Business Plan and Design Proposal

12 Volt Universal Battery Charger

Group 3 Final Report December 17, 2003

Michael Eskowitz ECE Box # 99 Eric Hall ECE Box # 133 Chris Hamman ECE Box # 135


Table of Contents
Executive Summary Section 1: Introduction 1.1 Problem Statement 1.2 Planned Approach Section 2: Product Specifications 2.1 Market Research 2.2 Customer/ Product Requirements 2.3 Product Specifications Section 3: Product Plan 3.1 Development Schedule 3.2 Budget Section 4: Design Approach 4.1 Design Options 4.1.1 Signal Conditioner 4.1.2 Charge Monitor 4.1.3 Charge Status Display 4.2 Value Analysis 4.2.1 Power Supply 4.2.2 Charge Monitor 4.2.3 Charge Status Display 4.3 Competitive Value Analysis 4.3.1 Solar Chargers 4.3.2 AC Chargers 4.2.3 Pedal Chargers 4.4 Module Definitions 1 2 2 3 4 4 8 9 11 11 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 20 21 22 24 26 27


4.5 Manufacturability 4.6 Cost Analysis 4.7 Hazard Analysis 4.8 Legal Considerations Section 5: Product Results 5.1 Product Functionality 5.2 Product Form 5.3 Expected ROI Section 6: Recommendations Appendix A: Circuit Diagram Appendix B: Assistance and Contact Info Appendix C: LM 555 Equation Derivations

34 35 37 38 39 39 39 40 42 44 45 46


Table of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Mali Figure 2: Solar Panel Charger Figure 3: AC-Charger Figure 4: System Block Diagram Figure 5: Solar Charger Figure 6: AC Charger Figure 7: AC Battery Charger Figure 8: Signal Conditioner Figure 9: Charger Circuit Figure 10: Charge Status Display Figure 11: Switching Oscillator Figure 12: Kinkajou Charger Casing Figure 13: Battery Charge Display Figure 14: Side View of Charger Case Figure 15: Return on Investment

4 6 7 14 22 24 25 28 30 32 33 40 40 40 40


Table of Tables

Table 1: High-Level Gantt Schedule Table 2: Itemized Task Gantt Schedule Table 3: Power supply value analysis Table 4: Charge monitor value analysis Table 5: Charge status display value analysis Table 6: Competitive Value Analysis Table 7: Component Pricing

11 12 18 19 21 27 36


we will present an overview of our prototype development process. our company has been contracted to design a portable. multi-input battery charging device that will charge 12 Volt lead-acid car batteries. Design that Matters (DtM). a nonprofit 1 . has developed a low-cost projection system called the Kinkajou that will deliver teaching materials to instructors who are desperate for teaching resources. They cite literacy programs as a crucial means of breaking the poverty cycle. and propose a business plan that could later be developed for our product. Tim Prestero and Neil Carter. After a consultation session with the principals. In the following paper.Executive Summary A recent report published by the United Nations1 has indicated that there are currently 860 million illiterate adults world-wide and 100 million children who have no access to education. In light of this. justify our design decisions. The country of Mali will be the focus of our feasibility study. The State of Global Literacy (Online: www. which are used to power the Kinkajou device. make a set of recommendations for future actions.unusa. we were instructed to investigate the viability of introducing the product to a target market. 1 United Nations.

The charger must be affordable in the community it is used in. and must indicate the state of charge. Our first course of action was to perform market research to anticipate the needs of our target market and to formulate a set of product specifications and requirements. In addition. based on a value analysis of these options. a pedal generator. ” 1.1 Problem Statement “You are to design a universal 12 Volt battery charger that can take various forms of electrical energy and charge a typical 12 Volt lead-acid (automotive) battery. and should be suitable for applications such as the Kinkajou Projector.Section 1: Introduction 1. We brainstormed numerous design options and. After we had gained good insight as to what the product specifications were we were able to formulate a course of action in which to carry out the design project.2 Planned Approach The process of developing a quality product that meets the demands of a potential market involves a great deal of forethought and design Prototype cost should not exceed $50. The charger must be able to handle the following inputs: a solar panel. finalize a design approach. (http://kinkajou. 2 . the circuit should not drain the battery. and standard AC power (both American and European standards). The charger must not overcharge the battery.designthatmatters.

we found it necessary to subdivide the various tasks and assign each group member with a specific set of responsibilities. we decided that certain tasks such as writing reports.Due to the extensive nature of this project and the short time allotted for completion. giving presentations and doing research were the responsibility of everyone in the group. The assignments were given depending upon the willingness and ability of each team member. By taking a modular approach we were able to design. Additionally. and troubleshoot several subsystems independently and combine them after each was working as a stand alone device. build. test. 3 .

Market Research From extensive research we were able to identify and anticipate the needs two markets— both the stated market of Mali and other parts of the Developing World. The yearly per-capita GDP is about 2 4 . Since transportation and shipping are expensive endeavors due to the lack of paved International Service for National Agricultural Research.insar. some of our research materials included The Stanford Business Journal. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). constructing a device that is inexpensive to produce and sell is essential. B.S. In addition to the information session led by the founders of Design that Matters. and determine design considerations.Section 2: Product Specifications 2. Mali is among one of the poorest nations in the world as 65% of its land is desert or semidesert. research products. Mali: A Typical Sahelin Country (Online: www.1 Market Research A. the United States Patent website as well as several product websites. Methods In developing our market report. Figure 1: Map of Mali $2982 and much of the country lacks economic development—as a result. A dual market exists in that the charger could also be sold separately from the Kinkajou. Reports from the United Nations Educational. we utilized a variety of resources to quantify our market.

