FCAT 2. spider’s silk and mud are some of the natural ingredients that are good for nests. Scientists are still trying to figure out why so many birds choose white yarn over other colors for nest building. they also need to use lots of natural materials. warm and healthy. cloth.

Photograph copyrighted © by John Shaw. Photograph copyrighted © by Ilan Rubin. Keep your bird station away from places where cats hang out. Copyright 1995 Children’s Television Workshop (New York. For The Birds! Stop! Don’t throw all that garbage out! Give some to the birds.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. All rights reserved. Hang the box on a tree and watch birds climb on board to pick through the junk to find their treasures. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–6 . Reprinted by permission of photographer. Cat Alert: Don’t let the birds turn into a tasty treat. New York). Reprinted by permission of photographer. shoelaces bits of cotton rags cushion stuffing or lint yarn “Birds Do It! RECYCLE!” originally appeared in Kid City magazine. Stuff the box loosely with nest building goodies. Hang a small plastic box with holes (like the ones berries come in) on a tree branch. FCAT 2. Look and see how your old junk can help decorate and warm a bird’s new home.Grade 3 Birds Do It! RECYCLE! Appendix G You can make a collection box of stuff to leave for birds so they can help themselves.

grass. This makes it look even more natural. Using materials you can find around your house. and starlings. (Tip: If you have trouble getting the paint to stick. A good site to use for beginning tips: www. and then paint. (Stapling works too.) 3. You can look up state birds online or at your local library. 4. Cut holes into the milk carton for the birds to get into the birdhouse. Bird watching does not have to take a lot of time or money. 8. in your very own backyard. More people are enjoying it every day.com | FCAT 2. Glue the top of the milk carton shut. Now you can watch your birds in any weather! “The Better Birdhouse!” property of the Florida Department of Education. sparrows. Do this AFTER painting. cover the whole carton with masking tape first. Poke a hole through the very top of the carton. The size you use will determine which birds use the house. Poke several holes in the bottom of the carton to let out any waste. The top holes are to let in fresh air. string. Paint your milk carton brown. or two. 7. if you want. finches. 5. Glue twigs and grass or moss along the top of the birdhouse or all over. it is easy! Materials you will need • Milk carton. You can watch the blue flash of a hummingbird wing as the little bird sips from a flower nearby. quart or half-gallon size (empty) • Glue • Scissors • Brown paint (acrylic) • Paint supplies • Twine. Make the holes in your milk carton the right size for the birds you hope to attract. Add at least two small holes in the top of the carton. 2. too. or moss What kind of birds will you see? Some of this will depend on where you live. You will want to dab the paint on thickly. Hang the carton from a tree that is visible from a window of your house. An adult will need to get the holes started with your scissors. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .0 Reading Test Item Specifications. TO BUILD A BETTER BIRDHOUSE 1. can enjoy the gentle cooing of a mourning dove. A good place to put them is about four inches from the bottom.Grade 3 The Better Birdhouse! Appendix G The Better Birdhouse! Bird watching is a fun hobby. Loop a string through it.birding. You. You can make one hole per side. This is for safety reasons. or a shoelace • Twigs. Clean and dry the milk carton completely. You can also set out the food that they like best! You can likely expect some species of swallows. warblers. The string is how it will hang from a tree. You can begin an enjoyable adventure in bird watching in 30 minutes. With these directions. you can build a good birdhouse. or the paint could fill in your holes! 6.) The brown will blend into the trees.

1 In the afternoon she had a nap in her hammock between two swaying palms. Every morning Miss Bilberry had breakfast in the shade of a broad-leaved tree. 1 veranda: a porch covered by a roof FCAT 2. looking out at her beautiful view of the mountains. except for one thing. She watered the flowers and vegetables growing in her garden. After breakfast she swept the path and fed the birds and animals. Then she had a light lunch on the veranda. a cat called Chester. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–8 . And sometimes in the evening she played her violin and sang a few songs before she went to bed. the more she wondered. It was a lovely life.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and two birds called Chitty and Chatty. The more she looked. and Miss Bilberry would have been completely happy.Grade 4 Across the Blue Mountains 100000259032 Appendix G by Emma Chichester Clark Miss Bilberry lived in a pale yellow house at the base of the great blue mountains with a dog named Cecilie. She just couldn’t stop wondering whether she might not be even happier if she lived on the other side of the mountains.

