# MATHEMATICAL TERMS

1. Symmetrical (adj) \ s m tr k l\ having corresponding points whose connecting lines are bisected by a given point or perpendicularly bisected by a given line or plane <symmetrical curves> (merriam-webster) symmetric : being such that the terms or variables may be interchanged without altering the value, character, or truth <symmetric equations> <R is a symmetric relation if aRb implies bRa> (merriam-webster) 2. Congruent (adj) \ n gru:w nt, k : gru:w nt\ Exactly equal in size and shape. Congruent sides or segments have the exact same length. Congruent angles have the exact same measure. For any set of congruent geometric figures, corresponding sides, angles, faces, etc. are congruent. Note: Congruent segments, sides, and angles are often marked.

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Vertex (noun) \ v t ks\ plural vertices a : the point opposite to and farthest from the base in a figure b : a point (as of an angle, polygon, polyhedron, graph, or network) that terminates a line or curve or comprises the intersection of two or more lines or curves c : a point where an axis of an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola intersects the curve itself a principal or highest point : summit <the vertex of the hill

4. Oblique (adj) \ o bli:k\ a : neither perpendicular nor parallel : inclined b : having the axis not perpendicular to the base <an oblique cone> c : having no right angle <an oblique triangle> 5. Concave (adj) \ k :n ke v\ arched in : curving in used of the side of a curve or surface on which neighboring normals to the curve or surface converge and on which lies the chord joining two neighboring points of the curve or surface

A postulate should be so simple and direct that it seems to be unquestionably true. the "shampoo algorithm" explains how to wash one's hair: wet hair. Axiom (noun) \æksij m\ A statement accepted as true without proof. 7. Perfect number A number n for which the sum of all the positive integer factors of n which are less than n add up to n. 10. On a number line. For example. The number 28 has factors 1. Division.A shape or solid which has an indentation or "cave". rinse. That is. 6. For example. The number 6 has factors 1. 4. 1) a maxim widely accepted on its intrinsic merit 2)a statement accepted as true as the basis for argument or inference 3)an established rule or principle or a self-evident truth a rule or principal that many people accept as true 9. An axiom should be so simple and direct that it is unquestionably true. Algorithm (noun) \ ælg r ð m\ a procedure for solving a mathematical problem (as of finding the greatest common divisor) in a finite number of steps that frequently involves repetition of an operation. lather. Gaussian elimination is an algorithm for solving linear systems of equations. BEDMAS: Brackets. Exponents. 8. the origin is the point (0.and y-axes. Postulate (noun) \p :st l t\ A statement accepted as true without proof. Ray (noun) / re / . and 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14 = 28. repeat. In three dimensions. 11. the point (0. BEDMAS is another useful set of steps and is also considered a formula. and 3. 0). and 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. a set of steps that are followed in order to solve a mathematical problem or to complete a computer process FOIL is another example of an algorithm used in algebra. This algorithm is useful for multiplying polynomials. 2. the origin is the 0 point. 2. Origin noun \ or n \ the intersection of coordinate axes On the coordinate plane. Multiplication. 6 and 28 are perfect numbers. Formally. inside last. a statement that is accepted as being true and that is used as the basis of a theory. a geometric figure is concave if there is at least one line segment connecting interior points which passes outside of the figure. and 14. 0. broadly : a step-bystep procedure for solving a problem or accomplishing some end especially by a computer A set of instructions used to solve a problem or obtain a desired result. argument. etc. Addition and Subtraction. 7. the point of intersection of the x. This refers to an order of operations. 0). The steps in FOIL are: First outside.

Parabola A u-shaped curve with certain specific properties. the perpendicular from the center of a regular polygon to one of the sides 15. Note: Apothem is pronounced with the emphasis on the first syllable with the a pronounced as in apple (A-puh-thum). Binomial . a parabola is the locus of points such that the distance to the focus equals the distance to the directrix. or the length of this segment. a parabola is defined as follows: For a given point. Apex (noun) / e p ks/ plural apexes the top or highest point of something The vertex at the tip of a cone or pyramid. 13. Like Terms Terms which have the same variables and corresponding powers and/or roots. and a given line not through the focus. Terms that are not like cannot be combined using addition or subtraction. 12. that is. Same as the inradius.A part of a line starting at a particular point and extending infinitely in one direction. 17. Formally. called the focus. Counterexample An example which disproves a proposition 16. the radius of a regular polygon's inscribed circle. called the directrix. 14. Like terms can be combined using addition an subtraction. Apothem The line segment from the center of a regular polygon to the midpoint of a side.

