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Antenna Engineering

1.
( Monopole Antenna )
2.
( Dipole Antenna )
F (PIFA Antenna )
3
3.
(Patch Antenna )
(Yagi Antenna )
4.
(Array Antenna )
(Smart Antenna )
5.
(UWB Antenna )
( f i Antenna
A
)
6 (Reflection
6.
(Chip Antenna)
7.

8. (Helix Antenna)
(Smart Antenna MIMO)

(Loop
(
p Antenna))

H.R.18871888

1897 H.C.
H C

()

1931E. -
""
1941J.A.
1

19411945S.A.

1950H.

f 10 GHz
f 30 GHz
f 60 GHz

f 77 GHz
f 94 GHz


Standard

Band

Remark

GPS

L1 band1575.42 MHz
L2 band1227.60 MHz

Global Positioning System

GSM

890 ~ 960 MHz

Global System for Mobil Communication

DCS

1710 ~ 1880 MHz

Digital Communication System

PCS

1850 ~ 1990 MH
MHz

Personal Communication Services

AMPS

824894MHZ

Advanced Mobile Phone System

IMT-2000

1 9222.17
1.92
17 GHz

International Mobile Telecommunications


-2000

UMTS

1.922.17GHz

Universal Mobile Telecommunications


System
y

WLAN

2.42.484 GHz5.155.35
GHz 5.7255.875 GHz

Wireless Local Area Network


(Transverse Electromagnetic
g
Waves)
Electric Field
y
Magnetic
i Field
i

(Wavelength)

C
f

C 3 x 108 M/s
r mediums
medium s relative permittivity
or dielectric constant
f frequency
f
off wave iin Hz.
H

(EM Spectrum)

30 ~ 300 Hz

ELF

0.3 ~ 3 kHz

VF
VF

3 ~ 30 kHz

VLF

30 ~ 300 kHz

LF

0 3 ~ 3 MHz
0.3

MF

3 ~ 30 MHz

HF

30 ~ 300 MHz

VHF

0 3 ~ 3 GHz
0.3

UHF

10

3 ~ 30 GHz

SHF

11

30 ~ 300 GHz

12

0 3 ~ 3 THz
0.3

Infrared light
light

13

3 ~ 30 THz

Infrared light

14

30 ~ 300 THz

Infrared light

15

0 3 ~ 3 PHz
0.3
PH

Vi ibl light
Visible
li ht

16

3 ~ 30 PHz

Ultraviolet light

17

30 ~ 300 PHz

18

0.3 ~ 3 EHz

Gamma rays

19

3 ~ 30 EHz

Cosmic rays

EHF

X-rayX-

RF

RF


50

Radio

T.L
50

5050

VSWR

VSWR 2:1(
VSWR
2 1(
VSWR < 2)

VSWR
VSWR

50
(Mismatch)
S
VSWR(Return
(
Loss /R.L)
/
)
VSWRR.L

(Return Loss) = 0dB

Cont d
Contd

((Return Loss)
)
VSWR
(VSWR

= 2Return

Loss -10dB

Return Loss < -10dB)

R.L(
VSWR)@
VSWR)@






VSWR ( Return Loss)


(Radiation Pattern)

(1)E-
(2)H-
E-plane

H-plane

3D


Far-field amplitude of RF07-DIPOLE-HH.nsi

Far-field amplitude of RF07-DIPOLE-EE-inter02.nsi


345

15

345

330

315

300

285

75

-10

90

105

120

225

135

210

150
195

180

165

E-plane
E
plane

60

285

75

270

-30

dB

255

240

45

300

60

-20

30

315

45

-30

15

330

30

270

-20

-10

90

dB

255

105

240

120

225

135

210

150
195

180

165

H
H-plane
plane

Cont d
Contd

(Line of Sight)

- (Polarization)

(Linear Polarization)
(Circular
(Circ lar Polarization)
Polari ation)
(Elliptical Polarization)

Linear

(Circular Polarization)

Circular


(Elliptical Polarization)

Elliptical

(
()
)

(wave front)

(Vrms)""

