In partial fulfillment for the internship training Of



February 2012


Certified that this project report “SAFETY ASPECTS IN ERECTION ACTIVITIES” is the bonafide work of “M.ARUN KUMAR” who carried out the project work under my supervision.






I first thank my parents who gave me the moral support right from the moment i told about this project and who have provided me with opportunity to serve the society as Safety Engineers, even though one can never repay the debts to his parents. I express my sincere thanks to Prof.K.R.RAMANA, Dean of NICMAR, Dr. SARBESH MISHRA, Placement coordinator, Dr. V. SRIHARI, Dy. Dean of NICMAR, Prof.S.V.S. RAJA PRASAD, Asst. Prof Safety, for giving me such a wonderful chance to do a project in GAMMON INDIA LIMITED. My warm thanks to my guides Mr. SIVA KUMAR, Asst. Safety Manager, Mr. ARON HILTON, Safety Executive and Mr. Chowdhury, Safety Engineer, for giving the most valuable input for this successful work - the freedom to think. His leniency is worth mentioning which helped me to succeed. I express my sincere thanks to Mr. A.V.LAKSMINARAYANAN, Project Manager and Mr. CHACKO, Project Manager for his valuable guidance during the course of our project. It would be a big sin if I exempt other people working in this office. Their care and affection made me feel at home. My job would remain incomplete if I do not thank all my friends, the eagerness, support and their good will that had helped us to perform to the best of our ability.


ABSTRACT Health safety and environment (HSE) is a topic in lime light. 4 . Also safety aspects regarding various civil activities are also discussed. In this report I have discussed about safety organization and structure of EPIL along with companies safety policy and GIL’s safety procedure. Working at heights. Check list is been prepared for all these activities (example: Excavation. Aim is to make implementation of safety easier. Supervisor must be trained to fill the check list before starting that particular work (in the absence of safety person at that location). inspection of PBD’s and Vechicles).

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.1 CHAPTERS Safety policy& procedures Safety organizational structure Brief introduction about JPSPL project Safety aspects followed in JPSL project EPIL’s Environment Protection Safety while loading/unloading of pipes Checklist for loading/unloading of pipes Safety aspects while transporting of pipes in trailers Checklist for transporting of pipes Safety in stacking pipes (in pipe yard) Checklist for stacking of pipes Safety in various pipeline activities Safety while performing survey Checklist for survey PAGE NO 7 8 9 12 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 5 .1 9 9.1 7 17 7.TABLE OF CONTENTS S.1.1 8 8.1 9.

8 9.6 9.1 35 10 11 Safety while ROW Checklist for ROW Safety while stringing operation Checklist for stringing operation Safety while trenching Checklist for trenching Safety while welding Checklist for welding Safety while performing radiography Checklist for radiography Safety while joint coating Checklist for joint coating Safety while lowering of pipe Checklist for lowering of pipe Safety while back filling Checklist for back filling Safety while hydro test Checklist for hydro test Safety while cathode protection Checklist for cathode protection Advantages of checklist Conclusion 6 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 36 .1 9.5 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.3 9.1 9.4 9.1 9.11.11 9.1 9.9 9.10 9.9.7 9.2 9.4.

7 . • Provide adequate resources and educate workforce to minimize personal risk to Health and Safety. SAFETY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES GIL’s HSE POLICY: GIL shall maintain a systematic approach to HSE management in our business activities to ensure: • Health and safety of its employees and those of its sub-contractors.1. including other parties who may be affected by this operation. • Protection of environment and preventing pollution. • Compliance with laws of Indian government. GIL’s achieves this policy through the following procedures: • Visible management commitment to implement HSE plan. • Recognize and reward good HSE performance. • Encourage team work to achieve HSE targets. • Regular safety training programmes are undertaken at the sites.

2. HSE HEAD EPIL PIPELINE DIVISION HSE HEAD PROJECT MANAGER SENIOR SAFETY MANAGER SAFETY OFFICER SAFETY SUPERVISOR 8 .• Promote positive approach to HSE among employees and empowering to stop work if unsafe condition exists. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE. • Safe working procedure is being instructed to every engineer.