Organizations such as the World Literacy Foundation. The Kinkajou Device has world-wide appeal to promote literacy in regions that lack adequate teaching resources. Therefore producing such a device would result in long term savings to communities.roads. and the World Literacy Crusade would likely be interested in purchasing the device for use in their campaigns to fight illiteracy.S. Additionally the charger could be used in the developed world to accommodate alternative sources of energy in order to lessen dependence on fossil fuels. $1.24 per battery. A charger with a myriad of inputs could be used for the following: • • • • Residential and Commercial Applications Utility Applications Water Pumping Lighting • • • • Communication Systems Refrigeration Health Services Disaster Recovery Adapting charging technology to meet the demands of communities that lack electricity will likely prove to be a very profitable market. which typically lack electricity. 5 . There is a world-wide demand in the developing world for a low-cost means of charging 12 Volt batteries. Therefore the charging device would need to accommodate multiple sources of input. it is also essential that the device be as light-weight as possible since it will likely need to be carried over long distances. UNESCO. Power is essential for most modern devices. Our market primarily consists of those who reside in village communities. Only about 50% of people in Mali can afford the luxury of batteries to power electric devices and the cost to recharge a battery is up to 700 CFA (Communaute Financiere Africaine or the African Financial Community) which equates to roughly U. This is a substantial cost to people in such an impoverished area.

slow charge. Competing Products In an effort to evaluate our competitors we performed extensive product research to determine typical production costs. feature sets. Most of our inquires led us to believe that 6 . There are also a variety of solar devices that will fully charge a battery with prices ranging from U. $64 . we examined each type of charger individually. we were able to identify distinguishing characteristics among competing products.C. Distinguishing Features of Solar Chargers: • • • • Rollable-mat solar collectors Daisy-chain capability for multiple chargers Built-in diode for reverse current protection Bypass for charger to Run 12 Volt Device without battery Pedal Chargers From our market research. $ 29-$50 for low-end battery “savers” Figure 2: Solar Panel Charger that provide a low-current. Since a charger that handles multiple power sources does not exist. we determined there is not a wide variety of commercially available pedal chargers.S.S.$900 depending on the extra features. After comparing several different chargers. and sales price. Prices ranged from U. Output wattage of these chargers seemed to be the biggest price differentiator. Camping and automotive retail stores provided information on various models that are currently for sale. Solar Chargers There are several commercially available solar battery chargers.

There does not appear to be a standard consensus on how pedal chargers are built. Charge Done Indicators 7 .nearly all pedal chargers are homemade devices that are pieced together from various parts. Charge Status. $25.S. which will determine the rate at which a battery is charged. typically bicycles and car alternators. AC. our company will need to determine a set of requirements for the pedal charging feature. To address this. the gear-ratio of the chain drive.$200 depending on the feature set and the output current. Due to the lack of competing products available in the market place. Prices for AC-Outlet Chargers ranged from Figure 3: AC-Charger U. After comparing several competing products we were able to synthesize a list of desirable features. a pedal generator will have various outputs depending on the RPM being produced. Distinguishing Features for AC-Outlet Chargers: • Reverse Polarity Indicator • Short-Circuit/Surge Protection • Easy-To Read Color Terminals • Charge Rate.Outlet Chargers Our product will need to be able to interface with both European (110 Volt) and US (220 Volt) power standards. and the actual device being used in the generator to convert mechanical to electrical energy. we researched various products internationally.

Since the Kinkajou projector is designed to be used primarily for literacy classes in the developing world. its components need to be as inexpensive as possible. price is the first thing considered when buying a product. Thus the product will need to be carried some distance.As seen in our customer requirements.It is reasonable to expect that the device will be bumped and dropped from time to time. It is thus critical that all power be used efficiently. For this reason. 8 . It is also essential that the product last as long as possible and need few repairs over time. so surge protection is a necessity as well. • Durability . • Efficiency .Many of the users of this product will live in small communities far from cities where they might purchase such a device. so it is essential that the charger is strong structurally. the product will need to be as efficient as possible in its use of power.Our market research shows that to most people. Furthermore. • Compact Size/ Light Weight .2 Customer/ Product Requirements From our market research we were able to determine the following set of customer requirements and product specifications: • Affordability . The device may be powered by a person using either a hand crank or a bicycle generator and thus it is infeasible to expect a long duration of supplied power. it needs to be as compact and lightweight as possible so that the average person can carry it a reasonable distance.2. our market research shows that Africa is known for having large power spikes and brownouts.

3 Product Specifications Once we had developed a good understanding of the needs of our customers. it must be simple to operate and switch between the three possible power sources.S.Our research shows that the population that the product will be marketed toward has variety of available power sources. • Simplicity . Some may have access to AC power.The product will be used by people who are most likely not technically educated. an AC outlet (both 110 and 220 Volt outlets). we were able to merge the findings of our customer requirements and market research into a general set of product specifications: • • • • • • • • • • 110/220 AC power supply input Solar panel power supply input Bicycle or hand crank generator power supply input Non-alpha-numeric output display Cost per unit of less than U.• Versatility . $50 Portable and durable High Mean Time Before Repair (MTBR) High efficiency Charges a 12V lead acid car battery Does not overcharge the car battery 9 . It is for this reason that the product needs to be able to charge a battery with power from three different sources. Therefore. to appeal the largest market possible. solar panels. 2. or a pedal generator. but many areas will not and thus need to make use of alternate power sources.

we determined that the probable input voltage range from the three power sources will range from 6V-22V DC. The charge controller is another module that has several design considerations. we were able to hasten the design process and make effective decisions.We were required to adhere to these underlying product specifications throughout the course of our design process. because the Kinkajou system itself will be primarily used in darkened classrooms. In addition to supplying an efficient and timely charge to the 12 Volt Battery.S. Additionally. it will be essential that the charge controller provide an output of its charge status as well as stop itself from continuing to charge once the battery has reached full capacity. the LEDs will allow the battery charger to be utilized in such environments as well. an alpha-numeric display is impractical. By ensuring that the charging device receives a constant input. nontechnical guideline. To make this system possible. As stated by our contractor. Design That Matters. Due to the variability of system input. affordability is a critical aspect of this device. The target market for this product will be developing nations that will not be able to absorb a high per unit cost. we can guarantee the operation of the charger. $50 total for the battery charger and Kinkajou drive circuitry. By using these product specs as an initial. In order to make the device as readily understandable as possible. 10 . Specifically. a series of LEDs will be used to display battery charge status. In the course of our market research. Design That Matters has set a price target of less than U. Due to the fact that the target market for this device will be in developing countries with a low literacy rate. it is necessary to construct a signal conditioning system to supply a constant input to the charging mechanism. low voltage signals will need to be amplified to a constant value just as high voltage signals will need to be regulated.

