Effect of discrete wires on the implosion dynamics of wire array Z-pinches

S.V. Lebedev
Imperial College

In collaboration with J.P. Chittenden, D. Ampleford, F.N Beg, S.N. Bland, C. Jennings, M. Sherlock and M.G. Haines (IC) S. Pikuz, T. Shelkovenko, D. Hammer (Cornell)

This work is supported by Sandia National Lab and US DOE

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Outline: life story of a wire array
Wires do not convert into plasma instantaneously
(at least in experiments at 1 - 3 MA)

Ablation of wire cores

1.0
l ona cor a sm pla

Trailing mass

wires

plasma shell

Radius

0-D

0.5

Snowplow-like final implosion

?

0.0

Precursor pinch

Stagnation

0.5

1.0

time

Two-stage implosion dynamics:
• •

Ablation of wires and redistribution of mass Snowplough-like final implosion phase Behaviour of nested arrays and foam targets Scaling of the implosion dynamics to 20MA ?

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Experimental set-up and diagnostics
Wire arrays: Diameter 16mm (8mm) N < 64 Timpl = 200-300ns I = 1 MA Diagnostics:

Laser probing Optical streaks X-ray imaging X-ray radiography with X-pinch in return current path
1ns, 10µm resolution hν ∼ 2-5keV

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Core-corona structure of plasma
Radiography shows wire cores until ~80% of implosion
Al W

Film density (a.u.)

20 18 16

250µm

100µm

array edge

two wires

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5 2.0 0.5 Radial position (mm)

1.0

1.5

Inward streaming of the coronal plasma
End-on laser probing End-on XUV

Radial optical streak

Precursor on axis at t ~ 50% timp Implosion starts at t~ 80% timp

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Axial non-uniformity of plasma formation
Non-uniformity of coronal plasma formation imprints on the cores
Laser probing Radiography

same λ

Coronal plasma: λ ~ core size, const(t)

Wire cores: The same λ at t~ 80% timp

No obvious correlation between instabilities in different wires

Wire cores remain on the initial array radius until they run out of material in some axial positions

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Non-0-D implosion trajectories of Al and W wire arrays
Radial optical streaks: “universal” 80% trajectories
1.0
0-D Al N=16 N=32 N=32, 8mm
W N=32 N=64

R / R0

0.5

0.0 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

t / t imp

Similar trajectory was observed on 4 MA ANGARA-5

• In the first 80% of time the JxB force is not applied to the cores, accelerating instead the coronal plasma. • The available JxB force can only implode < 50% of the initial mass in the last 20% of time.

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Ablation of wire cores in wire arrays
Momentum balance gives an estimate of ablation rate
d 2r µ0I 2 m0 2 = − 4π r dt µ0I 2 dm V =− 4π R 0 dt

0-D implosion Ablation

Redistribution of mass by precursor flow:
density (g/cm )

µ 0 [I (τ )]2 ρ ( r, t0 ) = 2 8π R 0 r V 2
R0 − r τ = t0 − V

1E-3 1E-4 1E-5 1.0 precursor

wire cores

mass fraction

3

By 80% of implosion time ~40% of mass has been removed from the cores!

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 2 4 6 8

radius (mm)

Snowplough-like implosion of the distributed mass Stabilisation by density profile Does all mass participate in the implosion?

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Formation of gaps in wire cores
Only ~1/2 of mass left in the cores at 80% of timp axial modulation of ablation rate all mass could be ablated in some axial positions
Al W

Start of the implosion – two possible scenarios:
No current through the gaps Trailing mass Current re-strike All mass implodes

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Final phase of implosion: 32 x 15µm Al array
Snowplough-like implosion of distributed mass
• Only <20% of array
implosion trajectory
8 0-D
experiment streak x-ray: outer inner

mass participates at the start of the final implosion
• This

Radius (mm)

6 4 2 0 100

mass fraction in the piston: 0% 10% 60%

60% 10%

implies little current reconnection through the gaps in the wire cores is left behind implosion the

• Some fraction of mass
200 250 300 350

150

time (ns)

End-on x-ray imaging

Vpiston / Vshock ~ 1.4
Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

~ (γ + 1)/2 ?

