READING Table of Contents
Introduction to TOEFL4D Reading Chapter 1 Skill A Skill B Skill C Review A-C: Short Passage Skill Practice Understanding Details Identifying Topics and Paraphrasing Recognizing Coherence Vocabulary Review Skill Review Skill D Skill E Skill F Review A-F: Understanding Referents and Vocabulary Making Inferences and Establishing Purpose Completing Summaries and Tables Vocabulary Review Skill Review

14 21 27 33 40 42 47 53 59 66 68

Chapter 2 Skill A Skill B Skill C Review A-C:

Long Passage Skill Practice Understanding Details Identifying Topics and Paraphrasing Recognizing Coherence Vocabulary Review Skill Review

75 83 91 100 104 109 117 125 134 138

Skill D Skill E Skill F Review A-F:

Understanding Referents and Vocabulary Making Inferences and Establishing Purpose Completing Summaries and Tables Vocabulary Review Skill Review

Chapter 3 Focus A Focus B

Focus: Summarizing Information Summaries from Prompts Summaries from Charts and Tables

148 154 672

Answer Key

Reading Section

_

First News'

( Necessary Skills
Identifying Facts • Comprehending important information and fads that are stated in a passage • Locating a specific piece of information in the passage quickly • Using examples and descriptions to find information • Understanding the distinction between main ideas and supporting details • Using transitional expressions to locate details such as examples, time, reasons, or results Identifying Negative Facts

• Recognizing incorrect information as well as information not mentioned in the text • Identifying paraphrases that do or do not correctly summarize information from the text

Example Questions
• According to the passage, who/when/where/whaVhow/why • According to paragraph • In paragraph • In paragraph • The author mentions , the author states that , what does the author say about as an example of ? 7 7 because

• According to the passage, which of the following is true about Negative Facts Questions • All of the following are mentioned in the passage EXCEPT • According to the passage, which is NOT 7

Understanding Oetails

27

Skill A

01

Australia

Australia is the world's smallest continent, but it is one of the most fascinating. Australia has rainforests, deserts,.and mountains. Seventy percent of the people in Australia live in cities near the coasts. The middle of the country is nearly deserted. Australia has 175 million sheep, about a sixth of the world's total. It produces a third of the world's wool. It exports ninety-seven percent of its wool to Japan, Europe, and China. Australia also has about 24 million cattle. It exports beef to more than 100 countries. Two million tourists visit this beautiful country each year.

continent (n): a large landmass fascinating (adj): very interesting rainforest (n): a dense forest that is usually seen in hot humid areas percent (n): per 100 (i.e., 70%) export (v): to ship and sell products to other nations

1. How much of the world's wool is produced
in Australia, according to the passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) 66 33 25 75 percent percent percent percent

3. The word "deserted" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (D) dangerous dry empty old and falling down

2. How many Australians don't live in cities near the coast? (A) (B) (C) (D) 70 20 30 50 percent percent percent percent

4. How did you choose the answer for question 2 above? Explain or show how you found the right answer.

28

Chapter

1 Short PasXlge Skill Practice

The other was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). (C) Only one person listened to Mozart's first performance. He wrote his first symphony before age 10. According to the passage. (B) Both composers were born in the eighteenth century. The classical period produced two great composers. This instrument was an early version of the modern piano. 4. According to the passage. act. which of the following is NOT true? (A) The pianoforte is an earlier version of the modern piano. (D) Mozart composed music when he was very young. feature (v): to have. This is designed for small groups. sing.': Understanding Detail$ 29 . Haydn also wrote a lot of famous chamber music. etc. 1. a person who writes music chamber (n): a room perform (v): to play music. Mozart first performed in public at age 5 for one lucky audience. to be characterized by version (n): a different form or variation composer (n): .Skill A 02 _C_la_ss_ic_a_1 _M_U_si_c _ The classical period of music lasted from about 1760 to 1790. One was Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). It featured music written for the pianoforte. What kind of music would a group of four musicians in the classical period most likely play? . The expression "in public" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (D) at school in front of people for money in a small group [ [ [ [ I 2.- First New. A symphony is a piece of music designed for a large group of instruments. Haydn wrote more than 100 symphonies. how long did the classical period of music last? (A) (B) (C) (D) Two decades 25 years Three decades Four decades 3. He also wrote many great piano concertos and several operas.

When two atoms of hydrogen (H) combine with one atom of oxygen (0). These bonded atoms form molecules. together. 502 means five parts of oxygen. Chemical equations show what happens when compounds combine. How did you choose the answer for question 1 above? Explain or show the relationship between atoms. H20 + 502 -+ H2S03. which when combined. The word "yield" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (D) produce stick together unequal allow 2. For example. atoms (A) (8) (C) (D) are larger than molecules are the largest pieces of elements are smaller than molecules combine to form compounds 3.we write a number before the symbol for the compound. or bond.Skill A 03 _c_he_m_i_ca_'_E_q_ua_t_iO_"_S _ Scientists believe that elements consist of atoms. They are the same as elements. they form one molecule of water (H20). sulfur dioxide (502) combines with water (H20) to yield sulfurous acid (H2S03). Elements combine to form compounds. element (n): the simplest form of substances consisting of atoms consist of (v): to be made up or composed of bond (v): to join equation (n): a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction compound (n): a substance made of two or more chemicals. For example. and compounds. They are formed when elements combine. When this happens. According to the passage. 30 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill PractICe .We often combine compounds of unequal amounts. Then. the atoms of each element stick. 4. Which is true of compounds? (A) (8) (C) (D) They are smaller than molecules. Atoms are the smallest pieces of elements. cannot be separated 1. molecules.In this equation. They are smaller than atoms.

and a first aid book A first aid bag. A first aid bag with treatment for cuts should always be prepared and taken. it is a good idea to bring a first aid book and a medical bag. On long trips. The use of these items should be clearly understood. and other maladies. 'J You may not know where there is water. They may be needed to treat pain and injuries! ahead (edv): in the future flrst aid (n): treatment given to the sick or injured when doctors are unavailable bit. a medical bag. But accidents can always happen. pain. understanding Details 31 .. : You will be traveling on foot. A medical bag full of items is useless if no one knows how to use them. . people are alone and far from help. (n): a skin wound from an animal or insect pain (n): hurt. and a medical bag [ [ [ [ I 2. The word "maladies" is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (D) female mosquitoes vitamins hurt women health problems ) Nothing special A first aid bag Training. Also. _ You will be alone and far from help. Thinking ahead can help avoid getting hurt. the woods? It's not really necessary.Skill A Wilderness First Aid In the woods. A list of important items should be prepared and checked before leaving.'. a book. list three specific items from the passage that you would put in a medical bag.. ache list (n): a series of items written down for organization • Which of the following do you need for a long trip in the woods? 4) S) C) 3. It should also have medicine for bug bites. it is important to know what to do. "ly do you need first aid training for a' long :-0 In !.

The potter shapes it into a pot and lets it dry. Many of these First Nations potters are women. it is painted. Next. what group of people make beautiful pottery? (A) (B) (C) (D) French women Canadian potters First Nations people Americans 3. sticky earth grind (v): to crush into small pieces dough (n): a mixture of flour and water (or milk) used in the preparation of bread lump (n): a thick piece of something 1. What is pottery made from? (A) (B) (C) (D) Powder Bread dough Paint Clay 4. pottery (n): tools made from baked clay clay (n): moist. Then she grinds it into fine powder. any small lumps or stones are taken out. The word "shapes" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (D) puts pours forms grinds 2. Water is then added to the clay powder until it is like bread dough. To make a pot. Add water to the clay powder Get clay Shape it into a pot Put it into a fire Paint it 32 Chapter 1 Shoo PassageSkill Practice . Finally.the potter puts it into a hot fire for a long time. All pottery is made from clay. Then. the potter must first get the clay. and most of this pottery is used for cooking. Fill in the blanks on the pottery-making sequence map.and FirstNations people know where to get clay that is very special.Skill A 05 _Po_tt_e_ry _ Many North American First Nations people make beautiful pottery. According to the passage.