Cecilie moaned. and forests. and sunshine. through rain. But Chester looked back sadly. “I just can’t wait to get to the other side!” cried Miss Bilberry. Chester grumbled. They walked and walked.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.” snarled Chester. Miss Bilberry could stand it no longer. . they all helped fill boxes. and Chitty and Chatty. “Everybody up!” she called to Cecilie. but Miss Bilberry just kept going. “This is the wrong way. G–9 | FCAT 2. “Told you so.Grade 4 Across the Blue Mountains Appendix G One day. They reached a place where the flowers were taller than Miss Bilberry! They could hardly see where they were going. pushing the heavy cart for many miles. On and on they went. Chester. Miss Bilberry climbed a tree.” they cried. and bags and put everything from the little yellow house onto a wobbly old cart. Chitty and Chatty tried to help by flying ahead.” said Chester.” said Miss Bilberry. . “No it isn’t. the broad-leaved tree and the two swaying palms. and set off toward the blue mountains. “with trees and flowers! Follow us!” And there it was . But soon Chitty and Chatty returned.” snapped Cecilie. through fields. “Everything is going to be fine when we get to the other side. baskets. “We’ve found a lovely house. uphill. but she still wasn’t sure where they were. and downhill. “Today’s the day! We’re going to move! Let’s start packing!” Not wanting to be left behind. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Then they waved good-bye to the house and the garden. “They’re hopeless!” snarled Chester.

It was a lovely life and she was happy. . reprinted by permission of Harcourt. It’s strange. Each morning when the sun shone in her window. everything was much the same. he thought. and she sometimes worried about it. smiled to himself. Her life seemed better than ever. Inc. the clever cat. Her breakfast seemed more delicious and the mountains seemed more beautiful. Then she made a stew from the vegetables growing in the garden. FCAT 2. she didn’t say anything. . Miss Bilberry was so tired that she slept all afternoon in her hammock. which should really have been at the back of the house. . were still in front. It was a mystery to Miss Bilberry. Illustrations and entire text from ACROSS THE BLUE MOUNTAINS. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–10 . But there were some things that bothered Miss Bilberry . exactly as before. Even the mountains. . In between loads Chester sniffed the air. copyright © 1993 Emma Chichester Clark. its two swaying palms. . Chester and Cecilie ran the rest of the way.Grade 4 Across the Blue Mountains Appendix G “Oh my!” gasped Miss Bilberry. When Miss Bilberry caught up they all unpacked the boxes and emptied the bags. but I feel as if I’ve been here before. but she just couldn’t stop wondering. Chester. “It’s perfection.” sighed Chester. Miss Bilberry leapt out of bed. which she strung between two swaying palms. He liked their quiet life in the pale yellow house with its broad-leaved tree. but he would never tell Miss Bilberry. and its cool veranda.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and they all began to feel better. He knew the answer. It seemed to her that even though they had traveled a very long way. It’s just as I thought it would be!” “Thank goodness for that.

peaceful or angry. children. “When I sing for and mentally. and it’s a lot softer. they’re often But becoming a great surprised by how the singer isn’t as easy as vibrations strike their listening to one. songs help turn Carol into a star in teacher discovered that “When you breathe. included a photograph of mouth—it vibrates in At the Metropolitan opera singer Carol Vaness. and how you control it you relax or want to get up and dance. she took can project her voice that singing lessons as part of far is the way she Extravagant costumes and beautiful her studies. Carol has loved person in the theater. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . dedication. air into your lungs.” permission from the loud enough to be heard rights-holder to include the Ever since she by four thousand people. without a microphone. Talented singers have the power to affect us coming out. preparing to sing. physically. music. The vibrates when it’s Carol’s voice must be publisher is unable to obtain played. When she softly. she decided to become a even when she’s singing music teacher. started piano lessons at It must reach every age ten. the main difference between pop singing and When you listen. nineteen-year-old Carol it’s like a swimmer taking had an exceptionally beautiful soprano a deep breath before going underwater.” Carol says. | FCAT 2.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. in many ways—emotionally. “You have to take a lot of voice—the highest singing voice for women. your head and your Opera in New York City dressed in a long robe and chest.” Carol explains. the air doesn’t well-known American The student test book just go out of your opera star Carol Vaness. “In strong lungs! Just ask the opera. how much air or sad. the way a guitar where she often sings. It takes ears—like waves on a practice. Regular singing is more like speaking. The reason Carol went to college. the opera Otello. and beach. As she got older.” G–11 Think of some of your favorite singers.Grade 4 Learning to Sing 100000259065 Appendix G Learning to Sing with Opera Star Carol Vaness By Bridget Paolucci According to Carol. they can make you happy opera is “how you breathe. Her voice breathes. They can make you take in. image in this publication.