Snowplough-like implosion in W arrays
Laser probing of 32 x 4 µm tungsten wire array

Optical density (a.u.)

200 150 100 initial array diameter 50 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

Optical density (a.u.)

250

precursor

200 150 100 50

imploding plasma piston

precursor

initial array diameter 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8

Radius (mm)

Radius (mm)

• Imploding current sheath • Some mass fraction is left behind the implosion
Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Material is left behind the implosion
Laser probing of 32 x 15µm Al wire array

Global m=0 structure on X-ray images from t~0.8 timp Some current reconnects

through the gaps during the implosion phase

Secondary implosions are seen on streak images
Radial optical streak

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

X-ray pulse and the implosion dynamics
Radiation from inelastically accreted plasma during the snowplough phase
0.6 1.0 0.8
rad.sn.10

1.0

1.2

1.4

Radius

0.5 0.0

Current re-strike & secondary implosions of traling mass

6
XRD (a.u.)

Snowplow implosion phase
xrd1s0601 xrd4s0601

Compression terminated by onset of MHD instabilities?
PIN0601

1.5µm 5µm

4 2 0 0.6 precursor

keV radiation

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

t / timp

• Rising part of the main X-ray pulse: Compression of “precursor” plasma column by JxB force, terminated by the onset of m=0 MHD instability? Outward current “diffusion” - re-strike through the trailing mass? • Secondary implosions of trailing mass: - is this responsible for the yield exceeding 0-D kinetic energy?

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Nested wire arrays in a current switching mode
Current pulse through the inner array is controlled by the phase transitions in the wires of outer and then inner arrays
6
current (kA)

4 2 0

current in inner array

6% of total current

0

10

20

30

40

50

time (ns)

Inner array retain high transparency (~98%)
X-ray radiography

Core sizes (Al): Outer array ~250µm Inner array ~30µm (initial wire diameter 15µm)

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Implosion phase of nested wire arrays
Radial optical streak

No momentum transfer to the inner array at “strike”
(paper TU-O1-4C by S. Bland)

8

radius (mm)

nested
4

Current from the sheath switches into the inner array at “strike”

sinlge array
0

PCD (a.u.)

10 5 0 150

single array

Decay of snowplough emission, plasma piston coasts to the axis
nested array

200

250

300

time (ns)

No X-ray pulse at stagnation of the outer array on axis

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

X-ray pulse-shaping in nested wire arrays
Variation of the inner array diameter controls radiation power during the snowplough phase
radius (mm)
8

Smaller inner diameter
4 0 10 single nested: Rin=4mm Rin=8mm
pcd3s0802 pcd3s0830
10

power (W/cm)

3x10 2x10 1x10 0

Longer duration of the snowplough phase

10

PCD (a.u.)

1

Larger “foot” of the X-ray pulse
250 300

0 150

200

time (ns)

Optimisation of nested wire arrays?

Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Radiation during the snowplow implosion
Radiation power from the inelastically accreted plasma:

P (t ) =

1 dm dr 2 ⋅ ( ) ∝ ρ (r , t ) ⋅ (Va − Va ) 3 2 dt dt

20mm diameter W wire array on Z
(c. f. M. Cuneo and G. Chandler, SNL)
2.45E-006 2.50E-006 2.55E-006

X-ray power (TW)

100

XRD5A1KM power from snowplow

Density from the ablation model (Va=2x107 cm/s)

50

ρ (r, t ) =

Vcor = 2x10 cm/s M0 (piston) = 0.35 t0 = 73.4ns

7

R −r µ0 ⋅ [I (t − 0 )]2 Va 8π 2Va2R0 ⋅ r

0 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100120
Density (mg/cm )

10

6
snowplow 0-D radius
3

radius (mm)