• Recognizing different vocabulary words that keep the meaning of the original sentence. Changed sentence structure: One of the most fascinating. Australia is the world's smallest continent. but it is one of the most fascinating. Ex. __ _ First N{wl Identifying TopiCSand Paraphrasing 33 . Australia is also the world's smallest continent. ( Example Questions Which of the following sentences best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. Australia is among the most interesting.( Necessary Skills • Understanding the meaning of the highlighted sentence correctly • Using the context to understand the highlighted sentence clearly • Identifying a paraphrase that most accurately restates the key information in t~e original sentence • Recognizing different sentence structures that keep the meaning of the original sentence Ex. Changed wording: Australia is the smallest large landmass on the planet. but it is one ~f the most fascinating. however. it is among the most interesting. Changed structure and wording: Though it is the smallest continent on the planet. Australia is the world's smallest continent.

the teams trade places. These are called" runs. The longest-known baseball game lasted eight hours and six minutes. Write in the main idea supported by the given details. Each team gets an equal number of chances at bat and in the field. Has no time limit Can take several hours to playa game 34 Chapter 1 Shon Passage Skill Practice . A game could take one hour or several hours to complete. All of the following are true EXCEPT (A) one baseball game lasted more than six hours (B) in an inning. Baseball games consist of nine innings.Skill B 01 'Baseball Baseball is different from most sports. Which of the following best states the topic of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (0) The game of baseball Baseball players Things used in baseball Points in baseball 4. each team gets a chance to bat (C) baseball games are eight innings long (0) points scored in baseball are called runs 3. The team at bat tries to hit the ball and score points. in which each team has a chance at bat 1 same equal (adj): (v): complete to finish score (v): to gain points in a game 1." The team in the field tries to catch the ball and make outs. An inning is completed when each team has had one turn at bat: limit (n): a maximum length or amount Inning (n): a division of a baseball game. It has no time limit. The word "trade" in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by which of the following? (A) (8) (C) (0) Switch Export Score Turn 2. After three outs.

When a real person writes the story of his or her own life. Which of the following is the opposite of the word "real" as used in the reading? (A) (B) (C) (D) Fictional Nonfictional True Second [ [ [ [ I 2. it is known as a(n) (A) (B) (C) (D) diary autobiography book about a real person modern expert 3.Skill B 02 Biographies A book about the life of a real person is called a biography. Expertssay that the first modern biography came from England in 1791. It tells the true story of a young girl who hid from German soldiers during World War II. One of the most famous is The Diary of Anne Frank. Some autobiographies are diaries. (A) There were no biographies before 1791. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. Which words in the first paragraph helped you choose the right answer for question 2? ~ . Two of the earliest biographies came from Rome in the first and second centuries. One of the earliest autobiographies was written in 400 AD. it's called an autobiography. 4. (B) A biography written in 1791 was similar to biographies today. (C) Biographies from non-English countries are not important. (D) The first modern biography was an autobiography. When a person writes his or her own life story. These are the writer's everyday thoughts. century (n): a period of a 100 years expert (n): a person with great knowledge of a topic modern (adi): of recent times diary (n): a book recording a writer's daily thoughts and feelings soldier (n): a member of an army 1.First News' Identifying TopicSand Paraphrasing 35 .

Skill B 03 Geology Geology is the study of the Earth. rock·like substance useful to people fuel (n): a material burned to produce heat or energy survive (v): to maintain life. however. According to the passage. It is only about 200 years old. Write in the main idea supported by the given details. to continue living 1. We get materials to build our homes. The phrase "depend on" is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (D) be one way because of need push use for support 2. because people have lived on the Earth for more than 60. fuels. What does paragraph 2 mainly discuss? (A) (8) (C) (D) Study of the stars Minerals. still need the branch (n): a section. (A) (B) (C) (D) we studied the Earth before the stars we studied the stars before the Earth geology is an old branch of science geology is not very important 3. We studied the stars in the sky as long as 4. unexpected minerai (n): a natural. Only about 200 years old Strange because people on Earth more than 60.000 years ago.000 years 36 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . hasn't changed-we Earth to survive. and water Uses of geology History of science 4. We get water from the Earth. This seems odd. One thing. We depend on the Earth for our minerals and fuel. an area odd (ad}}: strange.000 years. Much has changed as our knowledge has increased. Geology helps us today in many different ways. It is a young branch of science.

This happened after people began keeping animals. When the thickened milk dried. All of the following are true EXCEPT (A) milk can be used for making cheese (B) people couldn't store milk so they let it go sour (C) long ago. These people were in Europe. began Learned.Skill B Milk Eight to ten thousand years ago. Milk became an important food. though. stored [ [ 2. what is the main idea of the first paragraph? First News' Identifying TopIcs and Paraphrasing 37 . People couldn't always depend on milk. they could store it for five or ten years. to not become bad stomach (n): an organ used for digesting food thicken (v): to make heavier and more solid store (v): to keep for use [ f m c___ I 1. Which of the following best states the topic of the passage? (A) (B) (C) (0) People and animals Babies and milk Cheese from Europe and the Middle East Milk and cheese 4. made Kept. They used a small piece of the animal's stomach. Animals only have milk for part of the year. Also. and parts of Africa. people's bodies began to change so they could drink animals' milk. their mothers' milk dries up. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "found" in paragraph 3? (A) (B) (C) (0) Started. people in some places began to drink animals' milk (0) milk becomes thick when it dries 3. milk only keeps for a short time. In order to have milk-based food all year. the Middle East. people learned to make cheese. In your words. discovered Used. dry up (v): to stop being produced keep (v): to stay edible. They found that this thickened the milk. When baby animals grow bigger.

(C) Warm weather is just as dangerous as cold weather. can happen when it's cold outside. (8) Exposurecan causeshivering. Some people may passout. 3. set in (v): to take effect.6·F). hypothermia can set in quickly if a person is wet. or you may kill them. and should be treated carefully. and cold stomachs. Why? ___ 38 Chapter 1 Short Pa~sage Skill Practice . to happen shiver (v): to shake uncontrollably from cold stiff (adj): unable to bend or move fluidly mixed up (adj): confused pass out (v): to lose consciousness. The word "serious" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (D) painful dangerous humorless confused 4. Which of the following best states the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. He or she may act mixed up. (8) When a person is wet. At 15·C (59·F).You must warm them. In a mild wind.or hypothermia. (8) Someone who is too cold may even pass out and should be warmed slowly right away. Exposure makes someone's body temperature lessthan 33. (D) Exposure lowers temperature to 35°C.Theycan also feel stiff. Which of the following best states the topic of the passage? (A) Hypothermia is a dangerous condition that occurs when a person's body becomes too cold. If his or her stomach becomes cold. 2.7"C (92. warm them slowly. stiffness. it is very serious. A sleeping bag is a good way to do this. it can take only an hour. to faint 1.a personcan't stop shivering. hypothermia takes longer to set in. Which of the following is true? (A) Hypothermia does not set in quickly. (A) People with hypothermia can shock someone who helps them. (C) Someone with hypothermia should be warmed slowly. . When someone is mixed up or has passed out. Sudden warming could shock and kill them. (D) It's important to warm someone slowly when they are too cold.Skill B 5 Exposure Exposure.When affected by exposure.

r Necessary Skills • Identifying logical connections within a passage • Producing a passage that is ordered and consistent • Recognizing transitional words that show the connections among sentences • Using pronouns to figure out the order of ideas and sentences ( Example Questions Look at the four squares [. [. Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to the passage.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.1 to add the sentence Recognizing Coherence 39 .

