t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;

)

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

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awmf0ifpx
H m; trsdK;orD;rsm;
t&Sit
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yxrtBurd ?f Mo*kwf 2011
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t&Sit
f *¾ÓP (vSn;f ul;)

pDpOfol

t&Sif Ouúo
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twGi;f tjyiftqif
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apmvif;ausmf
mgnaychi@gmail.com

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t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

rmwdum
aus;Zl;wif&Sdjcif; ................................................................................................. 1
yPmr ESifh y#dnmOf ............................................................................................ 3

tcef;-1 pmtkyaf cgi;f pOfukd t"dygÜ ,zf iG q
hf jkd cif; .............................................................. 5
]Ak'¨vufxuf}[l&mü... ............................................................................ 5
]awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[l&mü... ..................................................... 6
{w'*f ................................................................................................... 7
awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;ay;&mü pHxm;aom taMumif;av;rsdK; ............. 7
tcef;-2 awmf0ifpx
H m; okZmwm trsKd ;orD; ............................................................................ 10
okZmwm emrnfwlrsm; .......................................................................... 11
awmf0ifpHxm;okZmwmtrsdK;orD;\twdwfZmwfaMumif;a&S;qkawmif; ..... 12
ypöKyÜef qkawmif;jynfhonfh okZmwm ..................................................... 12
CemEdkYqGrf; uyfvSLrIESifhpyfí rSwfzG,f .................................................. 13
CemEdkYqGrf;csuf&ef pDrHykH ....................................................................... 13
tavmif;awmfjrwfxH CemEkdYqGrf;ykdY&ef pDrHjcif; ...................................... 14
tavmif;awmfjrwfCemEdkYqGrf;udk tvSLcHawmfrljcif; .............................. 15
xl;jcm;aomqGrf;ESpfrsdK; .......................................................................... 17
olaX;uawmf okZmwm\om;awmf armif,o ...................................... 19
'geuxm ............................................................................................. 20
oDvuxm ........................................................................................... 21
o*¾uxm ............................................................................................. 21
r*¾uxm .............................................................................................. 22
tazaomwmyef? om;&[EÅm ................................................................ 22
om;,oESifhwuG jrwfAk'¨tm; tdrfodkY qGrf;pm;yifhjcif; ........................... 23
t&Sif,o\ ]{[dbdu©K}jzpfjcif;ESifhpyfírSwfzG,f .................................... 23
r,fawmfokZmwm t&d,mjzpfjcif; ......................................................... 24
o&P*kHESifhpyfí rSwfzG,frsm; ................................................................ 24
okZmwm awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl; &&Sdjcif; ....................................... 26

t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tcef;-3 awmf0if pHxm; 0domcg trsKd ;orD; ............................................................................... 29
0domcg\ twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ........................................ 29
xl;jcm;aomukodkvfESpfrsdK; ..................................................................... 30
uóyjrwfAk'¨xH qkawmif;jcif; ........................................................... 31
aemufqkH;b0ü 0domcg[k trnfwGifjcif; ............................................. 31
0domcgckepfESpft&G,fwGif jrwfAk'¨<uvmawmfrljcif; ............................... 32
bkef;uHBuD;rm;olig;OD; .......................................................................... 32
0domcgwdkYrdom;pk aomwmyefwnfMujcif; ............................................ 34
0domcgwdkYrdom;pk tdrfajymif;a½TUjcif; ..................................................... 35
owdkYorD;&SmykHawmfc&D; .......................................................................... 36
aphpyfyGJtcrf;tem; ................................................................................ 39
r[mvwmwefqm ............................................................................... 40
0domcg\ r*FvmyGJBuD; ......................................................................... 41
0domcgtzdkY&m bmomjcm;ESifh,l&jcif;

ku©rsm;..................................... 43
w&m;qkH;jzwfyGJ ..................................................................................... 45
emrnfopf&&Sdaom0domcg ..................................................................... 48
0domcg\ y&[dwqk&Spfyg; .................................................................. 49
ouFef;vSL'gef;&usdK; trsdK;trsdK; .......................................................... 50
qGrf;vSL&usdK;ig;yg; .............................................................................. 51
,m*ktusdK; trsdK;rsdK; ............................................................................. 51
0domcg\ xl;jcm;csufrsm; ..................................................................... 52
ykAÁm½kHausmif;aqmuf&ef taMumif;zefvmjcif; ........................................ 53
ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;udk aqmufvkyfykH ................................................. 55
"r®*gxmwdkYjzifh oDusL;aom ausmif;trBuD;0domcg .............................. 56
ausmif;vSL'gef;&usdK; (7)yg; ................................................................ 57
anmifapmif;(ukwif)vSL&usdK; (11)yg; ................................................. 58
tif;ysOf(yv’if)vSL&usdK; (5)yg; ............................................................ 58
tif;ysOf(xdkifcHk)vSL&usdK; (2)yg; ............................................................ 58
tif;ysOf(ajcaq;ckH) vSL&usdK; (2)yg; ..................................................... 58
bkHvQdK (arGU&m)vSL&usdK; (6)yg; ............................................................ 59
acgif;tkH;vSL&usdK; (5)yg; ..................................................................... 59
jrwfAk'¨ç 0domcgESifh ykAÁm½kHausmif;wkdYESifhpyfí rSwfzG,frsm; ..................... 60
0domcg\vlrIa&;udp&ö yfrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif½GufrIrsm; .......................... 62
udk,f0efudpöajz&Sif;ay;&jcif; .................................................................. 62
tdrfaxmif&Sif trsdK;om;wkdY tm;xm;&aom0domcg ................................. 63
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&Sdjcif; ................................................... 64
'ge ..................................................................................................... 65

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

'ge\vu©Pm'dpwkuú ........................................................................ 65
'geESifh oHo&m&SnfrI ........................................................................... 66
taMumif;okH;yg;jynfhpkHrS tvSLjzpfjcif; .................................................. 67
tvSLray;aomol(2)OD; ........................................................................ 68
'geukodkvftjym;rsm; ........................................................................... 69
'gew&m;\tusdK;w&m;rsm; .................................................................. 71
'ge\tusdK;ay;BuD;rm;zGHUNzdK;&ef taMumif;(6)yg; ................................... 72
vufiif;tusdK;ay;&ef t*Fg(4)yg; .......................................................... 72
'ger[kwfaom 'geig;rsdK; ..................................................................... 73
tcef;-4 awmf0ifpx
H m; ckZKÆ w&å m trsKd ;orD; ............................................................................. 76
ckZÆKwå&m\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ....................................... 77
ckZÆKwå&m\ ypöKyÜefb0 ......................................................................... 77
ckZÆKwå&maomwmyefwnfjcif; ............................................................... 77
omrm0wDwdkY uRwfwrf;0ifjcif; ............................................................ 78
ckZÆKwå&m\twdwfuHrsm; tusdK;ay;ykH ................................................... 79
ckZÆKwå&mESifh £wd0kwfygVdawmf .............................................................. 81
"r®uxduwdkY odrSwfzG,f ...................................................................... 82
"r®uxdu av;rsdK; ............................................................................... 82
"r®uxdu t*Fg(5)yg; .......................................................................... 83
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJU&&Sdjcif; ............................................................ 84
tcef;-5 awmf0ifpx
H m; omrm0wD trsKd ;orD; ......................................................................... 87
omrm0wD\ twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ................................... 88
b'´0wDjynfü a&m*EÅ&uyfqdkufa&mufjcif; .......................................... 88
ola|;BuD;ESifh ola|;uawmfBuD;wdkY uG,fvGefjcif; ................................... 89
]omrm0wD}[k trnf&jcif;ESifh
aCmouola|;BuD;\ arG;pm;orD;jzpfjcif; ........................................... 89
omrm0wDonf Oawerif;\ rdzk&m;jzpfvmjcif; ................................... 90
rm*@D\ &efNidK; ................................................................................... 91
omrm0wDwdkY w&m;xl;&&Sdjcif; .............................................................. 92
rm*@Dukef;wdkufjcif; ............................................................................. 92
omrm0wD\ arwåmpdwfxm; ................................................................. 94
rm*@D\ aemufqkH;vufeuf ............................................................... 95
omrm0wDwdkY\ twdwfb0rS tukodkvfuH .......................................... 95
rm*@D\ b0ed*kH; ................................................................................ 96
arwåmw&m; ........................................................................................ 97

t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

arwåmpGrf;tm; tusdK;rsm; ..................................................................... 98
a0vmrokwfvm arwåmtusdK; ............................................................. 98
rsufarSmufawGUEdkifaom arwåmpGrf;tif (2)rsdK; ....................................... 99
arwåmtusdK;(11)yg; .......................................................................... 100
arwåmrydkYrD a&S;OD;pGmjynfhpkHap&rnfhw&m;(15)yg; ................................ 100
arwåmbm0em yGm;rsm;ykH ..................................................................... 106
Ak'¨0g'ü arwåmw&m;udk txl;tav;ydkxm;jcif;taMumif; ................... 107
omrm0wD awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;&&Sdjcif; ..................................... 109
tcef;-6 awmf0ifpx
H m; Owå&m trsdK;orD; ............................................................................. 112
awmf0ifpHxm;Owå&mola|;orD; twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ...... 113
ypöKyÜefb0ü ykPÖola|;BuD;\orD; Owå&mjzpfvmjcif; .......................... 113
ykPÖwkdYrdom;pk ola|;vnf;jzpf?
aomwmyeft&d,mrsm;vnf;jzpfMujcif; ............................................... 114
,ckvSL ,cktusdK;ay;jcif;\ taMumif;&if;av;csuf ...........................116
orD;ay;&ef awmif;yefvmcJh .................................................................117
Owå&m\ BuD;rm;aomo'¨gqE´ ...........................................................118
Owå&m\ twk,lzG,f&mpdwfxm; .........................................................119
a'oemawmf\pGrf;tif........................................................................ 120
rsufarSmufb0üBuD;yGm;Edkifonfhtcsuf(4)csuf ..................................... 120
eE´rmwm[k trnf&jcif; ..................................................................... 121
awmf0ifpHxm; psm,D{w'*fbGJU&&Sdjcif; .................................................. 122
tcef;-7 awmf0ifpx
H m; oky0Ü gom trsKd ;orD; ........................................................................ 124
okyÜ0gom\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; .................................... 125
aumvd,omuD0ifrif;orD;okyÜ0gomjzpfvmjcif; ................................. 125
udk,f0efwnfjcif; ................................................................................ 125
trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh tma0edu'ku© ig;rsdK; ............................................... 126
y#doaE¨ae&jcif; tqifhqifhüqif;&JykH .................................................. 127
om;awmfoD0vdudk zGm;jrifjcif; ............................................................ 129
a&ppfvSLusdK; (5)yg; ...........................................................................130
oD0vdr,fawmf\ tmomqE´ ............................................................. 131
orD;arG;aomfvnf; pdwfrav;oihf ....................................................... 131
oD0vdowdkYom; omoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufjcif; ............................... 132
uHwltusdK;ay; ................................................................................... 134
t&SifoD0vdax&f\ twdwfukodkvfuH ................................................135
om;trdESpfa,muf\twdwftukodkvfuH ............................................137

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

om;aumif; orD;aumif; .....................................................................138
om;okH;rsdK; ..........................................................................................138
rdbwdkY\ arQmfvifhcsufig;yg; ..............................................................139
okyÜ0gomrif;orD; yPDwabmZOfudk vSL'gef;jcif; ...............................140
tcef;-8 awmf0ifpx
H m; oky,
Üd m trsKd ;orD; ........................................................................... 143
okydÜ,m\ twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ...................................... 144
ypöKyÜefb0ü aomwmywdåzdkvfwnfjcif; ................................................ 144
okydÜ,m\ tHhrcef;aom olemjyKpkykH .....................................................145
jrwfAk'¨tm; qGrf;uyfvSL'gef;jcif; ........................................................145
odu©myk'fudk ynwfawmfrlcJh&jcif; ........................................................146
awmf0ifpHxm; olemjyK{w'*fbGJUxl; &&Sdjcif; ........................................146
jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkifyif olemjyKpkcJhjcif; ..............................................147
jrwfAk'¨ESifh ylwd*wåwdórax&f .........................................................147
jrwfAk'¨ESifh t&Sifz*¾Keax&f..................................................................148
jrwfAk'¨ESifh t&Sif0PÖvdrax&f ............................................................149
jrwfAk'¨ESifh t&SiftóZdax&f ..............................................................149
jrwfAk'¨ESifh y|r*dvme&[ef; .............................................................. 150
jrwfAk'¨ESifh 'kwd,*dvme&[ef; .......................................................... 150
olemjyKvkyfief;ESifhpyfvsOf;í Ak'¨0g'vmrSwfom;zG,f&mrsm; ..................151
olemjyKt&nftcsif;(5)yg; ..................................................................151
rjyKpkxdkufaomolem\ t*Fg(5)yg; .....................................................151
jyKpkxdkufaomolem\ t&nftcsif;(5)yg;............................................ 152
&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ay;jcif;? aq;ukjcif;
ponfwdkYESifhpyfí odrSwfzG,frsm; ......................................................... 152
&[ef;awmfrsm;aq;ay;? aq;ukxdkufaomyk*dK¾ vfrsm; .............................153
&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ynmoifaumif;\ ...............................................154
tzdk;tcr,lbJ ukodkvfjzpf aq;uk&usdK; ............................................ 155
aq;vSL&usdK; (10)yg; ........................................................................ 156
tcef;-9 awmf0ifpx
H m; umwd,
d meDtrsKd ;orD; ..................................................................... 161
awmf0ifpHxm;umwd,meD\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ............. 162
aemufqkH;b0ü umwd,meDola|;rjzpfjcif; .......................................... 162
umwd,meDola|;r\ tpvo'¨gw&m; ............................................... 162
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;&&Sdjcif; .....................................................163
o'¨g ..................................................................................................164
o'¨g\vu©Pm'dpwkuú .....................................................................164

t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

o'¨gtrsdK;tpm; (4)rsdK; ...................................................................... 165
o'¨gw&m;&Sdol\ vu©Pm (3)yg; ..................................................... 166
o'¨gw&m;&Sdjcif;\ tusdK;w&m;rsm; ................................................... 166
tcef;-10 awmf0ifpx
H m; eukvrmwk trsKd ;orD; ................................................................. 169
eukvrmwkZeD;armifESHwdkY\ twdwfZmwfaMumif;a&S;qkawmif; ............ 169
eukvrmwkZeD;armifESHwdkY\ ypöKyÜefb0 .............................................. 170
b0wdkif;awGUvdkygvQif ........................................................................171
ZeD;aumif; eukvrmwk .......................................................................173
rdef;rjrwfusifh0wf (6)yg; ................................................................... 176
r,m; (7)rsdK; ..................................................................................... 177
eukvrmwk ZeD;armifESHwdkY pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;&&SdMujcif; ......... 178
tcef;-11 awmf0ifpx
H m; umVD trsKd ;orD; ............................................................................. 182
awmf0ifpHxm;umVDtrsdK;orD;\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ....... 182
aemufqkH;b0ü umVDola|;orD;jzpfjcif; ..............................................183
omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0wewfrif;wdkYtaMumif; ............................183
om;awmf aomPuk#duPÖ ................................................................ 187
yxroHa0* ...................................................................................... 187
'kwd,oHa0* ..................................................................................... 188
&[ef;jyKjcif; ...................................................................................... 189
r,fawmfumVdola|;uawmf\ vlBuHKtvSLawmf ................................. 190
wpfcsufckwf ig;csufjywf ................................................................... 190
r,fawmftwGuf om;&[ef;\w&m;yGJ ................................................ 195
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;&Sdjcif; ................................................ 197
usrf;NyD;qkawmif; ............................................................................................ 203
tvSL&Sifrsm; ................................................................................................... 204

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

1

aus;Zl;wif&jdS cif;
aus;Zl; txl;wifxkdufolrsm;udk'Dae&mrSwqifh aus;Zl; (txl;) wif&Sdyg
aMumif; ajymyg&ap/
xkdYaMumifh
1/
pma&;oltm;i,fpOfrSonf,aeYxd avmuD? avmukwå&mpmay
rsm; oifMum;ay;onfhtjyif bufaygif;pkHrS tm;ay;csD;ajr§mufvsuf&Sdaom &ef
ukefwkdif;? vSnf;ul;NrdKUe,f? ykdufBuD;0J&Gm? ta&SUausmif;? r[m0dZdwm&mr pmoif
wkduf q&mawmf a'gufwm t&Sifa&0wmvuFm& q&mawmf tm;vnf;aumif;?
2/
&efukefNrdKU EkdifiHawmfy&d,wådomoemhwuúokdvfrS ygarmu©csKyf
q&mawmftrSL;&Sdaom ygarmu©? uxdu? enf;jyq&mrsm;ESifh vlynm&Sifrsm;
tm;vnf;aumif;?
3/
pma&;ol\ crnf;awmf (OD;oHacsmif; (c) OD;pdefÓPf)+ r,fawmf
a':0kdif; (c) a':vSjrifh? nDi,f armifvSpkd;OD;+racsmpkwkdYtm;vnf;aumif;?
4/
rlv&[ef;'g,umrBuD; a':odef;jrifh (atmif&wemyGifhqDpuf
rdom;pk? vSnf;ul;) tm;vnf;aumif;?
5/
odu©mxyf&[ef;'g,um 'g,dumrrsm;jzpfMuaom (OD;bkd;acG;)+
a':cifpdef rdom;pk (vSnf;ul;)? OD;wufjym;+a':jrifhMunfrdom;pk (vSnf;ul;)ESifh
OD;&Jrif;pkd;+a':&D&D0if;rdom;pk awmifOuúvmwkd htm;vnf;aumif;?
6/
þpmtkyjf zpfajrmufa&;twGuf rwnfvLS 'gef;ay;aom a'gufwm
OD;jrifhxGef;+a':EG,fEG,fOD;xGef;? om;BuD; vrif;xGef;? om;i,f wm&mxGef;
rdom;pk (qpf'eD? Mopaw;vs) ESifh tjcm;tvSL&Sifrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;?
7/
tcufcJaygif;pkHudk ausmfjzwfvsuf pmtkyfjzpfay:vma&;twGuf
BuD;MuyfpDpOfay;onfh t&SifOuúHo? rsufESmzHk;ESifh twGif;tjyiftqifrsm; ulnD
aqmif&Gufay;onfh apmvif;ausmfwdkYtm;vnf;aumif; aus;Zl;(txl;)wif&Sdyg
w,f/ xkdYjyif ukd,ftm;? ÓPftm;? "etm;wdkYjzifh tzufzufrS tm;ay;Muol
yk*K¾ dvftoD;oD;wdkYtm;vnf; aus;Zl;wif&Sdygw,f/
t*¾ÓP
qpf'eD?Mopaw;vs

2

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

3

yPmr ESihf y#dnmOf
- t*¾0HorSd oOÆmwH? Ak'¨H wdavmuylZdwH/
ao0dwH awe "r®O?ö oHCH 0E´mrd om0uH/ (yxsm0wå*gxm)
- v'¨H edóm, yAÁZHÆ? tmap&Oö ermrd wH/
oaAÁoH ykn0¹km,? £rH *EH¦ vdcgr}[H/ (yxsm0wå*gxm)
t[H- t*¾ÓP emrorkwf tuREkfyfonf? t*¾0HorSd- avmuxif&Sm;? trsdK;rsm;wGif?
xdyzf sm;jrifv
h ?S omuD,[k? yDowifNh zdK;? tqif;wd;k onf?h rif;rsKd ;xifay:? tEG,af wmfü?
oOÆmwH- rsdK;av;yg;tpOf? ordkif;wGifvsuf? awmf0ifausmfMum;? om;wpfyg;[k? xif
&Sm;zGm;ajrmuf? aumif;pGmawmufí? aygufa&mufolvnf;? jzpfawmfrlxaom?
wdavmu ylZdwH- jA[®mewfvl? oHk;bHkolwdkY? MunfjzLav;jrwf? ylaZmfawmfrltyf
xaom? Ak'¨Oö- opömav;yg;? jrwfw&m;udk? ydkif;jcm;xifxif? odjrifawmfrljim;?
jrwfpGmbk&m;udkvnf;aumif;? awe- xdkbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfBuD;onf? ao0dwHtNrJrjywf? rSD0JylaZmftyfxaom? "r®O-ö r*fzdkvfedAÁmef? "r®u©ef[k? q,fwefxifay:?
w&m;awmfudkvnf;aumif;? (wó- xdkbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfBuD;\?) om0uHom;jrwfykwå? om0u jzpfawmfrlaom? oHCOö- &Spfyg;t&d,m jrwfoHCmudkvnf;
aumif;? 0E´mrd- usrf;OD;tp yrmPü? OD;cs½dkusdK;yg\bk&m;/
(0E´dwGm- usrf;OD;tp yPmrü OD;cs½dkusdK; &Sdcdk;NyD;í? ,H tmap&H- MunfvifNrJxl;?
NrdKUvSnf;ul;wGif? xdyfOD;,SOfwGJ? ydkufBuD;0J[k? ac:NrJonm? a&Taus;&Gm&Sd? r[m0dZdwm
&mr ausmif;wdkufvS\? pmcsaus;Zl;&Sif? tMuifq&mawmfocifudk)? edóm,bkef;awmfuHawmf? ynmawmfpk? trSDjyKí? yAÁZHÆ- omuD,Zmwf &Sif&[ef;jrwftjzpfudk?
(r,m- t*¾ÓP? emrorkw?f tuREkyf o
f nf?) v'¨-H aumif;pGmxkwaf csmuf a&muftyf
ayNyD/ wH tmap&Oö- wwfozd Ykd a&;? enf;ay;ydYk cs? teEÅ*P
k &f iS ?f xdrk [m0dZw
d m&mrwdu
k f