In fact. put your hand on your abdomen. When you have to sing high notes in school.2 and take a deep breath. make a hissing sound so that the air comes out slowly. As you practice. Practice deep breathing: relax your shoulders. sing “ooo” softly for three or four notes up the scale and then back down. Carol performs throughout the United States and Europe as she has done for almost twenty years. You will only strain your voice. “Put your heart into your singing and enjoy it. listen to the note that the teacher gives you for pitch. but almost anyone can learn to sing better. If you’re singing in the school chorus. Your hand should rise—not fall—as you breathe in. They can be personal stories about two people falling in love or grand stories about kings and queens who lived long ago. Try not to yell when you sing. and think of that note before you sing. That’s the way air should come out when you’re singing. Inc. the emotions expressed by words and music come to life.” Sing Like a Pro Not everyone wants to be an opera singer. The stories of opera can be tragic or comical. Sing those notes a little higher each time. Instead. the poor seamstress—these are characters that are fun to play. but singing is about making music. Yelling is fun on the playground. who studied for eight years and learned several languages before she was ready for her debut. that’s why everybody sings. “because singing is a great joy.Grade 4 Learning to Sing Appendix G Carol decided to make opera her goal. lie down on the floor. take a deep breath (like a swimmer). FCAT 2. But she has never forgotten why she started singing in the first place.” says Carol. When you’re alone. the notes will become easier to reach.” Today. “I get to dress up in gorgeous gowns and play hundreds of different characters.” says Carol. the evil sorceress.1 “The queen. That’s why I sing. Opera is a play in which the characters sing the words instead of speaking them. As the characters in an opera sing. 2 abdomen: part of the body where the stomach is located 1 debut: first public performance “Learning to Sing with Opera Star Carol Vaness” by Bridget Paolucci from Highlights for Children. copyright © 1996 Highlights for Children. Carol Vaness offers this advice to anyone who wants to improve his or her singing skills. listen to that person and sing together.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. You’ll feel your abdominal muscles move. and then let the breath come out slowly. When you breathe out. don’t try to sing louder than the person next to you. To check that you’re breathing correctly. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–12 . not only because she loved to sing but also because she loved the drama.

You must work in order of the alphabet. Then whoever guesses right gets to go next. because 50 states can be hard to keep track of! *Note: Feel free to add or change rules. like “What do you eat your soup with?” The person must answer. 2) Guessing Game: A person sees something and says. not frustrating! “Play a Game” property of the Florida Department of Education. Examples of questions: “Are you an animal?” “Do you moo?” and “Are you brown?” Make Them LAUGH! Straight Face: One person is “it. Set a time limit for best results. like “What is the most important thing to take to school tomorrow?” Each person must ask a question until the person who is “it” breaks down and laughs or smiles. When the bus is traveling a long distance to reach the cool field trip destination.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Use what you have around you to play games with your family and friends.” Then fill in the letter.” The next person asks another question. You can work together or competitively. People start guessing names of items that begin with that letter until they guess right. There is usually a limit on the number of questions asked. A common first phrase is “The cat’s tail. Use paper to keep track of which ones you have seen if you can. What about when you are in the back seat waiting to reach Grandma’s house? The road stretches like a rubber band for miles and miles. Alaska and Hawaii plates are not necessary because those states might be too far away.Grade 4 Play a Game 100000259060 Appendix G Tired? Bored? Hungry? And more miles left to go? Help pass the time on your trip: Play a Game! Everyone knows that a long bus ride can make even the most exciting field trip seem boring. “The cat’s tail. and in it she has something that begins with the letter ____.” Then you each ask this person a question.” They have to answer any question with a silly phrase. it can seem like forever. You want the game to be fun. Work as a team. WITHOUT SMILING or laughing. For example. “Guess what I am?” The other people ask yes/no questions to figure out what the person is. G–13 | FCAT 2. You decide what this phrase is before beginning. Then you pick another phrase. Make Them THINK! 1) My Mother Owns a Grocery Store: A person begins a statement similar to “My mother owns a grocery store. Here’s a way to beat the road at its own game. Some suggested phrases: my horse’s hat the bird’s boots the donkey’s teeth fuzzy bunnies sour lemons 2) State Version: Try to find a license plate from every state. You can have fun while you travel! MATERIALS = NOTHING BUT TIME & IMAGINATION Make Them LOOK! License Plate Games 1) ABC Version: Try to find license plates that begin with each letter of the alphabet. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education .

