Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL

May 2011 Cells

2.1 Cell Theory
Cell Theory: 1. 2. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells Cells are the smallest unit of life All living organisms are formed of cells and their components

Functions of unicellular organisms:       Growth: in size and number Homeostasis: maintaining the internal environment Metabolism: respiration and excretion Reproduction: sexual or asexual Nutrition: food Response: sensitivity

Multicellular organisms: Emergent properties: when the whole is more than the sum of its parts. This usually happens with multicellular organisms such that their cells interact, cooperate and communicate to perform tasks that each cell can’t do alone. Brain: can think, a neuron: [what the brain is made of] can’t think on its own. Differentiation: all cells contain all the genes needed to carry out all the tasks done by the body. However, only a small portion of the genes is activated according to the cell’s place and the chemical gradient. Toes carry the genes that give the eye color, but they are deactivated. Activated genes are wrapped up in euchromatin and inactivated ones are wrapped up in heterochromatin. Stem cells: undifferentiated and unspecialized cells that can replicate quickly for a long period of time. They are either: 1. 2. 3. Totipotent: can be differentiated into any cell, found in the embryo cells Pluripotent: can be differentiated into some tissue, found in the zygote cells Multipotent: can be differentiated into some cells, found in the umbilical cord cells

They’re also found in liver cells, skin cells, brain cells and bone marrow. Stem cells can be used in cell therapy [where cells that do not work are replaced with healthy functioning ones]. Bone marrow transplant is used to treat leukemia and new skin used to treat burned skin. Cell therapy is also used to grow new corneas.

Chapter Two

Page 1 of 8

6. 7. d)holds the pili and flagella 2.colli to stick to other surfaces [other cells]. They are less dense in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes. 4.Pili: thin protein tubes found on the outside of the plasma membrane. They are either: a. c)gives it its shape. Attachment pili/fimbriae: which are sticky at the end to allow E. b. Found on the surface of the cell. They’re responsible for protein synthesis.Flagella: looks like threads and made of proteins.e. Binary fission: the way by which prokaryotes divide. It controls the metabolic reactions of the cell. each cell receiving ½ the cytoplasm Growth and each cell will become of full size Chapter Two Page 2 of 8 . i. 3.Cytoplasm: fluid containing organelles and enzymes.Plasma membrane: it’s a selectively permeable membrane that controls which materials enter and leave the cell by active or passive transport. Steps: 1. 5. 4.Nucleoid region: a) contains the genetic information (DNA) b) controls Prokaryotic Cell the cell.Cell wall: made of protein sugars in animal cells and made of cellulose in plants. 70S. There are many of them. 2. Conjugation/sex pili: long and they build a bridge between different cytoplasms transferring plasmid. DNA replication Separation of two circular strands of DNA Cytokinesis: when the cell splits into two. allowing bacterium to move in a fluid environment. a)protects the cell. 3.Ribosomes: consists of RNA and protein.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells 2. b)prevents it from bursting.2 Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells: cells that have NO organelles [bacteria] Components of Prokaryotic Cells: 1.

used for intracellular transport. 7. bone and cartridge. a)used for intracellular transport b)used for packing proteins. 2. connect cytoplasm and exchange materials 3. 3. and in plant cells. a) Holds Eukaryotic Cell ribosomes b)synthesizes proteins c)makes proteins that are exported during exocytosis. water and collagen. cellulose]: 1. It is a non living secretion found in animal cells.e. 4. 6. i.Mitochondria: a) stores ATP b) releases energy c) used for cellular respiration d) involved in the cytokrebcycle. 8.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells 2.Plasma membrane 2. They are more dense in eukaryotes than prokaryotes (80S) a) responsible for protein synthesis b) makes proteins that are used inside the cell 5. Supports the cell giving it mechanical strength and shape Prevents bursting A barrier from pathogens Stores carbohydrates Chapter Two Page 3 of 8 .Nucleus: the largest organelle a)contains all genetic information b)controls the cell Extracellular component: a substance outside the cell containing glycoproteins.Lysozyme: contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest and break down substances in the cell.3 Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are cells that contain organelles They are made of: 1.Plasmodesmata: narrow channels through the cell wall.Ribosomes: made of protein and RNA. It can burst causing autolysis.Golgi apparatus: are membrane bound sacs forming an extensive network in the cell.RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum): doesn’t have a membrane. 4.