4

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

q&mawmfocif? aus;Zl;&Sifudkvnf;? ermrd- usrf;OD;tp? yPmrü? OD;cs½dkusdK;?
&Sdcdk;yg\bk&m;/ (eródwGm- usrf;OD;tp yPmrü OD;cs½dkusdK; &Sdcdk;NyD;í?) oaAÁoHcyfodrf;rsm;pGm? Munfomxif&Sm;? trsdK;aumif;om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkY\?
ykn0¹km,- ½Iwdkif;ydkrdk? ukodkvfwdk;yGm;? tusdK;rsm;&eftvdkYiSg? £rH *EH-¦ ]jrwfAk'¨
vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[k xif&Sm;ac:rSwf? þusrf;jrwfudk? vdcgrd
(vdcdóH)- ynmcGeftm;? &Sdjim;avsmfpGm? apwemESifh? o'¨g&TifjrL; MunfEl;0rf;om?
a&;om;ygawmhtHhownf;/

YX;WZ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

5

earm wó b*0awm t&[awm or®morÁK'ó
¨ /
tcef;-1

pmtkyaf cgif;pOfukd t"dygÜ ,fziG q
hf jkd cif;
þusrf;\ acgif;pOfrSm ]Ak'v
¨ ufxuf awmf0ifpx
H m; trsKd ;orD;rsm;} jzpf\/
pmtkyfacgif;pOfvm t"dyÜm,fqdkvdkcsuf tjynfhtpkHudk atmufygtwdkif; avhvmEdkif
ay\/
]Ak'v
¨ ufxuf}[l&mü...
Ak'¨[lonf opömw&m;av;yg;udk udk,fawmfwdkifvnf; odawmfrl wwf\/
udk,fawmf wdkifrSwpfyg; tjcm;olwdkYudkvnf; odapawmfrlwwf\/ xdkYaMumifh ]Ak'¨}rnf
ay\/ ,if;]Ak'¨}[laom trnfudk crnf;awmf oka'¨g"erif;BuD;? r,fawmf rm,ma'0D
tp&Sdaom yk*dK¾ vfwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ ay;tyfçrSnfhac:tyfaom trnfawmfum;
r[kwyf gay/ pifppfaomfum; bk&m;jzpfawmfr&l m aAm"dr@dKifü "r®tvk;H pkH wkYd uo
kd ad om
oAÁñkwÓPfawmfudk &&Sdawmf1rlonfESifh wpfNydKifeuf tvdktavsmuf ]Ak'¨}[k trnf
awmf &&SdvmcJhjcif; jzpfay\/
jrwfA'k ¨ ud,
k af wmfwikd u
f vnf; ]]aovykPmÖ ; ... igonf r*¾opömudk yGm;rsm;
NyD;NyD? ork',opömudk y,fNyD;NyD? 'ku©opömudk ydkif;jcm;íodNyD;NyD? eda&m"opömudk rsuf
arSmufjyKNyD;NyD? xdkYaMumifh ]Ak'¨}rnfawmfrl\}}[k EIwfawmfrS rdefYawmfrlcJhaMumif; awGU&Sd&
ay\/
þusrf;vm Ak'¨vufxuf[l&müvnf; ,if;odkY ]Ak'¨}trnfawmf&aom
a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif\ oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOf (y&dedAÁmefr0ifrD) tcsdeftcgudk ]]Ak'¨
vufxuf}}[k þusrf;u &nfñTef;ay\/

6

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]awmf0ifpx
H m; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[l&mü...
]awmf0ifpx
H m;trsKd ;orD
H ;rsm;}[l&mü ]awmf0if}[laom a0g[m&udk ]pH}udk
jrefrmtbd"meftusOf;csKyfü ]]pH-e^pef^ t&nftcsif;EdIif;,SOf&ef tajccHjyKxm;aom
t&m/ EdIif;,SOftyfaomt&m/ taumif;qkH;erlem}} [kvnf;aumif;? ]]awmf0ife^awmf0if^(Oypm) awmfav;0 0ifouJhodkY jrifhjrwfol}}[kvnf;aumif; zGifhjyxm;
ay&m þtvdk awmf0ifpx
H m;[lonf pHerlemxm;&ef taumif;qk;H jzpfonfh awmfav;0
0ifouJhodkY jrifhjrwfol}}[k t"dyÜm,f&ay\/ þt"dyÜm,f twdkif;yif avmuü
vifom;tay:ü &mEIef;jynfhopöm&SdNyD; tdrfaxmifa&;ç vlrIa&;wdkYüvnf;uRrf;usif?
rif;a&;pdk;a&;wdkYüvnf; &Sif;vif;aqmif½Gufwwfaom tr&m[laomtrsdK;orD;?
Am&mPoDrif;\ t*¾ra[oDvkyf&ef ajymqdkrIudk vufcHrIrjyKbJ vifom;udEé&mESifh
opöm&SdpGm aygif;azmfaom udE&é D? a0óEÅ&mrif;tay:ü armifao&if r,fygvdkufao
r,f? rcGJbl;qdkonfh r'Da´ '0D[laom trsdK;orD;? Elema&m*gpGJaeaom vifawmfarmif
aomwd¬aoeudk rcGJbJ a&yla&csrf; urf;vSrf;aom orÇLv[laom trsdK;orD;tm;jzifh
av;a,mufaomtrsdK;orD;wdkYudk awmf0ifpHxm;avmufí awmfav;0[k owfrSwfMu
ay\/ ,if;trsdK;orD;av;a,mufwdkYonfum; Zmwfawmfvm trsdK;orD;rsm;yifjzpf
\/ xdkYjyif omrefvlom;wdkYu awmf0if\[k owfrSwfcHxm;&olvnf; jzpf\/ ,if;
wdkYum; t&d,m r[kwf? omrefykxkZOfwdkYom jzpfay\/ (qkdvkdonfrSm tr&mpaom
av;OD;wkdYonf Ak'¨vufxufwGif xif&Sm;jcif;r[kwf? tavmif;awmfb0wGifom
xif&Sm;aom trsdK;orD;rsm; jzpf\[lvkd/)
aAm"dr@dKifü oAÁñkwÓPfawmf\ tmEkabmfawmfaMumifh w&m;rif;tjzpf
odkY a&mufawmfrlaom jrwfAk'¨onfum; ]]igonf w&m;rif;tjzpfudk &&SdawmfrltyfNyD/
,cktcg vltaygif;jzifh tusdK;r&Sd? vltrsm;udk ta&;xm;&efrvdk? twkr&Sdjrwfaom
zvormywfcsrf;omudk cHpm;awmfrltHh}} [k ESvkH;oGif;jcif;rjyKbJ y&dowfav;yg;
tv,f0,f cif;xm;tyfaom jrwfaom bk&m;&Sif\ae&mü xdkifaeawmfrlvsuf t*Fg
&Spfyg;ESifhjynfhpkHaom toHawmfjzifh "r®udkxkwfazmfcJh\/ ,if;odkY "r®udkxkwfazmf&mü
tukodkvftrIwdkYudk jyKvkyfolrsm;udk tyg,fav;yg;udkjyvsuf aMumuf vefYap&ef
ESdyfuGyfí w&m;awmfudka[mawmfrl\/ ukodkvftrIwkdYudk jyKvkyfolrsm;udkum; b0*fü
xdkifaeapbdtvm; ewfjynfcsrf;omwdkYudkjyvsuf w&m;awmfukd a[mMum;awmfrl\/
,if;odkY a[mMum;NyD;aemuf yk*Kd¾ vftvdkuf tusifh*kPfxl;ESifhxl;jcm; udkufnDolwkdYtm;
]{w'*fbx
UJG ;l }udk ay;tyfí omoemawmfwGif awmf0ifpHxm;oltjzpf owfrSwfawmfrl
cJhay\/
Oyrmtm;jzifh pMu0aw;rif;onf pMum&wem\tpGrf;tmEkabmfaMumifh
pMumrif;\ pnf;pdrfudk &&SdNyD;aemuf ]]igonf pMumrif;tjzpfodkY a&muf&SdNyD? ,cktcg

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

7

vltaygif;jzifh tusdK;r&Sd? vltrsm;udk ta&;xm;&efrvdk? pMumrif;\pnf;pdrfudkom
cHpm;awmhtHh}}[k ESvkH;roGif;bJ w&m; qkH;jzwf&mvTwf½kH;obifü tNrJrjywfxdkifvsuf
ESdyfuGyfxdkufolwdkYudk ESdyfuGyf\/ csD;jr§ifhxdkufol wdkYudk csD;jr§ifh\/ &mxl;ay;xdkufaom
*kPfaus;Zl;&Sdolrsm;udk &mxl;rsm;ay;ouJhodkYyif jzpfay\/
jrwfAk'¨onf þOyrmtwdkif; omoemawmfü awmf0ifpHxm;xdkufolrsm;udk
{w'*f bGJUxl;rsm;ay;í a½G;cs,fcJhay\/ þae&mü {w'*f[laoma0g[m&udk
&Sif;vif;pGmodzdkY vdkygvdrfhrnf/
{w'*f
{w'*f[lonf ]{w'*H}¾ [laom ygVdpum;rS qif;oufvmaom a0g[m&
wpfckjzpf\/ {w'*H-¾ udk {wH+t*H-¾ [k ESpfyk'fcGJ&rnf/ xdkESpfyk'fwdkYwGif {wH[laom
yk'fonf yk*dK¾ vfudkpGJaomyk'f jzpf\/ t*H[
¾ laomyk'fonf tp? txG#f (tzsm;)? tpk?
tjrwf[laom av;rsdK;aomteufudka[m\/ þüum; txG#f(tzsm;)ESifh tjrwf[l
aom teufESpfrsdK;udk ,l&\/ xdkYaMumifh {w'*f[laom ygVdoufa0g[m&udk txG#f
tjrwfyk*dK¾ vf (odkYr[kwf) tomqkH;? tjrwfqkH;yk*dK¾ vf[k t"dyÜg,f zGifhqdk&rnfjzpf\/
ygVdoufa0g[m&tbd"mefüvnf; {w'*f[laomyk'fudk ]]qdkif&m*kPfxl;&Sd
olwdkYwGif txl;tjrwfqkH;yk*dK¾ vf? xdyfqkH;yk*dK¾ vf}}[k zGifhxm;jyef\/ xdkYaMumifh {w'*f
[lonf jrwfAk'¨ udk,fawmfwdkif omoemawmfü pHawmf0iftjzpf owfrSwfxdkufolwdkY
tm; csD;jr§ifhaombGJUxl;yif jzpfay\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhum; þusrf;tvdkt&rl jrwf
Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif {w'*fbGJUxl;ay;í a½G;cs,fxm;oludkom awmf0ifpHxm;[k okH;EIef;
rnfjzpfygonf/
awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*fbx
UJG ;l ay;&mü pHxm;aom taMumif;av;rsdK;
jrefrmpum;wGif ]cs;D rGr;f wefonf vl&nfu½kd }I [laom qdk½dk;pum;&Sday\/
,if; qdk½dk;pum;t& csD;rGrf;í xdkufwefoludk olUt&nftcsif;ESifh xdkufwefonfht
avsmuf csD;rGrf;&rnfom jzpf\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; ukd,fawmfjrwf\ wynfhom0u?
om0dumrwkdYtm; a&S;a&S;aom b0oHo&mwdkYü jznfhusifhqnf;yl;cJhaom yg&rD
ukodkvfESifh awmifhwyefqifcJhaom qkawmif;t avsmuf oDv*kPf? orm"d*kPf?
ynm*kPf ponfwdkYjzifh vGefuJaom yk*dK¾ vfxl;ç yk*dK¾ vfjrwfwdkYudk y&dowftv,fü
udk,fawmfwdkif ]awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbx
UJG ;l rsm;}udk csD;usL;ay;oem;awmfrlavh&Sday\/
azmfjyyg awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;udk csD;jr§ifh&mü jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif pHxm;
aom taMumif;av;rsdK; &Sday\/ xdkav;rsdK;aomtaMumif;wdkYteuf tenf;qkH;wpf
yg;ESifh nDñGwfrSom ¤if;bGJUxl;udk &&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;taMumif;av;rsdK;rSm atmufyg
twkdif; jzpf\/

8

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(1) t|KyÜwdå

= oufqdkif&mtrIudpöwkdYü uRrf;usifaMumif; t
axmuf txm;cdkifvkHjcif;?
(2) tm*re
= a&S;a&S;b0wdkYüvnf; ,if;trIudpöwkdYü uRrf;
usifcJhjcif;?
(3) pdP0Ö oD
= ,if;trIudpt
ö ay:ü avhusufrIrsm;jcif;?
(4) *kPwda&uwm = *kPftm;jzifh xl;cRefvGefuJjcif;/
xdak v;rsKd ;wdYk teuf jrwfA'k \
¨ awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*fbUJG xl;rsm;udk &&Sad omol
wdkYteuf tcsdKUrSmwpfrsdK;? tcsdKUrSmESpfrsdK;? tcsdKUrSmokH;rsdK;? tcsdKUrSmav;rsdK;vkH;ESifh jynfhpkH
Muonf[k qdk\/ ,if;pHawmf0if {w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdolwdkYrSm ta&twGuftm;jzifh
&[ef;a,mufsm; (41)OD;? &[ef;rde;f r(13)OD;? vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;om;(11)OD;ESihf vl0wf
aMumiftrsdK;orD;(10)OD;wdkY ay:xGef;vmcJhay\/ ,if;wdkYteuf þpmtkyfü
awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;rsm;t& awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdMuaom vl0wf
aMumif trsdK;orD; (10)OD;taMumif;wkdYudkom a&;om;okawoejyKrnfjzpfygonf/
þtrsdK;orD;(10)OD;rS tjcm;aom&[ef;r(ax&Dr)tjzpf xif&Sm;aom trsdK;orD;
wdkY\taMumif;rsm;udkvnf;aumif;? Zmwfawmfvm tr&m? udEé&D? r'D´? orÇLv[laom
trsdK;orD;wdkY\taMumif;rsm;udkvnf;aumif; þusrf;ü a&;om;azmfjyrnfum;
r[kwfygay/
xdkYaMumifh ]Ak'v
¨ ufxuf awmf0ifpx
H m; trsKd ;orD;rsm;}[laom þpmtkyaf cgif;
pOfjzifh ]a*gwr jrwfpGmbk&m; oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOftcgu awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;
wdu
Yk kd &&Scd MhJ uaom vl0wfaMumif trsKd ;orD;q,fO;D } [laom t"dyÜm,fudk azmfñTef;jyoae
ay\/
,if;awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh &&SdcJhaom {w'*fbGJUxl;wdkYrSm
atmufygtwdkif;yif jzpfay\/
(1) awmf0ifpHxm; okZmwm trsdK;orD;
yXro&P*re {w'*fbGJU (yxrqkH; o&P*kHokH;yg;wnfjcif;)?
(2) awmf0ifpHxm; 0domcg trsdK;orD;
'g,D{w'*fbGJU (tvSLay;jcif;)?
(3) awmf0ifpHxm; ckZÆKwå&m trsdK;orD;
"r®uxdu{w'*fbGJU (w&m;a[mjcif;)?
(4) awmf0ifpHxm; omrm0wD trsdK;orD;
arwåm0D[m&D{w'*fbGJU (arwåmw&m;jzifhaejcif;)?
(5) awmf0ifpHxm; Owå&m trsdK;orD;
psm,D{w'*fbGJU (psmef0ifpm;jcif;)?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

9

(6) awmf0ifpHxm; okyÜ0gom trsdK;orD;
yPDw'g,dum{w'*fbGJU (rGefjrwfaom0w¬Kudk ay;vSLjcif;)?
(7) awmf0ifpHxm; okydÜ,m trsdK;orD;
*dvmEky|muD{w'*fbGJU (olemudkjyKpkjcif;)?
(8) awmf0ifpHxm; umwd,meD trsdK;orD;
ta0pöyÜoEé{w'*fbGJU (omoemawmf0,f rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfjcif;)?
(9) awmf0ifpHxm; eukvrmwk trsdK;orD;
0dómodu{w'*fbGJU (jrwfAk'¨ESifh tuRrf;0ifjcif;)?
(10) awmf0ifpHxm; umVD trsdK;orD;
tEkó0yÜoEé{w'*fbGJU (wqifhMum;&kHrQjzifh Munfñkdjcif;)?
þawmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD; (10)OD;wdkY\ taMumif;t&mwdkYudk azmfjyvwHh
aom tcef;wdkYü jynfhpkHpGm okawoejyK a&;om;azmfjyrnf jzpfygonf/
tcef;(1)ü jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;rsm;[laom pmtkyaf cgi;f pOf\
t"dygÜ ,f tESpo
f m&udkazmfñTef;xm;ygonf/

YX;WZ

10

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tcef;-2

awmf0ifpx
H m; okZmwm trsdK;orD;
vlom;onf ywf0ef;usifESifh ae\/ ywf0ef;usifqdk;ESifhvnf; awGU&\/
ywf0ef;usifaumif;ESifhvnf; BuHK&\/ 0ef;usifqdk;u raumif;usdK;udk pDrHay;ouJhodkY
0ef;usifaumif;u aumif;usdK;udk zefwD;ay;\/ aumif;usdK;udk t&om&Sd&Sd cHpm;vdkMu
aomfvnf; qdk;usdK;udkrl aMumufwwfMu\/ vefYwwfMu\/ xdkodkYjzpfjcif;rSm "r®wm
yifjzpf\/ vlUywf0ef;usifonf aMumufp&mwdYk jzifh 0ef;&Hae\/ vefYp&mwdYk jzifh umqD;
ae\/ a&BuD;\/ rdk;onf;xefpGm ½Gm\/ awmrD;avmif\/ avrkefwdkif; wdkuf\/
,if;odYk aom obm0ab;tEÅ&m,fwYdkonf vlom;wdYk tm; Ncdr;f ajcmufvsuf &SMd uay\/
vlom;wkdYonf ,if;odkY aMumufvefYMuojzifh tm;udk;&SmMu\/ cE¨mukd,f
twGif;üvnf; &SmMu\/ tjyifüvnf; &SmMu\/ obm0ab;&efwdkYudk tZÑwå
tpGrf;jzifh wGef;vSefMu\/ r&onfh tqkH;ü awmif;yefwdk;vQdK;Mu\/ awmawmifudk
vnf; awmif;yefMu\/ a&udkvnf; wkd;vQdK;Mu\/ ajrudkvnf; c,Mu\/ rD;udk
awmif;yefzkdYvnf; 0efrav;ouJhokdY avudk awmif;yefzdkY&efvnf; toihfay/ rdrdxuf
pGrf;tm;BuD;oludk taMumufydkcJhMu\/ tvefY,dkcJhMu\/ awmif;yefwdk;vQdK;Mu&mrS
tm;udk;p&mtjzpf rSwfxifvmMu\/ þodkYjzifh udk;uG,frItrsdK;rsdK;wdkY ay:ayguf&\/
,if;udk;uG,frIrsm;rSm azmif;yGoxuf azmif;yGvm\/
ordkif;rwifrDumvrSonf vlom;wdkYonf opfyif? awmawmif? a&? ajr?
ork'´&m tp&SdonfwdkYudk udk;uG,f&mtjzpf rdrdwdkY\pdwful;wnfhovdk udk;uG,frIjyKcJh
Mu\/ odYk aomf ud;k uG,f &mtppf [kwo
f nfçr[kwo
f nfuu
kd m; rnforl Q uGu
J jJG ym;jym;
rodMuay/ tarSmifvrf;wGif prf;w0g;0g; avQmufvSrf;aeolrsm;ESifhom wlMu\/
r[mouú&mZf (103)ck? uqkefvjynfhaeYwGifum; avmuü udk;uG,f&mtppf ay:
aygufvm\/ ,if;udk;uG,f&mtppfrSm a*gwrjrwfAk'¨yif jzpf\/ ,if;Ak'¨&wem