Please refer to our Gantt charts below (Tables 1 & 2) for specific task assignments and project phases. We made sure to allow a margin for contingency. everything would not go as planned. Additionally. recognizing that no matter how much forethought was given. The Gantt chart method was used to plot individual responsibilities and their corresponding due dates. Table 1: High-Level Gantt Schedule By developing both high-level and itemized task schedules we were able to ensure that our group was on task and well prepared for future deadlines.1 Development Schedule Due to the extensive nature of this project we found it necessary to subdivide the various tasks and assign each group member with a specific set of responsibilities. We have also divided the project into phases with dates corresponding to the completion deadline. The assignments were given depending upon the willingness and ability of each team member (refer to the R column of Table 2). giving presentations and doing research were the responsibility of everyone in the group.Section 3: Product Plan 3. 11 . we decided that certain tasks such as writing reports.

Table 2: Itemized Task Gantt Schedule Key: 12 .

and should be suitable for applications such as the Kinkajou Projector. This budget constraint played a major role in making design decisions as economical as possible and also made it obligatory to take calculated risks when trying potential design methodologies. 13 .the charger must be affordable in the community it is used in.3.2 Budget One of the most important initial stipulations of the original problem statement was that “….” In addition to having a $50 dollar initial prototyping budget. reduction of overall expense. Prototype cost should not exceed $50. it was also necessary to ensure that the total production cost when produced in bulk not exceed roughly $25. we often had to fully consider cost-benefit analysis as well as examine the trade offs between better specification fulfillment vs. Throughout the process of devising our product.

to alert when the battery has been fully charged. The signal conditioner in our product is used to format any applied voltage from the three types of potential inputs (wall outlet AC. a battery charge monitor and a charge status display. Additionally. in particular.1 Design Options Given the set of product specifications previously described. the charge status display is necessary to indicate the level of charge on the battery and. we found that the most effective way to design the device was as a set of several interconnecting subsystems. The charge monitor is needed to regulate the current flow into the battery so that the battery does not become overcharged or otherwise damaged during the process of charging. solar panel or pedal generated voltage) and to apply a voltage on the battery in order to charge it.Section 4: Design Approach 4. The block diagram shown below highlights the three main subsystems identified during the design process: a signal conditioner. Figure 4: System Block Diagram 14 .

The output signal from the comparator would then be sent back to the power supply in order to control the charge placed on the battery by means of a negative 15 . Having considered digital solutions we next considered an analog strategy for implementing the charge monitor. This particular design strategy would eliminate the need for additional combinational logic circuitry. bridge rectifier and zener diode or the conversion could be done externally through the use of an AC adapter rated for the appropriate voltage range.4.1. Another digital approach would be to utilize a PIC microcontroller with an internal A/D converter. In brainstorming this subsystem we determined two ways of handling the AC/DC conversion process. One possible analog design consists of generating a reference voltage (possibly the voltage at which the charger stops charging) and comparing it to the battery’s voltage using a comparator. 4. Because the charge monitor must tell the charge status display what to indicate.2 Charge Monitor While brainstorming the charge monitor we identified several design strategies for this subsystem. we considered using an A/D converter in a sample-and-hold configuration to quantify the battery’s voltage. Converting the 110/220 AC voltage into a DC voltage could either be done internally through the use of a transformer.1. The PIC could then read the battery voltage and internally generate the output for the charge status display and control signals for the power supply.1 Signal Conditioner The power supply subsystem of our design is responsible for converting an AC source into DC and accepting two additional DC sources. The digital output could then be passed through several combinational logic circuits in order to generate both the appropriate input for the charge status display and the control signals for the power supply.

Additionally. in terms of non-visual display systems. The single LED design would have the LED lit when the battery reached full loop. The design approach that we eventually settled on utilizes a UC3906 linear lead-acid battery charge management IC to implement a three stage charging algorithm. Another option would be to use a 7segment LED display to output a numeric charge percentage. Additionally. this IC will monitor battery temperature and adjust the output signal accordingly.1. This component greatly simplifies our task of charging the battery in the most efficient way possible. This design approach has the advantage of merging the charge monitor and charge status display into a single functional subsystem. 4. 16 . while the LED array design would feature a progressive update of the charge status. An analog display with an arrow that either ranges between 0 and 100% charge or indicates the battery voltage (a voltmeter) could be used. a buzzer could be used to generate an audible signal that the battery has finished charging. The IC accomplishes this by controlling both voltage and current output based upon feedback from the battery. A single LED or group of LEDs could also be used for this task. Another analog design would be to use the LED array in the charge status display to measure a specific voltage on the battery and then feed that voltage back to the power supply in a negative feedback loop.3 Charge Status Display Several design options exist for the charge status display. The buzzer also need not be standalone as it could be used in conjunction with one of the other design strategies.

1.1 Power Supply Product Requirements Handles 110/220V AC as input Supports solar panels and pedal generator as input Produces a DC voltage suitable for charging a 12V lead acid car battery Options Available and Advantages/Disadvantages External AC/DC conversion using an AC adaptor: Easy to implement. Internal AC/DC conversion: Harder to implement.2 Value Analysis In order to determine the most feasible implementation we performed value analysis on the design concepts presented in Section 4.4. 4. more expensive. Value Analysis Cost: Price of subsystem.2. less expensive. We used value analysis matrices to aid in deciding which options will make our product the most marketable. Inexpensive Reasonably Priced Expensive Simplicity: Ease of construction. Easy Moderate Hard 3 2 1 3 2 1 Availability: Widely available components Good Average Poor 3 2 1 17 .