Head for Home As the morning sun rises. in Africa. which come out at the same time to hunt. But you can’t help being interested in the story of one spunky kind of ant. The silver ant stays out in higher temperatures than any other desert ant does.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. it feeds on insects that died in the heat. They must sneak past the ant lizards and win the race against rising temperature to get home safely. They come out to hunt for food at night and in the A early morning. It has some special tricks for living in the hot. Most desert ants and other insects head for home when the temperature gets up to about 95 degrees Fahrenheit.Grade 4 Living on the Edge of Danger 100000259055 Appendix G LIVING ON THE EDGE OF By Jack Myers Senior Science Editor DANGER The silver ant survives in heat that would kill other ants. By the time the temperature gets to about 113 degrees. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–14 . In fact. especially the desert lizards. This desert is one of the most difficult places on Earth for animals to live. So ants and other small insects searching for their food are in danger of becoming food for larger animals. the sands heat up rapidly. the Saharan silver ant. How does it survive? And why does it do it? 1 This Saharan silver ant has climbed onto the stalk of a plant to cool off. dry sands of the Sahara. most ants are safe in their underground nests—except for one special kind. and almost every creature scurries back to its burrow. burrow: underground home FCAT 2. Of course those animals include the predators.1 Those that are still hungry and keep looking for food risk the danger of dying of heat shock before they get home. Most desert animals have learned how to beat the heat by burrowing and living under­ ground during the hottest part of the day. nts probably aren’t your favorite insects.

too. the silver ant has a few minutes to come out and hunt—after the ant lizard goes home and before the temperature gets too high. Second. Then a few scouts give a signal. But there can’t be very many that have as short a hunting time as the Saharan silver ant. November 1995. When the desert heats up. is asleep in its burrow. the silver ant may hold some kind of record for living on the edge of danger.. G–15 | FCAT 2. when the temperature is rising rapidly. Silver ants have another trick that is even more surprising. Their other enemy. and hundreds of ants come pouring out. too. is the hottest place around. dry sands of the desert. Of course their safety doesn’t last long. the rising temperature. Magic Temperature You can see why 116 degrees becomes a magic temperature for silver ants. They found an answer in the behavior of the ant lizard. one of their enemies. First.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. the ant lizard.Grade 4 Living on the Edge of Danger Appendix G Cool Tricks One trick of the silver ant is that it can withstand higher temperatures—no one knows how—even up to 128 degrees. But the ant lizard has to worry about getting overheated. Columbus. especially those that live in the icy cold of the Arctic or in the hot. will tell them they must start for home before the sand gets to a killing temperature. And it knows how to find places where it can rest and cool off. Finally. By the time the temperature gets to 116 degrees. When the desert sand gets that warm. Their whole colony stays in the nest until the sand temperature outside gets to about 116 degrees. the ant lizard stops hunting and goes into its burrow at about 116 degrees. Then the ants can safely go out hunting. where the ant lives. “Living on the Edge of Danger” by Jack Myers. Inc. Scientists who studied them wondered. Silver ants have a busy time of it. most ants head for home between the temperatures of 95 and 113 degrees Fahrenheit. silver ants often get only about ten minutes to hunt for food. Ohio. outside their nest. Just a few inches up above the sand the air is a lot cooler. like the one in the photograph on the previous page. hunting and climbing up on grass stalks to cool off. Lots of animals have special times of day or night when they do their hunting and searching for food. So the silver ant spends a part of its hunting time climbing up on plants. Then they must hurry home again before the temperature gets to 128 degrees. Many animals live very close to danger. all the ant lizards are back in their burrows. This usually happens about noontime. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . often only about ten minutes. Even so. copyright © 1995 by Highlights for Children. It is especially fond of silver ants and often has its burrow close to one of their nests. Down on the surface of the sand. Naturally you have to wonder why the silver ants don’t come out of their nest until the temperature gets so high. That gives them just a short hunting time The ant lizard would eat more silver ants than it does—if the ants would come out of their nests when the desert is cooler.