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 11

ESifhtwl "r®&wem[laom udk;uG,f&mtppfwdkY ay:aygufvmay\/ xdkESpf 0gqdk
vqef; (5) &ufwGif ,if;udk;uG,f&mtppfudk vlom;wdkYrS pwifawGU&SdMu\/ ,if;
vlom;wdkYrSm Ouúvmywdkif;rS ]wykóESib
hf vdu
’ m}[laom ukefonfnDaemifwdkYyif
jzpf\/ xdktcsdefü avmuwGif oHCm&wem ray:xGef;ao;ojzifh ukefonfnDaemif
wdYk onf a'G0gpduo&P*kw
H nf Oygoumrsm;tjzpf cH,Ml uav\/ xdn
k aD emifwYkdonf
rsuf&rf;rSef;q udk;uG,f&m&SmMuonfholrsm;wGif yxrqkH; udk;uG,f&mtppfudk pwif
awGU&Sdol Oygoumrsm;yif jzpfMu\/ jrwfAk'¨\tqkH;tratmufodkY 0ifa&mufvmol
Ak'¨bmom0if trsdK;om;rsm; jzpfvmMu\/
aemufyikd ;f wGif jrwfA'k o
¨ nf owå0gwkYd tm; vSnv
hf nfí w&m;a'oemawmf
ukda[mMum;awmfrlNyD; Ak'¨omoemawmfudk wnfaxmifawmfrl\/ w&m;a[mNyD; Ak'¨
bmom0ifjzpfatmif pGrf;aqmifcJh\/ ol\ wynfhom; &[ef;awmfwkdYudkvnf; w&m;
a[mNyD; Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;wdk;wufatmif pGrf;aqmifapcJh\/ ,if;odkYa[majymcsuf
aMumifh trsdkK;om;rsm;omru trsdK;orD;rsm;yg Ak'¨bmom0if jzpfvmMu\/ xdkodkY
jzpfvmaom Ak'¨bmom0if trsdK;orD;xktwGif; yxrqkH;aomudk;uG,f&mtppfjzpf
onfh o&P*ko
H ;Hk yg;udk ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfot
l aygif;wGif aoemed*;Hk olaX;BuD;\orD;
okZmwmonf jrwfAk'¨\omoemawmf0,f awmf0ifpHxm;aom Ak'¨bmom0if
trsdK;orD; wpfa,mufyif jzpf\/ awmf0ifpHxm; olaX;orD; okZmwm\ b0Zmwf
aMumif;onf Ak'¨bmom0if trsdK;orD;rsm;tzdkY pHxm;p&m jzpf\/ tm;usp&m aumif;
\/ twk,lp&m Oyrmtppf jzpf\/ þokZmwmonf Ak'¨omoemawmf0,f trsdK;
om;rsm;enf;wl vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdYk \ awmf0ifpx
H m;yku
H akd zmfñeT ;f \/ ,if;odYk
tm;ustwk,l pHxm;pHjyKp&maumif;aom awmf0ifpHxm;okZmwm\ b0Zmwf
aMumif;udk ,aeYacwf trsdK;orD;rsm; odxm;oihfay\/
okZmwm emrnfwrl sm;
jrwfAk'¨vufxufwGif vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;xktwGif; pHawmf0if {w'*f
bGJUxl;udk yxrqkH;&&SdolrSm aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD; okZmwmyif jzpf\/ ,if;
ok Z mwm[l a om trnf j zif h xif & S m ;aom trsd K ;orD ; rsm;rS m jrwf A k ' ¨ w d k Y \
omoemawmfwGif (11) OD;rQ&SdaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd&ay\/ xdkolwdkYrSm(1) okZmwmax&Dr (aombdwjrwfAk'¨\t*¾om0dumr)?
(2) okZmwmax&Dr (yd,'óDjrwfAk'¨\ t*¾om0dumr)?
(3) okZmwm (y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨\r,fawmf)?
(4) okZmwm (aum@njrwfAk'¨\r,fawmf)?
(5) rmCvkvif\ZeD; okZmwm (aemiftcgwGif odMum;rif;\rdzk&m; okZmwm)?
(6) okZmwmolaX;orD; (bk&m;jzpfrnfhaeYü CemEdkYqGrf;'g,dumr)?

12

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)

okZmwm Oygodumr (emwdu½Gmol aomwmyef)?
ausmif;tr0domcg\nDrawmf okZmwm?
rPdapm&Zmwfvm okZmwmtrsdK;orD;?
omauwNrdKUol okZmwmax&DrESifh
okZmwmrdzk&m;- wdkYjzpfMu\/

,if;(11)OD;xJwGifyg0ifaom aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD;? CemEdkYqGrf;
tvSL&Sif okZmwmolaX;orD;udkom jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif ]]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr
om0dumeH OygodumeH yXrH o&PH *päEDÅeH ,'d'H okZmwm aoed,"Dwm}} [lí
&wemokH;yg;udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,fol igbk&m;\wynhf vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;xk
taygif;wGif aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD; okZmwmonfom tjrwfqkH;? olronfom
tawmfqkH;? olronfom tomqkH;? olronfom tapmqkH;[k qdktyfaom ]yXr
o&P*re {w'*fbx
UJG ;l }udk csD;jr§ifhawmfrlNyD; omoemawmf0,f pHawmf0if trsdK;orD;
wpfOD;tjzpf ajr§mufpm;awmfrlcJh\/ azmfjyvwHhwdkYonfum; aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;
\orD; okZmwm\ b0tw¬KyÜgwf Zmwfvrf;jrwfwdkYonfomjzpfay\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; okZmwm trsdK;orD;\ twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
xdkaoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD; okZmwmonf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨\ vuf
xufü [Hom0wDjynf\ wpfckaomtrsdK;tdrfwGif trsdK;orD;wpfOD;jzpfcJh\/ tcg
wpfyg;ü olronf jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;awmfudk em,lpOf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨onf Oyg
odumr trsdK;orD;wpfOD;tm; a&S;OD;pGm o&P*kH wnfaomt&mü ]]awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*fbUJG }} ay;aeonfukd awGUjrifc\
hJ / xdYk aMumifh olronf ]]aemiftcg igonfvnf;
þ trsdK;orD;uJhodkY a&S;OD;pGm o&P*kHwnfol vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdkYwGif {w'*f
bGUJ xl;&&S&d ygvd\
k }} [k awmif;qkqckd zhJ ;l av\/ ,if;odYk awmif;qkqNkd yD; yg&rDawmfrsm;
jznfhqnf;cJh&m þa*gwrjrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfüum; qkawmif;jynfhcJh\/
ypöKyÜef qkawmif;jynfo
h nfh okZmwm
xdktrsdK;orD;onf urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; ukodkvfaumif;rIrsm;udk
qnf;yl;tm;xkwfNyD; vlUjynfewfjynfwdkYü wpfvSnfhpDusifvnfaecJh&\/ a*gwr
jrwfAk'¨vufxufüum; jrwfAk'¨ryGifhrDyif a&S;OD;pGmomvQif O½ka0VawmtkyfteD;
aoemed*kH;ü aoed,trnf&Sdaom olaX;BuD;\orD; jzpfcJh\/ olr\trnfrSm
]okZmwm}[k wGifav\/ okZmwmolaX;orD;onf t½G,f a&mufcsdefü aoemed*kH;&Sd
wpfcak omanmifyifü ]]t&Siaf nmifapmifeh wfrif; ... tuREfyk rf onf rsdK;½d;k Zmwfwal om
vifa,mufsm;udk&í yXrtBudrfudk,f0efwnfvwfaomf om;OD;a,musfm;udk &&Sd&yg

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 13

vd\
k / tu,fí om;OD;a,musmf ;udk &&Syd gvQif oifanmifapmifeh wfrif;tm; CemEdYk jzifh
ylaZmfrIudk jyKygtHh}}[k qkawmif;cJhav\/ xdkqkawmif;rItwdkif; okZmwmolaX;orD;
onf ],o} [laom olaX;om;wpfa,mufESifh tdrfaxmifusNyD; om;wpfa,mufudk
yxrqkH;arG;zGm;cJhav\/ xdkom;\trnfudkvnf; cifyGef;onf\trnfuJhodkYyif
],o owdo
Yk m;}[líyif rSnfhac:cJhMuav\/ xdkYaMumifh okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf
ESpfpOfESpfwdkif; uqkefvjynfhaeYü anmifapmifhewfrif;tm; CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh
AvdewfpmauR;í ylaZmfyocJhonfrSm ,cktBudrftygt0if tBudrfESpfq,fcefY wdkifcJh
ayNyD/
CemEdq
Yk rG ;f uyfvLS rIEiS phf yfí rSwzf ,
G f
okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf bk&m;tavmif;awmf\ bk&m;jzpfrnfh uqkef
vjynfhaeYüom yxrqkH;tBudrf qkawmif;jynfhí anmifyifapmifhewftm; CemEdkY
qGrf;jzifh ylaZmfyojcif;um; r[kwfay/ pifppfaomfum; xdkESpf xdktBudrfrS a&S;vGef
cJhaom ESpfaygif;ESpfq,fcefYavmufuyif qkawmif;jynfhí anmifyifapmifhewftm;
CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh ylaZmfyocJhjcif; jzpf\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf okZmwmolaX;uawmf
\om;onf ,oolaX;om;jzpfaomaMumifyh if/ ,oolaX;om;onf bk&m;tavmif;
bk&m;jzpfrnfh xdkESpfxdktcsdefüyif tdrfaxmifusí olaX;pnf;pdrfudkyif tjynfht0
cHpm;aeayNyD/ ,if;taMumif;udkaxmufqaomf okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf om;
qkawmif;rI jynfh0ojzifh vGefcJhaomESpfaygif;ESpfq,fcefYu tpjyKí xdkanmifyifapmifh
ewftm; ESpfpOfESpfwdkif; uqkefvjynfhaeYü CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh AvdewfpmauR;í ylaZmf
yorIjyKcJhaMumif;um; xif&Sm;\/
þokZmwmtrsdK;orD;\ om;qkawmif;rIudkMunfhaomf xdkacwfumv&Sd
tdE,
´d trsKd ;orD;xkonf om;a,mufsm;&&S&d eftwGuf anmifyifapmifeh wfrsm;tm; ylaZmf
yorI&SdcJhaMumif; odEdkifay\/ ,aeYacwfumvüvnf; tdEd´,&SdtrsdK;orD;rsm;onf
]]okZmwmom;qkawmif;&m anmifyifrS tacgufrsm;udkcGgí aoG;NyD;aomufaomf om;
a,mufsm;av;&onf}}[k ,kHMunfqJ? tokH;jyKqJyif jzpf\/ ,cktcg0,f okZmwm
om;qkawmif;&mXmeü anmifyif? a&S;a[mif; ewfuGef;? a&uefESifh tcsdKUtcsdKUaom
½kyfwkawmf qif;wkawmfwdkYudk avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/
CemEdq
Yk rG ;f csuf&ef pDryH Hk
okZmwmolaX;orD;onf a*gwrbk&m;tavmif;\ 'ku&ú p&d,m ajcmufEpS f
jynfhajrmufonfh uqkefvjynfhaeYü anmifapmifhewftm; Avdewfpmudk jyKvdkaom
aMumifh CemEdkYqGrf;csuf&ef pDrHcJh\/ ,if;odkY pDrHykHudkazmfjy&mü ynm&Sifq&mESpf
a,mufwkdY\ t,ltqESpfrsdK;wkdYudk uGJjym;pGm awGU&av\/ ,if;ESpfrsdK;wdkYwGif

14

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

Zmwf t|uxmq&mu jyqdk&mwGif]]a&S;OD;pGmuomvQif EdkYpm;EGm;rwpfaxmifudk EG,fcsdKawmü ausmif;aponf/
,if;EGm;rwpfaxmifwYkd rx
S u
G af omEdYk &nfwYkd ukd tjcm;EdYk pm;EGm;rig;&mwdYk tm;
wdkufauR;apav\/ wpfzef ,if;EGm;rig;&mrSxGufaomEdkY&nfwkdYudk tjcm;
EGm;r ESpf&mhig;q,fwdkYudk wdkufap\/ ,if;EGm;rESpf&mhig;q,frSxGufaom
EdkY&nfwkdYudk tjcm;aomEGm;rwpf&mhESpfq,fh ig;aumifwdkYudk wdkufap\/
,if;EGm;r wpf&mh ESpfq,fh ig;aumifwdkYrSxGufaomEdkY&nfwkdYudk tjcm;EGm;r
ajcmufq,fhav;aumifwdkYtm; wdkufap\/ ,if;EGm;r ajcmufq,fhav;
aumifwYkdrS xGuaf omEdYk &nfwYdkukd tjcm;EGm;r ok;H q,fEh pS af umifwYkdtm; wdu
k f
ap\/ ,if;EGm;r okH;q,fhESpfaumifwdkYrSxGufaomEdkY&nfwkdYudk tjcm;EGm;r
wpfq,fah jcmufaumifwYkd tm; wdu
k af p\/,if;EGm;r wpfq,haf jcmufaumif
wdkYrS xGufaomEdkY&nfwkdYudk tjcm;EGm;r&SpfaumifwdkYtm; wdkufap\/þodkY
vQif okZmwm olaX;uawmfonf EGm;EdkYt&nfyspfí csdKNrdefaom t&om&Sd
ap&efEiS hf MoZm&Sad p&ef &nfoefí EGm;EdYk qifu
h q
J ifu
h J vJv,
S rf u
I kd jyKvkyaf v
\}}
ZdemvuFm&#Dumq&murl]]okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf yXrEdYk pm;EGm;rwpf&mudk EG,cf sdKawmü ausmif;
ap\/ xdkEdkYpm;EGm;rwpf&mrSarG;aom EdkYpm;EGm;rwpf&mudk xdkYtwl EG,fcsdK
awmü ausmif;apjyef\/ xd'k w
k ,
d EdYk pm;EGm;rwpf&mrS arG;zGm;aom EdYk pm;EGm;r
wpf&mwdkYudkvnf; EG,fcsdKawmü ausmif;apjyef\/ xdkwwd,EdkYpm;EGm;r
wpf&mrS arG;zGm;aom EdkYpm;EGm;rwpf&mwdkYudkvnf; EG,fcsdKawmüyif ausmif;
apjyef\/ xdkpwkw¬EdkYpm;EGm;r wpf&mwdkYrSarG;zGm;aom EdkYpm; EGm;rwpf&m
wdkYudkvnf; xdkYtwlyif EG,fcsdKawmü ausmif;apjyef\/ xdkyÍörEdkYpm; EGm;r
wpf&mrSarG;zGm;aom EdkYpm;EGm;rwpf&mwdkYudkvnf; xdkYtwlyif EG,fcsdKawmü
ausmif;apjyef\/ xdkq|r EdkYpm;EGm;rwpf&mwkdYrS arG;zGm;aom EdkYpm;EGm;r
wpf&mwkdYudk xdkYtwlyif EG,fcsdKawmü ausmif;apjyefonf/ þenf;jzifh
ckepfqufajrmufaom EdYk pm;EGm;rwpf&mwdYk rS EdYk &nfwYdk un
kd p§ ,
f í
l CemEdYk qrG ;f
csuf&ef pDrHav\/}}
txufazmfjyyg q&mwdYk \ rdeYf qckd sufwYkd wiG f Zmwft|uxmq&m\ rdeYf qkd
csufudk Munfhaomf okZmwmonf CemEdkYqGrf;csuf&eftwGuf EdkYpm;EGm;r taumifa&
aygif; wpfaxmifhudk;&mudk;q,fhig;(1ç995)aumif tokH;jyKcJhaMumif; awGU&ay\/
MumjrifhcsdefrSm tvGefqkH; wpfESpfom MumjrifhcJhaMumif; awGU&SdEkdifay\/ #Dumq&m\
tvdkt&rl okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf EdkYpm;EGm;r taumifa&aygif;ckepf&m (700)

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 15

aumifudkom tokH;jyKcJh&aMumif; odEdkif\/ MumjrifhcsdefrSmum; tenf;qkH; ckepfESpfMum
jrifch rhJ nfom jzpf\/ odYk aomf okZmwmonf anmifapmifeh wfrif;tm; wpfEpS f wpfBudrf
AvdewfpmauR;aomaMumifh Zmwft|uxmq&m\pum;onf ydkíoihfrnfxif\/
yg&rDawmfcef;ysdKUürlum; &Sifr[moDv0Hotausmfonf]]EG,fcsdKawmaumif;? pm0ausmif;í? ESpfaxmif;tifNcdKuf? a&rwdkufom;?
r½dIufudk,ftm;? ig;&mEGm;udk? Budrfrsm;zefzef? &nfjyefwdkufNyD;? rum;BuD;
wnf;}}
[k pyfqx
kd m;awmfrcl \
hJ / odYk aomfvnf; usD;oJav;xyfq&mawmfBuD;u Zdew¬yumo
eDusrf;wGif atmufygtwkdif; rSwfcsufjyKxm;awmfrl\/
]]o[ó*g0DeH vwm0ae p&maywGm wawm *a[wGm yÍö&moð uwGm
wdu©wHåK bZdwGm taEÅ t|*g0DeH r"k&oH 'k[dwGm - [laom okwfr[m0g
t|uxm?
a"Eko[óH v|dr"ku0ae p&maywGm wawm wdu©wHåK 0dbma*e
yga,wGm[laom Zmwu|uxm? tyg'geft|uxmwdkYESif rnDaMumif;ESifh usrf;*ef
wdkYü EGm;rwpfaxmif[kvmvsuf ig;&m[k rqdkwef/ ]ig;&yfEGm;udk}[k pyf&if;
pum;onfta&;tom; ysufíom&Sdrnf xifonf}}
okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf &&Sv
d maomEdYk &nfjzifo
h m CemEdYk qrG ;f csufonf
&Sdaomf EdkYonf BuD;pGmaom tjr§KyfBuD;rsm;xí vufsm&pfvnfvsufom aeukef\/
EdkYwpfaygufwavrQvnf; rjyifodkYrusay/ ckHavmuf(zkdcaemuf)txufodkYvnf;
tenf;i,frQyif rD;cdk;rwufygay/ xdktcg avmuygv ewfrif;BuD;av;a,muf
wdkYonf ckHavmuf(zkdcaemuf)udk apmifha&Smuf ay;Muav\/ r[mjA[®mrif;onfum;
CemEkdYtdk;udk xD;jzifh rdk;ay;av\/ odMum;rif;onfum; xif;p? rD;prsm;udk nDñGwf
atmifjyKvsuf rD;udk awmufapav\/ ewfrsm;onfum; ewfMoZmwdkYudk CemEdkYtkd;
twGif;odkY xnfhMuav\/
tavmif;awmfjrwfxH CemEkq
Yd rG ;f yk&Yd ef pDrjH cif;
okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf wpfaeYwnf;jzifhomvQif þuJhodkYaom
tHMh ozG,w
f Ykd ukd awGUjrif&í ykPmÖ rnfaomuRefrudk ]]trdyP
k mÖ ... ,aeYü igwdYk \ocif
anmifapmifhewfrif;onf twdkif;xuftvGef MunfñdkzG,f&Sd\/ igonf þrQavmuf
aom tESpfESpfq,fausmf umvtwGif;ü þodkYoabm&Sdaom tHhMozG,fwdkYudk rjrifp
bl;/ xl;uJygaypG/ oifonf vsifvsifjrefjref oGm;í anmifapmifhewfrif;\ae&m
anmifyifeef;udk &Sif;vif;okwfoifygacs}}[k apcdkif;av\/ uRefr ykPÖmonfvnf;