Client Contractor Name of project Project Manager : : : : COASTAL ENERGEN PRIVATE LIMITED GAMMON INDIA LIMITED 2X600MW THERMAL POWER PLANT. LAKSMINARAYANAN and Mr. BRIEF INTRODUCTION ABOUT 2X600MW TPP.V.3. CHACKO Now let us discuss in brief about major activities performed in erection activities. List of major activities involved in pipeline project are as follows: • Survey • Excavation • Concreting • Welding and Gas cutting • Radiography Testing • Blasting 9 . Mr. A.

) Excavation: Stringing: The crew that moves the pipe from the pipe yard to the right of way and positions the joints along the right of way parallel to but sufficient distance from the ditch line.. ( ex. Main line welding: 10 . At the end of survey we can get details of the work going to do. Trenching: Trenching is nothing but a type of excavation in which depth of the pit is more than the breadth.• Painting • Back filling • Beam and Column Erection • Restoration Survey: Survey is for design and construction of linear works. number of excavation. Quantity of concreting etc.

Radiography: Radiography/x-ray test is generally performed on plates which are welded. Any cracks or faults in welding will be detected in this test. plastic or dope the bare steel of the pipe is covered with from the factory or that is applied on the "Coating" crew Lowering of pipe: This layer has three sub layers. Usually 8" is required under the pipe and 12" beside and on top of the pipe. This is to check the quality of welding. • Pre-padding • Lowering of pipes • Post-padding Selected finer material placed in the ditch.Main line welding is an ordinary welding process which is done to joint two or more pipes. It’s done in 5 stages. Back filling: 11 . beneath. Joint Coating: The paint. beside and on top of the pipe to prevent damage to the pipe or coating by rocks.

It also acts as a caution for people who work in that area. Under him.It’s a process of filling back the trench. Cathode Protection: It’s nothing but similar to electroplating process. a safety team is operating which comprises of safety officer and safety supervisors. 4. which has all details about the project. They establish safety by implementing engineering and management control. done in order to protect the pipes from corrosion. SAFETY ASPECTS FOLLOWED IN JPSL PROJECT A senior safety manager is been appointed to assist and advise the site / project management in the fulfillment of its obligation statutory and otherwise concerning prevention of personnel injuries and maintaining safe and healthy working environment. Here PPE . Hydro test: Hydro test is a Process of clearing the pigment in pipe by application of pressure. Restoration: Restoration is a process of displaying information boards at certain points. not to damage the pipeline. Permits and Procedures are considered as a final stage of protection in case engineering and management control cannot be 12 . It is generally done after postpadding.

which makes the training more effective. “FIRE FIGHTING TRAINING PROGRAM” was conducted. Regular training programs are being conducted by HSE Department on job specific topics. Its been given by supervisor/foreman of that site. Also employees are been asked suggestion about how to improve safety.implemented or proved to be in effective. Training program is next important aspect. There are two types of training programs. 13 . The purpose of this meeting is to give employee an idea of what has happened (regarding safety) in the organization during previous month. It’s duty of safety department to insist supervisors to give tool box talk and maintain record for it. Tool box talk is been conducted every day before starting of day’s work. • On-site training program • Off-site training program On-site program is being conducted directly in workplace. Employees are trained how to react during various instance. When I was in training. Also they themselves select the topic of the training to be given. Few important aspects are been discussed below. They are also welcomed to share about the corrective measures for avoiding accidents/near misses. Monthly safety meeting is being organized every month by safety department.

Generally people of higher cadet are being called for this training. Senior safety manager practically explained the operation of fire extinguisher and how to react in case of fire. Off-site training program is being conducted in office. When I was in there. training regarding “Hierarchy of Controlling Hazards” was conducted.The above picture was taken during the time of training. The below picture was taken during the training in which all the control methods were discussed. 14 . In which employees were told about importance of engineering and administrative control.