Contd

mV
(volt)mV/m (mV
per MeterV/m
p

(V p
(
per Meter)
)

dB(dB V/ dBuV/m)
dB(dBmV/m
dB V/ )

377Ohms
1 Volt Permeter


(Antenna Test Ranges)
11. (Near field range)
2. (Compact range)
3. (Far field range)

Compact range

(Far field range)

DYU

()
()

(Near field range)

--
-- >15dBi
-- < 70

--

--

Planar

Cylindrical

Spherical

Contd

FFT (Fast

Fourier Transform)


(Antenna in Chamber)

RF

Contd

(Multi-path)


(Characteristics of NF)

RF

((Far
a Field
e d Range)
a ge)

Contd

115M

(FF range) 115M


(Compact antenna test range/CATR)

CATR (2M)

RX

TX


(Single and Dual Reflector of CATR)
RX

TX

Single offset paraboloidal reflector

Dual reflector with spherical main reflector


(Dual Cylinder of CATR)

Tx

R
Rx
persons


(Blended Rolled Edge of CATR)


(Serrated Edge of CATR)


(RCS measurement)
t)

RCS

(radar) radio detecting and ranging


""

""

ERS-2
ENVISAT RADARSAT

Contd

1,000

10
10

(Synthetic Aperture Radar/


SAR)

SAR IDF

2000

SAR F16

ISAR
(Inverse Synthetic Array
Radar/ISAR)
SARISAR
SAR
ISAR


2.45GHz & 5.2GHZ
B.W8%

2006.06.06

No

YES

(IE3D)
u oC
AutoCAD
Linecalc

Dual-band Monopole Antenna Design

1
(Dual(D al
Band Monopole Microstrip Antenna)
ISM(Bluetooth) (IEEE 802.15)
2 45GHz (Wireless Local
2.45GHz
Area Network/WLAN- IEEE 802.11b/g)
2.45GHz(802.11a)5.2GHz

IE3D

IE3D
(2 46GHz)
(2.46GHz)

IE3D

5.18GHz

H-plane
p
@
@2.46GHz

E-plane
p
@
@2.46GHz

H-plane
H
plane @5.18GHz

E-plane
p
@
@5.18GHz

4
4.

5.

(Propagation)
(
p g
)

(Propagation Loss)

((Multipath
p
Propagation
p g
Effect)
)
(Shadowing Effect)
(Fast Fading Effect)


(Multipath Propagation Effect)


(Shadowing Effect)

(Slow Fading)

20dB

(Fast Faging Effect)


(Rayleigh)
(Rayleigh)
(Ricean)Nakagami


Introduction to Radio Wave Propagation
p g
Mechanisms of EM wave propagation:
(1) Reflection ()
(2) Diffraction ()

(3) Scattering ().

3
Three Basic Propagation Mechanisms

(Reflection) EM wave (
)
)
>> (wavelength)
(wavelength)

(Diffraction) EM wave
(li
(line-of-sight)
f i ht)

(Scattering) EM wave (
) < (wavelength)

(Monopole Antenna)
(Dipole antenna)
F(Patched Inverse F Antenna/PIFA)

(Patch
Antenna)
(Yagi
( g Uda Antenna))
(Array Antenna)
(Smart Antenna)
(UWB Antenna)

(Monopole Antenna)

((Ground Plane))

(Image Antenna)

(Monopole Antenna)

(Dipole antenna)

F
PIFA (Patched Inverse F Antenna)

PIFA (Patched Inverse F Antenna)

Nokia 3310

(Patch Antenna)

900/1800 MHz

(Patch
(
atc Antenna)
te a)

(Yagi Uda Antenna)

(Yagi Uda Antenna)

(HF)
(VHF)
(UHF)
(Microwave)
300

(Array Antenna)

(Array Antenna)


Smart Antenna Introduction

(Radio Access)
Access)

(Smart Antenna)


concept of Smart Antenna
(Beam-forming)


(N ll )
(Nulls)
(Interference)

SINR(Signal to Interference and
Noise Ratio)


Technology of Smart Antenna

(SDMA)
(SDMA)
Spatial Division
Multiple Access

(SDMA)