but able to change Glycogen and some animal fat Chapter Two Page 4 of 8 . permanent. temporary ones may be present Usually circular. filled with cell sap Fixed shape Starch and plant oils Animal Cell Absent Small.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells Comparisons Pro and Eukaryotic cells: Feature Similarities Differences Prokaryotic Eukaryotic -Naked -Enclosed in a nuclear envelope -Circular -Linear -In cytoplasm -With proteins -DNA found in chromosomes -DNA found in loops called plasmids 70S 80S Plasma membrane Mitochondria No internal membranes Areas with different functions Genetic Material Protein Synthesis Respiration Ultra structure DNA present Ribosome responsible - Plant and Animal cells Feature Cell Wall Chloroplast Vacuole Shape Reserve Food Stored as Plant Cell Made of cellulose Present in photosynthetic cells Large.

Hence. 3. like glucose. Peripheral: found outside the phospholipid bilayer in cytoplasm but interacts with phosphate heads. They do not always exist. Membranes’ arrangement is very stable because any change would decrease interactions with other cells. The membranes are made of: 1. Active transport requires the use of proteins called transport Chapter Two Page 5 of 8 . Glycoproteins: have carbohydrate groups attached to them Functions of proteins: 1. it controls which substances enter and leave the cell. III. Phospholipid bilayer: (a) Two phosphate heads: polar and hydrophilic [love water] as they interact with water (b) Four fatty tails: nonpolar and hydrophobic [they are away from the water and are placed inside the bilayer] Since it has a polar layer from the outside and a nonpolar layer from the inside it’s very effective in stopping molecules. It reduces permeability and fluidity. Cholesterol: found between fatty tails. Target cells for hormones Integral proteins stick to other molecules or ECM Cell to cell communication Passive transport Pumps for active transport 3. 4. 2.  Osmosis: the movement of water through a partially permeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration  Diffusion: the movement of gases or liquids down the concentration gradient [from high to low]. More cholesterol →stable and not permeable and less cholesterol→fluid and permeable Transport:  Passive transport: doesn’t require energy and materials are transported down the concentration gradient. external molecules and the hydrophilic section since they have narrow channels from which substances can pass. It then goes back to it’s original shape and is ready to be used again]  Active transport: it’s not very different from facilitated diffusion. This is because only a few will manage to pass through both layers 2. However it requires energy and ATP and it’s against the concentration gradient [from low to high concentration]. changing the structure of the protein and releasing the substance inside the cell. Integral: they interact with cytoplasm.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells 2. II. Types of proteins: I.4 Membranes The function of membranes is to keep the cell contents separated from the outside so the cell could have a high or low concentration gradient of molecules. Proteins: found between the phospholipid bilayer and help exchanging molecules with the external environment. 5. (1) Simple: simply diffusing across the membrane. possible for small hydrophobic molecules (2) Facilitated: for the passage of polar hydrophilic substances and require the use of channel proteins [have hydrophilic pore] or transport proteins [have receptors that bind with sophisticated molecules and carry them into the cell.

