Mie theory calculator User’s manual

Ivan Charamisinau
1. License agreement. No license or payment is necessary to use the software. It is free. 2. Installation. No installation is necessary. Just copy the file to any desired location and run it from there. 3. Purpose of the program. What is this program all about? The program calculates the light scattering and absorption on small particles. The small particles are the particles with the diameter close to the light wavelength. Such particles behave differently comparing to the large macroscopic particles. Geometrical optics does not work very well for such particles and wave nature of light must be considered. The program uses the analytical solution of Maxwell’s equations to predict percentage of light scattered and absorbed on the particle. Simple spherical and composite core-shell particles are considered. Where the program can be used? 1. Light scattering devices. 2. Optical filters 3. Living tissue modeling 4. Astronomy 5. Light scattering in earth atmosphere Program can help you to 1. Simulate light behavior in the tissue with particles 2. Design a particle that fits your need: Find best size and material To get minimal or maximal scattering and absorption 4. Input/Output parameters Program input: First radio button allows choosing type of the particle: spherical or core-shell. Light wavelength determines the wavelength of light that will be scattered by the particle. If the light has broad spectrum than calculations need to be repeated for several wavelengths. Core radius is the radius of the particle core for the core-shell particles or the radius of the particle for a sphere. Core radius is always positive.

Real part of the complex refractive index is always positive and generally over 1 for dielectrics. Shell radius is always positive. Always positive. Outside media refractive index is the refractive index of the media in which the particle is submerged. . The first input field is for real part of the refractive index and the second input field is for imaginary part. Real part of the complex refractive index is always positive and generally over 1 for dielectrics. over 1 for most other medias. Imaginary part can be positive only for light amplification devices. Shell complex refractive index (only for core-shell particles) the refractive index of the particle shell material. Shell radius (only for core-shell particles) is the radius of the particle shell. which represents material loss if negative or material gain if positive. but it shows warning in status bar. Symbol “i” here represents the imaginary unit i = − 1 . The program is capable of calculating this case. can be lower than 1 for some metals. Symbol “i” here represents the imaginary unit i = − 1 . can be lower than 1 for some metals. 1 for air/vacuum. Imaginary part is zero or negative for all materials.Core complex refractive index is the refractive index of the particle core material for the core-shell particles or the refractive index of the particle for a sphere. Imaginary part is zero or negative for all materials. which represents material loss if negative or material gain if positive. but it shows warning in status bar. The first input field is for real part of the refractive index and the second input field is for imaginary part. Imaginary part can be positive only for light amplification devices. The program is capable of calculating this case.

The factor is always positive and is equal to sum of the scattering and absorption efficiency. 2. The factor is always positive. Uniform scattering efficiency is the fraction of the light uniformly scattered on the particle. See more details in the following section.Fig. See more details in the following section. 5. The fractions (percentage) of light that are transmitted. The factor is generally smaller than scattering efficiency. Extinction efficiency is the fraction of the light extinct by the particle. as shown in Fig. Absorption efficiency is the fraction of the light absorbed by the particle. The factor is positive for passive particles. The factor is zero for no absorbing (100% transparent) particles. Efficiency factors definitions If the light shines on a particle some fraction of it can pass through the particle without changes. “Success” or “Warning” status means that calculations are successfully completed. At the beginning before first calculate command it shows “Not calculated”. . Exit to exit the program Program output: Calculation status. . 1. “Error” status means that some of the input parameters are out of range and calculations can not be performed or the calculation results are irrelevant. Mie theory calculator window Buttons: Calculate commands the program to run calculations for given parameters. and ignores low-angle scattering See more details in the following section. The factor is negative for the light amplification devices only. because this factor represents only large-angle scattering. Scattering efficiency is the fraction of the light scattered on the particle. “Error” and “Warning” messages usually contain a brief description of the problem encountered and which parameter needs to be corrected. The factor is always positive. See more details in the following section. some light can change its direction (get scattered) and some light is absorbed by the particle. scattered or absorbed are called efficiency factors.

Absorption efficiency (Qabs) is the fraction of incoming light that is absorbed by the particle. Extinct light is the light removed from the incoming beam by the particle.Incoming Light Transmitted Light Scattered Light Absorbed Light Fig. Extinction efficiency (Qext) is the fraction of incoming light that is extinct by the particle. 3. Extinction is scattering plus absorption. 3. 2. The scattering efficiency could be defined also as a ratio of equivalent particle crossectional area to actual particle crossectional area. An example of a particle with absorption efficiency greater than 1 is shown in Fig. . Due to wave nature of the light for small particles scattering efficiency can be over 100%! An example is shown in Fig. Light shining on the particle Main definitions: Scattering efficiency (Qsca) is the fraction of incoming light that is scattered (changed direction). the light that is passing close to the particle can get coupled into the particle and absorbed there. Due to wave nature of the light. The same is true for absorption and extinction efficiencies. Qext = Qsca + Qabs . The particle behaves as if it has larger radius.

k = 2πm0/λ is the wave vector in the outside media. (1) where r. m0 is the refractive index of the outside media and λ is the free-space wavelength. The scattering efficiency defined in equation (1) is an average of the scattering .Incoming Light Particle Equivalent particle size Fig.ϕ) Qsca = 1 F (θ . θ. A particle with absorption efficiency greater than 1 6. 4. G = πR2. ϕ ) sin(θ )dϕdθ k 2G ∫ ∫ 0 0 π 2π . A particle with scattering efficiency greater than 1 Incoming Light Particle Equivalent particle size Fig. 3. ϕ are spherical coordinates. G is the particle crossection. Uniform scattering efficiency The scattering efficiency can be found by integrating the scattering intensity function (scattered light farfield) F(θ.

5 raman scattering takes place.intensity function. This is the best choice if a particle with high scattering or high absorption is desired. Qscu. For x smaller than 0. and scattering absorption efficiencies drop down. ϕ ) sin(θ )dϕdθ 0 2π (2) F(θ) 90o directivity pattern 180 o θ 270o 0 o Equivalent uniform pattern (Qscu) Average scattering (Qsca) Fig.71 is the resonant diameter where both scattering and absorption greatly increases. 5. Scattering intensity function F(θ) for a silver sphere with kR = 10 7. in many cases (especially for big particles) most light is scattered within a very small angle as depicted in Fig. Some results example By repeating calculations for different parameters particles with desired properties could be found. so a uniform scattering efficiency factor. However. . The intensity of the large angle scattering is nearly uniform. Qscu →1 if x→∞. 5. For a big diameter the uniform scattering efficiency comes close to the value predicted by geometrical optics. x≈0. The calculation results for gold and silver spheres of different diameter are given in figures 6 and 7. for large angular scattering can be defined by: Qscu = 2 2 k G 3π / 4 π /4 ∫ ∫ F (θ .

5 3 3.6 0.8 0. .6 Uniform scattering efficiency(Qscu) 5 Gold (Au) Silver (A g) 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 4 4.2 1 0.4 0.5 5 Fig. 6. Here x = 2kR1. Here x = 2kR1. Absorption efficiency factors for gold (solid line) and silver (dotted line) spheres. Uniform scattering efficiency factor for gold (solid line) and silver (dotted line) spheres.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Go ld (A u) Silver (A g) Sphere diameter (x) Fig.8 Absorption efficiency(Qabs) 1. 7.4 1.5 Sphere diameter (x) 2 2.6 1. 2 1.5 1 1.

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