16

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]]aumif;ygNyD t&Sifr}}[k 0efcHpum;ajymMum;NyD; anmifyifteD;odkY vsifjrefpGm
oGm;a&mufvwfaomf anmifyif&if;üxdik í
f ta&SUavmu"mwfukd Munf½h aI wmfral eaom
bk&m;tavmif;awmfuv
kd nf;aumif;? xdb
k &k m;tavmif;ud,
k af wmfrx
S u
G af om ta&mif
t0gwdYk jzifh anmifyifwpfyifv;Hk a½Ta&miftqif;0g0if;aeonfuv
kd nf;aumif; awGUjrif
&í ]],aeYwGif igwdkY\anmifapmifhewfrif;onf anmifyifrSqif;oufí rdrdvufjzifh
yif ylaZmfouúmAvdewfpmudk cH,l&ef xdkifaeonf}} [k BuHpnfrdav\/ xdkYaMumifh
uRefrykPÖm;onf tdrfodkY vsifjrefpGm jyefoGm;NyD; olr rsuf0g;xifxif awGUjrifykHrsm;udk
olaX;uawmfokZmwmtm; jzpfaMumif;ukefpif jyefíajymMum; cJhav\/
okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf xdkuRefr\pum;udkMum;aomtcgü tvGef
0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfí ]]oifonf ,aeYrSpí ighorD;BuD;t&mü wnfavavmh}}
[kajymqdkum orD;ESifh xdkufwefaom t0wfwefqmwdkYudk ay;av\/
bk&m;tavmif;awmfjrwfwdkif;yif bk&m;jzpfrnfhaeYü CemEdkYqGrf;ukd bkOf;ay;okH;
aqmifawmfr&l jcif;onf "r®wmyifjzpf\/ xdkodkYbk&m;jzpfrnfhaeYü tzdk;wpfodef;wefa½T
cGufudk &zdkY&ef oihf&um; okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf tzdk;wpfodef;wefaom a½TcGuf
jzifh CemEdkYqGrf;udk xnfh\/ ,if;odkY xnfh&mü CemEdkYqGrf;onf a½TcGufwpfcGuf
jynfh½kHom&Sd\/ tydktvdk[lír&Sday/ okZmwm olaX;uawmfonf CemEdkYqGrf;xnfh
NyD;aom a½TcGufudk tjcm;aoma½TcGufjzifh zkH;tkyf\/ wpfzef t0wfjzLwdkYjzifh &pfywf
jyef\/ rdrdudk,fudkvnf; tqifwefqmrsm;qif,ifNyD; a½TcGufudk OD;acgif;ü ½Gufí
BuD;pGmaom taqmifta,mif tcrf;tem;jzifh anmifyif&Sd&modkY oGm;av\/
anmifyif&if;odkY a&mufí bk&m;tavmif;\wifhw,fjcif;udk jrif&aomtcgü vGefpGm
0rf;ajrmufí anmifapmifhewfrif;[laomtrSwfjzifh udk,fudkñTwfvsuffoGm;av\/
xdkYaemuf a½TcGufudkcsí zGifhNyD;aomf yef;eHYomwdkYjzifh xkHtyfaoma&udk a½Tu&m;jzifh
xnfh,lNyD; tavmif;awmfteD;ü &yfwnfav\/
tavmif;awmfjrwfCemEdq
Yk rG ;f udk tvSLcHawmfrjl cif;
awmxG u f a wmf r l p Of u mvu bk & m;avmif ; tm; C#d u m&jA[® m rif ;
uyfvSLvmaom ajroydwfonf ajcmufESpfMum'kuú&p&d,musifhpOf wpfavQmufvkH;
tavmif;awmfudk pGefYroGm;acs/ odkYaomf olaX;uawmfokZmwm\ CemEdkYqGrf;uyf
&efvmaom xkcd Püum; aysmufcsi;f rvS tvkv
d dk aysmufu,
G o
f mG ;&av\/ xkUd aMumifY
bk&m;tavmif;awmfonf vufsmbufvufawmfukdjzefYí a&udk cH,lav\/ okZmwm
olaX;uawmfonf a½TcGufjzifYyif CemEkdYqGrf;udk qufuyfav\/ xdktcgü bk&m;
tavmif;awmfonf olZmwmolaX;uawmfudk MunfY\/ bk&m;tavmif;\ MunfYjcif;
\ tjcif;t&mukdodaom okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf ]]tdkt&Sif anmifapmifYewfrif;..
tuREkfyfonf t&Siftm;a&TcGufESifYwuG CemEkdYqGrf;udk vSL'gef;tyfygNyD/ oifewfrif;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 17

onf a½Tcu
G Ef iS Yf wuGaom CemEdYk qrG ;f udk cH,al wmfrNl yD; tvd&k &dS modYk <uawmfryl guke}f }
[kavQmufMum;\/ wpfzefvnf; okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf ]]uREfkyf\vkdtifqE´
jynfh0ouJhodkY oif\vdktifqE´onfvnf; jynfh0ygap}} [kqkawmif;í a½TcGufü
iJu
h u
G jf cif;r&Sb
d J olr\tdro
f Ykd jyefcahJ v\/ ,if;odYk uyfvLS NyD; rdrt
d rd o
f Ykdjyefaomfvnf;
okZmwm\pdwfwGif bk&m;tavmif;awmfjzpfaMumif; roday/ anmifapmifh ewfrif;[k
om rSwfxifav\/
bk&m;tavmif;awmfonf xdkif&mrSxí anmifyifudkvufsm&pfvSnhf\/ xdkY
aemuf CemEkdYqGrf;a½TcGufudk ,laqmifíae&ÍÆ&mjrpfurf;odkY <uav\/ bk&m;
tavmif;awmfonf ,if;jrpfurf;&Sd ]okyw
Ü |d w
d a&csKd ;qdy}f ü a&csdK;awmfrNl yD; wpfcak om
opfyif&dyfü ta&SUt&yfodkY rsuf
1 ESmrlvsuf xdkifum xef;oD;rSnfhtaphcefY (xef;oD;rSnfh
vHk;cefUr[kwf) yrmP&Sdaom qGrf;vkyfaygif; av;q,fhudk;vkyfudk r,kwfrydk bkOf;ay;
awmfrl\/ ,if;av;q,fhudk;vkyfaom EdkYCemqGrf;onf bkk&m;jzpfNyD;aemuf owå
owåm[ (av;q,fhudk;&uf) ywfvkH; aAm"dyif\teD;t&yfü vSnfhvnfaom jrwfAk'¨
twGuf av;q,fhudk;&ufMum tpmtm[m&jzpfav\/ xdkav;q,fhudk;&uftwGif;
jrwfAk'¨tzkdY tjcm;aom tpmtm[m&[lonf rvkday/
CemEdYk qrG ;f udk bkO;f ay;NyD;aomtcgü bk&m;tavmif;onf a½Tcu
G u
f ,
kd u
l m
]]tu,fí igonf ,aeY bk&m;jzpfygrlum; þa½TcGufonf a&nmodkY qefygapom;/
tu,fí bk&m;rjzpfygrlum; a&pkefodkYarsmygapom;}} [k t"d|mefjyKí ae&ÍÆ&m
jrpfaMumü arQmav\/ xdak ½Tcu
G o
f nf jrpfv,frS tawmif&pS q
f ,fcefY a&nmodYk qefí
0JüjrKyfum umVe*g;rif;\ bkAH rd mefoYkd a&mufNyD; uukoef? aumP*k?H uóy[laom
a&S;bk&m;okH;qlwdkY\a½TcGufokH;vkH;atmufü wnfav\/ xdkYaemuf bk&m;tavmif;
onf aAm"dyifoYkd <uawmfrcl \
hJ / vrf;üaomwd,
¬ jrufxrf;orm; vSLaom jruf&pS q
f yk f
udk BuJjzefYaomtcgü ty&mZdwyv’ifaygufí ,if;yv’ifü aeawmfrl\/ ,if;odkYae
awmfrlpOf tmemygepsmefudk 0ifpm;íaeawmfrl&m aer0ifrDa'0ykwårm&fudk atmifjrif
awmfrl\/ nOfhOD;,mrfü ykaAÁed0goÓPf? oef;acgif,mrfü 'dAÁpu©KÓPfudk &awmfrl
cJh\/ rdk;aomuf,mrfüum; oAÁñkwÓPfudk&í bk&m;tjzpfokdY a&mufawmfrl\/
xdktcsdefonfum; r[mouú&mZf(103)ck? uqkefvjynfh? Ak'¨[l;aeY aet½kPfwufcsdef
yif jzpf\/
xl;jcm;aomqGr;f ESprf sdK;
omoemawmf0,f jrwfA'k t
¨ m;vSL'gef;MuaomqGr;f wdYk wiG f tjcm;tjcm;aom
qGrf;wdkYxuf tusdK;tmedoifBuD;rm;NyD; tcsif;csif;wlrQí tusdK;0dygufwlrQukefaom
qGrf;wdkYonf ESpfrsdK;om&Sd\/ ,if;qGrf;ESpfrsdK;rSm(1) ,ck okZmwmvSL'gef;aom CemEkdYqGrf;ESifh

18

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(2) pkE´a½Tyef;wdrfonf vSL'gef;aom awm0ufysdKom;qGrf;
wdkYyifjzpf\/ þü jrwfAk'¨tavmif;awmfonf okZmwmvSLaomqGrf;udk bkOf;ay;í
xdkaeYrSmyif bk&m;tjzpfodkY a&mufawmfrl\/ odkYaomf CemEdkYqGrf;udkbkef;ay;csdefü
&m*? a'go? arm[ paom udavomrsm; ruif;a0;ao;aom tavmif;awmfb0om
&Sdao;\/ pkE´vSLaomqGrf;udkum; &m*? a'go? arm[paom udavomuif;NyD;aom
tcsed üf bkO;f ay;awmfrjl cif;jzpf\/ þodYk qrG ;f ESpcf w
k Ykdukd bkO;f ay;csed f uGmjcm;Muygvsuf
tb,fhaMumifh tusdK;ay;jcif; wl&ygoenf;[k ar;jref;zG,f&Sdvm&\/ rdvdE´rif;onf
vnf; ,if;qGrf;ESpf&yfESifhywfoufí t&Sifem*aoerax&fudk xdkYtwlyif ar;jref;cJh
zl;ay\/
,if;ar;cGe;f ESiyhf wfoufí O'get|uxm? 'DCedum, r[m0*¾|uxmESihf
rdvdE´yO§mwdkY0,f atmufygtwdkif; ajz&Sif;xm;ay\/
,if;okdY tusdK;ay;wl&jcif;rSm(1) y&dedAÁmefpH0ifjcif;\taMumif;tjzpfwlrQjcif;?
(2) ormywfudk0ifpm;Edkifjcif;\taMumif;tjzpfwlrQjcif;ESifh
(3) aemuftcsdef0,f atmufarhykHwdkYwljcif;
[laom taMumif;okH;rsdK;aMumifh jzpfonf[kqdk\/
(1) y&deAd mÁ efp0H ifjcif;\taMumif;tjzpfwrl Qjcif;
jrwfA'k t
¨ avmif;awmfonf okZmwmvSLaomCemEdYk qrG ;f udk bkO;f ay;awmfrl
í oOyg'd aooedAÁme"mwfjzifh udavomy&dedAÁmefpH0ifawmfrl&\/ (bk&m;tjzpfodkY
a&mufawmfrl\[lvkd/) pkE´vSLaomqGrf;udkbkOf;ay;í tEkyg'daooedAÁme"mwfjzifh
cE¨y&dedAÁmefpH0ifawmfrl&\/ okZmwm vSLaom yPDwqGrf;udk rSD0JokH;aqmif&ojzifh
bk&m;tavmif;\oEÅmefü yPDw½kyfwdkYjzpfav\/ xdkyPDw½kyfwdkYudk rSD&m&&Sd
aomaMumifh udk,fawmfjrwfoEÅmefüjzpfonfh 0dyóempdwåKyÜg'fç r*fpdwåKyÜg'fç zkdvf
pdwKå yÜg'fwnf;[laom "r®um,onf tvG,w
f ulomvQif udavomwdYk ukd y,fpeG Yf Eikd f
\/ xdkYaMumifh udavomy&dedAÁmef0ifpH&\/ pkE´vSLaom yPDwqGrf;udk rSD0JokH;aqmif
&ojzifh xdkYtwlyif abmZeoyÜg, NyD;ajrmufjynfhpkHjcif;aMumifh cE¨mwdkYudk y,fpGefYEdkif
\/ cE¨y&dedAÁmef 0ifpH&\/ þodkY udavomy&dedAÁmef? cE¨y&dedAÁmefpH0ifjcif;\
taMumif;tjzpf wlrQaomaMumifh ,if;qGrf;ESpfyg;wdkYonf tusdK;ay;ykHjcif; wlrQMu
ay\/
(2) ormywfukd 0ifpm;Edik jf cif;\ taMumif;tjzpfwrl Qjcif;
jrwfAk'¨onf bk&m;jzpfrnfhaeYü okZmwmvSLaomqGrf;udk bkOf;ay;awmfrlí
uka#aygif; ESpfoef;av;odef; ta&twGuf&Sdaom t&[wår*f\taMumif;jzpfaom
ormywfwdkYudk 0ifpm;awmfrl\/ y&dedAÁmefpHawmfrlrnfhaeYüvnf; xdkYtwlyif jrwfAk'¨

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 19

onf pkEv
´ LS aomqGr;f udk bkO;f ay;awmfrí
l uka#aygif;ESpo
f ef;av;ode;f ta&twGu&f Sd
aom xdkormywfudkyif 0ifpm;awmfrlEdkif\/ þodkY ormywf0ifpm;Edkifjcif;\
taMumif;tjzpf wlrQjcif;aMumifh qGrf;ESpfyg;wdkYonf tusdK;ay;ykHjcif; wlrQMujcif;jzpf
\/
(3) aemuftcsed 0f ,f atmufarhyw
Hk Ykd wlrQjcif;
bk&m;jzpfNyD;onfhaemuftcsdefüum; okZmwmola|;uawmfonf ]]ig Cem
EdYk qrG ;f vSLcJah om yk*K¾d vfonf yanmifyifapmif½h u
k p© ;kd ewfrif; r[kwb
f ;l wJ/h xdyk *k K¾d vfol
jrwfum; bk&m;tavmif;wJh/ xdkbk&m;tavmif;onf igvSLaomCemEdkYqGrf;udk bkOf;
ay;okH;aqmifawmfrlí bk&m;tjzpfodkY a&mufawmfrlNyDwJh/ xdkjrwfAk'¨tzdkY&m owåXme
pHaeawmfrlpOf igvSLaom CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh rQwawmfrljcif;jzpfowJh}}[laom owif;
pum;udk Mum;od&av\/ xdo
k Ykd owif;aumif;udk Mum;od&í ]]ightzdYk &m t&awmfav
pG}}[k tzefzefatmufarhaom okZmwm\oEÅmef0,f yDwad omreów&m;rsm; txyf
xyf jzpfyGm;av\/
pkE´oEÅmefüvnf; jrwfAk'¨ y&dedAÁmefpHawmfrlNyD; aemuftcsdefü ]]igonf
aemufq;Hk qGr;f udk jrwfA'k t
¨ m; uyfvLS tyfNyDw/hJ ig\ qGr;f ESiyhf wfoufí jrwfA'k o
¨ nf
w&m;taygif;wdkY\ OD;xdyfozG,fjzpfaom edAÁmefudk,ltyfNyDwJh/ ighqGrf;udk bkOf;ay;
awmfrí
l jrwfA'k o
¨ nf tEkyg'daooedAmÁ e "mwfjzifh y&deAd mÁ efp0H ifawmfro
l wJ}h }[laom
owif;pum;ukd Mum;od&av\/ xdkodkY owif;pum;udk Mum;od&í ]]ightzdkY t&awmf
avpG}}[k tzefzefatmufarhaom pkE´\oEÅmef0,f yDwdaomreów&m;rsm; txyf
xyf jzpfyGm;av\/
þodYk tvSL&SiEf pS Of ;D wdYk \ atmufarhyw
Hk Ykdwrl Qjcif;aMumifh qGr;f ESpyf g;wdYk onf
tusKd;ay;ykHjcif; wlrQMuav\/ tjcm;tjcm;aom qGrf;wkdYxuf tusdK;tmedoif ykdrkd
BuD;rm;Muav\/
olaX;uawmf okZmwm\om;awmf armif,o
jrwfAk'¨onf owåowåm[vGefNyD;aomtcgü rd*'g0kefawmodkY<uawmfrlNyD;
yÍö0*D¾ nDaemifwdkYtm; "r®puúy0wåeokwfawmfESifh tewåvu©PokwfawmfwdkYudk
a[mMum;cJh\/ jrwfAk'¨onf ola|;uawmf okZmwm\om;,o\ r*fzdkvf&vwHh
aom taMumif;udk jrifawmfrlí wpfckaom opfyif&if;ü oDwif;okH;awmfrlav\/
,oola|;om;onf ola|;om;jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm tqif;vnf;vS\/
Opömvnf; &Sd\/ ,if;ola|;om;udk tysdKunm tacsmtvSrsm;uom tqdktu?
twD;trIwf? tacsmhtjrL? tauR;tarG;? t,kt,wdkYjzifh jyKpkay;aeav\/
ola|;om;onf a,mufsm;[lí tem;tuyfrcHay/ wpfaeYaomtcg ,oola|;om;
onf oef;acgif,mrftcsdefwGif wa&;Edk;vmí Munfhvdkuf&m vSunmrsm;rSm olao

20

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

aumifrsm;yrm wkH;vkH;yufvuf? rzkH;rzd? yg;pyfa[mif;avmif;? oGm;ykyf&nf pD;aMumif;
rsm;? w½SL;½SL; w*J*aJ [muforH sm;jzifh owdvufvw
G f tdyaf rmusaeonfukd pufqyk ½f HG
&SmzG,&f m awGUjrif&av\/ ,oola|;om;onf xdo
k Ykdpufqyk ½f &HG mS zG,rf sm;udk awGUjrif
&aomaMumifh oHa0*jzpfum ]]tcsif;wdkY.. ESdyfpufavpGwum;? n§if;qJavpGwum;}}[k
NiD;wGm;av\/ xdkYaemuf ,oola|;om;onf bkHeef;tqifhqifhtHhrcef;onfh rdrd\
jyom'fpHtdrfawmfBuD;udk okómef wpfpjyifyrm rSwfxifoGm;í aetdrfudkpGefYcGmNyD;
awmxGufoGm;av&m rd*'g0kefawm&Sd jrwfAk'¨\teD;odkY nwGif;csif; a&mufav\/
jrwfAk'¨\teD;okdY a&muf&müvnf; ,oola|;om;onf ,cif oHa0*udk usL;&ifhjyef
av\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨o1nf ,oola|;om;tm; uxmajcmufyg;w&m;awmfudk
tpOftwdkif;a[mawmfrl\/ ,if;uxmajcmufyg;wkdYrSm (1) 'geuxm?
(2) oDvuxm?
(3) o*¾uxm?
(4) r*¾uxm?
(5) umrmeH tm'De0uxmESihf
(6) aeu©ar®tmedoHouxmwkdYyifjzpf\/ ,if;uxmajcmufyg;w&m;awmfukd tenf;i,f &Sif;jyvkdygao;onf/
'geuxm
jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ,oowdYk om;tm; uxmajcmufyg;udt
k us,w
f 0ifah [mcJ\
h /
,if;wdkYwGif'geuxm = 'geESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;[lonfrmS
aumif;rI'geonf rsufarSmufb0wGifcsrf;om&ef? wrvGefb0wGifcsrf;om
&eftaMumif;jzpf\/ aemufqkH;edAÁmefa&mufzdkY&ef taMumif;jzpf\/ vlUpnf;pdrfç ewf
pnf;pdrf[laom pnf;pdrftrsdK;rsdK;\ taMumif;&if;vnf; jzpf\/ tokH;taqmif tm½kH
0w¬Krsm;? ,if;0w¬Krsm;udk okH;aqmifíjzpfaom csrf;omrIrsm;\ wnf&mvnf; jzpf\/
ab;a&m*gzdpD;cH&aomowå0grsm; tzdkYvnf; tapmifhta&Smufaumif;vnf; jzpf\/
ykef;atmif;&m ae&mvnf; jzpf\/ vm;a&muf&mvnf; jzpf\/ vJavsmif;&mvnf;
jzpf\/ þypöKyÜefavmu? wrvGefavmuwdkYü aumif;rI'geESifhwlaom rSD&m? wnf&m?
tapmifhta&Smufaumif;&m? ykef;atmif;&m? vm;&m? vJavsmif;&m[líum; r&Sdygacs/
aumif;rI'geonf rSD&mjzpfaomaMumifh oD[moeyv’ifESifh wl\/ axmuf
wnf&m jzpfaomaMumifh r[myx0DajrBuD;ESifh wl\/ þ'geaumif;rIonf tyg,f
qif;&JrS ul;ajrmufaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh avSoabFmESifh wl\/ avmb? rpä&d,
[laom &efoal b;r u
S if;apwwfaomaMumifh ol&aJ umif;ozG,v
f nf; jzpf\/ £óm?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 21

rpä&d,paom tukodkvftrdIufwkdYudk avmifuRrf;apwwfaomaMumifh rD;ozG,fvnf;
jzpf\/
þaumif;rI'geonf jrwfAk'¨wdkYoGm;cJhaom vrf;aumif;vrf;rSefvnf; jzpf
\/ bk&m;&Siw
f Ykd\tEG,t
f qufvnf; jzpf\/ igbk&m;onf yg&rDjznfu
h siphf Ofumvü
a0vmrtvSLBuD;? r[ma*g0dE´tvSLBuD;? r[mok'óetvSLBuD;? a0óEÅ&m tvSL
BuD;tp&Sdaom tvSLBuD;aygif;rsm;pGmwdkYudk vSL'gef;cJh\/ ,kefowå0g jzpfpOfüyif
igbk&m;onf rD;ykHwGif;odkY ckefqif;um rdrdudk,fudk tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vftm; pGefYvSLcJhzl;\/
þaumif;rI'ge[lonf avmuDa&;&mbufüvnf; odMum;rif;? rm&fewfrif;? jA[®m
rif;? pMumrif;[laom pnf;pdrftrsdK;rsdK;udkay;Edkif\/ aemufqkH; avmukwå&m bufü
vnf; om0uaAm"dÓPf? yapöuaAm"dÓPf? or®moarÁm"dÓPfwdkYudk ay;pGrf;Edkif
\.. ponf ponfjzifh jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ,o owdYk om;tm; 'geESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;udk
a[mMum;awmfrlcJh\/
oDvuxm
'geaumif;rIudkjyKrSom oDvudkapmifhxdef;EdkifaomaMumifh 'geuxmtNyD;ü
oDv uxmudka[m\/
oDvuxm = oDvESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;[lonfrmS þaumif;rIoDvonf owå0gwdkYtwGuf axmufwnf&m? vJavsmif;&m?
ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&mjzpf\/ þoDvonf jrwfAk'¨\tEG,fvnf;jzpf\/ igbk&m;onf
ocFygve*g;rif;? bl&d'wf e*g;rif;? parÜ,se*g;rif;? oDv0rif;? rmwkaygou
qifrif;? q'´efqifrif;jzpfpOftcg tp&Sdaom tqkH;r&Sdaom b0aygif;rsm;pGmwdkYü
oDvudk rusdK;rayguf rajymufrusm;atmif apmifhxdef;cJhzl;NyD/ ypöKyÜef? wrvGefb0
pnf;pdrftwGuf oDvESifhwlaomaqmufwnf&m rSDcdkp&m[lír&Sday/ oDvESifhwlaom
tqifwefqm[lí r&Sday/ þodkYtp&Sdonfjzifh oDvESifhpyfaom w&m;pum;udk
a[mMum;cJh\/
o*¾uxm
jrwfAk'¨onf oDvaumif;rIudkjyKí þrnfaomewf½Gmpnf;pdrfudk&&Sd\[k
jyqdkvdk aomaMumifh oDvuxmtNyD;ü o*¾uxmudk a[mawmfrljyef\/
o*¾uxm = ewf½mG ESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;[lonfrmS ewf½Gmok*wdudk vlwdkif;ESpfouf\/ awmifhw\/ ewf½Gmok*wdonf
vlwdkif;vlwdkif;\ pdwfudk wdk;yGm;pdkajyap\/ ,if;ewf½Gmü tNrJaysmf½TifrIudk&\/
pnf;pdrfcsrf;omudkvnf;&\/ pwkr[m&mZf ewfjynfonf vlUoufwrf;tm;jzifh
ESpfaygif;udk;oef;Mum ewfpnf;pdrfudk cHpm;&\/ wm0wðom ewfjynfonfum;