4

Density profile for Vabl =2x10 cm/s stationary at t=73.4ns along the implosion trajectory

7

Z674

Vpiston = Vabl 2

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

time (ns)

Radius (cm)

~ 30% of the array mass is left behind the implosion

Agreement in implosion trajectory and in absolute power of the x-ray pulse “foot”.
Talk TU-O1-3I by M. Cuneo on Tuesday.
Lebedev S.V. et al., BEAMS-DZP, Albuquerque, NM, June 24, 2002

Pre-conditioning of foam targets by the precursor plasma flow
The flow of precursor plasma is equivalent to ~20 keV ion beam with j ~ 200 kA/cm2 Rate of energy deposition: (expansion)
dQ V 2 dm = ∝ [ I (τ ] 2 dt 2 ⋅ 2πRF dt
m.f.p. δ << RF

Kinetic pressure: (compression)
P= 1 dm ∝ [ I (τ )] 2 V 2πR F dt

Laser probing

15

dQ/dt (GW/cm )

Foam 1.4 mm diam. Array 16 mm diam. I=1MA

20eV

20 15 10 5 0

2

10
TBB = 15eV

5

0 0

50

100

150

200

250

Before the shot

time (ns)

Lebedev S.V. et al., paper GI1.005 at APS-DPP, Long Beach, CA, October 30, 2001

P (kBar)

X-ray radiography shows compression of CH foam by precursor plasma flow
Radiography by 3-5 keV radiation from X-pinch

Compression of the foam (15mg/cc) is consistent with 0-D implosion driven by kinetic pressure of the precursor flow
0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
R15mg R10mg R.fort

Radius (mm)

0

50

100

150 time (ns)

200

250

What happens with foam targets on Z?
Lebedev S.V. et al., paper GI1.005 at APS-DPP, Long Beach, CA, October 30, 2001

Ablation of wire cores in a wire array
Ablation rate increases with global magnetic field
32 x 15 µm Al wire arrays
15
> 370ns

R (mm)

10 5 0 100
175ns

230ns

µ0I 2 dm =− ∝ R −1 ∝ B dt 4π VR 0 dm ∝ R −1 . 3 dt

150

200

250

300

350

time (ns)
1.0
R = 4mm R = 8mm R = 18mm

PCD_R8mm (GW/cm)

0.5

Radiation from the wires: -2/3 • scales as R
• radiated energy per ablated ion

0.0 1.0

R = 4mm R = 8mm R = 18mm

E ~
-2/3

0.5

scaled ~ R

Prad ≈ 300 eV dm / dt

0.0

0

50

100 150 200 250

time (ns)

What is mechanism of energy deposition into the cores?
Radiography

Direct ohmic heating ?

Thermoconduction

Radiative heating
(P ~ 2x107 W/cm2)

Lebedev S.V. et al., paper GI1.005 at APS-DPP, Long Beach, CA, October 30, 2001

Symmetry of the current sheath formation
Variations in the ablation rate lead to nonsimultaneous “breakage” of the wires
• Statistics of axial perturbations in individual wires:
15

λ = 0.51 mm sd (λ ) = 0.1mm

10

Wire number provides averaging

frequency

5

Al

0 0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

"wavelength" (mm)

• Systematic variations in the global magnetic field:
Conical array (laser probing) Missed wire (XUV images)

Lebedev S.V. et al., paper GI1.005 at APS-DPP, Long Beach, CA, October 30, 2001

Summary: two-stage implosion in wire arrays
1. Radial redistribution of mass by the precursor flow from stationary wire cores • Role of wire number – more uniform pre-fill 2. Final implosion phase starts after formation of gaps in wire cores
• • •

Implosion of current sheath (current transfer to the array axis) Stabilisation by the density profile? Trailing mass

• Role of wire number – better statistics in formation of gaps

3-D modelling is required for the 1st stage! 1-D and 2-D could be adequate for the 2nd stage.

Lebedev S.V. et al., paper GI1.005 at APS-DPP, Long Beach, CA, October 30, 2001