All the plants. or by enriching the soil with their droppings. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–16 . it can be hard to figure out exactly how it works. and other living things in one place interact with one another in many ways. all the living things in it. and soil minerals. by the underwater ecosystems around two Aleutian islands that lie near each other.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Since the places are nearly identical. Scientists were puzzled. An ecosystem includes a place. Instead. and all the connections among them. water.Grade 5 What Is an Ecosystem? 100000262512 Appendix G What Is an Ecosystem? by Susan Quinlan Plants help animals by making food from sunlight. Scientists call this puzzle an ecosystem. Different animals help plants by carrying their pollen or seeds. for example. FCAT 2. Amchitka and Shemya Islands are surrounded by rocky ocean floor and clear water of the same temperature and saltiness. air. They fit together like the pieces of a threedimensional puzzle. Because there are so many connections in an ecosystem. the two islands have very different ecosystems. animals. one would expect to find similar life there.

Instead. Sea otters disappeared from the islands in the late 1800s when hunters killed them for their thick. and no bald eagles. These diving mammals eat many different underwater animals. a few sea otters survived. Why are the ecosystems around these islands so different? The scientists discovered that all the differences arose because Shemya lacked a single animal species—the sea otter. and lots of seals. the ocean floor is patrolled by hordes of sea urchins. barnacles. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . hard-shelled animals. The scientists discovered that the sea otters triggered a series of ecosystem changes. few seals. bald eagles. After decades of protection. Fortunately. soft fur.Grade 5 What Is an Ecosystem? Appendix G The ecosystem around Amchitka Island has dense underwater forests of giant kelp (a plant-like organism that lives in the ocean). They also gnaw through the anchoring base of the kelp. the kelp soon washes ashore and dies. the rocky ocean floor is carpeted with bottomdwelling. Any large urchins that venture into nearshore waters where the sea otters dive are quickly eaten. Arctic Ocean Canada N W S E Russia Alaska Bering Sea laska of A ulf G ia n Al e ut I sl a s nd Pacific Ocean Shemya Island Amchitka Island G–17 | FCAT 2. and blue mussels. Underwater. however. they finally returned to Amchitka. there is almost no giant kelp. such as sea urchins. Without an anchor to the ocean bottom. In contrast. But they had not yet reached Shemya when the scientists were there. few shrimp-like animals. Shemya Island has no sea otters. Sea urchins eat giant kelp. It has a large population of shrimp-like animals and fish. where there are no sea otters.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. and few fish. including sea urchins. thousands of sea otters. So giant kelp can’t survive in places like Shemya. On Shemya.

from Muse. “What Is an Ecosystem?” by Susan Quinlan. Just as the absence of sea otters dramatically changed the underwater world around Shemya Island. scientists often can’t predict what will happen when humans change nature. too. Often we discover nature’s connections only after we break them—or later. more of them live around kelp forests. Since harbor seals and eagles eat fish. January/February 1998. A kelp forest slows ocean currents and makes waves smaller. FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–18 . Shrimp-like animals flourish in this quiet water and feast on dead kelp. An ecosystem isn’t just a collection of plants and animals in a particular place—it’s a system of connections. bottom-dwelling animals. Text copyright © 1998 by Susan Quinlan. creating pockets of calm water. Reprinted by permission of the author. The invisible connections that link the living and non­ living parts are what keep the ecosystem working. Many kinds of fish feed on shrimp-like animals. a giant kelp forest thrives.0 Reading Test Item Specifications.Grade 5 What Is an Ecosystem? Appendix G On Amchitka. seemingly small changes in any ecosystem can make many surprising things happen. are smothered by sand and silt that settles to the bottom in calm water. when we try to put nature back together through ecosystem restoration. like barnacles and mussels. Because nature’s connections are so complicated and because we know so little about them. so there are more fish in kelp forests. In contrast. where sea otters limit sea urchin numbers.