22

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vlUoufwrf;tm;jzifh ESpfaygif;okH;uka#ajcmufoef;Mum ewfpnf;pdrf udk cHpm;&\..
ponfponfjzihf o*¾uxmukd a[mMum;awmfrlchJ\/
r*¾uxm
jrwfAk'¨onf ewf½Gmcsrf;omtaMumif;udk a[mawmfrlNyD;aemuf ]]xdkewf½Gm
csrf;omonf &m*paom udavomwdkY tNrJwapn§if;yef;ESdyfpufcHae&\/ t&d,mr*f
um; udavomrS vGwfajrmufNyD;aomaMumifh udavomwdkY\ n§if;yef;ESdyfpufrI rcH&
ay/}} [lí jyqdk&eftwGuf o*¾uxm\ tjcm;rJhü r*¾uxm= t&d,mr*fESifhpyfaom
w&m;pum;udk a[mMum;awmfr\
l / ,if;r*¾uxmonf rsm;jym;vGe;f aomaMumifh þü
a&;om;jcif;rjyKawmhyg/
umrmeH tm'De0uxmESihf aeu©ar® tmedoo
H uxm
jrwfAk'¨onf ewf½Gmcsrf;omESifhpyfaomw&m;pum;jzifh ,oowdkYom;\
pdwfudk jzm;a,mif;qGJaqmifNyD;vQif þewf½Gmcsrf;omonfvnf; rNrJaom tedpö
oabmomjzpf\/ rcdkifcHhaom oabmw&m;omjzpf\/ xdkewfcsrf;omü om,m
wyfrufrI rjzpfoihfay/ 0w¬Ktm½kH umr*kPfwdkYrnfonf om,mzG,fenf;yg;í qif;&J
yifyef;rIuomrsm;ay\/ þ0w¬Ktm½kH umr*kPf trsm;pkü om,mrIonf wpfa½G;
avmufom&Sd\/ tjypfwdkYonfum; jrif;rdk&fawmifavmuf rsm;jym;\}} tp&Sdonfjzifh
umr*kPf\tjypfrsm;? ,kwfnHhjcif;rsm;? ,if;umr*kPfw&m;wdkYonf owå0gwdkYtm;
n§if;qJESdyfpufjcif;rsm;udk tus,fw0ifha[mMum;\/
xdu
k mrw&m;wdYk ü tjypfa'gorsm;vSonfEiS t
hf rQ &[ef;tjzpfro
S nf edAmÁ ef
wdik af tmifaom aeu©rw
® &m;tpkü tjypfa'gouif;jcif;? qif;&J'u
k e© nf;yg;jcif;paom
umr*kPfrS xGufajrmufjcif;ü tusdK;tmedoifwdkYudk tus,fw0ifha[mMum;awmfrl\/
þodkY jrwfAk'¨onf 'geuxmtp&Sdaom uxmajcmufyg;jzifh a[mMum;
awmfrlNyD; opömav;yg;udk jyawmfrlaomtcgü jzLpifaomt0wfudk qdk;&nfjzifhqdk;
ouJhodkY ,oowdkYom;onf 'd|d? 0dpdudpämuif;vsuf ½kwfjcnf;yif aomwmywdåzdkvfü
wnfcJhav\/
tazaomwmyef? om;&[EÅm
xdktcg ,o\tdrfüvnf; ,o\rdcif okZmwmola|;uawmfonf eHeuf
apmapmxí om;,opH&m jyom'fxufodkYwufí Munfhavaomf om;,oudk rawGU
jrif&ojzifh idkauR;jrnfwrf;um vifawmfarmif,oola|;tm; om;aysmufaMumif;udk
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 23

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24

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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t&Sif,o\r,m;a[mif;wdkYonf jrwfAk'¨xHodkYcsOf;uyfí ½dkaopGm&Sdcdk;NyD; oihfawmf
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yg;pyfo&P*kHom rsm;av\/ o&P *kHqdkonfrSm udk;uG,ftm;xm;p&mtjzpfjzifh
,kHMunfqnf;uyfjcif; jzpf\/ rdrd###BOT_TEXT###amp;ifwGif; ESvkH;om;twGif;rS ]]&wemokH;yg;om

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 25

tm;xm;udk;uG,f&mtppf}}[k pGJNrJ,kHMunfrSom o&P*kHwnfav\/
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(aMumufr)I ? avmuDq&m jzpfrpI aom taMumif;wdYk aMumifh ud;k uG,Mf uav\/ odYk aomf

26

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

,if;udk;uG,frIonf o&P*kH rajrmufay/ ,kHMunfjrwfEdk;í udk;uG,frSom o&P*kH
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bmom0ifom jzpfEdkif\/
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ig;rsdK;um; &Sd\/ (odkYaomf) qkawmif;jcif;um;r&Sd/ xdkoltm; vm;&m
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 27

pGefYBuJay;urf;jcif; pm*? avmuDtodÓPfynm þw&m;ig;yg;&Sdyif &Sdjim;aomfvnf;
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0ufysdKom;qGrf;wdkYrSm xl;jcm;aom qGrf;wdkYjzpfaMumif; rdefYqdkcJhay&m þCemEdkY
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tvSLudk jyKvkyfonf jzpfap apwemokH;weft&if;cHí jyKvkyfoihfay\/

28

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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toufudk pGefYEdkifonftxd o&P*kHokH;yg;udk pdwfygvufygjzpfatmif jyKpkysdK;axmif
oihfay\/ ,if;odkYjzpfap&efvnf; pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;&Sif okZmwm ola|;orD;udk
twk,loihfay\/
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cHpm;aeMu&m ,if;tm½kiH g;yg;teufrS tawGUtxdücHpm;rI (azm|AÁm½k)H udk taumif;qk;H
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awGUEdkifay\/ odkYaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGif owdoHa0*&í umr*kPfudkpGefYvGwfNyD;
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temrJhuif;? tm;tifjynfhNzdK;? rSwfÓPfwdk;um csrf;omokcESifh jynfhpkHrnfjzpfay\/
wpfzef þokZmwmtaMumif;0,f jrwfAk'¨onf okZmwmwdkYtdrfom;rsm;ESifh
,oowdkYom;\r,m;a[mif;wdkYudk w&m;a[majym&mwGif w&m;um; twlwlyif/
a[mMum;onfh ae&mom uGmjcm;ay\/ jrwfAk'¨onf wpfaeYwnf;üyif 'geuxm
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ojzifh ,aeYacwf trsdK;orD;rsm;onf rdrw
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YX;WZ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 29

tcef;-3

awmf0ifpx
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w&m;awmfudkem,lpOf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨onf trsdK;aumif;orD;wpfOD;tm; tvSL'ge
ay;urf;jcif;ü arGUavsmfaomt&m0,f tomqkH; tjrwfqkH;jzpfaom awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*f &mxl;ü xm;awmfro
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taygif;wGif {w'*fbGJUxl;udk &&ygvdk\}}[k awmif;qkqdkcJh\/
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uóybk&m;&Sifvufxufawmfüum; umodwdkif;&Sif uduDrif;BuD;\ orD;awmf (7)
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30

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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(2) orP*kwåm rif;orD;?
(3) bdu©KeD rif;orD;?
(4) bdu©K'g,dum rif;orD;?
(5) "r®m rif;orD;?
(6) ok"r®m rif;orD;?
(7) oHC'goD rif;orD;?
txufazmfjyyg orD;awmf(7)a,mufwdkYonf a*gwrjrwfAk'¨vufxuf
awmfüum; tpOftwdkif; atmufazmfjyygtrnfwdkYudk&vsuf omoem0,f xif&Sm;
Muav\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1) acrmax&Dr?
(2) OyÜv0Pfax&Dr?
(3) y#mpm&max&Dr?
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(5) "r®'dEémax&Dr?
(6) r,fawmfrm,ma'0D (jrwfAk'¨\r,fawmft&if;)ESifh
(7) 0domcg 'g,dumrBuD;wdkYjzpfay\/
txufazmfjyyg uduDrif;BuD;rSm orD;awmf(7)a,mufomru om;awmf
yx0dE´& ukrm&? orD;awmf O&pä'gwkdYvnf;&SdMuao;\/ yx0dE´&ukrm&onf
a*gwrjrwfAk'¨vufxufü o'¨gyAÁZdÆw t&m0,f awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;&
t&Sif&|ygvrax&fyifjzpf\/ orD;awmf O&pä'gonf uóy jrwfAk'¨vufxufüyif
bk&m;&Sif\ qGrf;tEkarm'emw&m;udk emMum;&ojzifh crnf;awmf uduD rif;BuD;
aomwmyefwnfaomaeYü &[EÅmjzpfcJhav\/
xl;jcm;aomukov
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qdk;&nfwdkYudk ay;vSLcJh\/ ,if; tvSL'gerSm 0domcgb0wGif r[mvwmwefqm&
jcif;\taMumif;&if;jzpfcJh\/ wpfzef EdkY&nf? EdkY"rf;? axmywf? &ufwuf? qDOD;[laom
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ay;onfhEGm;rsm;xufydkum EGm;rsm;NcHrS ckefxGufí wm;qD;ír&bJ ygvmjcif;\

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 31

taMumif;&if;yif jzpf\/
uóyjrwfA'k x
¨ H qkawmif;jcif;
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rdrd\trBuD;rsm;ESifhtwlvnf; 'gepaom ukodkvfaumif;rIwkdYukdjyKvkyf\/ uóy
jrwfAk'¨\xHyg;üvnf; ]]aemif yGifhvwHhaom jrwfAk'¨vufxufü ypönf;av;yg;jzifh
axmufyHhvSL'gef;aom trsdK;orD;wdkYwGif tjrwfqkH; tomqkH; jzpf&ygvdk\}} [k
pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;udk awmif;qkqdkcJhav\/
þae&mü aumrm&jA[®p&d,[lonf oli,ft½G,frSpí usifhtyfaom jrwf
aom tusifhudkac:jcif;jzpf\/ rdef;ra,mufsm;ESpfOD;om;wdkY\ aysmfjrL;aygif;zuf
qufqHjcif;udk rjrwfaomarxkeftusifh[k qdk\/ ,if;arxkeftusifhudk i,fi,f½G,f
½G,frSpí toufqkH;onfhwdkif a&SmifMuOfjcif;onf aumrm&jA[®p&d,odu©myk'fudk
xdef;odrf;jcif;jzpf\/ trSefrSm aumrm&jA[® p&d,odu©myk'fudk apmifhxdef;jcif;rSm
tjA[®p&d,odu©myk'fudk apmifhxdef;jcif;yif jzpf\/ odkYaomfvnf; xdkpOf uduDrif;BuD;
\orD;awmf(7)a,mufpvkH; apmifhokH;aom aumrm&jA[®p&d,odu©myk'frSm q,fyg;
oDvwkdYudk apmifhokH;jcif;jzpfaMumif; t|uxmq&mu ñTefjyxm;ay\/
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tem*wfb0wkdYü aumif;usdK;&a&;twGuf aumif;rGefonfhtaMumif;uHwkdYudk aqmuf
wnfMuaom todÓPf&SdolwdkY\vkyf&yfwdkYudk tm;usenf;,loihfay\/
aemufq;Hk b0ü 0domcg[k trnfwiG jf cif;
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trnfudk ]0domcg}[k rdbaqGrsdK;taygif;wdkYu ac:a0:cJhMu\/ 0domcg eu©wfESifh
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[k jyqdkxm;\/ wpfzef t&Sify@dwmbd0Ho (,ck ygarmu©csKyf? e.y.o)uvnf;

32

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

b'd´,NrdKU\ wnfae&mESifhpyfvsOf;í atmufygtwkdif; jyqdkxm;aMumif; avhvmod&Sd
Edkifay\/
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rka*F& (rk*F,m&f)pD&ifpkwGif yg0ifonf/
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awmfrjl cif;rSm qGr;f ? ouFe;f paom ypön;f av;yg;udk &vdrk aI Mumifrh [kwaf y/ pifppfum;
qif;&Jolrsm;? rvdr®molrsm;? tdkrif;&ifha&mfolrsm;? tema&m*gpGJolrsm;onf jrwfAk'¨
xHodkYzl;jrif&ef rvma&mufEdkifMuay/ xdkodkYaomolrsm; zl;ajrmfEdkif&eftvdkYiSgomvQif
a'opm&Dukd <ucsDawmfrjl cif;jzpf\/ jrwfA'k ¨ <uawmfro
l jzifv
h nf; xkv
d w
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f nf
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ukef\/ t,lrSm;udkvnf; y,f&Sm;í t,lrSefudk vufcHMuukef\/ xdkolwdkY\ tpD;
tyGm; tvdkYiSg a'opm&D<ucsDawmfrljcif;jzpf\/
wpfenf;tm;jzifh ZCF0d[m&\tpGrf;jzifh udk,fcsrf;omjcif; tusdK;iSgvnf;
aumif;? tw¬KyÜwdåumvudkawmifhwjcif;tusdK;iSgvnf;aumif;? &[ef;awmfwdkYtm;
odu©myk'fynwfawmf rljcif;tusdK;iSgvnf;aumif;? £a`E´&ifhusufí uRwfxdkuf
aomolwkdYudk opömav;yg;udkodapjcif; tusdK;iSgvnf;aumif;? jrwfAk'¨wdkYonf a'o
pm&DvSnfhvnfjcif;yifjzpf\/ tjcm;aomtaMumif;t&mrsm;vnf;&Sdao;\/ tcsKyf
tm;jzifhqdkaomf jrwfAk'¨xHrvma&mufEdkifaomoludkvnf;aumif;? vltrsm;taygif;udk
vnf;aumif;? pD;yGm;csrf;omMumjrifhpGmjzpfjcif;tusdK;iSg a'opm&DvSnfhvnfMu
jcif;jzpf\/
xdk0domcgola|;orD; ckepfESpft½G,fokdY a&mufaomtcgü jrwfAk'¨onf
aovykPÖm;tp &SdaomykPÖm;ola|;ESifh tjcm;uRwfxdkufaoma0ae,swdkY\ r*fzdkvf
&aMumif; a&S;aumif;rIESifh jynfhpkH jcif;udk jrifawmfrlí rsm;pGmaom &[ef;taygif;
NcH&Hvsuf a'opm&Dc&D; <ucsDawmfrlonf&Sdaomf t*Fwdkif;? b'd´,NrdKUodkY qdkufa&muf
awmfrlav\/
bke;f uHBuD;rm;olig;OD;
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(2) ola|;BuD;\ZeD; pE´y'krmola|;uawmfBuD;?
(3) om;awmf"eÍÆ,ola|;?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 33

(4) xdk "eÍÆ,ola|;\ZeD; okrea'0Dola|;uawmf?
(5) ar@uola|;BuD;\ ykPÖuRefwdkYjzpf\/
avmuü vlwdkYonf rdrdwdkY\pGrf;tifudk pkHprf;vdkMuonfrSm "r®wmyif
jzpf\/ xdkoabm w&m;twdkif;yif txufazmfjyygig;OD;wdkYonfvnf; rdrdwdkY\
tmEkabmfudk atmufyg twdkif;pkHprf; cJhMuay\/
(1) ar@u ola|;Bu;D / / wpfaeYaomtcgü ola|;BuD;onf rdrt
d mEkabmfukd
pkHprf;vdkonfjzpfí pyg;usDtvkH;aygif; (1ç250)wdkYudk okwfoif&Sif;vif;ap\/ ukd,f
wkdifum; OD;acgif;aq;avQmfNyD;aemuf wHcg;0üxdkifaevsuf xufaumif;uifodkY
armfMunfah v\/ xdck P0,f pyg;usD tm;vk;H wdYk rmS oav;eDpyg;wdYk jzifh jynfv
h sufom;
jzpfMuavukef\/
(2) pE´y'krm ola|;uawmfBu;D / / wpfaeYaomtcgü ola|;uawmfBuD;onf
tqifwefqmpkH0wfqifNyD; vltaygif;Munfh½IaepOfyif qefwpfjynfcefYudkjcifapí xdk
qefjzifh xrif;csufcdkif;\/ xdkYaemuf wHcg;rkcfteD;0,fxdkifí ]]xrif;tvdk&Sdol
wdkYonfvmMuukef}}[k a<u;aMumfapí vmwdkif;vmwdkif;aomolwdkYtm; cGuftjynfh
xnfhí ay;vSLav\/ wpfaeYvkH; ay;vSLaomfvnf; a,mufrjzifh cyf,laomae&m
omxifí usefonfhxrif;tdk; t&mr,Gif;bJ &Sdav\/
(3) "eÍÆ, ola|;Bu;D / / ola|;BuD;onf OD;acgif;aq;avQmfNyD; aiGwpfaxmif
tdwfudk,lí ]]tojymwpfaxmifwdkYjzifh tvdk&SdaomolwdkYonf vma&mufMuukef}}
[kqdkí vmwdkif; vmwdkif;aomolwdkYtm; tojymaiGwdkYudk cGuftjynfhxnfhay;av\/
,if;odkYay;aomfvnf; aiGtdwfü tojymaiGwpfaxmifwdkY &SdNrJ&Sdonfomjzpf\/
(4) okrea'0D ola|;uawmf / / ola|;uawmfonfvnf; tqif;wefqm
pku
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d í
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f m tvd&k o
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jynfhNrJjynfhonfom jzpf\/
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tpGyfwkdYudkpGyfvsuf v,fawmodkYoGm;a&mufí v,fxGefjyav\/ ,if;odkYv,fxGef&m
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uola|;? Z#dvolaX;? ykPÖola|;? umu0vd,ola|;[lí ola|;BuD;av;OD;wdkY