• B) So." This means the word is a noun . Which of the following sentences could best replace the first sentence of the reading and maintain the coherence of the first paragraph? Why? (A) Do you want to learn about transportation? (B) It is important for all students to increase their vocabulary. you can figure out the meanings of many other unfamiliar English words . ." This means "to carry. not previously encountered 1." 2. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? (A) You can better understand long words 3. The phrase "figure out" is closest in meaning to (A) add (B) shape (C) Line 8 (D) Line 10 (C) remove (D) understand 4. Why? _ 40 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice ." the root is "port. In the word "transportation.Look at the four squares [. usual. prefixes and suffixes are only used in English.J where the sentence should be added to the passage." This means "across. and suffixes. (C) Roots.• D) root (n): the part that contains the main meaning of words prefix (n): the part of a word coming before the root that modifies the meaning of the word suffix (n): the part of a word coming after the root that modifies the meaning of the word common (adi): . Ita carrying of things or people from one place to another. (A) Line 3 (B) Line 7 by dividing them into smaller parts." The suffix is "tion. we could guess that transportation means something like "carrying across.J that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: This is close to the real meaning." Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. These parts are called roots." • C) Once you learn some of the common roots. frequently encountered unfamiliar (adi): unknown to a reader." The prefix is "trans. (D) Transportation means" carrying across.• A) They have meanings that are easy to remember. (B) It's easier to remember long words than short words. prefixes. and suffixes . prefixes.Skill c 01 Learning Vocabulary Do you want to increase your vocabulary? A good way to do this is to break long English words into smaller parts.

0) The two poles are very different. Which of the following is closest in meaning :0 the 2? word "covers" as used in paragraph A) Spreads across B) Sheets c) Outside of D) On top of 4. (8) There are two poles. it is covered in ice.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage. Most of the time. Look at the four squares indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: [.• [ [ ~ I Ii 1. north and south. The South Pole is named Antarctica. Why? _ -- First Neuis Recognizing Coherence 41 . (C) The two poles are named the Arctic and Antarctica. (A) Line 3 (8) Line 6 (C) Line 7 (0) Line 9 r l L. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. Some Inuit people live on the lands that border the Arctic. thousands of scientists go there to study what's under the ice.1 that In fact. The North Pole is named the Arctic. which do not belong to any country. (8) Some people live in the Arctic. to surround an ice-covered continent. However. these two regions are quite different. • B) The Antarctic IS area (n): a place._ 2. but no one lives in the Antarctic. 3. a region pole (n): the end of an axis through a sphere region (n): a place.• D) C) No people live in Antarctica. The Arctic Ocean covers more than 10 million square kilometers. The Arctic is a sea region. twelve countries claim the right to explore different parts of the continent. It is larger than Europe or Australia . Which of the following best expresses the essential information in paragraph 1? (A) The Earth has two poles. • A) These regions do not belong to any countries. Which of these two sentences could best begin paragraph 2? Why? (A) Though both are cold. an area belong to (v): to be owned by border (v): to touch the edge of.Skill c 02 Polar Regions The areas at the top and bottom of the world are called poles.

(A) (B) (C) (D) Line 1 Line 6 Line 7 Line 10 2. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. 42 Chapter 1 Shon Passage SkillPractice . Look at the four squares [. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase "based in" as used in paragraph 1? (A) (B) (C) (D) Below Located in On the bottom of Originally from 4. More than 150 countries are members of the UN. not temporary between countries.• meets to discuss worldwide which is based in New York. an area assembly (n): a meeting for discussion security (n): safety permanent (adj): lasting forever. How did you choose the answer for question 3 above? Explain how you found the right answer or the words that gave a clue to the answer. The countries that won World War II formed the UN in 1945. and France. • D) 1.• Security Council. Russia. • B) The first is the General C) The second is the Assembly. A) It problems and settle disagreements settle (v): to solve a problem section (n): a part. China.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: Members elect him or her for a term of five years.Great Britain. Which of the following best states the topic of this passage? (A) (B) (C) (D) Members of an organization An international organization The secretary-general World War II 3.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage.Skill c 03 _T_he_U_ni_te_d_N_a_t_io_n_s _ The United Nations (UN) is an international organization . It has two main decision-making sections. This has five permanent members: The United States. The leader of the UN is called the secretary-general. Here. each UN member has a vote .

These were the most popular programs. Look at the four squares [. all three forms of entertainment remain popular. Which of the following sentences could best end the reading? Why? (A) Today. (B) The maker of the first radio also made the first television.• B) Televisiongot most of its shows from radio or the movies..• A) This resulted in the development of the television. It aired old movies like theaters showed . radio and theater became popular again. they learned to make special shows for certain kinds of people . (0) Theater and radio were so well liked it was difficult for television to begin. people began thinking of a way to transmit pictures. they started making action movies for television. (8) Today. the Internet is competing with TV in the entertainment market. '" I It showed these old movies late at night. It had music and comedy shows like radio had. The word" aired" as used in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (0) sent by plane showed on TV breathed blew on TV 4. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. through the air. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? (A) Radio and television were better liked than theater. material to be watched on TV certain (adj): specific kinds.] where the sentence should be added to the passage. Soon.Skill C Television After the radio was invented.• D) Radio and theater kept going.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: [ [ [ [ .• C) Then. as well as sound. By 1952. transmit (v): to send information via waves television set (n): a machine for watching TV show (n): a program. (A) (B) (C) (0) Line 2 Line 5 Line 8 Line 11 2. 3. Recognizing Coherence 43 . particular keep going (v): to continue operating 1. Eventually. Many theaters closed and few people listened to the radio. (C) People liked television so much at first that it almost ended radio and theater. The television quickly become very popular. more than 7 million television sets had been sold..

• B) First. Why? ___ 44 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill PractIce . Then.000. • C) There are also thousands of sharp. (A) Line 1 (8) Line 5 (C) Line 7 (D) Line 8 2.000 bent (adj): not straight. Which one of the following sentences could be removed from the passage without the passage losing coherence? Why? (A) Only about one billionth of it reaches us.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: This band of colors is called a spectrum. The word "crossing" in line 7 is closest in meaning to (A) going through (8) moving across (C) marking out (D) appearing on 4. it shows as a band of colors. Scientistsstudy these lines and learn many different things .Skill c 05 Sunlight The sun sends out a very. very large amount of light . blue.000. (8) The first color is red. which is bent the least. dark lines crossingthe band. Which of the following best states the topic of the passage? (A) Sunlight and colors (8) Prisms and bands (C) Factsabout color (D) Dark lines 3. Next is orange. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square 1. then yellow. to move through band (n): a stripe or strip that contrasts with its surroundings in color sharp (adj): very clearly divided 1. green. Sunlight is a mixture of colors.• D) billionth (adj): one part of 1. We can see these colors through a prism. curved pass through (v): to go through. there is red. Violet is bent the most. which is bent the least. and violet. A prism is a specially shaped piece of glass. The light is bent a little passing through the prism. Look at the four squares 1.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage.• A) Only about one billionth of it reaches us.