ROW was mostly given in forest areas and villages where trees are available in large numbers. Senior safety manager gives induction for all the employees/people/trainee who enters the site for first time. The project length is 253Km and since it’s a pipeline project. Secondly. The good thing is. As mentioned in company’s HSE policy. This is an noble job and certificate is also maintained by company for doing so. So in order to achieve our project many trees were cut down. EPIL minimizes the environmental degradation in following ways. 5. EPIL is maintaining separate garbage in which the waste food materials are dumped.Induction program is done in effective way. This dumped garbage is been handed over to Orissa 15 . Trees are been planted in ratio of 1:2 (two new trees for every old tree). EPIL’s ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ESSAR projects India Limited (EPIL) has always assured least damage to environment. the food wastes which is common in construction site is not been disposed to ground or so. ESSAR STEEL (client of this project) has allocated 2hectares of land for planting trees. This induction includes all the details about HSE policy of organization and Safety procedures followed in site.

Generally side booms / cranes are used to life pipes. Filling this form before start of work could ensure maximum safety to the workers. EPIL is using sand in oil storage areas. oil is absorbed by sand and hence soil is protected. Now we are to discuss the safety aspects while unloading/loading of pipes. Note: This checklist should be filled by the concerned safety in charge of that area or by the supervisor/foreman depending on the availability of person. Also these sand is being changed at regular intervals. 5. From there pipes are been transported in trailers to pipe yard. SAFETY WHILE LOADING/UNLOADING PIPES Pipes used for this project is been imported from Korea. Major hazards while dealing with pipe lifting is fall of pipes or pipes striking on any object or person. By doing so. if spillage occurs. But here. The oil cans (both filled and empty) are kept over the sand. This is because. the following checklist is to be completed before starting the operation. It comes in ship to Paradip port.state municipality and they dispose it as per government standards. To avoid these accidents. Hydra’s are been used for lifting the pipe. to avoid contamination of soil. 16 . contamination of soil is prevented.

So the following checklist must be filled before starting the journey to avoid these hazards. So transportation is most essential sector on which we should concentrate more.1 CHECKLIST FOR TRANSPORTATION OF PIPES 17 .No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Specification Is proper equipment been used? Is the equipment certified? Is the sling free from damages? Is the weight of pipe less than OVC of equipment? Is the swing area free from obstruction? Does the operator trained? Is the velocity of air with in limit(30M/S) Is banks man been provided? Is the vehicle provided with reverse horn? Yes/No 6. 6. The major hazard while transporting is accidents or run off of pipes. SAFETY ASPECTS INVOLVED IN TRANSPORTING OF PIPES Pipes after loading in the trailer should be transported to pipe yard.5. Also pipes should be transported from pipe yard to the place of work.1 CHECKLIST FOR LOADING/UNLOADING OF PIPES S.

the following checklist should be filled before starting of work. General hazards in pipe yard includes roll off of pipes. 7.1 CHECKLIST FOR STACKING OF PIPES 18 . To avoid such accident.No 1 2 3 4 5 Specification Is the length of the pipe smaller than trailer? Is the pipe been properly tied to trailer? Is proper support been given to avoid roll off? Is the driver competent person? Is the trailer capable of carrying pipes of this weight? Yes/No Note: This checklist should be filled by safety in charge/Supervisor/site in charge depending on the availability of person. Indeed they are stored in a pipe yard and then taken to the site when needed.S. 7. SAFETY WHILE STACKING OF PIPES Pipes after arrival on port are not directly taken to the site location. Now let us discuss about the safety precaution that must be taken in pipe yard. It is essential to fill this form before starting the travel.

Also checklists are been prepared for every activity. depending on the availability. Here we discuss about the safety aspects that are to be followed while performing these various activities. These checklist is to be filled before stacking/unloading of pipes in pipe yard.S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Specification Are the pipes stacked for more than THREE layers? Are the pipes stacked in pyramid shape? Is the ground level flat and free from water? Is the aisle place provided for trailers and equipments (hydra) to operate? Is the pipes been stored based on their category? Yes/No Note: This checklist is to be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/foreman/site incharge. it makes us implement safety easily. SAFETY IN VARIOUS PIPELINE ACTIVITIES The various pipeline activities are already discussed in brief already. 8. The purpose of checklist is. Any supervisor can even fill 19 .