34

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

&SdMuao;\/
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t½G,ftm;jzifh ckepfESpft½G,fom &Sdao;aomfvnf; olawmfaumif;wdkY\ tqkH;trudk
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¨ nf
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awmftqkH;ü 0domcgonf trsdK;orD;ig;&mwdkYESifhtwl aomwmyefwnfcJhav\/
ar@uola|;BuD;onfvnf; jrwfAk'¨xHodkY oGm;a&muf&Sdcdk;av\/ xdktcg
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teD; jrwfav;awmü oDwif;okH;awmfrlcdkuf ar@uola|;BuD;oGm;a&mufzl;ajrmf\/
,if;ola|;BuD;onf jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;awmfudkemMum;&ojzifh aomwmyefwnf\/
aemufwpfaeYqGrf;pm;yifhí qGrf;tvSLw&m;awmfudkemMum;&ojzifh ola|;uawmfBuD;?
om;? acR;rESifh ykPÖuRefwkdY aomwmyefwnfMu\}}[k jyqdkxm;onfudk awGU&\/
,if;r[m0g ygVdawmfpum;&yfudkMunfhaomf jrwfAk'¨ b'd´,NrdKUodkY yXrqkH;tBudrf
<ua&mufí ar@uola|;BuD;wdkYrdom;pk aomwmyefwnfMu&mü 0domcgtrsdK;orD;
i,f ryg0if[k ,lqzG,f&Sday\/
odkYaomfvnf; ]]jrwfAk'¨onf tpOftm;jzifh b'd´,NrdKUodkYa&muf&Sdvmaomf
jrwfAk'¨\ a'oemawmfaMumifh bkef;uHBuD;olig;OD;wdkYonfvnf;aumif;? "eÍÆ,\
orD;0domcgonfvnf;aumif; aomwmywdzå v
kd o
f Ykda&muf\}}[laom y#dord'Ç g r*¾t|
uxmvm pum;&yfESifh ]]jrwfAk'¨ b'd´,NrdKUodkY <uvmcsdef0,f 0domcgonf trsdK;orD;
ig;&mwdkYESifhtwl jrwfAk'¨tm; c&D;OD;BudKqdk\/ xdkBudKqdkyGJ yxrqkH;zl;arQmf&mtcgüyif

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 35

aomwmyefwnfonf}} [kqakd om rlvyPÖmot|uxmvmpum;&yfwYkd ukd axmufq
aomf jrwfAk'¨ b'd´,NrdKUodkY yXrtBudrf<uvmpOfuyif 0domcg aomwmyefwnfonf
[k rSwf,l&ygrnf/ BudKqdkonf[l&müvnf; yxrqkH; <uvmawmfrlonfhtwGufom
þuJhodkY crf;crf;em;em; BudKqdkjcif;jzpf&m\/
txufazmfjyyg pum;&yfwdkYudk csdefxdk;Munfhaomf 0domcgonf jrwfAk'¨
tm;BudKqdkonfh yGJüom aomwmyefwnfonf[k rSwf,l&ayrnf/ tdrfom;tm;vkH;
aomwmyefwnfMu&mü &uftenf;i,fESifh tcsdefem&Dtenf;i,fom uGmcsifuGmrnf
jzpf\/ xdYk aMumifh jrwfA'k ¨ b'd,
´ NrdKUodYk yxrtBudraf &muf&pdS Ofuyif 0domcgtygt0if
ola|;BuD;rdom;pktm;vkH; aomwmyefwnfMuonf[kom rSwf,l&ef&Sday\/
0domcgwdrYk o
d m;pk tdraf jymif;a½TjU cif;
aumovrif;onf AdrdÁom&rif;uJhodkY wdkif;BuD;t&SifwpfOD;yif jzpf\/ r*"
wdik ;f &Sif Adro
Ád m&rif;ESihf aumovwdik ;f &Sif bk&ifaumovwdYk onf wdik ;f BuD;ESpw
f ikd ;f \
t&Sifocifrsm;tjzpf oihfjrwfae½kHrQru rlvuyif ESrcsif;zvS,fí ,lxm;Muojzifh
aqGrsdK;awmfpyfNyD;om;yif jzpf\/ r*"wdkif;wGif olrwlatmif csrf;om<u,f0Muonfh
wdkif;jynfusufoa&aqmifola|;BuD; ig;OD;&Sdaomfvnf; aumovwdkif;ürlum; wpfOD;
csif;taejzifh csrf;omaom oef;<u,fola|;? uka#<u,fola|;rsm;rSm wpfOD;wpf
a,mufrQyif r&Sad cs/ xdYk aMumifv
h nf; aumovrif;onf a,mufzawmf Adro
Ád m&rif;xH
ola|;wpfa,mufay;&ef awmif;cHcJh\/
þrQcsrf;om<u,f0onfh oef;<u,f uka#<u,fola|;BuD;rsm;udk rif;
tmPmjzifh ae&mra½GUpaumif;[k AdrdÁom&u ½Ijrif\/ ½Ijrifonfhtwdkif;yif wpfOD;
wpfa,mufrQay;í rjzpfEdkifaMumif; aumovrif;tm; taMumif;jyefvdkuf\/
aumovrif;onfvnf; rnfonfhola|;udkyif&& ola|;wpfa,muf&aomf auseyf
rnf[k qdkvdkuf\/ xdkYaMumifh AdrdÁom&rif;onf trwfwdkYESifh xdktaMumif;udk wdkifyif
aqG;aEG;av\/ trwfwdkYu ]]tuREfkyfwdkYonf trdwabm* ola|;BuD;rsm;\ tdrf
axmifpkudk ykdYoapvTwfjcif;iSg rwwfEdkifygukef? okdYaomf ola|;om;wpfa,mufudkom
ydkYMuygukef}}[k wdkifyifajymqdkMuukef\/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;\ qkH;jzwfcsuft&
ar@uola|;BuD;\om; "eÍÆ,ola|;udk aumovwdik ;f Edik if o
H Ykd oGm;a&mufaexdik &f ef
awmif ; yef M uav\/ Ad r d Á o m&rif ; onf trwf w d k Y \pum;ud k Mum;od a pí
"eÍÆ,ola|;udk aumovwdkif;EdkifiHodkY ydkYoapvTwfav\/ xdktcg "eÍÆ,ola|;udk
aumovrif;onf om0wd¬aejynfawmfrS ckepf,lZem uGma0;aom omauw NrdKUü
ola|;&mxl;ay;í aeapav\/

36

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

owdo
Yk rD;&SmykaH wmfc&D;
vlom;urÇmBuD;wGif tdrfaxmifjyKrI? om;orD;arG;zGm;rIwdkYr&SdbJ tu,fí
&yfqdkif;oGm;rnfqdkvQif urÇmavmuBuD;onf ESpfwpf&mumvtwGif;wGif toHwdkYrS
qdwfokOf;vsuf ysif;&dp&m bkHavmuBuD;wpfcktjzpfodkYom ajymif;vJoGm;rnfjzpf\/
vlom;urÇmBuD;aysmf½TifzdkY? pnfyifzdkY? wnfwHhzdkYta&;twGuf tdrfaxmifom;arG;
jyKvkyf&rnfhudprö Sm rvTJra&Smifomaom wm0efyifjzpf\/ a&SUacwftcgu tdEd´,
jynfwGifvnf; rdrdwdkY\trsdK;tEG,fudk rqdwfokOf;&eftwGuf rdrdwdkY\om;orD;wdkYudk
tdrfaxmifjyKay;jcif;jzifh rdrdwdkY\rsdK;½dk;wdkYudk rwdrfaum&ef tm;xkwfrIjyKMu\/
þom0wd¬jynfüvnf; rd*g&ola|;\om; ]ykP0Ö ¹keowdo
Yk m;}onf t½G,f
odYk a&mufae\/ xdYk aMumifh rdbwdYk u 0wå&m;&So
d nft
h wdik ;f tdr&f mcsxm;ay;&ef ajymqdk
Muav\/ odkYaomf om;jzpfolu tdrfaxmifjyKzdkY&efjiif;cJh\/ rdbwkdYu twif;tMuyf
wdkufwGef;aomtcgwGifrlum; aumif;jcif;ig;yg;ESifhjynfhpkHaomtrsdK;orD;udk&&Sdygu
vufxyfrnfjzpfaMumif;ajymqdkcJh\/
þü aumif;jcif;ig;yg;[lonf(1) qHyif\aumif;jcif;?
(2) tom;\aumif;jcif;?
(3) t½dk;\aumif;jcif;?
(4) ta&\aumif;jcif;?
(5) t½G,\
f aumif;jcif;yifjzpf\/ þaumif;jcif;ig;yg;rSm bke;f uH&adS om trsdK;o
rD;wdkYwGifom jynhfpkHay\/ ,if;aumif;jcif;ig;yg;udk tus,ftm;jzifh &Sif;vif;jyoyg
OD;rnf/
(1) qHyif\aumif;jcif;[lonfqHyifonf a'gif;NrD;udk pnf;aESmifxm;ouJo
h Ykd nDnm\/ ajzícsvu
kd o
f nf&dS
aom qHzsm;onf zaemifhwdkifatmifxdí aumhñGwfaomqHzsm; &Sd\/ þum; qHyif\
aumif;jcif;wnf;/
(2) tom;\aumif;jcif;[lonfEIwfcrf;onf yuwdtwdkif;(jyKjyifrIr&SdbJ) usD;tmoD;uJhodkY eDjref;aom
EIwfcrf;&Sd\/ EIwfcrf;onf aumif;pGmaphonfjzpfíxd\/ þum; tom;\ aumif;
jcif;wnf;/
(3) t½dk;\aumif;jcif;[lonfoGm;wdkYonf acgjcif;r&Sday/ ay:jcif;r&Sd? rpdyfrusJay/ ½GJudkpDxm;bdouJhodkY
nDnm\/ ykvv
J ;Hk uJo
h Ykd oefY&iS ;f jzLpif\/ aumif;pGm wnf;jzwftyfaom c½koif;uJo
h Ykd
tedrfhtjrifh r&Sd/ yuwd nDñGwf\/ t½dk;tqpfwdkYvnf; racgrx ajyjypfacsmarGU\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 37

þum; t½dk;\ aumif;jcif;wnf;/
(4) ta&\aumif;jcif;[lonfrnf;aomñdkaomtqif;&Sdaom trsdK;orD;tm; ñdkaomtqif; tp&Sdonf
jzpfí rwGefYrvdyfaomudk,fa& &Sd\/ udk,fa&onf acsmarGUajyjypf\/ MumñdkyGifh
yef;qdkif;ESifhwlaomtqif; &Sd\/ a½Taomtom;&SdaomtrsdK;orD;tm; r[mavScg;yGifh
tqif;uJhodkY 0g0if;awmufyaom tqif; &Sd\/ þum; ta&\aumif;jcif;wnf;/
(5) t½G,f\aumif;jcif;[lonfq,fBudrw
f ikd w
f ikd f om;orD;wdYk ukd zGm;jrifNyD;aomfjim;vnf; wpfBudro
f m;zGm;
aomoluJhodkY t&nftqif; ,kwfavsmhysufpD;jcif;r&Sd/ þum; t½G,f\ aumif;jcif;
wnf;/
ola|;ESifhola|;uawmfwdkYonf ykPÖm;&Spfa,mufwdkYtm; aumif;jcif;ig;jzm
ESifh jynfhpkHaom owdkYorD;udk&SmazG&ef apvTwfvdkuf\/ aumif;jcif;ig;jzmESifh jynfhpkH
aom owdYk orD;udak wGUaomtcgüvnf; yef;uk;H pGyEf ikd &f ef tzd;k wpfoed ;f wef a½Tyef;uk;H
udkvnf; ay;vdkufav\/ xdkykPÖm;wdkYonf NrdKUtoD;toD;odkYvSnfhvnf&SmazG&if;
rawGUaomaMumifh omauwNrdKUüqufvuf&SmazG&ef a&muf&SdvmMu\/
xdktcsdefonfum; omauwNrdKUü ESpfpOfusif;yNrJjzpfaom ]0d0#eu©wf
yGo
J bif} qif,ifusif;yaecsdefvnf; jzpf\/ tjcm;tjcm;aomtcsdefwdkYü tdrftjyifodkY
rxGufaomolwdkY aomfrSvnf; xdkeu©wfyGJobifü 0ifa&mufqifETJMuav\/ xdkaeYü
rif;? ykPÖm;? ol<u,ftp&Sd onfwdkY\om;wdkYonfvnf; rdrdESifhwlrQaom trsdK;tEG,f
&Sdaom trsdK;orD;wdkYudk yef;ukH;jzifh ypfcsa½G;aumuftHh[kBuHí eu©wfyGJobif
usif;y&mjrpfqdyfem;ü apmifhMuavukef\/ owdkYorD;&SmMuaom ykPÖm;wdkYonfvnf;
jrpfurf;eHab;&Sd Z&yfwpfckü wnf;cdkMuav\/
,if;eu©wfyGJobifusif;yaecsdefonfum; 0domcgonf touft½G,ftm;
jzifh wpfq,fih g;ESp?f wpfq,fah jcmufEpS t
f ½G,yf if jzpf\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifu
h m; vSaoG;
<u,faeonfh tcsdeftcgyifjzpf\/ 0domcgonf t½G,fwl trsdK;orD;i,f ig;&mwdkY
ESifhtwl wefqmqifvsuf eu©wfyGJobifodkY yg0ifqifEGJ&ef jrpfqdyfodkYqif;vmMu\/
xdktcdkufwGif rdk;onf;xefpGm½GmoGef;av\/ tazmfjzpfMuaom trsdK;orD;i,fwdkYonf
tajy;tvTm;jzifh Z&yfxJodkY0ifvmMu\/ 0domcgrlum; rdef;rwdkY\ £a`E´tysufrcHbJ
ykHrSeftaetxm;jzifh rdk;pdkcHvsuf aemufqkH;rS0ifvm\/ ykPÖm;wdkYonf xdktcsdeftcg
ü 0domcg\qHyif? tom;? ta&? t½G,fwnf;[laom aumif;jcif;av;yg;wdkYESifh
jynfph aHk Mumif; jrifawGU&\/ ykPmÖ ;wdYk onf t½d;k \aumif;jcif;wnf;[laom oGm;wdYk ukd
Munf½h v
I akd omaMumifh 0domcgtm; atmufygtwdik ;f ar;jref;av\/ 0domcgonfvnf;
ar;jref;orQudk ajzqdkav\/
(owkdYorD;&Smolrsm;) ]]orD;..oifonf t½G,fBuD;&ifhaomrdef;rBuD;uJhodkY oGm;

38

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

a,mifwum;/
(0domcg)
]]zcifwYkd.. oifwYkdonf tb,fujkd rifí ajymqdMk uoenf;/
(owdkYorD;&Smolrsm;) cspforD;ESit
hf wlwuG upm;azmf jzpfMuonfh tjcm; trsdK;
orD;i,fwdkYonf rdk;pdkrnfudk aMumufMuaomaMumifh
tvsit
f jref ajy;vmí Z&yftwGi;f odYk 0ifMu\/ oifonf
um; t½G,fBuD;&ifhaomrdef;rBuD;uJhodkY ajcvSrf;udkvGefí
rvmacs? t0wfudk rdk;pdkrnfudkvnf; oifra&wGufygay?
tu,fí oihfudkqifjzpfap? jrif;jzpfap vmcJhygvQif oif
onf þuJhodkYyif aESmifhaES; av;uefpGmjyKvkyfrnfavm/
(0domcg)
]]zcifwdkY.. t0wfqdkonfrSm &cJaomt&mr[kwfyg? orD;
\ tdrfüt0wfrsm;udk &vG,fygukef\/ t½G,fa&mufMu
onfh rdef;rwdkY[lonfum; a&mif;ukefESifhwlMuygonf/
ajy;oGm;ojzifh rawmfwq vuf? ajcwdkYusdK;oGm;cJhygu
t*FgcsdKUwJah omrde;f rudk a,mufsm;wdYk onf pufqyk ½f &HG mS pGm
wHawG;axG;íyif oGm;Muukev
f rd rhf nf/ wpfzef trsdK;orD;
onfvnf; ajy;íroGm;oihfol av;OD;xJwGif wpfOD;tyg
t0ifjzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh ajy;íroGm;yg/ jznf;jznf;pGm
omvQif vm&jcif;jzpfygonf}}[k &Sif;vif;ajym Mum;a
v\/
þae&mü ajy;oGm;írwifw
h ,foal v;a,muf&Sday\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1) tbdodufa&pifoGef;avmif;NyD;aomrif;onf rif;ajr§mufwefqmESifh
cg;awmif;usdKufíajy;roGm;oihfay/ tu,fí ajy;oGm;cJhvQif ]]'Drif;
[m omrefvv
l ykd g yJ}}[k uJ&h UJ jypfwifjcif;cH&rnfom jzpf\/ xdYk aMumifh
rif;onf ajy;oGm;í rwifhw,fyg/
(2) &Sifbk&if\ r*Fvmqifawmfonf wefqmqif,ifvsuf vsifjrefpGm
oGm;jcif;onf rwifhw,fyg/
(3) &[ef;awmft&Sijf rwfonfvnf; vsifjrefpmG ajy;oGm;onf&adS omf rwifh
w,fyg/ ]]þ&[ef;onfum; vluo
hJ Ykd yif vsifjrefpmG ajy;oGm;bd\}}[k
uJh&JUzG,fjzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh jznf;jznf;oGm;vmjcif;jzifhom wifhw,f
ygonf/
(4) rdef;rwdkYrnfonf jznf;jznf;om oGm;oifhygonf/ tb,faMumifhqdk
aomf ]]þ rdef;ronfum; a,mufsm;uJhodkY vsifjrefpGm ajy;oGm;av
onf}}[k uJ&h UJ ½Iwcf sjcif;udck &H Edik \
f / xdYk aMumifh rde;f rwdYk tm; jznf;jznf;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 39

oGm;jcif;onfom wifhw,fay\/
ykPÖm;wdkYonfvnf; 0domcgtrsdK;orD;i,f\ pum;qdkaomtcgü oGm;
(t½dk;)\ jynfhpkHjcif;udkjrif&í ]]þodkYoabm&Sdaom aumif;jcif;ig;jzmESifhjynfhpkHaom
owdkYorD;udk igwdkYonf wpf&HwpfcgrS rawGUjrifbl;ay}}[k tcsif;csif;ajymqdkvsuf
0domcgtm; aumif;csD;ay;av\/ toif,
h al qmifvmaom a½Tyef;uk;H udv
k nf; 0domcg
tm; yefqif&ef tyfESHukef\/
aphpyfyt
JG crf;tem;
xdt
k cg 0domcgonf ]]igonf a&S;tcgu odr;f ydu
k rf cH&ao;ol jzpfacsonf/
,cktcgum; odr;f ydu
k cf &H NyD;oljzpfacsonf}} [k qifjcifum ,Ofaus;aom tjcif;t&m
jzifh ajrüxdik af v\/ xdo
k wdYk orD;&SmolwYkdonf 0domcgudk xdak e&müyifuefYvefYumjzifh
0ef;&HMuav\/ 0domcgonf uefYvefYumjzifh vTrf;NcHtyfonf\tjzpfudk od&SdNyD;vQif
trsdK;orD;i,f taygif;NcH&Hvsuf tdrfodkY jyefoGm;av\/ rd*g&ola|;vlrsm;onfvnf;
0domcgESifhtwlwuGvQif "eÍÆ,ola|;\tdrfodkY vdkufygoGm;Muav\/
"eÍÆ,ola|;u ]]tarmifwdkY.. oifwdkYonf tb,f½Gmüaeolrsm; jzpfMuyg
oenf;}}[k ar;av\/ xdkolwdkYu ]]uREfkyfwdkYonf om0wd¬jynf&Sd rd*g&ola|;\
vlrsm;jzpfMuygonf/ uREfkyfwdkY\ ola|;u t&Sifola|;wdkY\tdrf0,f t½G,fa&muf
aom orD;unm&Sdonf[k owif;pum;Mum;&í uREfkyfwdkYudkapvTwfcJhygonf...}}
tp&Sdonfjzihf taMumif;pkHukd ajymMum;av\/ "eÍÆ,ola|;u ]]aumif;NyDtarmifwdkY
.. oifwYkd\ ola|;onf pnf;pdrOf pömtaetm;jzifh igwdYk EiS rhf wlnaD omfvnf; trsKd ;Zmwf
tm;jzifhum; wlnDay\/ pnf;pdrfa&m? trsdK;Zmwfyg tvkH;pkHtjcif;t&mESifh jynfhpkH
oludkum; &cJvSay\/ oifwdkYonf jyefMuukefavm? oifwdkY\ola|;tm; igwdkYu
vufcHvdkufaMumif;udk jyefajymMuukefavmh}}[k rSmMum;vdkufav\/
rd*g&ola|;\vlrsm;onf "eÍÆ,ola|;\pum;udk Mum;emMuNyD;vQif
om0wd¬odkYjyefcJhMu\/ rd*g&ola|;tm;vnf; ]]t&Sifola|;.. uREfkyfwdkYonf omauw
NrdKUü "eÍÆ,ola|;\tdrf0,f owdkYorD;udk &tyfcJhygNyD}}[k ajymqdkMuav\/
xdkpum;udkMum;&í rd*g&ola|;onf ]]jrwfaom trsdK;BuD;ü igwdkYonf owdkYorD;udk
&tyfcNhJ yDw}hJ }[k 0rf;omaompdw&f &dS um; xdck Püyif "eÍÆ,ola|;txHoYkd ]],cktawm
twGif;yif owdkYorD;udk vma&muf,laqmifygrnf/ jyKoihfjyKxdkufaom udprö sm;udk
jyKvkyfxm;Muapcsifygonf}} [k owif;pum; o0PfvTmyg;vdkufav\/ "eÍÆ,
ola|;uvnf; rd*g&ola|;xHodkY ]]þjyKoihfjyKxdkufaomudpörsm;udk jyKvkyfxm;&ef
igwdkYtzdkY&m 0efrav;yg/ pifppfaomfum; oifola|;onfom rdrdjyKvkyfaqmif½Guf
&rnfhudpöudk jyKvkyfaqmif½Gufapcsifygonf}}[k twkHYowif;pum; o0PfvTmjyef