PIC microcontroller: Software expandable (handles logic internally). Table 3: Power supply value analysis 4. replacement parts unavailable in developing countries.2. Analog with comparator: Harder to implement. readily available replacement parts.Weight Assignments A completed value analysis for the power supply is shown in Table 3 below. high power consumption.2 Charge Monitor Product Requirements Does not overcharge the battery Outputs to the display Controls the power supply Options Available and Advantages/Disadvantages Digital with combinational logic: Harder to implement. easily expandable/robust. Integrated with charge status display: 18 .

Easy Moderate Hard 3 2 1 3 2 1 Weight Assignments A completed value analysis for the charge monitor is shown in Table 4 below. replacement parts unavailable in developing countries. Value Analysis Cost: Price of subsystem. UC3906: Efficient design. low power consumption.Efficient design. Inexpensive Reasonably Priced Expensive 3 2 1 Efficiency: Power consumption of the subsystem Good Average Poor Simplicity: Ease of construction. Table 4: Charge monitor value analysis 19 .

Buzzer: Easy to implement. more expensive. low power consumption. LED array: Inexpensive. Seven segment display: Harder to implement. does not indicate charge status. harder to implement than single LED.2. low power consumption. Inexpensive Reasonably Priced Expensive 3 2 1 Simplicity: Ease of construction. Value Analysis Cost: Price of subsystem.4. easy to implement. indicates charge progress. more expensive. Easy Moderate Hard 3 2 1 20 . Single LED: Inexpensive. requires literacy.3 Charge Status Display Product Requirements Easy to understand Inexpensive Low power consumption Options Available and Advantages/Disadvantages Analog display: Harder to interpret. does not indicate charge progress.

Despite this. we were able to find many competitors in the market of recharging batteries.Understandability: The clarity of the display. Table 4 shows the competitive value analysis of our product vs.3 Competitive Value Analysis After searching widely. 21 . Table 5: Charge status display value analysis 4. as a result. we considered understandability to be the most important criteria and. and Pedal Generated. camping/outdoor. Of the remaining two criteria. and automotive uses. the four competitors described below. Typical applications for battery charging included Marine. Good Average Poor 3 2 1 Weight Assignments For the display subsystem. It was determined after thorough research that our product would be unique to the marketplace due to the fact that currently no charging device available is designed to accept multiple power sources. it was assigned a weight of 3. we will evaluate similar products for each type of input source. cost was assigned a weighting of 2 and simplicity a weighting of 1. AC. Solar.

but the photovoltaic cell is what drives the cost of the charger up and because our charger relies on an external Figure 5: Solar Charger 3 solar causing longer recharge time. their limited output under low sunlight conditions leads to seriously shortened battery life and performance. $64 .$900 depending on the extra 22 . They also do not remove sulphate build-up on the battery’s storage plates. PRO-KIT 15-WATT SOLAR BATTERY CHARGER – ICP Global Technologies The Pro-Kit Charger was similar to many other solar products available. At U. Solar Battery Chargers (Online: http://www.3. although able to protect batteries from under/over charge. we what seemed to be two of the better commercially available solar chargers out there. boil out and significantly shortened life. as the typical solution seems to be increasing the size / number of both the panels and batteries. typical solar controllers. Trying to protect against this creates higher costs. In addition. 3 BatteryMart. After looking at several models. There are a variety of solar devices that will fully charge a battery with prices ranging from U. Output wattage and solar panel size of these chargers seemed to be the biggest price differentiator. $189 the device is far more expensive than our product.S.1 Solar Chargers When solar panels are used to charge storage batteries. it is reasonable to assume that our product would be a competitor3. fail to optimize the charge rate capabilities of the solar panels.

75 Weight: 7 lbs Warranty: 5 years 4 BatteryMart. Depends on available sunlight. Very Limited User Display 1. without ever overcharging. keeping them at full-charge indefinitely.”4 Specifications: Wattage: 5 watts Approx.1.25 Dimensions: 19 5/8" x 13 5/8" x 5/8" Temperature Range: 0ºF to 130ºF Peak Output: 333 mAmps@15 volts 23 .2 kg Temperature Range: -40ºF to 176ºF / -40ºC to 80ºC Warranty: 5 years @ 80% of output Ratings: Operating Conditions: Display: Extra Features: Range: Ease of use: Charge Time: Modular Design: Components: Versatility: Weight: Price: 5.5 Dimensions: 38" x 13" x 1" / 965 mm x 330 mm x 25 mm Weight: 9. The device distinguishes itself in particular because it “optimizes the solar panel’s charge rate. Watt-Hrs / Day *: 60 – 75 Peak Output: 1 amp@15 volts Approx. Operates on 1 Input 3. Can operate on many input voltages.dependent upon sunlight 15 W Max Output Unknown.2 lbs / 4. $189 BATTERYMINDER 12 VOLT 5 WATT SOLAR CHARGER. Has a few added features like overcharge protection 4. Amp Hrs / Day *: 1.batterymart. Intuitive to Use 2. Watt-Hrs / Day *: 20 .Don’t know internal components 1.Specifications: Wattage: 15 watts Approx. Diverse Temperature Range and Weatherproof Design 2. produced by VDC Electronics is another typical product that beats most other competitor’s price significantly for its output specs. ensuring batteries are charged in the shortest possible time.VDC ELECTRONICS The BatteryMINDer. Amp Hrs / Day *: 4 .Don’t know internal design Unknown.4 . Light-weight 0. Solar Battery Chargers (Online: http://www.