8. but implementing things in checklist will ensure the absence of negligence and henceforth.1 SAFETY ASPECTS IN ROUTE SURVEY Its evident that for any pipeline or linear projects.No Specification Yes/No 1 Are the surveyors aware about the upcoming danger and is 2 suitable precautions taken? Are the team members wearing competent PPE (gumboots is must)? 20 . Filling this form could ensure maximum safety to the worker. the following checklist is to be filled up before starting survey. accident too.1. So in order to protect the survey team from hazards. The major hazards that a survey team faces is slip/fall injuries. first task will be in confirming the route of proceedings. Note: This checklist should be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/team head depending on the availability of person.the checklist. Survey is done by team of surveyors.1 CHECKLIST FOR ROUTE SURVEY S. 8. This in technical term is known as SURVEY. obstruction/bite of animals.

excavators are been used. exposure to unfavorable physical condition (noise. hazards due to external factors (overhead and underground cables).2 SAFETY ASPECTS IN ROW (RIGHT OF WORK) ROW is the area allocated for us to work for our project. 9. After getting ROW the crew will be sent to clean that area and make it suitable for work.3 4 Is first aid box kept ready? Is the emergency vehicle kept ready? 8. goggle) been used? Is the equipment used. To protect the workers from the hazards and ensure safety. In many cases ROW is given by Government (in case of road or any public property) and in some cases it’s been given by public (in case of private land) also. ear plug.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Specification Are the equipments used certified? Presence of any overhead cable? Are competent PPE (ie dust mask. the checklist below should be filled before start of work. light).2. The predictable hazards are fall/slip.1 CHECKLIST FOR PERFORMING ROW S. and hazards due to operation of machines. provided with reverse horn? Is the operator qualified? Is banks man/ lime watch been provided? Is ROW area barricaded from road/land nearby? 21 Yes/No . Generally graders.

In EPIL I have seen the pipes are been placed over sand bags to ensure that pipe is corrosion free.Note: The above checklist must be filled by the safety in- charge/supervisor/foreman depending on the availability of the person. Care must be taken that pipe is free from damage.3.3 SAFETY WHILE STRINGING OF PIPES Stringing operation is a process of placing pipes parallel to the ROW obtained. To avoid such injuries. 9. Filling this could ensure maximum safety for the workers. 9.No Specification 1 Is proper equipment been used? 22 Yes/No .1 CHECKLIST FOR STRINGING OPERATION S. it’s recommended to fill this checklist before starting of work. The major hazards involved in this process are mis-operation/wrong use of equipment. hit/fall due to impact of pipes. The main job involved in this process includes transportation of pipes from pipe yard to the working area and placing it in proper position.

The important fact is that. Filling this form could ensure maximum checklist to the workers. as per law any pit of deep greater than 1. 9.4 SAFETY WHILE PERFORMING TRENCHING Trenching is a process similar to excavation.2M 23 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Is the equipment certified? Is the sling free from damages? Is the weight of pipe less than OVC of equipment? Is the swing area free from obstruction? Does the operator trained? Is the velocity of air with in limit(30M/S) Is banks man been provided? Is the vehicle provided with reverse horn? Note: The above checklist should be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/foreman depending on the availability of person. the depth of the pit will be more than the breadth of the pit in case of trenching. All the hazards which are available for excavation also exist here. The major difference between excavation and trenching is.

Note: The below checklist for trenching is to be filled by safety incharge/supervisor/site in-charge/foreman depending on the availability of the person.4. To avoid such injuries. Filling this form before start of work will ensure maximum safety to the workers. overhead/underground cables interference. following checklist is to be filled before starting of work.1 CHECKLIST FOR TRENCHING OPERATION considered as “Confined space”. Hit/fall on impact of equipment.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Specification Yes/No Is the equipment used been certified? Has soil test been done? Required slope angle/steps/shoring been done? Is the evacuated soil been placed 5 feet from side walls? Is the distance of half of depth of trench from sidewalls being barricaded? Has the presence of overhead/underground cables checked? Is lime watch been provided? Is the operator well trained? Is mandatory PPE been used? 24 . 9. The major hazards involved in trenching are collapse of side wall. So EPIL also treat this as a confined space while performing jobs in it.