our first shopping trip was to the Big Valley Hardware Store to pick out our garden seeds. On those days. “Here are seeds for zucchini1 squash. Our new place was an old two-story house on an acre of land. “I don’t like zucchini much. to the east. It was all right. Ballard. Dad kept his accounting job.” he said. and Mom was going back to teach school in the fall. But my parents were hankering for life in the country and a chance to grow their own vegetables. and other packages of seeds—corn. While we were planting.Grade 5 The Great Garden Experiment 100000262532 Appendix G The Great Garden Experiment By Linda Opp We moved from our city apartment to the country shortly before planting time. Ballard stuck his head over the fence. He raised pigs—a lot of pigs. We bought the zucchini seeds. “Nice garden you got.” Dad looked at the picture on the front of the seed package. “Howdy. except when the wind blew from that direction. After we got settled. We also carried home seed potatoes.” Mom called to Dad.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Mom got a determined look in her eyes.” he said. “Look. Next door. beans. dark green member of the squash family G–19 | FCAT 2. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Mr. tiny tomato plants. we tried to stay indoors. peas. and more. so away we went. Let’s get some. lived Mr. Stan.” 1 zucchini: a long. Mom and Dad rummaged through the racks of seeds like kids in a toy store.

“We—” “What’s that?” Mr.” “Maybe. “How are the zucchini farmers today?” he would ask whenever he saw Dad. Slices and chunks of zucchini turned up in salads.” “I am going to become malnourished. Mr.” he said. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–20 . “Why don’t you try giving some away?” I suggested.” Dad said one day.” He took a swallow of juice and set his glass down with a gulp. One morning when Mom had gone out early to pick zucchini. I served Dad his breakfast omelette. And all I get is zucchini. “But I’d rather have a garden full of zucchini than a farm full of smelly pigs any day.” Dad said. “I will not eat a zucchini omelette. “No. it was interesting and kind of fun to see how many ways we could eat zucchini.” Mom said. which he had cut into tiny pieces to be sure there was no zucchini in it. Ballard inquired. pleased. We were in a hurry because there was an east wind that day.” Mr. Two weeks later.” He glowered at Mom over his meatloaf. soups. and zucchini-oatmeal cookies. “Pigs are pigs.” FCAT 2. casseroles. “My body is crying out for a tender tomato or some crisp green beans. especially the zucchini.” “What’s wrong with that?” Dad asked. Mom looked puzzled. and stuffed. “Oh. but we could hear him laughing.” she said proudly. Mom picked the first zucchini. “Zucchini?” “That’s right. Zucchini-orange juice. Ballard interrupted. But the fun was soon over.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. “You city folks are strange. Allison. Ballard shrugged. “You didn’t plant the whole package.” Dad said icily. Nothing at all.” he said. “I have.” Mom said.” Dad said. “Why. and stews. zucchini nut bread. “That does it. did you?” Mr. There were two hundred recipes in that cookbook. “Look at this.Grade 5 The Great Garden Experiment Appendix G “Thanks.” Mr. At first. “I’ve already given so many away that people lock their doors when they see me coming. We ate zucchini steamed. Then his fork clattered onto the table. sticking up for Mom. We ate zucchini-carrot cake. She thought I wouldn’t notice. Nothing but zucchini. nothing. Ballard disappeared. yes. which Mom had left in the oven to stay warm. Dad was delighted when I set it down in front of him. “These zucchini vines of your mother’s are choking my cucumber vines.” Andy and I were helping him weed the garden. Our garden grew fast. Ballard thought this was hilarious. “I can’t wait to try some of the recipes in my new zucchini cookbook. fried. He took a big bite. standing. baked. squinting at the seed packet Mom was holding.

“Stan.” He walked away. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Then we got to work.” Andy said. Confounded worms ate my whole corn crop. He didn’t want our neighbor to know how bad our trouble really was. I didn’t ask them.” Dad said when I told him what he would have to do. I had an idea. An army of green monsters gleamed in the sun. even though he was awfully embarrassed. Dad put his arm around Mom and gave Mr. Mr. Indianapolis. urgently picking every zucchini. There stood Mom.Grade 5 The Great Garden Experiment Appendix G At that moment. “Oh. “The Great Garden Experiment” by Linda Opp.” Mr. from Children’s Digest. Used by permission. well. Ballard got his tractor and plowed under the zucchini vines.” We stared at the zucchini patch. It was at least three feet long. muttering to himself. They were only half this big yesterday. Andy. After that. Dad. “I don’t understand. He handled it well. copyright © 1990 by Children’s Better Health Institute. Ballard said. Allison. Ballard looked over the fence. “No. Don’t know what I’ll feed my pigs until I can find some corn for sale. That was part of the deal. Ballard a frosty look. scratching his head. Mr.. holding the biggest zucchini I had ever seen. “You folks got trouble?” he asked.” he said. G–21 | FCAT 2. Ballard arrived with his truck and his hired hand and helped us load the zucchini. Fortunately. Inc. Benjamin Franklin Literary & Medical Society.” Mom whispered. there was a yell from the garden. “Nothing that concerns you. Indiana. I explained it to Dad and Andy. We finally got Dad to make the phone call. “I guess I’ve got enough trouble of my own.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. I don’t know whether the pigs liked the zucchini. “Anything but that. Mr. Dad.” “It’s the only way. and I ran outside.