Because most consumer models were essentially the same.Ratings: Operating Conditions: Display: Extra Features: Range: Ease of use: Charge Time: Modular Design: Components: Versatility: Weight: Price: 4.$500. Can operate on many input voltages. The charger also has overload and reverse polarity protection as well as an intuitive. 5 W Max Output Unknown. There are two options examined in this section.2 AC Chargers There were an extensive number of portable.Don’t know internal components 1. Operates on 1 Input 3.3. $99.Don’t know internal design Unknown. CLIPLIGHT 12 VOLT 10 AMP PORTABLE CHARGER – MOBIL LINE The Mobil Line Deep Cycle Battery charger is typical of most portable chargers in that it can recover deeply discharged batteries as well as prevent overcharging. we chose the two models that best represent the needs and specs of our market. Diverse Temperature Range and Weatherproof Design 0. with prices ranging from about U. Depends on available sunlight. commercially available battery chargers. a typical. $30 . number of batteries that could be charged at one time and the output amperage. Figure 6: AC Charger 5 24 .95 4. Light-weight 0. The price was largely a variable of extra features. Battery Minder Component Optimizes Charge 4. Moderate Difficulty 1.S. fully-finished consumer model and an exposed AC charger circuit made for industrial/customized applications.dependent upon sunlight 2. No User Display 2. which determines the rate at which a battery is charged. The Competitors also had different ways of implementing what seemed to be different charging algorithms to achieve optimal charge.

mv?c=12voltchargers) Ibex AC Battery Chargers (Online: http://www.. S.0 +/.95 L12-0. uses charging algorithm for optimal time Unknown. $49. Several Extra features like polarity indicator and surge protection 0. offers a wide variety of industrial application battery chargers that can handle both American and European AC power sources as well as being manufactured to operate in Figure 7: AC Battery Charger 6 harsh and extreme in environments. Only Rated for American Power Standard 4.Don’t know internal design Unknown. 10 Amp DC Float Voltage: 14. 4 6 Battery Mart. 60 Hz Weight: 3 lbs. Light-weight 1. the device is competitively priced for the variety of features that it offers in comparison to other models. Ibex Inc. Very Easy to Use 3. 1. Specifications: Output: 12 Volt Nominal.120 VAC .36kg Ratings: Operating Conditions: Display: Extra Features: Range: Ease of use: Charge Time: Modular Design: Components: Versatility: Weight: Price: Unknown 2. Operates on 1 Input – American AC Standard 4.ibexmfg. LED Array 2.batterymart.5/115AC LEAD ACID CHARGER– IBEX INC. $45.$806. 10 Amp Output.1 Volt Input: 105 VAC . At U. Their line of devices are rugged and made to last for many years without failure or need for repair.95.0.7 +/.com/battery.S.1 Volt Dimensions: 3-1/2" x 2-1/4" x 4-1/2" Set Voltage: 25 . 12 Volt AC Chargers (Online: http://www.Don’t know internal components 1.0.simple to understand LED display5. $49. The Ibex chargers range in cost from U.

Operates on 2 Inputs – US and European Standards 4. Accommodates American and European Power Standards 0. Due to the lack of competing products available in the market place. Uses common parts like transformers. 26 . Uses 3-Stage Temperature Dependent Charging Algorithm 1. $45 4. typically bicycles and car alternators. Light-weight 1. a pedal generator will have various outputs depending on the RPM being produced.2. our company will need to determine our own set of requirements for the pedal charging feature. diodes and capacitors 2. There does not appear to be a standard consensus on how pedal chargers are built.Specifications: Output: 14. Has some internal extra features 2. and the actual device being used as the generator to convert mechanical to electrical energy. Circuit is modular 2. Not housed. Most of our inquires led us to believe that nearly all pedal chargers are homemade devices pieced together from various parts. we determined there is not a wide variety of a commercially available pedal charger. the gear-ratio of the chain drive.3 Pedal Chargers From our market research. controls don’t come with circuit 2. No User Display 1. Designed to Handle Extreme and Harsh Environments 0.8 V 10 Amps Dimensions: 5’’ x 4’’ x 3’’ Temperature Range: 0ºF to 130ºF Input: 103 – 252 V AC Weight: 4 lbs Ratings: Operating Conditions: Display: Extra Features: Range: Ease of use: Charge Time: Modular Design: Components: Versatility: Weight: Price: 4.

a TO-2635 package based solution that meets our design requirements. The LM2577 is able to reliably boost low DC voltages in the range of 3. As long as the boost converter raises the any low input signal to above 15 volts.5 – 40 volts to a constant output voltage that can be synthesized by a simple LC configuration.4 Module Definitions Signal Conditioner The Signal conditioning phase is designed ensure that any input signal above or below the desired operating voltage is regulated before being passed to the UC 3906. This is accomplished by a boost converter and voltage regulator in series. we found the LM2577. which boost or step-down the input signal as necessary. The voltage regulator used for this subsystem is an LM350. This IC will be used to provide a constant current and smooth voltage signal to the UC3906. the 27 .Table 6: Competitive Value Analysis 4. After evaluating several boost converters.

LM350 will be able to ensure that the UC3906 receives a constant supply of 15 volts.6V RC ≤ 750 × I LOAD × VOUT VIN min 2 2 28 .4(V IN min − 0. 6.5V and Vout = 17V .6V )(2 DMAX − 1) 1 − DMAX LMIN = DMAX = VOUT + VF − VIN min VOUT + VF − 0. Figure 8: Signal Conditioner The appropriate components in the boost converter section of the signal conditioner were chosen using the following equations for Vinmin = 3.

251 + 2  + I ADJ * R2 . this IC will monitor battery temperature and adjust the output signal accordingly.19 × L × RC × I LOAD max VIN min × VOUT CC ≥ 58. Additionally.23V The resistors used in the voltage regulator were synthesized using the equation  R  VOUT = 1.I LOAD max ≤ 2.5 × VOUT × C OUT RC × VIN min 2 2 V R1 = OUT − 1 R2 1. the 29 .1A × Vin min VOUT C OUT ≥ .  R1    Linear Charger IC The heart of our design is the UC3906. Depending on the input voltage and the charge of the battery. the voltage regulator will provide a regulated voltage in the range of 10-20 Volts DC to the UC3906. The UC 3906 accepts an input voltage of 10-40 Volts DC. This component greatly simplifies our task of charging the battery in the most efficient way possible. (See Figure 9) The IC accomplishes this by controlling both voltage and current output based upon feedback from the battery. a linear lead-acid battery charge management IC which implements a three stage charging algorithm in order to maximize battery lifespan. In our design.