9. pipes would be laid. But for a safety person. radiation.1 CHECKLIST FOR WELDING OPERATION S. both the welding has same hazards. Tie-in welding is a complicated process. some place may be left for public passage or any purpose. But on either side of the gaps.5. So lets not go deep into classifications. Major hazards involved in welding are fire/back fire. 9.5 SAFETY WHILE WELDING Generally speaking welding is of two major categories.No Specification 1 Is the proper gas cylinders been used? 2 Is the flash back arresters been used? 3 Are the cylinders kept in vertical position? 25 Yes/No . Now for laying pipes in the left area is a challenging job and that process is known as tie-in welding. • Main-line welding • Tie-in welding Main line welding is a primary process of welding two pipes. When laying pipes. To prevent these hazards the following checklist must be filled before starting welding process.

When a person is been continuously exposed to radiation without proper protection he may got his cells damaged which may even result in cancer. when not in use? Is the welding cable properly maintained? Is the welder trained to do this job? Does any tent/temporary structure provided during welding? Is the welding area free from flammable materials? Are the welders wearing Mandatory PPE? IS the used cylinders stored properly (vertically)? Note: This checklist is to be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/foreman depending on the availability of the person.6 SAFETY WHILE RADIOGRAPHY/X-RAY TESTING Radiography/X-ray testing is been used to detect any flaws in welding. 9. its advised to fill the below checklist before the start of the work. In JPSPL X-ray testing is been done. Actually there are FIVE stages of welding. The major and only hazard involved in X-ray testing is exposure to radiation. 26 . Filling this form will ensure maximum safety to the workers. To avoid this.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Is the valve closed. After all five stages the X-ray testing is done to check the completeness of the welding.

Filling this form could ensure maximum safety to the worker. the joint of pipes are been coated.6. The foreign material would not have any coating.1 CHECKLIST FOR RADIOGRAPHY/X-RAY TESTING S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Specification Yes/No Is the x-ray testing been carried out by a trained person? Is the same person exposed always to radiation? Is regular medical attention been given to x-ray person? Is he wearing proper radiation proof clothing during work? Has care been taken to protect nearby people to protect from radiation? 9. a foreign part is been attached to the pipe structure and been welded.7 SAFETY IN JOINT COATING OPERATION Generally pipes are being coated. 9. 27 . When welding.Note: The above checklist has to be filled by safety in- charge/supervisor/foreman/site in-charge before commencement of the work. In this case to maintain uniformity in appearance. This process is known as joint coating.

full sleve clothing)? Note: The above checklist should be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/site incharge/foreman depending on their availability. Filling this form could ensure maximum safety to the worker. This could be avoided if the following checklist is been filled before the start of the work.No Specification Yes/No 1 Is the person been provided with proper dust mask. lung damage due to inhalation and damage of eyes due to external particles. 28 .7.The major hazards involved in joint coating are irritation due to spillage.1 CHECKLIST FOR JOINT COATING S. to avoid 2 3 4 5 6 lung diseases? Is dust been removed frequently before accumulation? Is the person coating by standing upwind? Is the person trained to do that operation? Is regular medical attention been given to that person? Is the person been given mandatory PPE(goggle. 9.

29 . It is evident that as number of equipment increases. Trench). So in many cases two or more equipments will be used to lower the pipes. Generally these pre-padding and post-padding are done manually. hazards also automatically increase. This is due to the fact that welding is done. This is to ensure protection to the pipe.9. the next thing is to place the pipe in its place (ie. The pipes are generally very big in size when it is to be lowered. I noticed that the pipes lowered are been earthed properly. collapse of side wall and hindrance of overhead cable. This can be minimized by filling the checklist before start of the work.8 SAFETY WHILE LOWERING OF PIPES After the above mentioned processes are over. The major hazards in this process include hit/fall due to equipment. Also one more layer of fine sand is applied after lowering the pipe. • Pre-padding • Lowering of pipes • Post-padding Generally some fine particles of sand are put into trenches before lowering the pipes. Generally lowering of pipes comprises of three substages.