Different type of Smart Antenna

(Switched Beam)

(Adaptive Array)

Adaptive
p
AntennaSwitched Beam

Switched Beam (Main


(
Lobe)
)

(
(Null)
)
Adaptive Beam

(MSINR)

Adaptive
p
AntennaSwitched Beam

Switched Strategy

Adaptive Strategy

(Beam Pattern)

Adaptive
p
AntennaSwitched Beam

Adaptive Antenna
Switched Beam

Adaptive Antenna

Adaptive
p
AntennaSwitched

Beam

(FDMA/TDMA)

30(
120)
(C/I)
6dB
FDMA(Frequency Reuse)7
4TDMA
C ll
Cell
Adaptive Beam

(CDMA)

(C/I)
( )
MAI

CDMA

()

multi- tier

(MUD)

()

MUD

Multi-tier

()

(Radio Resource
Management)
(Power Control) (Channel Assignment)
(Hand off)


(
()
)

(a)

(b)

(Broadband Wireless
Access, BWA)

Wireless LANWireless Cable


-/

/ MIMO(Multiple
MIMO(Multiple-Input
Input
Multiple-Output)

MIMO

MIMO

MIMO

MIMO

(Ultra Wide Band)

Ultra-Wide
Band
(WPAN)


History of UWB systems
In1901, G.
In1901
G Marconi sent the first ever over-the-horizon
over the horizon
wireless transmission from the Isle of Wight to Cornwall on
the British mainland
In1942- 1945,several patents were filed on impulse radio
systems
In
I 1958
1958, K
Kobzarev
b
et.
t al.
l d
devised
i d th
the fi
firstt video
id pulse
l radio,
di
which transmits short pulses without carrier In mid 1960, the
solid-state
solid
state short
short-pulse
pulse generators were invented
1965 G.Ross-Sperry Research development of UWB
technology(1965-1980)
In 1968,Tektronix introduced the first time-domain receiver
(sampler)
1972 Robbins fundamental patent on single
single-pulse,
pulse quantum
tunneling detector

In 1973, Ross fundamental patent on UWB communications


U.S. Patent No. 3,728,632 (April 1973)
In 1973, Morey built the first video impulse ground
penetrating radar (Fundamental patent on UWB GPR
U.S.Patent No. 3,806,795 (April 1973))
In 1975
1975,Tektronix
Tektronix made UWB system commercially available
In late 1970s, Larry Fullerton demonstrated the practicality
of modern low power impulse radio techniques
In early 1980, Ross et al. first demonstrated (free space)
UWB communication system
UW
y

In 1986, first fielded short


short pulse
pulse UWB
Communications system (Ross/Fontana) History of
UWB systems
In 1989, the name, ultra wideband, was first
introduced
In 1989, Time Domain Corporation started to see for
reg lator approval
regulatory
appro al for intentional UW emissions
In 2000, the FCC initiated a Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking on UWB


In 2002,, the FCC 02-48 Report
p
and Order officially
y
set up the ruling of UWB
FCC
CC approved
app oved UW
UWB syste
system for
o tthee frequency
eque cy
range of 3.1-10.6 GHz
FCC outlined standards for three types of civilian
UWB devices, allowed for commercial uses:
Imaging systems including ground penetrating
radars, through-thewall imaging, medical, and
surveillance devices
Vehicular radar systems
Communications
C
i i
and measurement systems

BT

UWB10100
(data rate100Mbps
UWB

10110
Mbps2480 Mbps
UWB
1Gbps

IEEE 802.15.3a
802 15 3a

PNA
PNA

IEEE 802.15.3a
802 15 3a
IEEE 802.15.3a

UWB (Ultra Wideband)


UWB

20022FCC(
)
)
IEEE802.15.3a
UWBWPAN PHYMAC

What
W
at iss U
Ultra
t aW
Wideband?
deba d?
FCC Min=500MHz
frequency

GHz
3

10

Frequency domain behavior

TIIntelHP MultiBand OFDM


Alliance (MBOA) MultiBand
OFDM UWB
M t l /F
Motorola/FreescaleUWB
l UWB F
Forum

DS-UWB
IEEE802.15.3a

UWB USB (Wireless USB)