takes place when a substance is solid]. ER and Golgi apparatus is the same.  Endocytosis: the cell taking up a substance by surrounding it with a membrane. it’s possible for them to exchange molecules. The structure of the membrane has some flexibility such that some membrane can be added or removed with out tearing the membrane itself. white blood cells eating up bacteria or pinocytosis [called cell drinking. Since the structure of the plasma membrane. The processes how materials can enter a cell: ATP Passive Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Osmosis With Carrier Proteins Endocytosis No No No Yes Yes Concentration gradient Down Down Down Against is possible Against is possible Chapter Two Active Page 6 of 8 . There are two types of it. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes → RER prepares them for intracellular transport → GA packs and modifies them → vesicles buds push them towards the membrane → the vesicle fuses and binds with the membrane →membrane flattens. either phagocytosis [called cell eating.  Exocytosis: the opposite of endocytosis where the materials are removed from the cells. Ex. takes place when a substance is fluid]. It’s used to take highly polar/large substances. the sodium potassium pump.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells proteins [also called carrier proteins or membrane pumps]. It often requires the use of vesicles. nuclear envelope.

which is a continuous process. Interphase where most of the life cycle takes place and it can be said that when the nucleus is not dividing. Mitosis: nuclear division. ii.e. centromeres separate  Telophase: chromosomes are at poles.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells 2. spindle fiber disappears. Cytokinesis [the actual physical division]. i. the cell is in Interphase. centrioles replicate. Chemical reactions don’t take place except in the presence of the correct enzyme and enzymes are produced by the process of transcription and translation. nuclear membrane and nucleolus appear. spindle fibers are formed. Viruses: that insert their genetic materials into proto-oncogenes Ultraviolet light Types of tumours:   Benign: harmless ones Malignant: ones that spread to other tissues and body parts. 4 stages [PMAT]:  Prophase: visible chromosomes. Those genetic changes usually take years to accumulate [making it quite common in the aging generation]. The genetic material is in the form of chromatin [long strands of DNA with proteins]. 3. 2. Its purpose is the increase the number of identical cells. It can happen before the last phase of mitosis is completely finished. If any mutations occur in them. 1. DNA transcription and DNA replication occur. they’re then called cancer Cancer can be treated with: Chapter Two Page 7 of 8 . Stage G1: the period when the cell grows and the number of organelles increase iii. Tumours start because of: 1. wounds repairing their damage. bacteria take 20 mins and beans take hours. Tumours are cancers. chromosomes become chromatin Examples of processes involving mitosis are production of muscles. Stage G2: preparation for mitosis such that the number of mitochondria and chloroplasts increases [although they absorb materials and grow in size all through Interphase]. translation.5 Cell Division The cell cycle’s duration differs between different cells. It can occur in haploid. growing zygote and asexual reproduction. chromosomes made of two identical chromatids held by a centromere  Metaphase: chromosomes move to equator. 3. centrioles start to move to opposite poles. Stage S: when replication and DNA synthesis take place [chromosomes replicate forming 2 chromatids] iv. The cell division takes place when new cells are needed for growth or repair. diploid and polyploid cells. 2. nucleolus and nuclear membrane are invisible. a series of genetic changes occurs in the cell before it becomes a tumour cell. This is the most active period in the cell cycle such that biochemical reactions. Electro magnetic radiation: is mutagenic [increases the rate of mutation] Carcinogenic chemicals: they increase chances of mutation and increase the effect of already present ones. 4. However. spindle attaches to centromeres  Anaphase: chromatids separate and move to opposite poles [each one is now called chromosome] resulting in 2 nuclei. without changing their genetic material. cell division can become uncontrolled resulting in a tumour [which can take place in any organ or tissue]. Proto-oncogenes produce proteins that stimulate growth and cell division.

as well as sperm producing cells [because all of those divide rapidly] Chapter Two Page 8 of 8 . cells forming the lining of the gut.Heba Abd El Fattah Biology SL May 2011 Cells 1. It’s side effects include destroying cells responsible for hair growth. Surgical removal: the removal of tumour cells before they can grow 2. Radiation therapy: where a nuclear radiation beam is directed to a precise point burning all the cells in the area 3. Chemotherapy: using medication that destroys all rapidly dividing cells.