30 .No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Specification Is proper equipment been used? Is the equipment certified? Is the sling free from damages? Is the weight of pipe less than OVC of equipment? Is the swing area free from obstruction? Does the operator trained? Is the velocity of air with in limit(30M/S) Is banks man been provided? Is the vehicle provided with reverse horn? Yes/No Note: The following form should be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/site incharge/foreman depending upon the availability of the person. Filling the above checklist before work will ensure maximum safety to the worker.8.1 CHECKLIST FOR LOWERING OF PIPES S.9.

9.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Specification Yes/No Is proper equipment been used? Is the equipment been certified? Is the overhead cable presence checked? Has lime watch/ banks man been provided? Is the operator been trained? Is the equipment been placed at certain distance from side walls? Note: 31 . This is done by excavator. So the evacuated soil is again dumped back into the trench. To minimize such hazards the below checklist must be filled before start of work. 9. After fine particles of sand is laid.1 CHECKLIST FOR BACKFILLING S.9. The general hazards when excavators are used are fall/slip by hit of equipment and hindrance of electrical lines.9 SAFETY IN BACKFILLING Backfilling is the next stage of post-padding. the trench need to be filled back.

the pressure is being made zero from sent in side and pigments are removed from other end.The above form should be filled by safety in-charge/supervisor/site incharge/foreman before the commencement of work. Filling this form could ensure maximum safety to workers. The major hazard involved in this process is burst of pipe. Through hydro-testing process we send high pressure air from one side of the pipe by keeping other side at zero pressure. Since the pipes are been kept for a longer duration there is chances for animals/dust to accumulate into the pipe.10 SAFETY ASPECTS IN HYDRO-TESTING Hydro-testing is a process done to clean the interior of the pipes. This could be avoided by filling the following checklist. Note: This form should be filled by safety in-charge/supervisors/foreman/site incharge depending on the availability of the person. When the air has reached other side. 32 . Filling this form could ensure maximum safety to the worker. 9.

There are two types of cathode protection.1 CHECKLIST FOR CATHODE PROTECTION 33 . • Temporary cathode protection • Permanent cathode protection This cathode protection process is similar to electro-plating concepts. This is done to avoid corrosion of pipes.10. same safety precautions is to be followed. But for both of these process.9.1 CHECKLIST FOR HYDRO-TESTING S. 9.11 SAFETY IN CATHODE PROTECTION Cathode protection is of two major types.11.No 1 2 3 4 5 Specification Yes/No Is the person trained in hydro-testing? Is pressure valve provided at both the ends and is working? Is the pipe kept in stable position? Are the workers on the other side instructed not to open the flange until pressure becomes zero? Is any holding or display boards provided displaying as pipe under pressure? 9. because corrosion may reduce life of pipes in greater extent.

It is easy to fill a checklist. The reason why checklist concept is introduced is. In order to establish zero accidents in those activities. safety persons cannot involve themselves in all the activities. Filling this form could ensure maximum safety to the workers. There may be many activities taking place without the presence of safety persons. all 10 need to have positive answers to ensure complete safety. It is the duty of safety department to train supervisor/foreman/site incharge/engineer to educate about the checklist.No 1 2 3 4 5 Specification Is the cable drum properly fixed? Are the loose wires free from walking area? Is care taken regarding pinch points in the drum? Is proper hand gloves been used? Is fire extinguisher available? Yes/No Note: The above mentioned checklist should be filled by safety incharge/supervisor/site in-charge depending on the availability of the person.S. If a checklist has 10 questions. That is the reason why it is popular. checklists are being introduced. ADVANTAGES OF CHECKLIST Checklists are nothing but a set of questions which need to be answered (either yes or no) before starting the concerned operation. But sometimes our 34 . 10.

In that case. So proper education and proper use of checklist is to be implemented in any site to achieve zero accident. without at-most strain. person who filled the checklist will be fully responsible in case of any mishappenings. This is the reason I am interested in implementing the checklist concept in JPSPL project. It is also evidently proved that. 35 . implementation of checklist reduces accident in large numbers. I also can assure that maximum safety can be ensured by the proper usage of prescribed checklist. 11.supervisor/site in-charge takes risk by neglecting few questions. CONCLUSION The intention of preparing this report is to make the implementation of safety easier.