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Instructions: Choose the word or phrase to complete each sentence. Compounds are made up of (A) (8) (C) (D) elements mixtures bonds equations 9. large groups of (A) (8) (C) (D) expert export assembly element 2. (A) (8) (C) (D) shows yields affects completes 46 Chapter 1 Short Passage SkillPractice . "S02 + H20 . This frog swims in a rather way-it swims backwards! of Hamlet isn't as (A) (8) (C) (D) real certain ahead odd _ 3. 6. The lost hiker lived for a week in the mountains by eating leaves and berries. Symphonies instruments. _ 4. (A) (8) (C) (D) chamber feature export perform 8. The modern interesting as the original. The weather often influences what clothes people wear.H2S03" is an example of a chemical (A) (8) (C) (D) element compound yield equation _ 10. (A) (8) (C) (D) version composer branch mixture Instructions: Choose the word or phrase closest in meaning to the underlined part. I think I just sprained my ankle. continent element expert percent 7. Did you bring the (A) (8) (C) (D) pain malady first aid depend on bag? 1. She has become an on ancient pottery after studying the topic for over 20 years. Eighty (A) (8) (C) (D) of Canadians support the Prime Minister on this issue. (A) (8) (C) (D) survived deserted performed depended on 5.

This book records the daily thoughts and feelings of a young Jewish girl trying to (20) the Nazi occupation 13. They're having a meeting today to discuss new school policies. The R&D part of the company is responsible _ person is called a biography. modern limit deserted survive real centuries diary soldier (B) area (C) branch (D) continent A book about the life of a (16) 12. A. in fear when she from the IB) grind C) figure out D) prefix 22. up up out out in 14.'. Use the words below to fill in the blanks. Vocabulary Review 47 .UIII. She passed saw the bear. [ [ [ [ I Instructions: Write the missing words. Many vineyards from this region produce a dry white wine. Use the words below to fill in the blanks. One famous biography is The (19) of Anne Frank. 25. Some First Nations people used to use smoke signals to send information.) modern 8) mixed up C) fascinating ) unfamiliar 24. Could you help me figure this math problem? _ _ _ First Neui» • t' "'. Biographies have been written for (18) (17) . 23. 1 don't understand this map. Just read the most interesting novel.11. for creating new products. The water dried heat of the sun. (A) transmit 21. (A) (B) (C) (D) percent section feature border but _ biographies began in the 1700s.. The United Nations offices are based _____ New York. I'm all mixed • 5. (A) inning Instructions: Write the missing words. (A) inning (B) chamber (C) fascinating (D) assembly of Holland during World War 11.

The silver became of secondary importance. It was used only as a base for their favorite semi-precious stone.• women also participate. too. turquoise. Zuni silver workers began changing their focus. often in the shapes of animals and gods. are famous for their silver work. in about 1870. they began trading for metal ornaments and learning to work iron.• began adding turquoise . Their first pieces were similar to Navajo works. including the Navajo and Zuni nations. they started selling the beautiful C) Tourists who came to visit Navajo pueblos trade (v): to exchange necklace (n): a piece of jewelry worn around the neck bracelet (n): a piece of jewelry worn around the wrist exquisite (adj): excellent and beautiful piece (n): one unit of artwork add (v): to also use craft (n): skill in making something secondary (adj): lesser. The first silver they used for making their own ornamental items. they B) In 1900. (0) The Mexicans taught them to make ornaments. The word "ornaments" in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (0) dishes coins decorations tools 3. only men worked with silver. Some years later. such as A) necklaces and bracelets. They began decorating all sorts of pieces with turquoise. (C) Both men and women worked with silver. Which of the following best states the main idea of paragraph 1? (A) The Navajo made many ornaments.01 Silver Work The Pueblo peoples of the US Southwest. The first pieces were made only with silver. to adorn D) At first. They too began this practice. The word "participate" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (0) decorate celebrate work with silver silver workers 48 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . they began learning how Mexican people crafted items from silver. 2.• bought them . The Navajo became famous for their exquisite silver work . The Zuni people's silver works are famous. In the beginning of the 1800s. came from American silver dollars. rubies or emeralds decorate (v): to make beautiful with. They made many different pieces of jewelry. but after some time. This silver work is a tradition with a relatively short history. to add. but now 1. not primary semi-precious (adj): stones less valuable than precious stones like diamonds. They began learning this craft from the Navajo in 1872.• objects they made . but in 1890. (8) The Pueblo peoples became famous for making ornaments with silver.

(A) The Zuni thought silver was the most important part of their artwork. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage.''''. [ [ [ r l _ First NewS' . (8) Zuni silver works are different from Navajo silver works. (C) Silver became less important than before to the Zuni artists. (A) (8) (C) (0) Line 9 Line 11 Line 12 Line 13 I = ::::I S. Skill Review 49 .. "0''''. (0) The Zuni thought that turquoise was more important. 6. (C) The Pueblo people first learned silver works from Mexicans. (8) Silver was the second thing that silver workers worked on.4. Look at the four squares [. (0) The Pueblo peoples have been crafting unique silver items for over 100 years. The key idea of the passage is best expressed by which of the following? (A) The Zuni have known how to make beautiful silver works for a long time. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: The Navajo thought these blue-green stones looked very beautiful with the silver.

churches. Scientists. a way to fix a sickness succeed (vj: to successfully complete a task or goal Oaks Oaks are some of the most important and interesting trees on Earth. They are working hard to find a cure. were people's first food. (0) People used to consume oak trees in the distant past. Oak is the most important type of wood for building houses. have been worried recently about a new disease that is killing many oak trees.000 years old. called acorns. these great trees might someday become extinct. round nut-like seed barrel (nj: a round container made of wood tough (adjj: strong carpenter (n): someone who builds things from wood disease (nj: a sickness cure (nj: a treatment. This means that all their leaves fall off once each year. and their fruit. the English Oak was the most commonly C) Englishmen used oak wood to build boats. They thought catching a falling oak leaf would bring good luck.• A) Some believed that oaks were the first kind of tree. we can use oak leaves and bark for some kinds of medicine. (C) Oaks were loved by Englishmen hundreds of years ago. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "commonly" in paragraph 2? (A) (B) (C) (0) Valuably Rarely Frequently Recently 2. They can live for more than 200 years.• houses. If they don't succeed. Carpenters use it for doors and furniture. 1. and wine barrels. most oaks grow 30 to 35 meters tall and 9 to 12 meters round.• B) For centuries. the oldest oak tree is believed to be more than 1. 50 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . Oak wood is also very beautiful.2 ----------------------------deciduous (adj): losing leaves in fall round (adv): around. In circumference worship (v): to treat as sacred. to love as though a god acorn (nj: a small. people used to worship oak trees .• Today. (B) Oaks were highly valued and respected in ancient times. however. Over their lifetime. Long ago. (A) Oak wood has been used over the world to build all kinds of useful things. In fact. we value oak wood because it is hard and tough. Old English coins had pictures of its leaves on their sides. D) found tree in England's forests. In addition. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. Oak trees are a type of deciduous tree.

prefixes. conjunctions. parentheses.) to help understand the meaning • Applying knowledge of grammar clues such as the verb "be" (for giving definitions). colon.( Necessary Skills Vocabulary • Understanding the meaning of a word as it is used in the passage • Using context clues (synonyms.rst Neuis: Understanding Referents and vocabulary 53 . etc. etc.) to help understand connections and context Referents • Recognizing a noun that is being referred to by a pronoun or other reference word (This noun is known as the "referent.") • Understanding the different kinds of pronouns and reference words Example Questions Vocabulary • The word • The word • The phrase Referents • The word • What does the word • What does • The phrase in line in paragraph in the passage refers to refers to in paragraph refer to? in paragraph ? refer to? in the passage is closest in meaning to could best be replaced by which of the following? in the passage means • What is the meaning of the word ~~F. examples) to figure out the meaning of a word • Applying knowledge of word parts (roots. antonyms. suffixes. and punctuation marks (dash.