IC will provide a voltage and current as specified by the charging algorithm.3 = 46kΩ ID RSUM + R X = 212kΩ 2 . In order to accomplish this the configuration shown in Figure 9 was implemented. Figure 9. RC = RA = 2.3 1− VT RB = RSUM − R A = 18kΩ 30 . Charger Circuit The resistor values used in the circuit were derived from the set of equations below.

3 = 230kΩ ID RSUM = I OC = RX = I MAX = 0.8V VT = 10.5A VOC = 14.4V V IN = 16V V F = 13.RD = 2. RS must be a 1W resistor and the pnp transistor must be rated for the maximum current that will be fed to the battery (2.2V These equations come from the UC3906 datasheet found on Texas Instrument’s website. It should also be noted that standard components may be used for all of the parts in this diagram except for RS and the transistor.5A).3A 10 RC * RD = 43.7 kΩ RC + RD RS = RT = 0. I D = 50 µA I T = 1.1Ω I MAX VIN − VT − 2.25 = 0.34Ω VT Additionally. 31 .5 = 0. the equations above contained specific voltage and current level that are specified below.5mA I MAX = 2.3 * RSUM = 881kΩ VOC − VF V F − 2 .

Figure 10.5V) and pin 6 is used to specify the high end of the range (13.8V). Charge Status Display In this configuration pin 4 is used to specify the low end of the display range (10. 32 . The input signal (pin 5) is then scaled linearly across the range specified. In order to accomplish this an LM3914 was used to drive an array of ten LEDs. Our design is shown in Figure 10.Charge Status Display We have elected to feature a continuously updated user display. The resistor attached to pin 7 is used to determine the luminosity of the LEDs by pulling a specific amount of current.

The specific configuration we utilized is shown below in Figure 11. 33 . In order to accomplish this effectively the switch must An disconnect the charger IC from the battery when refreshing the display. LM555 configured as an astable oscillator will be utilized to repeatedly switch between the two systems. Using an LM555 will allow us to specify the refresh rate of the display (the LM555’s frequency) as well as the amount of time available to update the display (the duty cycle). During the charging cycle the current path will bypass RB yielding the following performance equations. This configuration implements a duty cycle of approximately 1%.Switching Oscillator As we have elected to feature a continuously updated user display it is necessary to repeatedly switch between charging the battery and monitoring the battery’s charge. Figure 11. Switching oscillator The inclusion of a diode across RB allows for a duty cycle below 50%. That is. the battery is being charged 99% of the time.

as such. We took this into consideration when choosing our parts in the event a company went out of business.3 sec Period = t H + t L = 76. In addition we have made our case design is watertight by caulking all seems and cracks. One exception is the UC 3906. This IC is designed specifically designed to charge lead acid batteries.5 Manufacturability Our product implements both discrete components and common integrated circuits. is good dissipation of heat. attractive. Clearly efficient transfer heat to the outside will be essential. however.t H = C * R A * ln (2 ) = 10 µF * 100kΩ * ln (2 ) = 0. therefore it will need to be structurally sound enough to protect the components from everyday bumping and jarring. and durable. all of which produce significant heat when in use. that these equations are based on the functioning of an ideal diode and. 34 . The most important aspect of the casing however.24 sec Frequency = 1 = 13mHz Period It should be noted. All parts are readily available and produced by multiple companies. This product will undergo frequent use and be transported. The battery charger will require a case that is lightweight. Durability is also an important aspect of the case design.69 sec t L = C * R B * ln (2 ) = 10 µF * 10MΩ * ln (2 ) = 69. and will likely be uncommon in typical electronic shops in Mali or other developing areas. Our design implements 4 voltage regulators. we would still be able to follow our design. the actual results in implementation will vary according to the characteristics of the device. 4.

6 Cost Analysis Standard Cost For the first year.800. For the second year of production. 4. some improvements could be made in the manufacturing stage.3. research and development costs will be approximately $5. Future development of our design will likely be conducted by students similar to us who will not be paid either.000. This amount is certainly lower than costs for the first year. to ensure the final product is ready for the consumer. While our product does have excellent functionality. This value is substantially lower than expected. For example our signal conditioning subsystem is broken up into two smaller modules. as shown in section 5. all of the circuitry would certainly be mounted on a PCB. Firstly. but our modular design lends itself well to manufacturing. Clearly some changes need to be made before mass production. we expect that Design that Matters will hire professional consultants to check our work and perform safety testing. Another change that should be made in the manufacturing stage from our prototype design is the use of more standard parts to reduce part variety. This pertains specifically to resistors and capacitors. but still 35 . However before the product becomes open on the market. we have projected research and development costs to be approximately $10. In several instances we connected several components in series or parallel to attain a specific value which we did not have in a single component. voltage boost and voltage regulation. This method of using several levels of system subassemblies makes manufacturing and troubleshooting more simple and efficient.Our design is modularized on several levels. primarily because we have done a large part of the design and testing at no charge to Design that Matters.

We expect design that matters will outsource the manufacturing of the charger.891 0.79 UC 3906 LM317 AC Adaptor LM 555 Rocker Switch Steel Clips LM 2577 LED Array LM 3910 LM 350 Large Heat Sinks Small Heat Sinks Screw Terminals Miscellaneous Hardware LM317 Large Heat Sinks Small Heat Sinks Casing TOTAL: 500 3.10 1.4 $2.05 19.60 0.1995 0.775 $0.48 $2.858 0.39 0.21 0.5 0.12 0. we opted to purchase an inexpensive AC adaptor which could take an input of 120VAC and output 17VRMS.62 $3.76 Table 7: Component Pricing 36 .30 0.37 36.42 0.12 1.5 0.37 $2.91 1. Since at the start of this endeavor..35 3.21 4.25 0.76 0.3375 $6.094 0. Therefore.42 3.09 0.S.0345 0.18 0.598 $1.09 $1.4526 $5. The only notable price change between our prototype and the final manufactured product will be the AC adaptor.15 0.18 23. Design that Matters only plans to produce 800 of these devices. Therefore it does not make sense for them to purchase the factory and machinery necessary to mass produce a product line when the market for the device is still untapped and unknown. but one of our customer requirements was that the charger needed to accept both American and European AC power standards.2032 0.75 0.36 3.1992 1.19 21.332 $0.18 1000 3.73 0. in our manufactured cost analysis we take into account a more expensive adaptor to convert 220VAC to the proper DC voltage.24 $0.28 3.99 $1. This worked fine for testing here in the U.95 $0.5 0.65 0.186 $1.95 4.30 0.50 0.225 1.3525 $0.775 $0.65 0.225 1.50 $1.46 $0.00 0.4314 $2.25 0.necessary because modifications and improvements will undoubtedly occur in the early stages of product development and implementation. For prototyping and testing.65 0.186 $1.225 0.3375 $1. COST PER UNIT QUANTITY 1 100 $5.00 2.12 $1.60 0.00 0.1995 4.222 0.