Straps Tighten the chin strap as snugly as possible. With one hand. but it takes time. Five-Step Helmet Fit Test Step 1. without moving your head. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education | G–22 . 2. . Also. Tighten the back strap. 4. If this doesn’t work. Put a hand on each side of the helmet and rock the helmet from side to side. and secure the back strap without putting pressure on the front strap. Tighten any loose straps. Make sure the front and back strap junction is under each ear. Make adjustments so the helmet stays over the forehead.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. Adjust the junction of the front and back straps just under the ears. If this doesn’t work. Then secure the adjustments so the helmet is ready for the next ride. 3. Make sure the chin strap is snug. Make sure the chin strap is snug. With one hand. follow the simple Five-Step Helmet Fit Test below. The front edge of the helmet should not be more than one to two finger-widths above your eyebrows. The top of your helmet should pull down. Pads Put foam pads inside the helmet so it feels comfortable but really snug. Also. Your helmet should pass each of the five steps. the helmet includes more than one size of foam pads that can be attached inside the helmet for a better fit. Allow as much as a half hour to get a proper helmet fit. and make sure straps are evenly adjusted. gently lift the back of the helmet up and forward. A Good Helmet Fit is as important as wearing a helmet . don’t try to “rush” it as they are trying to go outside to ride. Open your mouth (lower jaw) as wide as possible. FCAT 2. Solution Tighten the front strap. Helmet slips from side to side. Check to see if the front edge of the helmet covers your forehead. Helmet does not pull down when you open your mouth. Helmet moves forward to cover the eyes. Tighten the chin strap. especially in front. Usually. especially in back. If all of this sounds confusing. Position the helmet no more than one to two finger-widths above your eyebrows. adjust padding thickness and/or position. 5. Hold your head still during the test. Check padding on sides. gently lift the front of the helmet up and back. adjust padding thickness and/or position.Grade 5 Your Bicycle Helmet 100000262550 Appendix G YOUR BICYCLE HELMET A CORRECT FIT Fitting a Bike Helmet Position Put the helmet on your head so it sits evenly between your ears and rests low on your forehead—it should only be about one to two finger-widths above your eyebrows. Helmet does not cover the forehead. Do it while they’re relaxed and you have plenty of time. Have someone else test your helmet fit by doing the Five-Step Test outlined above. Problem Helmet moves back to uncover the forehead. If fitting your child. the helmet may be too big. . the helmet may be too big. Shake your head “no” as hard as possible.

Replace any helmet that has been involved in a crash! FACT: A bicycle helmet reduces the risk of serious head and brain injury by 85–88%. Buy a helmet that has been tested and meets the uniform safety standard issued by the U.S. or ANSI. Select a brand and size that fits well prior to any adjustments. 3. Courtesy of U. G–23 | FCAT 2. Snell.0 Reading Test Item Specifications. If buying a helmet for your child. It’s not enough to simply buy and wear one—make sure it fits properly.” 4. Department of Transportation. Adjustable sizing pads are often included to help ensure a better fit.S. 2. You’ll be more likely to wear it. You can know this by looking for a label or sticker that says the helmet meets the standard. Grades 3–5 Florida Department of Education . Buy one that’s comfortable and attractive. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). not a helmet to “grow into.Grade 5 Your Bicycle Helmet Appendix G Buying a Bike Helmet 1. buy one that fits now. or one or more of the voluntary bicycle helmet standards like ASTM. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

. Florida Copyright © 2010 State of Florida Department of State The Florida Department of Education and its test contractors currently employ strategies to protect the environment in the production and destruction of FCAT 2.0 materials.fldoe.0 interpretive publications after use.org Office of Assessment Florida Department of Education Tallahassee.FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION www. The Department encourages schools and districts to recycle non-secure FCAT 2.