them. Ask them for their suggestions . Try varying the tone of your voice and the speed of your speaking. Record it on a tape and time it. • A) Work hard on your introduction and conclusion. (A) (8) (C) (D) Line 2 Line 5 Line 6 Line 9 3.• some more using their advice. not written conclusion (n): the final part of a speech audience (n): people watching a performance out loud (adv): aloud. D) Then. Theseare what your audience will remember oral (adj): spoken. and their. • C) If it is too long.• B) Read your report out loud. Look at the four squares [. The most important thing is to practice . Leave out the others. words refer to? it. What does each of these 54 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . Next.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage. What does the word "these" in paragraph 1 refer to in the passage? (A) (8) (C) (D) Oral reports Important points Introductions Introduction and conclusion listen as if you were sitting in the audience. read it to a small group of friends.Skill D 01 Oral Reports Try not to make your oral report too long. practice points. Find the following words in the passage: others. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. said so that others can hear examine (v): to look at closely 1. Include only the most important most.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: 2. The word "varying" could best be replaced by which of the following? (A) (8) (C) (D) Raising Altering Lowering Dropping 4. examine it carefully to discover how to make it shorter.

It is then replaced by colder air that flows under it. The word "it" in paragraph 2 refers to (A) (B) (C) (D) land heat convection day [ [ r ~B ~ Different land and water surfaces absorb different amounts of heat. ook at the four squares [.) Line 4 3 Line 6 Cline 8 )) Line 9 4. • D) These different rates of warming and cooling cause different kinds of winds. . like water into a sponge [ c:I In I z: 1.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added 10 the passage: 2. As it warms up." Convection causes winds and breezes. Draw a line from "it" in sentence 1 of the reading to the word it refers to. This cold air then warms and rises.vhere would the sentence best fit? Choose 3. replace (v): to move so something else can be in that place flow (v): to move smoothly like water circulating (adj): moving around in a cyde breeze (n): a light wind absorb (v): to take in.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage. This air is also replaced by colder air. Which of the following is closest in meaning to "Iighter" as used in paragraph 1? (A) (B) (C) (D) Lessdark Able to make fire Not as thick Less heavy :he square [.Skill D 02 _A_ir_M_o_v_e_m_e_n_t _ Air is heated when it touches the warm earth. Land warms faster than water during the day and cools faster at night. it becomes lighter and rises. • C) Mountains absorb heat faster than valleys during the day but lose it faster at night. _ First News' Understanding Referents and Vocabulary S5 .• A) We call this circulating movement of warm air and cold air "convection. • B) Dark land absorbs more heat than light land. A.

they depend on their mother country to help their economies.Skill D 03 _Te_r_rit_o_ri_e_s _ Territories are areas of land that depend on nations for economic support. 1. most of 2. Which of the following could best replace the word "matters" as used in paragraph 2? (A) (B) (C) (D) Issues Troubles Situations Elections 4. Greenland is a territory of Denmark. a condusion about laws or problems local (adj): of or related to a particular area Most of these are tiny islands in the Pacific Ocean. What does "they" in the last sentence of the reading refer to? 56 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice .1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: Like the American territories. and services nation (n): a country decision (n): a judgment. are quite small. • C) The people living in these territories are usually free to make their own decisions on matters of local importance . Some are much larger than their mother countries.wealth.• A) Most territories. For example.• depend on (v): to rely on. and Australia also have many territories in the Pacific. (A) Line 4 (B) Line 5 (C) Line 7 (D) Line 9 3. Look at the four squares [.• D) However. France. these are small islands. however. What does the word "some" in paragraph 1 refer to in the passage? (A) Nations (B) Areas (C) Territories (D) Countries Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. Great Britain.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage. to need for support economic (adj): related to producing and distributing' goods •. but this island is fifty times larger than Denmark . B) The United States has more territories than any other nation .

and it. What does "them" in paragraph 1 refer to? (A) (8) (C) (D) Handle bars Wheels The bicycle The controls [ [ [ [ I Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. you can go forward easily but not as quickly.• can't do both.~- First NeU'.Skill D Ten-Speed Bikes On a ten-speed bicycle you have two controls. The two controls have ten different settings . you learn to set the controls for each kind of situation.. [. Find the following words in the passage:one. Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: In time. What does each of these words refer to? . On a very high hill.• A) You control (n): an instrument machine used to operate a forward (adv): in the direction toward the front setting (n): position uphill (adv): toward the direction up an incline practice (v): to repeat an action to become better at it uphill. It takes a little practice to know when to use the different settings .• D) 1. you can go faster.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage. you. You must make a choice in setting them.( understanding Referents and Vocabulary 57 . On level ground. you can keep going but even more slowly. The word" level" is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (D) bumpy slanted flat steep 4. A) 9) C) :)) Line Line Line Line 3 5 6 9 3.1 2.• B) That's why it is C) Going called a ten-speed. You can either go faster or go forward more easily. one to go faster and one to go forward more easily.

500 years old. They made friends with them. They chose some because they could hunt really well. • C) Then. They are more than ten thousand years old. They chose them for many different reasons . These were the first bones that were clearly different from wolf bones . (A) (B) (C) (D) Line Line Line Line 1 3 6 9 3.• were keeping these dogs as pets.an. they began to choose certain dogs to have puppies.~ 1. about 9. people tamed wild dogs. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. At first.• D) We call the dogs that came from those dogs. Which of the i~low1ng is closest in meaning to the word -choose" as used in paragraph 2? (A) (B) (C) (D) Ask Pick Buy Catch 4. "domesticated" dogs. of the wild and people a. B) Scientists think people a bard __ boRefr!ttJ: part in the body 1t-.Skill D 05 _D_09_5 _ • A) The earliest known dog bones were found in the Middle East.] where the following to the passage: that indicate sentence could be added 2. Which pronouns refer to 58 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . Look at the pronouns "they" (6) and "them" people and which refer to dogs? (2) in paragraph 2.] where the sentence should be added to the passage.aIi I:IIib5 "" the skeleton '-~ II) ~ ~ mate ~ puppyW. to tame bar\. were found in Denmark. They chose some that barked very loudly to keep other animals away. oc baby dog 10 c:ae a noise like a dog • 1D~ tiGrte (v): gentle. What does (A) (B) (C) (D) Dogs Bones Years People "theser t paragraph 1 refer to? Some more bones. Look at the four squares [.

it can be inferred that • Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph • It can be inferred from paragraph • It is implied in paragraph • According to paragraph most probably agree7 Establishing Purpose • Why does the author mention • Why does the author introduce • The author mentions • What is the main purpose of paragraph • Why does the author give details about • Why does the author refer to 7 in paragraph 7 in order to 7 7 in paragraph 7 that .( Necessary Skills Making Inferences • Perceiving ideas that are suggested but not directly stated within the text • Drawing conclusions based on the information given within a statement or section of the text Establishing Purpose • Understanding the role of a certain statement in the passage • Inferring the author's intention for mentioning certain information • Relating specific information to the main ideas to understand the purpose of the information Example Questions Making Inferences • From the passage. with which statement do you think the author would that about 7 Making Inferen(~ and Establishing Purpose 59 .