Finally 5% will be allotted to advertising costs since the market is already defined. In addition. it can be reasonably concluded that except for a very small number of possible instances.7 Hazard Analysis Before releasing our product on the unsuspecting people of Mali. For the most part though. approximately 15% of the total retail price will be taken by the wholesaler and distributor. To calculate the retail price. Manufacturing in quantities of 1000 yields a retail price of $49. This leaves 40% profit after all fixed costs are met.5 to get 100% of the retail price. 4. our product is relatively safe and contains for the most part. we simply multiplied the cost of parts by 2. coming into contact with the hot wire could be harmful and even fatal. it could potentially pose a great shock risk to the user.Retail Pricing We have estimated the cost of parts to constitute 40% of the total retail price since Design that Matters is a not for profit organization. or approximately $50. Were the AC Adapter’s cord to become unraveled or exposed. hazard-free parts. it will be necessary to perform rigorous tests on how well the device will perform under long-term operation. leaving a potential hazard with the components becoming overly hot and burning the user or melting the case. 37 . Also the materials have not been tested for toxicity if ingested or placed in a bodily orifice. The voltage regulator and boost converter circuits pose the greatest threat to burning the user. At 110 or 220 volts. The above percentages reflect standard fractions of the retail price. In the event that the case might burn or melt there could be potential hazard associated with the fumes as well. The casing has not been tested for shock or heat resistance.40.

edu/Pubs/Policies/intell.4. the group has agreed to abide by the WPI Intellectual Property Policy. at a later date. WPI would be entitled to no more than 50 percent of any royalties incurred from the patent. tangible articles of manufacture.html) Since all development and design was done using WPI facilities with WPI equipment. injury.wpi. Product Liability We waive all liability claims to Design that Matters due the fact that time did not permit extensive safety and reliability testing. something in the design is determined to be patentable. The prototype developed by our group is not guaranteed on any grounds whatsoever. the University would be entitled to ownership rights and would absorb all costs associated with patenting the invention. (http://www. or loss of life associated with this design prototype. 38 . and design methods represented by initial prototypes and design notebooks are the sole and proprietary work of the members of this design team: Mike Eskowitz. It is the responsibility of DtM to accept any failures. It is our hope that this section will negate any implied warranties and sufficiently protect us from involuntary negligence and all liabilities. In the event that.8 Legal Considerations Patent/ Intellectual Property All intellectual property. Eric Hall and Chris Hamman.

the Green LED will light. 5. If the charger is receiving input voltage. as well as withstand jarring and drops. the size of the device could decrease significantly. For the purposes of our prototype we have enclosed our circuit in a handmade case. however. black -). dust-proof. the next design should most likely have a case made of a strong and resilient composite plastic. it will be necessary for the product’s casing to be water resistant.2 Product Form In the harsh weather and climate conditions of Mali. Our user interface is extremely simple to use and understand. the heat sinks in the boost converter and voltage regulator must be sufficiently large to dissipate the heat produced when the circuit is drawing a high current. To date. The user need only to plug in the AC Adapter or Input Clips to the proper polarity (red +. and flip the rocker switch into the on position. shock and heat resistant. By ordering the components surface mounted and placed on a PCB.1 Product Functionality At present.Section 5: Product Results 5. The user display quantizes a range of battery charge in terms of ten different possible battery output voltages. As tested on prototyping board. Our case and interfaces are shown in the following set of pictures: 39 . each module functions independently as well as with the other components. attach the output clips to the battery. our group is still migrating the display circuit module to the solder board and will have the circuit wired and enclosed by mid-January. our device is fully functional from end to end.

The capital investment required to achieve this production goal will include costs of research and development. as well as manufacturing.000 units world wide. RDE will be minimal since most of the designing and testing is being conducted 40 .Figure 12 and 13: Kinkajou Charger Casing and Battery Charge Display Figure 14: Side View of Charger Case 5. we feel that our product will be able to capture 5% of this market. or 800 units.3 Expected ROI Our market research has revealed that the market for this type of device is 16. Assuming that a battery charger will accompany each kinkajou projector.

53%. Therefore. These calculations are as follows. approximately 67 chargers will be sold each month. Clearly this is a substantial amount of time to be in debt. R0I at 5 years is calculated to be 9. our break even point will be at 48 months or 4 years. Figure 15: Return on Investment 41 . A chart displaying the Return on investment over time is shown in figure 15.800 Manufacturing costs will include contracting production plants as well as the necessary equipment and machinery. Professional consultants will need to be hired to test the final product for safety and functionality. Since we plan to sell 800 units at a retail price of $50 for the first year. our monthly expenses will be $2010. our first year revenues will be $40. the monthly revenue will be $ unpaid students. Since our calculated retail price is 40% profit. Therefore. We have estimated initial manufacturing costs to total $50.000. This should most defiantly be revisited in future project additions. At this rate. Assuming an equal number of chargers are sold each month during the first year. the initial capital needed to begin production of battery chargers is $60. (3 engineers) x (15 hours/week) x (4 weeks) x ($60/hour) = $10.800.000.