MultiBandOFDM UWB vsDS-UWB

(WLAN)

UWB
(Orthogonal Frequency
Division Modulation/OFDM)
(Direct
(Direct Sequence)
(


MultiBand OFDM UWB

MBOA
40
MBOAUWB
MBOAUWB

OFDM

MBOAUWB
StaccatoMark Bowles
500MH
500MHz
CMOS
OFDM

Contd

(multi-band OFDM)

500 MHzUWB

(time-interleaved)

OFDM

Contd

UWB

(500 MHz)
MHz)

OFDM

((DS-UWB)
S UW )

( ect Seque
(Direct
Sequencing
c g
/DS)
MotorolaXtreme Spectrum

(
piconets)UWB
MBOA

(DS
(DS-UWB)
UWB)

UWB
3432MHz10296MHz
528MHz
5 (Channel)
UWBOFDM(ADSL)

UWB
(Antenna 1)

(Return loss)

UWB
Antenna 2 (/bow tie antenna)

UWB ()

E-plane
E
plane

H-plane
H
plane

(Return Loss)
0

ReturnLoss(dB)

-10

-20

-30

HFSS
CST
Measured
-40
0

Frequency (G Hz)

10

12


P b li Reflector
Parabolic
R fl t Antennas
A t
()

Reflector (paraboloid)
(p
)

Feed

Off
Set

25 30
25-30

()


()


"C

"
TVRO


(/FRP)

CKu
TVRO


()

FRP

Ku


F2 F1

()
()

()
1672

1663


F2F1

F2F1


1.

LNA

22.

(Truncated Paraboloid)
(Orange
(Orange-Peel
Peel Paraboloid)

(Cylindrical Paraboloid)
(Cosecant-Squared Array)


(Truncated Paraboloid)

()


(Orange-Peel Paraboloid)

1.


(Orange-Peel Paraboloid)

2.

1.

2.

3.


(Cylindrical Paraboloid)


(Cylindrical Paraboloid)

(
(
)


(Cosecant-Squared Array)


(Cosecant-Squared Array)


(C
(Cosecant-Squared
tS
dA
Array))

ad
da


Antenna
Applications


(Chip Antenna)


(@2.4GHz)
@
6 5 5 mm
6.5


Application of chip antenna

(Bluetooth)
(
)

10(33 )


()

(Space Diversity)
(Polarization Diversity)
(Field Diversity)
(Angle Diversity)
(Time Diversity)
(Frequency Diversity)
(Multi-Path
(M lti P th Di
Diversity)
it )

@ WLAN

(Space Diversity)

(WLAN)

()

(900/1800 MHz)


1.PIFA antenna
(a) ()
((b)) Layout
y
(c)
2.Shorted monopole
p antenna
(a) ()
((b))
(c)
3. Monopole
p antenna
(a)
((b))
(c)

(Loop Antenna)

Z
Z-200-Loop
200 Loop antenna

(GPS)

GPS

GPS
GPS

L11575.42MHz ()
L2 1227.60MHz
1227 60MHz
GPS-
WLAN


HDTV

DTV-


Specific Absorption Rate

SAR (Specific Absorption Rate)

SAR

Human Resonance Region


GSM 12~13cm
GSM:
12 13
DCS : 6~7cm
6 7cm

SAR < 0.08W/Kg


0 08W/Kg
((Average
g within 30 Minitues))
1/
2/
6 /
< 0.00015W/Kg

(ionization radiation)(>10eV)
(noionization radiation)
FM,TV--Cellular Telephone--Microwave
(Radiowaves RF)
--(Radiowaves

(ionizing
radiation, >1016

Hz)(non-ionizing radiation, <1016
)
Hz)

< 0.00015W/Kg
0 00015W/Kg

RF
--(1993)
(
)

--(IEEE 1995)
RF

--(USA 1986)

DNA
(Dutch
--(Dutch
1996)

(Reference)

/ /