From the passage. This made Romulus angry. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase "made fun of" in paragraph 2? (A) (B) (e) (D) Laughed at Helped finish Broke Was happy about 2. to establish legend (n): a popular story from long ago that cannot be proven true myth (n): a story based on tradition or legend. Romulus built a wall around the city. the causes of natural events. Legend has it the city was founded on April 21. Which words in the passage helped you guess the writer'S opinion of the story? 60 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . 753 Be a legend the city of Rome the founding of Rome 3. The most popular story is that two brothers built the city. True or not. and the origins of customs and practices village (n): a small town or community. create. There are several myths about how this happened. Their names were Romulus and Remus. He then killed his brother. usually from oral stories of the past. referring to times long ago 1. but Remus made fun of it. we can infer that the author (A) thinks the story of Romulus and Remus is definitely true (B) doubts the story of Romulus and Remus (e) thinks the story of Romulus and Remus is definitely false (D) thinks the story of Romulus and Remus is probably true 4. The Roman Empire controlled much of the ancient world. 753 Be. The word "this" in paragraph 1 refers to (A) (B) (e) (D) April 21. incorporating a group's beliefs about the origins of the world. we do know that Rome grew from an area of small farming villages into a great power.Skill E 01 Rome Nobody knows exactly when Rome was founded. found (v): to set up. usually in the country ancient (adj): extremely old. He easily jumped over the wall.

Without this box. In question 1. the higher the note. Take your finger off and it will be lower again. One is the length of the string. The different sounds a guitar makes are caused by two things. how did you know some of the answer choices were WRONG 7 Explain or show how you knew they were wrong. ~ First Newt Making Inferences and Establishing Purpose 61 . pull. It's the same for how thin or thick the string is. It can be inferred from the passage that (A) thin strings are short B) the thickness of the strings affects the length of the string C) thick strings are long 0) thin strings make the sound higher 4.Skill E 02 Guitars A guitar has strings that make sounds when you pluck them. the sound will become higher. What does "their" in paragraph 1 refer t07 (A) Sounds (B) Boxes (C) Strings (0) Notes 3. The strings are stretched across a pear-shaped box. The longer it is. and then release stretch (v): to pull until tight length (n): the distance from end to end finger (n): one of the five jointed members at the end of the hand 1. string (n): a tightly stretched cord or wire on a musical instrument that makes a sound when plucked pluck (v): to take hold of with the fingers. The box amplifies their sounds. the strings would be very quiet. If you press a string with your finger. The other is the thickness of the string. the lower the note is. The word "amplifies" is closest in meaning to (A) makes shorter (B) makes quieter (C) makes sounds (0) makes louder [ [ [ [ I 2. The shorter the string.

to specify analyze (v): to separate into parts and examine in order to explain design (v): to plan. They design an experiment to see if their guess was correct. method (n): a process Identify (v): to name. Next. First.they either confirm their hypothesis or change it if it is incorrect. they identify the problem. Second. This means they find out all the information they can about it. to verify. Which words in the passage helped you guess what was implied about a hypothesis? 62 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . It can be inferred from the passage that a hypothesis is (A) (8) (C) (0) based on information seldom correct based on emotion always changed 4. they test the hypothesis. they record information from their experiment and form conclusions. This is an "educated guess" about the answer. Third. The word "it" in the fourth sentence refers to (A) (8) (C) (0) a a a a problem scientist hypothesis method 3. Their guess might be due to a feeling they have or something learned from past experience. to become certain of 1. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "record"? (A) (8) (C) (0) Sing Translate Write down Think about 2.Skill E 03 Scientific Method Scientists use a six-step method to solve problems. Fourth. to invent. they make a hypothesis. to formulate confirm (v): to prove. Finally. they analyze the problem.

When air warms or cools. In contrast. Ice 3. answer this question: Is it more likely to rain during the day or during the night? Why? Making Inferences and Establishing Purpose 63 . Water in the air . Warm air can hold more water than cold air.To explain relative humidity ..!. air that is 20·C can hold o. Rain and snow come from it. lying beneath humidity (n): the amount of water vapor in the air vapor (n): tiny particles of liquid in the air relative (adJJ: meaningful only in relation to something else cubic (adjJ: having the volume of a cube whose edge is of a specific length • .!. Water in the air is called "humidity. the amount of water in it changes." Here's an example.3 grams per cubic meter. The Earth . This changing amount is called" relative humidity. Based on information from the passage.'1ly 17. the air as vapor that we can't see. Some water always goes into the air."!-)at ord does "it" in paragraph 1 refer w ::' . In conclusion (8) Furthermore (C) Therefore (D) However [ [ [ [ I L " ~at is the main purpose of paragraph 2? To contrast the humidity in summer and winter _ To illustrate how rain forms .4 g'ams of water per cubic meter. Air at 30·C can hold 30. Which of the following is closest in meaning to "in contrast" as used in paragraph 2? (A).. covered by (adJ): under.To show how scientist calculate humidity .Air :." Water is .Skill E 4 Humidity Almost three quarters of the Earth is covered by water.'..

Today. flamenco mixes several music styles. and guitar playing. Gypsies in southern Spain first developed flamenco more than 600 years ago. Which of the following is closest in meaning to "emotions" as used in paragraph 1? (A) (B) (C) (D) Songs Sadness Desires Feelings 2. Flamenco helped them express their feelings about their difficult lives. 64 Chapter 1 Short I'assage lid ""ac:a . dancing. Flamenco has three main parts: singing. People of all classes enjoy it. The dancers are intense and passionate.. Sometimes. Their movements express deep human emotions such as death and joy. It can be inferred the pesseoe hat (A) flameoco has changed Since it began (B) flamenco was more JXlr-B with rich people than poor people (C) flamenco is more th2n. to show and twirl (v): to spin. It can be performed many different ways. to revolve quickly 1. Underline at least three words that show how the author feels about flamenco. Gypsies are people who have no permanent home.st a style of dancing (D) flamenco dancers are IG: very good 4.>h 2 refers to 3. Someone usually plays the guitar while the dancers sing and twirl. other instruments are also used. major (adi): important intense (adi): showing full concentration involvement passionate (adi): showing strong emotion express (v): to communicate.Skill E 5 Flamenco Flamenco music and dance are the major folk arts of Spain.. The word U t" n oaragra.

This question ~ . is • Complete the table below about appropriate statements to • Complete the table by matching the phrases below. TWO of is worth 3 (or 4) points. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. Match the to which they are associated. that they describe. Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the type of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question worth 2 points.First News' Completing Summaries and Tables 65 .Necessary Skills Completing Summaries • Recognizing the organization and purpose of a passage • Recognizing the relationship between main ideas and detail points • Recognizing the difference between key points and details • Omitting insignificant details from the summary chart • Identifying which sentences are proper paraphrases of the text Completing Tables • Recognizing the overall organization to quickly find the major points of the passage • Distinguishing between major and minor points of the passage • Placing concepts within a certain category • Identifying statements in the answer choices that are not mentioned or not true Example Questions Completing Summaries • An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Completing Tables discussed in the passage. Complete the summary by selecting the THREEanswer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.

we can see into other times and places. Through literature. What is the author's purpose in writing this • passage? (A) (8) (C) (0) To contrast literature in different times To explain different styles of literature To convince readers to write literature To explain different ways of understanding literature 3. to endure 1. A second way is by learning about history. 4. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express Ideasthat are not presented in the passageor are minor ideas in the passage. We can learn a lot from the literature we choose to read. changes in literature. at least (adj): not less than. the past. The word "see" in the passage is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (0) understand look at notice view (A) (8) (C) (0) (E) (F) We We We We We We can learn about can learn about can learn about can learn about can learn about can learn about language. So the first way is by learning about people. and stories. This helps us understand ourselves and the world better. essays. From a book or story. We can study the writing itself. we see what the author is like. people. poems. First sentence: We can learn a lot from literature. Which sentences in the passage contain the main ideas listed in the summary? 66 Chapter 1 Short Passage Skill Practice . a minimum of literature (n): writings such as dramas. We can understand what they know. especially those that have great artistic value author (n): a writer time (n): a period of the past. 2. novels. We can see what other people go through. reading. A third way is by learning about language. It shows us important times in the past. ourselves. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. an age go through (v): to experience.Skill F 01 Literature There are at least three ways that literature helps us understand the world. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.