40

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vdkufav\/
txufazmfjyygwdkYudk axmufqaomf tdEd´,"avhxkH;pHt& Zmwfudkom
tav;xm;aMumif;awGU&\/ rdrdwkdYESifh bmomt,l0g'wlçrwludkum; tav;rxm;
ay/ xdkacwfu EdkifiHa&;ü bmoma&;a&m,SufrIr&Sdí BuD;BuD;us,fus,f jyóem
rjzpfjcif;aMumifhvnf; jzpfEdkifay\/
om0wd¬jynfrS rd*g&ola|;onf owdkYorD;&SmolwdkYjyefvmí taMumif;pkHudk
od&aomtcg rdrdxufcsrf;om<u,f0onfh "eÍÆ,ola|;BuD;\orD;udk acR;rawmf&
rnfhtwGuf 0rf;omum aumovrif;xH 0ifa&mufoHawmfOD;wifawmh\/ aumov
rif;uvnf; xdkrdom;pkukd rdrdudk,fwdkif ac:,lvmcJhjcif;omjzpfaomaMumifh auseyfESpf
ouf½kHru ESpfOD;ESpfzufudk csD;ajr§mufonfhtaejzifh r*FvmyGJodkYyg wufa&muf csD;jr§ifh
rnf[k trdeYf &v
dS u
kd \
f / þodYk jyKjcif;onf rdrrd mS vnf; wm0efausí aus;Zl;od&mvnf;
a&mufay\/ aumovrif;BuD;udk,fwdkif vdkufygcsD;jr§ifhjcif;onf t&d,m om0dumr
0domcg\t&Sdeft0gaMumifhvnf; jzpfEdkifay\/
r[mvwmwefqm
r*FvmyGt
J wGuf om0wdE¬ iS hf omauwNrdKUwdYk tjyeftvSeq
f ufo,
G Mf uvsuf
omauwNrdKUü r*FvmyGJudpu
ö dk tppt&m&mvdkavao;r&Sdatmif BudKwifpDrHaeMu\/
0domcg qifjref;&eftwGuf r[mvwmwefqmjyKvky&f eftwGuv
f nf; a½Tyef;xdrq
f &m
(500)wdkYudk ac:,lí vkyfap\/
xdw
k efqmudk a½Tpif edu (1000)? pde(f 4)pv,f? ykvJ (11)pv,f? oEÅm(22)
pv,f? ywåjrm;(33)pv,fEiS hf tjcm;aom&wemwdYk jzifh rGr;f rHqif,ifxm;\/ csnBf udK;
jzifhjyKvkyf&rnfhae&mwGif aiGBudK;jzifh tpm;xdk;í jyKvkyf\/ Mu,foD;twGuf a½TMu,f
oD;udk tokH;jyK\/ uGif;rsm;udk aiGjzifh jyKvkyfxm;\/ OD;acgif;tv,fü uGif;wpfck?
em;&if;ü uGif;ESpfck? vnfyif;ü uGif;wpfck? ykqpf'l;0ef;ü uGif;ESpfck? wHawmifqpfESifh
cg;apmif;ESpfbufwdkYü uGif;ESpfckpD wyfxm;\/
xdrk [mvwmwefqmü Oa'gif;½kyw
f pf½yk f yg&S\
d / xdOk a'gif;½ky\
f wpfzuf
wpfcsufü a½TeDjzifh jyKvkyfxm;aom iSufawmifarG;ig;&mpD yg&Sd\/ iSufawmifarG;
\ t½dk;wdkYudk aiGom;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;\/ EIwfoD;udkoEÅmjzifh jyKvkyfxm;\/ rsufvkH;?
vnfwHESifhtNrD;wdkYudk ywåjrm;jzifh jyKvkyfxm;\/ Oa'gif;½kyfonf 0domcg\ OD;xdyf
tv,fü Oa'gif;em;aeouJo
h Ykd jrif&ol\pdwu
f kd xifap\/ tem;uyfMunhrf S Oa'gif;
iSut
f &Sirf [kwrf eS ;f od&\/ xdw
k efqmudk OD;acgif;rS pGyv
f u
kd yf gu ajczrd;k a&mufatmif
zkH;vTrf;rd\/ 0wfqifoGm;ygu iSufawmifyHwpfaxmif\toHonf wl&d,mig;yg;
toHuJhodkY om,memaysmfzG,f&Sd\/
,if;r[mvwmwefqm\ pkpkaygif;wefzdk;rSm oef;aygif;(90)wef\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 41

vufcwpfodef; ay;&\/ þrQavmuftzdk;xdkufwefaom r[mvwmwefqmudk 0wf
qifEdkifolwdkYrSm jrwfAk'¨ vufxufawmfu (3)OD;om&SdaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/
,if;okH;OD;rSm
(1) 0domcg?
(2) AE¨KvppfolBuD;\ZeD; rvd’um?
(3) Am&mPoDola|;orD; wdkYjzpf\/
þuJo
h Ykd 0domcgtwGuf þr[mvwmwefqmudk 0wfqif&jcif;rSm uóy
jrwfA'k v
¨ ufxufawmfu oHCmawmfEpS af omif;udk ouFe;f vSLcJrh aI Mumifo
h mvQif jzpfay
\/ rdef;rwdkYtwGuf ouFef;vSL&jcif;\ txG#ftxdyftusdK;onf r[mvwmwefqm
udk 0wfqif&jcif;yif jzpf\/ a,mufsm;wdkYtwGuf ouFef;vSL&jcif; txG#ftxdyf
tusdK;rSm {[dbdu©Kjzpf&jcif;yifjzpf\/ þonfuakd xmufqaomf ]{[d bduK© }omvQif
omoemawmfü &SdEdkifay\/ ]{[d bduK© e}D [k omoemwGif r&SdEdkifyg/ tb,faMumifhqdk
aomf trsdK;orD;wdkYtwGuf ouFef;vSLjcif;\txG#ftxdyftusdK;onf r[mvwm
wefqmudkom 0wfqif&jcif;omjzpfaomaMumifhyif jzpf\/
þü {[dbdu©K[lonf ouFef;vSLcJhjcif;wnf;[laom a&S;aumif;rI&SdNyD;
uRwfxdkufaom a,mufsm;jzpfaomoludk jrwfAk'¨u ]]{[d bdu©K}}[k ac:vdkuf½kHrQjzifh
wpfNydKifeufomvQif oydwf? ouFef;wdkYonf tvdktavsmufjynfhpkHí 0g-60^70
&aom rax&fBuD;rsm;uJhodkY jzpfoGm;jcif;yif jzpf\/
0domcg\ r*FvmyGBJ uD;
xd0k o
d mcg\r*FvmyGBJ uD;odYk om0wdE¬ iS hf omauwNrdKUwdYk rS rdom;pkwYkd EiS ahf >c&H
oif;yif; rsm;? aumovrif;BuD;ESifh aemufygrsm;wdkYu <ua&mufcsD;jr§ifhMu\/ "eÍÆ,
olaX;BuD;onfvnf; orD;0domcgtm; a,mu©rtdrüf rsuEf mS ri,f&bJ csr;f csr;f omom
aeEdkif&eftwGuf atmufazmfjyyg vufzGJUypönf;wdkYudk ay;vdkufav\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1) aiGtjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(2) a½Ttdk;? a½TcGuftjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(3) aiGtdk;? aiGcGuftjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(4) aMu;eDtdk;cGuftjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(5) axmywftdk;tjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(6) csnfxnf? ydk;xnftjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(7) qDtdk;tjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(8) oav;qeftjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(9) xGefwkH;? xGefoGm;tjynfh vSnf; (500)?
(10) tvkyftauR;trsdK;orD; (1500)wdkYjzpf\/

42

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

xdYk jyif tarT;eHYomzd;k twGuf aiG (540)oef;udv
k nf; ay;vdu
k \
f / olyikd q
f ikd f
aom uRef½Gm(14)½GmrS ½Gmol½Gmom;tm;vkH;onfvnf; rdrdwdkY\qE´tavsmuf vdkufyg
oGm;Mu\/ 0domcg\ a&S;aumif;rIt&Sdeft[kefaMumifh wm;jrpfydwfyifxm;onfh
Mum;rSyif owfrSwfxm;onfh EGm;rsm;xufydkí EGm;aygif;wpfodef;ESpfaomif;wdkYvnf;
vdkufygoGm;Muay\/ þodkYjzpfjcif;rSm uóy jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmftcgu oHCm
ESpfaomif;tm; ]]awmfNyD? jynfhpkHNyD}}[k wm;jrpfonfhwdkifatmif EGm;EdkYt&omig;rsdK;udk
ay;vSLrIaMumifhyif jzpf\/
txufazmfjycJhaomypönf;rsm;onf rNrJaomtedpöoabmomjzpf&um;
vlraI ygif;oif; qufqaH &;wGit
f ok;H 0ifap&eftwGuv
f nf;arQmu
f ;kd í "eÍÆ, ola|;BuD;
onf orD;0domcgtm; Mo0g'q,fcsufukd ajymqdq
k ;Hk rvdu
k af o;\/ ,if;q,fcsufrmS
atmufygtwdkif;jzpf\/
(1) twGif;urD;udk tjyifrxkwf&/
(2) tjyifurD;udk tdrfwGif;odkYroGif;&/
(3) jyefay;olwdkYtm;om ay;&rnf/
(4) jyefray;olwdkYtm; ray;&/
(5) jyefay;onfjzpfap? ray;onfjzpfap ay;&rnf/
(6) csrf;ompGm aexdkif&rnf/
(7) csrf;ompGm pm;&rnf/
(8) csrf;ompGm tdyf&rnf/
(9) rD;udk ½dkaopGm vkyfauR;&rnf/
(10) tdrfwGif;ewfudk &Sdcdk;&rnf/
,if;Mo0g' (10)csu\
f t"dymÜ ,ftjynft
h pku
H u
kd m; t&d,mjzpfaom 0domcg
onfum; od&Sdem;vnfay\/ wpfxGmjyvQif wpfawmifjrif\/ xdkYaMumifhyif zcif
"eÍÆ,ola|;BuD;u ,if;Mo0g'wdYk ukd tus,f&iS ;f vif;rjyjcif;om jzpf\/ ,if;Mo0g'
wdkYudkMum;&aom rd*g&ola|;tzdkY rSmum; ya[VdqefqefomvQif rSwfxifrd\/ vQdKU
0Sucf suf[yk if,q
l \/ xdo
k Ykd Mo0g'pum;udk ajymMum;NyD;aemuf "eÍÆ,ola|;BuD;onf
rif;y&dowftv,fü ol<u,f&SpfOD;udktmrcH,lapí orD;0domcgtm; tyfESHcJhav\/
þum; 0domcg\r*FvmyGJwnf;/
þü 0domcgonf tdrfaxmifjyK&mü bmomjcm;udk,lxm;aMumif; awGUjrif
Edkifay\/ odkYaomfvnf; 0domcgonf aomwmyeft&d,myk*dK¾ vfjzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm
bmomjcm;0g'udk vufcHusifhokH;rnfum; r[kwfygay/ ,ckacwfüum; ]tdraf xmifrI
bk&m;wnf? aq;rif&nfpkwfxdk;? þokH;ck csufrydkif? aemifjyif&efcufonfhtrsdK;} [k tdrf
axmifjyKjcif;udk bk&m;wnfjcif;? aq;rif&nf pkwfxdk;jcif;uJhodkY wpfcgjyKvkyfNyD;ygu

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 43

aemifwpfcgjyefvnfízsufjcif;iSgcufcJaMumif; vlBuD;olrrsm;u om;orD;wdkYudk qkH;r
ay\/ jrefrmvlrsdK;trsm;pk\ ,Ofaus;rItpOftvmwdkYonf Ak'¨bmomudk tajccH
ay\/ tajctaet& bmomjcm;tm;aygif;zufrnfqdkaomf rdrdwdkY\ ,Ofaus;rI
tpOftvmudkxdef;odrf;í rdrdwdkYouf0if,kHMunfonfh Ak'¨bmomxJodkY0ifa&mufrnfh
vufwaJG zmfukd &SmazGoihaf y\/ þtcsufonf trsdK;om;rsm;tzdYk &m trsdK;orD;wdYk xuf
vG,ful aumif;vG,fulEdkifay\/ odkYaomfvnf; jrefrmAk'¨bmom0ifwpfa,muf tae
jzifhum; t,lonf; bmomjcm;wpfa,muftm; Ak'¨bmomodkYul;ajymif;atmif pnf;½kH;
&rnfhta&;rSmum; vG,fulrnfhvrf;pudk vkH;0rjrifygay/ pnf;½kH;onfholom rsm;aom
tm;jzifh vufwGJazmfaemufodkY ygoGm;onfom rsm;ay\/ xdkY aMumifh bmomjcm;tm;
rpnf;½k;H Edik rf nft
h wlwl rdrEd iS b
hf momwlaom jrefrmtrsKd ;aumif;om;? trsKd aumif;orD;
wdYk ukd &SmazGí aygif;zufoihaf y\/ ]apmifah vrsKd ;EG,}f [laomusif0h wf t*FgESiahf vsmfnD
pGm bmomjcm;udk ta0;ua&Smif&Sm;í jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI tpOftvmwdkYudk xdef;odrf;
apmifha&Smufoihfay\/
0domcgtzd&Yk m bmomjcm;ESi,
hf &l jcif;

kur© sm;
r*FvmyGJBuD;NyD;aomtcg 0domcgonf omauwudkcGJcGgNyD; cifyGef;onf
\om0wd¬odkY vdkufygcJh&av\/ om0wd¬odkYa&mufvmcsdefü0domcgonf rdrdwdkYtm;
BudKqdak omolrsm;tm; jrifap&eftwGuf r[mvwmwefqmud0k wfqifvsuf tumt&H
rygaom &xm;udkpD;um om0wd¬NrdKUwGif;okdY 0ifav\/ BudKqdkMuaom NrdKUolNrdKUom;
wdkYonf 0domcgwdkYZeD;armifESHtm; vufaqmifypönf;rsm;udk ay;Muav\/ 0domcgwdkY
uvnf; wpfzefjyefí vufaqmifwdkYudkay;av\/ 0domcgonf taz tarwefonfh
t½G,u
f kd taztarac:\/ tpfukd tpfrwefonfukd tpfut
kd pfrac:av\/ þodYk jzifh
0domcgonf t½G,fESifhxdkufwefpGm qufqHwwf\/ aqGrsdK;&if;csmuJhodkY oabm
xm;um cifrifap\/ þodkYay;urf;jcif;jzifh pnf;½kH;jcif; EIwfxGufcsdKomjcif;jzifh rdrd
bufodkYygatmif pGJaqmifEdkifjcif;wdkYonf 0domcg\*kPf&nfwdkY[kyif qdk&rnfjzpf
acs\/
om0wd¬odkYa&mufonfhn\ nOfhOD;,mrftvGefü olrtdrfwGif tmZmenf
jrnf;rwpfaumifonf om;zGm;av\/ 0domcgonf uRefrrsm;tm; qDrD;wdkifudk
udkifapí xdktmZmenf jrnf;rzGm;&modkY oGm;cJh\/ xdkYaemuf jrnf;rudka&aEG;jzifh
a&csdK;ay;apav\/ qDjzifhvnf;vdrf;usH ay;apav\/ xdkYaemuf rdrdaexdkif&mtdrfodkY
jyefvm\/
rd*g&ola|;onf om0wd¬NrdKUü xyfrHí0domcgwdkY\ r*Fvm{nfhcHyGJudk
ckepf&ufwdkifwdkif usif;ycJhav\/ ckepf&ufajrmufaomaeYü t0wfr0wfaom wuú
wGef;wdkYudk zdwfrHí ae&may;um {nfhcHauR;arG;av\/ xdktcsdefrSpí 0domcgtzdkY&m

44

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

bmomjcm;ESi,
hf &l jcif;\ 'kuw
© YkdrmS pwifjzpf ay:cJah v\/ a,mu©rjzpfol rd*g&ola|;
onf acR;r0domcgtm; ]]&[EÅmwdkYtm; zl;jrif&ef vmcJhyg}}[k ac:cdkif;av\/ 0domcg
onf aomwmyeft&d,mjzpfonft
h m;avsmfpmG ]]&[EÅm}}[kMum;ojzifh ½Tiv
f ef;wuf<u
oGm;av\/ odkYaomfvnf; vma&mufzl;ajrmufonfhtcgwGif txifESifhtjrifonf
vGJawmh\/ t&SuftaMumufuif;rJhpGm t0wfr0wfaomwuúwGef; wdkYudkawGUjrif&
ojzifh ratmifhEdkifbJ ]]pufqkwf½GH&SmzG,fygwum;}}[k EIwfrSxGufrdav\/ a,mu©r
jzpfol rd*g&ola|;tm;vnf; ac:&aumif;vm;[k tjypfwifrdav\/
þodkYjzpfjcif;rSm jrwfAk'¨\wynfh t&d,mom0dumrjzpfjcif;aMumihfyif
jzpf\/ omref yk*dK¾ vfjzpfygrlum; a,mu©rrsufESmudk axmufxm;jcif;? rdrd\ ÓPf
tjrifwdkY enf;yg;jcif;paom taMumif;aMumif;wdkYaMumifh tcdkuftwefYtm;jzifh pdwfü
rygaomfvnf; &Sdcdk;aumif;&Sdcdk;ayvdrfhrnfum; trSefyifjzpf\/ þü t&d,m 0domcg
\vkyf&yfum; trsm;tjrifwGif roihfawmfaomfvnf; jrwfAk'¨\ t&d,morD;awmf
jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm rdrd\ tusifh? oDvwdkYudk tnpfEGrf;cHrnfum; r[kwfyg/
aomwmyefwYkd rmS um; o&P*ku
H ykd suf½;kd xk;H pH r&Syd gay/ odYk aomfvnf; bmomjcm;rd*g&
onfum; 0domcgtm; auseyfrIr&Sdygay/
,if;odkYpdwfrausrcsrf;jzpfaepOfyif taMumif;wpf&yf ay:vmjyefay\/
wuúwGef;wdkY jyefoGm;aomtcgü 0domcgonf xrif;pm;aeaomrd*g&tm; 0domcg
onf ,yfcyfíaeav\/ xdktcsdefü jrwfAk'¨\om;awmf&[ef;wpfyg;onf qGrf;cH&yf
vmav\/ rd*g&ola|;onfum; rjrif [efaqmifvsuf pm;NrJpm;av\/ 0domcgu
oabmrus/ xdYk aMumifh rnfoYkd rQrwdu
k w
f eG ;f ygbJ ]]uefawmhqrG ;f ygbk&m;? wynfah wmf
r\ a,mu©rBuD;onf tpma[mif;udkom pm;aeygonf bk&m;}} a,mu©rBuD; owd
w&m;&ap&ef tvdr®mokH;í avQmufxm;vdkufav\/ rd*g&ola|;onf wuúwGef;wdkY
tm;ajymcJhpOfu rsdKodyfcJhaomfvnf; ]]tpma[mif;udkom pm;aeonf}}[laompum;udk
um; onf;rcHEdkif jzpfcJh&av\/ rd*g&onf tpma[mif;udkom pm;aeonfqdkonfrSm
rpifudkpm;aeonf[kxifí 0domcgtm; tdrfrSESifxkwfap\/ tvkyform;wdkYu
ESifxkwfzdkYa0;pG? EIwfjzifhyif rajym&JMuacs/
xdktcg 0domcgonf ]]tdkzcif.. þrQaompum;jzifh uRefawmfrwdkYonf
þtdrfrS rxGufEdkifMuyg/ uRefawmfrudk oifzcifwdkYonf a&qdyfrSa&cyfaom
uRefrwdkYuJhodkY ,laqmif vmcJhonfr[kwfyg/ xif&Sm;&Sdaom rdbESpfyg;wdkY\ orD;
aumif;rsm;rnfonf þrQjzifhxGufcGgoGm;½dk; r&SdMuyg/ taMumif;aMumif;aMumifhyif
uRefawmfr\zcifonf þom0wd¬odkYvmrnfhaeYü ol<u,f&SpfOD;udk ac:apí
]]tu,fí ighorD;udktaMumif;jyKí tjypfwpfpkHwpf&mjzpfay:vmygu tarmifwdkY
ajz&Si;f ay;Mu&rnf}} [k ajymqdí
k xdo
k <l u,f&pS Of ;D wdYk vufü uReaf wmfrudk tyfEv
HS u
kd yf g
onf/ xdkolwdkYudkac:apí uRefawmfr\tjypf&Sd? r&Sdudk ajz&Sif;Muapvdkygonf}}[k