It is our opinion that the Boost Converter and Voltage Regulator will be the first components to fail with the Transistor in the Charging Circuit following sometime after. Obviously seven weeks is hardly enough time to cautiously and methodically carry out all of the necessary steps when designing a product that will be potentially used in the real world. The casing has not been tested for shock resistance. First and foremost is the issue of safety. By considering issues like this. 42 . or daily for two years? Also can the circuit survive being constantly on for 3 days unattended? Another issue is whether the device will fail or will need repair rapidly. there is a potential hazard with the components becoming overly hot and burning a user or melting the case.Section 6: Recommendations While our circuit is fully functional. the circuit could later be optimized to address the need for a low Mean-Time before Repair and more importantly Mean-Time before Failure. it will be necessary to perform vigilant tests on how well the device will perform under long-term operation. Another set of tests that will need to be performed are reliability and extended operation assessments. In the event that the case might burn or melt there could be potential hazard associated with the fumes as well. Due to the time constraints that were placed on us. It is important to examine the behavior of the circuit over long periods of time: what happens when the charging circuit is used weekly for two months. we were forced to cut some corners that would otherwise have been unacceptable. before releasing our product on the unsuspecting people of Mali. Also the materials have not been tested for toxicity if ingested or placed in a bodily orifice. there is still much room for improvement and modification due to the incredibly short timeframe within which this design process took place.

00 the display could be phased out for the sake of cost by using a single resistor to indicate that charging has completed. A means of simulating or actually testing the solar panel operation were not provided for us. other Integrated Circuits like the display driver (LM3914) and charge controller (UC 3906) are not as widely available in developing nations. making this change would greatly sacrifice the functionality of the display. the charge controller is designed to handle input currents of 15 Amps. However. given the proper external transistor configuration. Later design verification should include a great deal of testing with a solar power source. 43 . While many of our components like the voltage regulator (LM350). Most likely the UC would let the current pass until the battery reaches full capacity whereupon it would stop the current flow through the circuit. Another component change that could be beneficial would be to implement the regulation system using a switching voltage regulator as opposed to the linear LM350 and LM317 devices. Another potential improvement that could be made would be to incorporate a less-expensive display module. so we can only speculate on the behavior our system with the solar panel. At a total cost of $5. Future courses of action should also include investigating the feasibility of incorporating more common components into the design. A solar panel can be roughly modeled as a constant current source. resistors. it is important that the device have as many commonly available components as possible. These linear devices are inefficient with some power loss being dissipated in the form of external heat.Also because of a lack of both resources and time we were unable to verify our predictions of system performance when the charger is connected to the Solar Panel Input. and capacitors can be found in everyday consumer electronics. On-the-spot repairs are required in small rural communities. boost converter (LM 2577).

Appendix A: Circuit Diagram 44 .

edu Cell: 207. feel free to contact one of the team members listed below: Michael Eskowitz E-mail: eskowitz@wpi.4449 Chris Hamman E-mail: cnhamman@wpi.Appendix B: Assistance and Contact Info If any or all of this design concept is used in the future by DtM. In the event that questions about our design process arise or if any future consulting is needed. we would be more than happy to offer our assistance in helping to further the next design phase.2681 Eric Hall E-mail: Cell: Cell: 508.939.667.7015 45 .

2. 4. This will cause the flip flop to set Q = 1 and Q = 0 . 5. For the purposes of calculating a time constant it should be noted that the charge path is through both R A & RB . With zero volts placed across the capacitor comparator 1 will assume a low state (0) and comparator 2 will assume a high state (1). 1 6. 3.Appendix A: LM555 Equation Derivations In order to derive equations characterizing the behavior of the LM555 when configured as an astable oscillator it is best to observe the internal workings of the device. An output of 0 from Q will turn the transistor off. Figure 8: Internal view of LM555 We will now present an analytical overview of the LM555’s operation. Once the capacitor reaches VCC comparator 2 will switch low (0). 1. Because the transistor is off the capacitor will become charged. 3 46 . The most appropriate place to begin analysis in this case is the zero state: when the capacitor has zero charge placed on it.

This will cause the flip flop to reset to toggle. tH : 2 1   VCC = VCC − VCC − VCC e −t H 3 3   2 2 = 1 − e−t H τ 3 3 1 = e−t H τ 2 t 1 ln  = − H τ  2 1 t H = −τ ln   2 t H = τ ln (2 ) τ As noted in step 5. 1 11. The process will repeat beginning at step 4. The capacitor voltage will discharge to VCC causing comparator 2 to 3 switch high (1). the charge path is through both RA & RB . This will transition the flip flop into state Q = 1 and Q = 0 . This will discharge the capacitor through RB . 9. 3 8.2 VCC comparator 1 will switch high (1). It is thus possible to 3 calculate the duration for which the output is high ( t H ) using the universal capacitor equation: VCAP = VFINAL − (VFINAL − VINITIAL )e −t τ A derivation of t H is presented below. 10. When the capacitor reaches As we can determine from the qualitative description above. thus the time constant is equal to: τ = RC = (R A + RB )C 47 . 7. The logic high output from Q will activate the transistor. 12. the oscillator is in the 2 high state ( Q = 1 ) when the capacitor is charging up to VCC . assuming the state Q = 0 and Q =1. 13.

693(R A + RB )C A similar set of steps can be taken in order to determine the time t L .693(R A + RB )C tH R + RB = = A t L + t H 0. The duty cycle is a percentage measure of time spent in the high state. In this case.t H = (RA + RB )C ln (2 ) t H = 0.693RB C + 0. however.693(R A + RB )C R A + 2 RB 48 . δ= 0.693RB C Having obtained both the high and low times for the oscillator output it is possible to calculate the output period as: TPERIOD = t L + t H The reciprocal of which is its frequency: f HZ = 1 TPERIOD = 1 tL + tH Another important attribute is the oscillator’s duty cycle. the capacitor discharges across RB alone (step 10) yielding a different time constant and the result: tL : t L = RB C ln (2) t L = 0.