to injure amount (n): a quantity. People say that Vitamin D should be used carefully. People say we should take large amounts of Vitamin A. Too much Vitamin A can cause kidney and liver diseases. Many people think that Vitamin C can cure a common cold. Vitamin A Vitamin D 2. The word "take" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to A) B) C) D) E) Cures common colds Can cause brain damage Can cause you to lose your hair Can damage your heart Can hurt your lungs i=) Can cause cancer (A) (B) (C) (D) buy leave with eat pick up 4. This is fiction. Doctors have no evidence to support this claim. This is fiction. hair loss. It can be inferred from the passage that vitamins should be avoided (8) vitamins can cause health problems (C) vitamins should be taken in large amounts (D) vitamins are dangerous (A) [] [] 3. Which sentences in the passage helped you choose the right answer for question 2? Completing Summaries and Tables 67 . but not everything we read or hear about vitamins is true. a measure D D 1. Directions: Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the type of vitamin to which they relate. and brain damage. We need to be able to separate fact (truth) from fiction (falsehood). Too much Vitamin D can damage our heart. lungs. an untruth evidence (n): factual information to prove something damage (v): to hurt. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This is fact. vitamin (n): a substance required in human nutrition to maintain health falsehood (n): a lie. and kidneys.Skill F 02 Vitamins We know vitamins are good for us.

Directions: Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the type of crime to which they relate. No one should take other people's money or things. Breaking such laws is called a "felony. From the passage. Felony Misdemeanor 2. community service 68 Chapter 1 Short Passage SkillPractice ." Here are some examples. Breaking a law is a "crime.Skill F 03 Crime Everycountry tries to keep people from harming others. No one should kill another person. TYPE OF CRIME Felony Misdemeanor Traffic Violation Note: < means "less than" PUNISHMENT S-25 years in jail < 1 year in jail. a less serious crime is called a "misdemeanor. grave misdemeanor (n): a crime that causes small harm fine (n): a monetary punishment 1. or rules. Look at the table below and fill in the blank with information from the reading." example is not paying someone you had promised to pay. No one should force anyone to have sex. Which of the following means most nearly the same as "breaking" as used in paragraph 2? (A) (B) (C) (D) Taking a rest Destroying Not following Slowing down 4. we can infer that (A) crimes are serious (B) a person will go to jail for a misdemeanor (C) there are different levels of crime with different punishments for each (D) a misdemeanor is more serious than a felony (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Driving fast Killing Taking money or things Not serious Not paying people Serious 3. for everyone to follow." In English. to hurt felony (n): a crime that causes great harm serious (adj): important. Eachcountry makes laws. Breaking laws such as rules for driving cars is not a felony. One harm (v): to cause injury or damage. These are usually punished with a fine. It's a misdemeanor. It's usually not serious.

Historical geology studies the history of the Earth anfd everything that's lived on it. to deal with likewise (adv): similarly. It includes studying the bottoms of major oceans as well as the Earth beneath them. This includes the study of fossils. branch (n): a section. Which sentences in the passage helped you choose the right answer for question 2? ~-__ . TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. The phrase "related to" is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (D) familiar with told about concerned with studying about 4. Two other branches of geology are related to history and economics. First News' Completing Summaries and Tables 69 .Skill F 4 Geology Geology is a kind of science with many different branches. Economic geology involves the search for minerals and fuels. rocks. Physical geology Historical geology Physicaloceanography Economic geology A) B) C) D) E) Trees Mountains Finding water Dinosaurs Reefs i=) Minerals 2. an area include (v): to contain within. Likewise. and the inside of the Earth. physical oceanography is the study of the seas. It includes the study of mountains. in the same way fossil (n): the remains or shape of a plant or animal within a rock search (v): to attempt to find [] [] 1. Physical geology is the overall study of the Earth. The purpose of the passage is to (A) talk about the different branches of geololgy (B) talk about historical and economic geology (C) explain science (D) talk about fossils and how they relate to geology D [] 3. Directions: Select the appropriate words or phrases from the answer choices and match them to the type of geology to which they relate.

or metal. First sentence: First Nations people worked hard to prepare animal hides for various uses. the hide by rubbing it with special oils and soaking it in water. they scraped off the fur with tools made from rocks. Finally. to manufacture scrape (v): to remove by rubbing strongly soak (v): to immerse in liquid smoke (v): to preserve by exposing to smoke 1. Then. or stake. Next. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. dried them.Skill F 05 Hide Preparation Animal skins are called hides. Based on the information in paragraph 2. sold the hides. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. the skin into the ground. (E) They softened the hides. 3. First Nations people used these to make clothes and shelters. After that. 70 Chapter 1 Short Passage SkillPractice . lived in cities. First. 2. (B) Hides are animals' skin. The word "process" is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (0) to make a series of actions to pay for a product to scrape 4. used tools. shelter (n): a place where people are protected from bad weather and cold prepare (v): to make. Preparing the hides was a difficult process. or softened. such as a deer or buffalo. bones. (A) First Nations people used animal hides for clothes and shelter. (F) First Nations people lived in teepees and rode horses. and smoked them. what can be inferred about First Nations people? (A) (B) (C) (0) They They They They lived outdoors. they tanned. they smoked the hide to give it color and keep it soft. they cut the skin off a dead animal. they stretched it out to dry. Next. (C) First Nations people had to cut the hides off the dead animals. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. In question 1. they would nail. (0) They had to scrape the hides clean. how did you know some of the answer choices were WRONG? Explain or show how you knew they were wrong.

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2. Long ago. Don't wear black on a hot day because it _____ (A) (8) (C) (D) more heat than white. (A) (B) (C) (D) economic decision passionate damage _ 7. Rising oil prices have a large impact on industrialized countries. Let's increase the volume. try to _____ (A) (B) (C) (D) vary flow circulate absorb the foods you eat. Riding a unicycle is not easy. 4. (A) (8) (C) (D) amplify stretch amount include 5. cheese. so she needs to _____ (A) (8) (C) (D) control replace express process it. Her computer was stolen. people milk. (A) (8) (C) (D) plucked domesticated amplified analyzed cows for 3. Be sure to closely before you buy it. but with _____ (A) (8) (C) (D) falsehood felony humidity practice you can learn to do it. domesticates confirms absorbs prepares 10. 1. and meat. 8. 9. After considering all the facts. (A) (B) (C) (D) decision examine conclusion amplify the car Instructions: Choose the word or phrase closest in meaning to the underlined part.Instructions: Choose the word or phrase to complete each sentence. If you are bored with lunch. I think you will agree with my ' (A) (B) (C) (D) audience oral conclusion control 6. Do you remember the process for making pottery? (A) (8) (C) (D) method decision emotion include 72 Chapter 1 Shan Passage Skill Practice . I can't hear the music.