course offerings. libraries. Concepts are connected with labelled arrows.e. e. is to represent the mental models." or "contributes to". e.g. and mass are examples of scalars. i. the cognitive map of individuals.A polynomial with two terms which are not like terms. 18. The following are all binomials: 2x 3. Tuition is charged by educational institutions to assist with funding of staff and faculty. reports. which takes place via knowledge elicitation. other concept maps. diagrams. Concept mapping serves several purposes. Another. it is called a scalar. spreadsheets.. in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. with both direction and magnitude. Temperature. Tuition: Instruction. Cusp A sharp point on a curve. . is to represent the structure of knowledge gleaned from written documents. Mathematical Model An equation or a system of equations representing real-world phenomena. "is required by. If a quantity has magnitude but not direction. teams and organizations. Collinear Lying on the same line. Concept Mapping Concept mapping: A technique for visualizing the relationships between different concepts. "gives rise to". etc. A quantity. One. force and velocity are vectors. 3x5 +8x4. and 2ab 6a2b5. Models also represent patterns found in graphs and/or data.. 19. Note: Cusps are points at which functions and relations are not differentiable. Usually models are not exact matches the objects or behavior they represent.. The relationship between concepts is articulated in linking phrases. to the concept nodes (attached during or after construction) has been found to significantly improve the level of meaningful learning of the concept mapper. 20. and to provide a comfortable learning experience for its students. MATHEMATICS EDUCATIONAL TERMS 1. The addition of knowledge resources. For example. "results in".. lab equipment. length. drawn as an arrow. Educators are increasingly realising the utility of such maps and have started using them in classroom 2. facility upkeeping. which takes place by knowledge capture. computer systems. teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. A concept map is a diagram showing the relationships between concepts. A good model should capture the essential character of whatever is being modeled.g.

and the discipleship system practiced by both Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church. The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. move out of the United States.the mentor/protégé pair will be of the same sex. or enrolled late. certificate/credential A state-issued license certifying that the teacher has completed the necessary basic training courses and passed the teacher exam. etc. an organization. the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty. nurses. 8. 7.3. and results of science experiments. It is usually conducted at the end of a lesson. are suspended or sick that day..but not necessarily . This does not include students who receive a General Education Development (GED) or California High School Proficiency Examination (CHSPE) certificate. Mentoring: A developmental relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a mentee or protégé. assessment Gathering information about the level of performance of individual students. COLLOQUIUM /quia a usually academic meeting at which specialists deliver addresses on a topic or on related topics and then answer questions relating to them . Practicum prækt k m a course of study designed especially for the preparation of teachers and clinicians that involves the supervised practical application of previously studied theory a course of study for teachers. The teachers may alternate teaching the entire group or divide the group into sections or classes that rotate between the teachers.. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer's Odyssey. (Ed Source 10. Scholarship an amount of money that is given by a school. etc. portfolio A collection of various samples of a student s work throughout the school year that can include writing samples. doctors. transfer to another high school or to a college. Historically significant systems of mentorship include apprenticing under the medieval guild system. (Ed Source) 9. to a student to help pay for the student's education 12. that involves actually working in the area of study and using the knowledge and skills that have been learned in a school 11. Team teaching A teaching method in which two or more teachers teach the same subjects or theme. examples of math problems. dropout A grade seven through twelve student who left school prior to completing the school year and had not returned by Information Day (a day in October when students throughout the state and are counted and enrollment is determined). Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man. evaluation A method of determining if students learned what they were taught. 6. 4. 5. Usually .

Objective something you are trying to do or achieve : a goal or purpose 19. Sophomore a student in the second year of high school or college 18. Accredit to recognize (an educational institution) as maintaining standards that qualify the graduates for admission to higher or more specialized institutions or for professional practice . and evaluation of its key symbols and themes in order to ascertain its meaning and probable effect 14. tabulation. One who teaches 15. Placement test a test usually given to a student entering an educational institution to determine specific knowledge or proficiency in various subjects for the purpose of assignment to appropriate courses or classes 16. Content analysis analysis of the manifest and latent content of a body of communicated material (as a book or film) through a classification.13. Pedagogue Teacher. Compulsory required by a law or rule compulsory [=mandatory] education/retirement 20. Prerequisite something that you officially must have or do before you can have or do something else : requirement 17.