) B) r ) ~= First Neios: Vocabulary Review 73 . Because it's so short. (A) (B) (C) (D) felony express identify tame Instructions: Write the missing words. the Haiku poet must choose the (19) (18) . 21. 24.11. (A) (B) (C) (D) chose recorded designed included new form of poetry. Scientists will examine the water to see if it is safe to drink. can't stand them . __ 25. it is based on an (20) [ [ [ [ I Instructions: Label each pair of words as similar (5) or opposite (0). Haiku poetry uses just three lines of verse with a total of seventeen syllables.l. Sarah loves Margaret Atwood novels. however. Use the words below to fill in the blanks. 13. You should call the airport to verify the flight information. The architect planned many important buildings in his time.5. __ 4. The police asked him to name the thief. (17) adjectives to describe he or she wants to Though Haiku is a relatively form called Renga. intense history literature emotion ancient express major branch poetic 12. (A) (B) (C) (D) absorb vapor fine analyze Haiku is one of the (16) forms of Japan. A) B) C) J) search soak confirm identify myth likewise harm process evidence legend however break method falsehood 22. . Her 5 ster. related to in contrast misdemeanor at least . 23.

Proseis used in magazine articles. newspaper stories. By that time. Today." We call a group of verses about one subject a "poem. as in a magazine or newspaper scholar (nJ: a person who studies a particular subject or knows a lot about a subject novel (nJ: a long fictional book claim (vJ: to saylinsist something has been done printing press (nJ: a machine that can make many books quickly vast (adj): very large in size majority most of B) Some scholars classify fictionC) al stories from ancient Greece and Rome as the earliest novels. i. Don Quixote is (A) (8) (C) (0) the the the the title of a book name of an author name of a scholar title of a poem 4. In paragraph 1.• Others claim there were novels in Asia as early as the 6th century. In addition. Poetry is a style of writing in which short lines form verses. cat. longer novels.• A) Scholars disagree about the date of the first prose fiction book.e. (nJ: 1. what does the word "it" 2. mat paragraph (n): a section of writing (usually dealing with a particular point) article (nJ: a usually short piece of writing. like Cervantes' Don Quixote. short stories. a method verse (n): a division of a poem. However.• D) In Europe. more people had money to buy these books. words at the end of these lines rhyme. or novel. wrote Europe's first prose novel in the early 1600s. did not become very popular until the 1700s. Often. A Spanish author. Cervantes. What is the topic discussed in paragraph 37 (A) When prose became dominant in Europe (B) When poetry became dominant in Europe (C) When Cervantes became an important author (0) When prose began in Spain refer to? (A) (B) (C) (0) Non-fiction Fiction Poetry Prose 74 Chapter 1 Short PassageSkill Practice . In paragraph 3. but most early fiction was actually written as poetry. and books..01 Fiction Fiction is the writing of a story or text that is not true. there were more printing presses. Prose fiction has existed since ancient times. It uses sentences and paragraphs. prose fiction began to seriously challenge poetry in the 16111 century. usually a group of sentences rhyme (v): to have the same sound. These early novels were mostly short adventure stories about fictional characters . the vast majority of fiction is written in prose rather than in poetry. nor does it rhyme. • style (n): a technique.and more people knew how to read. It can be written in the form of either poetry or prose." Prose writing does not have verses. The word "author" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to (A) (B) (C) (0) reader writer story fiction 3. like "bed" and "red.

(A) Poetry and prose have different Europeans. (A) Line 9 (8) Line 10 (C) Line 11 (D) Line 14 --.. (C) Most modern readers choose to read novels.. First sentence: Fiction can be written as poetry or prose. Look at the four squares indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: [.... (D) Newspaper stories are usually written by scholars.. (A) Most readers these days prefer to read verse. (8) Poetry was the most popular writing style in ancient times. Don Quixote. . (E) The novel.. Complete the summary by selecting the THREEanswer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.. (8) Most contemporary writers write novels instead of poems.l where the sentence should be added to the passage. (8) Newspaper stories are usually written in rhyme. was written by Cervantes... characteristics. (D) Most writers nowadays prefer to read novels instead of poetry. long ago. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose the square [. " .l that 10.... (8) Poetic fiction has not been around since ancient times.. (D) A prose fiction book is called a paragraph. . The word "classify" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) teach (8) 8....5.. (F) Prose fiction became popular in Europe when more people could read and afford books. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. (C) The date of the earliest known novel is the sixth century. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. 9.. though. (D) The date of the earliest known novel is not easy to determine. did not think early novels were very important. Skill Review 75 . (C) Works of poetic fiction were written in ancient times. What can be inferred from the second paragraph? (A) Prose fiction has been popular since [ f l_ I poetry over novels. [ [ 7.. What can be inferred from paragraph 1? (A) Newspaper stories are usually written in secret (C) call (D) learn 6. (C) Newspaper stories are usually written in paragraphs..._ First Neu» ..

ll Practice . (D) Simple machines require a lot of effort. and crack open nuts." the resistance. it might take five strong men. (A) To move an object. (B) There are two kinds of simple machines. gentle slope resistance (n): a force which opposes motion multiply (v): to increase many times exert (v): to bring into use. it might be necessary to lift a 200-kilogram stone into the back of a truck. D) Two common simple machines are levers and inclined planes. pivot. The force can be exerted by pushing downward or lifting upward. " • B) To move the object. pump water. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage? (A) Machines are not very useful. we use levers to open bottles. remove nails. To directly lift this large mass. (C) Simple machines help us work more easily and quickly.• • ----------------------------inclined (adi): having a slight. 1. A lever is a bar. For example. the force applied must be less than the resisting force.02 is called "effort. 76 Chapter 1 Short Passage Sk. the effort must be greater than them and change the direction of that force to easily move objects. the user must apply force to move an object. or turn. Among other purposes. (C) The resistance on the object must be greater than the force applied to it. (D) The applied force must be greater than the resisting force in order to move an object. one man could push the stone into the truck by rolling it along a 5-meter ramp. Between the two positions is the "fulcrum. With any machine. To do work with a lever. to put effort on something fulcrum (n): the point which a lever moves around pivot (v): to move or turn in a circular way/motion angled (adi): placed at an angle (relationship between two lines) ramp (n): a sloping (inclined) surface plane (n): a flat/straight surface straight (adi): not bent or curved gravity (n): the force that the Earth places on objects Machines A machine is something we use to help us do work." This is the place where the force on the lever is multiplied to lift. one end of the bar is placed against or under an object. The user then applies force at the other end of the bar. called C) Simple machines can multiply the force put on " resistance. Inclined planes are angled ramps used to push heavy objects to higher places. (B) The force applied to the object is always greater than the resistance. The angle of the ramp lessens the force caused by gravity and changes the direction of the force applied to an object on it. In contrast. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. • A) This force The object being moved also has a force. 2. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "force" as used in paragraph 1? (A) Muscle (8) Energy (C) Hands (D) Intelligence 3.

From paragraph 2. Gravity is a type of simple machine. Where would the sentence best fit? Choose :he square [. The word "remove" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to (A) (8) (C) (D) go again change place take out hit again 6.1 where the sentence should be added to the passage.1 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage: There are almost as many kinds of machines as there are kinds of work. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used.4. Gravity is a type of resistance. One man is stronger than five. The word "them" in paragraph 1 refers to (A) (8) (C) (D) objects simple machines resistance forces 9. What can be inferred from paragraph 3? (A) (8) (C) (D) One man is smarter than five. we can infer that (A) levers change the direction of the effort (8) there are many different kinds of levers (C) levers are the best kind of simple machine (D) the fulcrum is stronger than the lever 5. Levers Inclined planes • [ [ [ [ I 7. the author explains the concept of inclined planes by (A) (8) (C) (D) including a picture telling a personal story listing facts using an example 8. In paragraph 3.) Line 2 S) Line 4 () Line 5 )) Line 7 (A) (8) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) Uses a fulcrum Splits something apart Lessensresistance from gravity Useful for lifting heavy things Holds things together Useful for opening things A ramp is an example Helps objects resist applied force Is a kind of bar - First News' Skill Review 7 7 . Directions: Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the type to which they relate. Look at the four squares [. A. 10.