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 45

ajymqdkav\/ rd*g& onfvnf; tmrcHol<u,f&SpfOD;tm;ac:,lí ajz&Sif;av\/
txufazmfjyygwdkYudk Munfhaomf bmomjcm;wdkYESifh vufxyfaomolwdkYü udk;uG,frIrS
ab;&efjzpfjcif;omvQif jzpf\/
w&m;qk;H jzwfyJG
rd*g&ola|;\wiforQaompGJcsufwdkYudk 0domcgonf tmrcH o<u,f&SpfOD;
udk w&m;olBuD;t&mxm;NyD; ajz&Sif;csufay;cJhav\/ ,if;wdkY\pGJcsufESifh ajz&Sif;
csufwdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpf\/
(pGJcsuf-1)

þowdkYorD;onf þtdrfodkYa&mufNyD; ckepf&ufrQrjynfhrDyif
uREfkyfudk ]]rpifpm;}}[líajymqdk\/ ,if;tcsufudkajz&Sif;ay;yg/
(ajz&Sif;csuf-1) ]]zcifwdkY...orD;\a,mu©ronf rpifudkpm;jcif;iSgtvdk&Sdí jzpfyg
rnf/ þuJhodkYrpifpm;[lí rajymqdkyg/ trSefpifppfrSm qGrf;cH
&[ef;awmfwpfyg; tdro
f Ykd qrG ;f cH<uvm&mü þa,mu©ronf pdwüf
rxm;yg/ xdkYaMumifh orD;u ]]uefawmhqGrf;ygbk&m;? wynfhawmfr
\a,mu©ronf ,ckb0ü ukodkvfaumif;rI topfudkrjyKyg/
ta[mif;jzpfaom ukodkvfaumif
1 ;rI\tusdK;udkom pm;okH;ygonf}}
[k þrQudkom ajymqdkrdyg\/
þpGJcsufü tmrcHol<u,fwdkYu 0domcgtjypfr&SdaMumif; qkH;jzwfMuav\/
(pGJcsuf-2)

þtdrfodkYpa&mufaomnü nOfheufoef;acgif tdrfazmfwdkYjzifh tdrf
aemufaz;odkY qif;oGm;jcif;udk ajz&Sif;ay;yg/
(ajz&Sif;csuf-2) ,if;odkYoGm;a&mufjcif;\taMumif;um; þtdrfü tmZmenfjrnf;r
om;zGm;jcif;udpjö zpfcJh\/ ],if;odo
Yk m;zGm;aeygvsuf todtrSwu
f rkd Q
rjyKbJ aexdik jf cif;rnfonf roihaf vsm}f [k pOf;pm;um uRefrwdkYtm;
qDrD;wdkifrsm;udk udkifpGJapí xdkom;zGm;&mt&yfodkY oGm;a&mufNyD;vQif
jrnf;rtwGuf om;zGm;jcif;udpaö pmifha&SmufrIudk jyKapcJhygonf/
þpGJcsufüvnf; 0domcgtjypfr&SdaMumif; tmrcHol<u,fwdkYu qkH;jzwfMuav\/
(pGJcsuf-3)

"eÍÆ,ola|;BuD;uoifay;vdu
k af om qk;H raomvQdKU0Supf um; (10)
csufudk ajz&Sif;ay;yg/
(ajz&Sif;csuf-3) zcifwYdk .. ,if;vQdKU0Supf um;(10)csuf\t"dygÜ ,fukd &Si;f vif;ygrnf/

46

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(1) ]twGif;rD;udktjyifodkYrxkwf&} [lonf a,mu©ra,mufsm;?
a,mu©rrdef;r? cifyGef;onfwdkY\*kPfaus;Zl;rJhjzpfaom tjypfwdkYudk uRefrdef;r?
uRefa,mufsm;tp&SdolwdkYtm; rajymoihfykHudk&nf½G,fí qdkjcif;jzpfonf/ ,if;
pum;rsm;onf us,fyGm;vmvQif cdkuf&efjiif;ckHrIjzpfvmwwfygonf/ yuwd
rD;udk qdkvkd&if;r[kwfyg/ þtwGif;rD;udk &nf&G,fí orD;\zcifu ]]twGif;rD;
udk tjyifodkYrxkwf&}}[k Mo0g'pum;udk ajymMum;cJhjcif;omjzpf\/
(2) ]tjyifr;D udt
k wGi;f odrYk oGi;f &}[lonf ywf0ef;usif tdrfeD;em;csif;
wdkYu a,mu©ra,mufsm;? a,mu©rrdef;r? cifyGef;onfwdkY\ *kPfaus;Zl;rJh
tjypfpum;wdkYudkajymMum;jcif;udkMum;cJhaomf wpfqifhjyefrajym&ef qdkvdk&if;
jzpf\/ þtjyifr;D ud&k nf&,
G í
f orD;\zcifu ]]tjyifr;D udt
k wGi;f odYk roGi;f &}}
[k Mo0g'pum;udk ajymMum;cJhjcif;omjzpf\/
(3) ]jyefay;olwt
Ykd m;om jyefay;&rnf}[lonf rdrdtdrfrS iSg;&rf;xm;
aom tokH;taqmifypönf;rsm;udk wpfzefjyefí ay;aomoltm;omvQif
aemufxyfwpfzefiSg;&rf;ay;urf;&rnfudk qdkvdkygonf/
(4) ]ray;aomolwt
Ykd m;ray;&}[lonf rdrdtdrfrSiSg;&rf;xm;aom
tok;H taqmifypön;f rsm;udk wpfzefjyefí ray;aomolwYkdtm; aemufxyfwpfzef
riSg;&? ray;&[k qdkvdkygonf/
(5) ]ay;aomoltm;aomfvnf;aumif;? ray;aomoltm;aomf vnf;
aumif; ay;&rnf}[lonf qif;&JEGrf;yg;aomaqGrsdK; rdwfo*F[rsm;a&mufvm
MuvQif wpfzefjyefíay;Edkifonf jzpfap? ray;Edkifonfjzpfap ay;urf;jcif;iSg
omvQif oihfavsmf\[laom t"dyÜg,fudk qdkvdkygonf/
(6) ]csr;f ompGmaexdik &f rnf}[lonf a,mu©ra,mufsm;? a,mu©r
rdef;rwdkYudkjrifvQif rwfwyfx&rnfhae&mü xdkifae&ef roihfavsmf[laom
teuft"dyÜg,fudkqdkvdkygonf/
(7) ]csr;f ompGm pm;&rnf}[lonf a,mu©ra,mufsm;? a,mu©r rdef;
r? cifyGef;onfwdkYxuf a&S;OD;pGmrpm;&efESifh ,if;wdkY avmufavmufiSiS
pm;aomuf&NyD;rS pm;yg[laomt"dyÜg,fudk qdkvdkygonf/
(8) ]csr;f ompGmtdy&f rnf}[lonf a,mu©ra,mufsm;? a,mu©r rde;f
r? cifyGef;onfwdkYxuf a&S;OD;pGmrtdyf&[laom t"dyÜg,fudk qdkvdkonf/
(9) ]rD;udk ½dkaopGmvkyfauR;&rnf}[l o nf a,mu© r a,muf s m;?
a,mu©rrdef;r? cifyGef;onfwdkYudk ½dkaopGmjyKpkvkyfauR;&rnf[laom t"dyÜg,f
udkqdkonf/
(10) ]tdrw
f iG ;f ewfwu
Ykd kd &Scd ;kd &rnf}[lonf toD;tjcm; tdrf,mudk
tkyfpdk;aexdkifaomtcsdefupí rdrdtdrfodkY <uvmaom &[ef;awmfudkjrifvQif

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 47

&[ef;awmftm;vSLNyD;rSom rdrdpm;oihfonf[laomt"dyÜg,fudk qdkvdkygonf/
("r®y'|uxm\ tvdt
k m;jzifu
h m; a,mu®ra,mufsm;? a,mu©rrde;f r? cifyeG ;f
onfwdkYudk ewfwdkYuJhodkY tav;tjrwfjyK&rnfudk qdkvdkygonf/)
þpGJcsufüvnf; 0domcgtjypfr&SdaMumif; tmrcHol<u,fwdkYu qkH;jzwfMuav\/
xdktcg tmrcHol<u,frsm;? rd*g&ola|;ESifh 0domcgwdkY qufíajymqdkMuonfrSm(tmrcHol<u,frif;rsm;) b,fvdkvJ.. ola|;rif;... uREfkyfwdkY\ orD; tzdkY&m
tjcm;aom tjypf&Sdygao;oavm/
(rd*g&) r&Sdawmhyg vlBuD;rif;wdkY/
(tmrcHo<l u,frif;rsm;) ola|;rif;.. xdo
k Ykd jzpfygvsuf tb,faMumift
h jypfrhJ
aom orD;udk taMumif;r&SdbJ tdrfrSESifxkwfapygoenf;/
xdktcg 0domcgu ]]zcifwdkY.. orD;\tzdkY&m orD;\a,mu©rajympum;jzifh
tvsifpvdk þtdrfrSxGufoGm;&ef roihfavsmfygacs/ trSefuawmh orD;þtdrfodkY
vdu
k v
f maomaeYü orD;\ tjypf&?dS r&Sd okwo
f if&iS ;f vif;Edik &f ef orD;zcifu zcifwYkd\
vuf0,f tyfEí
HS ay;vdu
k yf gonf/ ,ckru
l m; orD;tjypfr&Sad Mumif; okwo
f if&iS ;f vif;
NyD;jzpfí ,cktcg orD;jyefomG ;zdYk &m csrf;omygNyD}} [k ajymqdNk yD;aemuf rdr\
d uRefred ;f r?
uRefa,mufsm;wdkYudk ]],mOfponfwdkYudk pD&if jyKjyifrIjyKMuavmh}}[k trdefYay;av\/
xdktcg rd*g&ola|;onf xdktmrcHol<u,fwdkYudkac:,lí 0domcgudk ]]orD;..
igonf rodíajymqdkcJhrdygNyD? ightm;onf;cHygavmh}}[k awmif;yefpum;ajymMum;
av\/ xdktcg 0domcgu ]]zcifwdkY.. zcifwdkYtay:ü onf;cHoihfaomt&mudk orD;
a&S;OD;uyif onf;cHyg\/ orD;txl; ajymcsifonfrSm orD;um; bk&m;&Sif\ omoem
awmfü rwkefrvIyfouf0if,kHMunfaom trsdK;orD; jzpfygonf/ orD;wdkYonf &[ef;
oHCmESifhuif;uGmí rjzpfEdkifMuyg/ tu,fí orD;tvdkustwdkif; &[ef;oHCmudk
jyKpkvkyfauR;cGifh&ygrl þtdrfüaeygrnf/}} [k ajymqdkav\/ rd*g&ola|;onf ]]cspf
orD;.. orD;tvdk&Sdwdkif; orD;###BOT_TEXT###amp;[ef;wdkYudk jyKpkvkyfauR;ygavmh}}[k cGifhjyKpum; ajym
Mum;cJh&av\/
þonfuMkd unfah omf 0domcgonf &&Sv
d monft
h cGit
hf a&;udk vufvw
G rf cH
bJ wefzdk;&SdpGm tokH;csvdkufjcif;yifjzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ bmomjcm;
a,mu©r\tdrw
f iG f ,if;uJh odYk awmif;qdrk rI sdK;udk awmif;qd0k jhH cif;rSmvnf; omrefowd?å
omrefynmwdkYr[kwfouJhodkY omref trsdK;orD;wdkY vkyfaqmifEdkifaomvkyf&yfvnf;
r[kwfygay/ jyóemrsm;ajyvnfoGm;aomtcg rdbwdkY\tdrfudkjyefrnf[k qdkjcif;rSm
vnf; wu,fjyefvdkjcif;um; [kwfrnf[k ,lqír&yg/ rd*g& ola|;\trSm;udk
ay:vGifap&ef[laom &nf½G,fcsufaMumifhyif jzpfEdkifayonf/ 0domcg\ [efaqmif

48

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

aumif;jcif;vnf; jzpfEdkif\/ xdkYaMumifh &&Sdvmaom tcGifhta&;udk ydkifEdkifpGm tokH;cs
Edkifaom 0domcg\pGrf;&nfudk ,aeYacwfrsdK;qufopftrsdK;orD;i,fwdkYonf twk,l
oihfay\/
emrnfopf&&Sad om0domcg
0domcgonf a,mu©rxHrSvdkufavsmrI (cGifhjyKcsuf)udk&aomtcg tcGifh
ta&;udk ta<u;rxm;cJhay/ aemufwpfaeYwGif jrwfAk'¨trSL;&Sdaom oHCmawmfwdkY
udk yifhzdwfí qGrf;uyfav\/ wuúwGef;y&dowfonfvnf; jrwffAk'¨<ua&mufawmfrl
onfukd owif;Mum;Muí rd*g&\tdro
f Ykd oGm;a&mufMuvsuf tdru
f 0kd ef;&Hí xdik af eMu
av\/
0domcgonf tvSLa&pufudk oGef;csvSL'gef;NyD;vQif ]]ylaZmfzG,ftpkpkudk pDrH
NyD;ygNyD? uRefawmfr\a,mu©rBuD;onf vma&mufíjrwfAk'¨udk jyKpkvkyfauR;ap
csifygonf}}[k owif;ydkYap\/ rd*g&ola|;tm; wuúwGef;wdkYu roGm;&efwm;jrpfMu
av\/ qGrf;udpöNyD;aomtcg w&m;emzdkY&ef ac:,ljyefav\/ ]]ESpfBudrfac:onfh
tcgüum; roGm;bJraeoihaf wmhay}}[k pOf;pm;rdaom rd*g& ola|;onf jrwfA'k w
¨ &m;
awmfudk em,lvdkaompdwfqE´onf jyif;pGmjzpfay:av\/ wuúwGef;wdkYuvnf;
uefYvefYumtjyifbufrSom w&m;awmfudkem,l&ef tBuHay;av\/ rd*g&olaX;onf
vnf; wuúwGef;wdkY\pum;twdkif; vdkufemvsuf w&m;awmfudk em,lav\/
jrwfAk'¨onf ]]oifola|;um; uefYvefYum\tjyifbufü aevdkrlvnf;
aeap? eH&w
H pfzuf odYk r[kwf awmifwpfzuf odYk r[kwf pMu0Vmwdu
k w
f pfzufü aevdrk l
vnf;aeap? igbk&m;rnfonf rnfrQyifc&D;a0;uGmaeapumrl oifhtm; igbk&m;\
toHawmfuMkd um;apjcif;iSg pGr;f Edik af y\}}[k rdeYf qo
kd nft
h vm; a½Ta&miftqif; rSn0hf if;
aomtoD;&Sdonfh o&ufyifBuD;\ yifpnfudkudkifí vIyfbdouJhodkY w&m;awmfudk
a[mMum;awmfrlcJhav\/ w&m;awmf\tqkH;ü rd*g&ola|;onf aomwmywdåzdkvfü
wnfcJhav\/ xdkYaemuf rd*g&ola|;onf uefYvefYumudkrcsDNyD;vQif jrwfAk'¨\
ajcawmfwdkYudk wnfjcif;ig;yg;jzifh &Sdcdk;av\/ xkdYaemuf jrwfAk'¨\ xHawmfarSmufü
yifvQif ]]cspo
f rD;.. oifonf ,aeYut
kd pjyKí ig\rdcifygay}}[k ajymqdu
k m 0domcgudk
trdt&müxm;av\/ xdktcg rSpí 0domcgonf ] rd*g&rmwm = rd*g& ola|;\r,f
awmf} [k trnfopfudk &&SdcJhav\/
0domcgonf aemufwpfaeYtwGufvnf; jrwfAk'¨udk yifhzdwfjyef\/
xdkaeYüvnf; 0domcg\a,mu©rrdef;ronf aomwmywdåzdkvfü wnfcJhav\/
(cifyGef;onf ykPÖ0¹ke\w&m; xl;&jcif;udkum; rawGU&ay/) xdktcsdeftcgrSpí
rd*g&ola|;\tdrfonf omoemawmftwGuf [if;vif;yGifhaomwHcg;&Sdonf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 49

jzpfavawmh\/ þtaMumif;udk&nf½G,fí rif;uGef;wdyd#u q&mawmfBuD;u]oljrwfwpfa,muf? tdro
f aYkd &mufu? jrm;ajrmufajymxl? tdraf evlw?Ykd edALÁ eef;cGi?f
taomh0ifz?Ykd r*¾i&f pS q
f if?h wHcg;yGi\
hf }
[k vuFmwpfydk'fjzifh oDukH;um rSwfcsufjyKxm;awmf rlcJhay\/ rd*g&ola|;onf
rdrdtay: acR;r0domcg\aus;Zl;BuD;rm;onfhtwGuf arwåmouf0if Munfvifvm
av\/ xdYk aMumifh av;vHonfh r[mvwmwefqmudk tNrJwef;0wfqif&efroiho
f jzifh
ayghayghyg;yg;jzpfaom ]Cer|u&wemwefqm}udk jrwfAk'¨\a&SUüyif 0wfqifapjcif;
jzifh rdrd\arwåmouf0ifMunfvifykHudk ay:vGifxif&Sm;apcJh\/ ,if;wefqmonfum;
tzdk;wpfodef;xdkufwefay\/
txufazmfjyyg taMumif;&yfwdkYudkMunfhaomf rd*g&ola|;onf acR;r0dom
cgtm; rdcift&müxm;í *kPw
f ufapcJah Mumif; awGU&ay\/ þonfrmS vnf; avmu
xkH;wrf;ESifh nDñGwfouJh odkY obm0usaomvkyf&yfvnf;jzpfaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/
þodkY rd*g&ola|;tm; w&m;xl;&jcif;? tyg,fqif;&JrSvGwfuif;&jcif; paomtusdK;
w&m;wdkYudk cHpm;&jcif;rSm acR;r0domcgudktrSDjyKíomvQif &&Sdjcif;jzpfay\/ ,if;
rSmvnf; oyÜK&dolyedó,puf? o'¨r®ó0epufwdkY\axmufyHhrIaMumifhvnf;jzpfay
\/ 0domcgonf rd*g&ola|;udkomru rd*g&ola|;\ ZeD;onf (rdrd\a,mu©r
rde;f rol)tm;vnf; aomwmyefjzpfap&ef t"dutcef;u@rSyg0if aeay\/ rd½;kd zvm
Ak'b
¨ mom0ifwpf&mu &wemokyH g;udyk rdk dk ouf0if,MHk unfvmatmif pnf;½k;H odr;f oGi;f
&onfrSm vG,fulayrnf/ odkYaomfvnf; bmomjcm;wpfa,mufudk Ak'¨bmom0if
jzpf&ef pnf;½kH;&onfrSm rvG,fulEdkifay/ ,ckrlum; rd*g&rdom;pkudk Ak'¨bmom0if
jzpfaponfomru rd*g&ZeD;armifESHwdkYonfyif aomwmyef tqifhodkYa&mufcJhonfrSm
0domcg\t&nftcsif; wpf&yfyifjzpf\/ (þae&mü 0domcg\cifyGef;onf ykPÖ
0¹ke\w&m;xl;&&dcS jhJ cif;&S-d r&S[
d al om taMumif;udk usr;f *efwYkd ü azmfjyxm;jcif;r&Syd g/
odkYaomfvnf; aomwmyeftqifhodkY ra&mufapumrl Ak'¨bmom0ifawmh tenf;qkH;
jzpfEdkifayrnf[k ,lq&ay\/)
0domcg\ y&[dwqk&pS yf g;
0domcgonf a,mu©rBuD;\ csD;ajr§mufjcif;udkcH,l&onfhtcsdefrSpí
'gepaom aumif;rIwdkYudk pdwftvdk&Sdwdkif; jyKvkyfav\/ wpfyg;olwdkYtm;vnf;
wdkufwGef;\/ jrwfAk'¨xHawmf rSvnf; atmufazmfjyygqk&Spfyg;wdkYudk awmif;cJhav\/
jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; ,if;qk&Spfyg;wdkYudk 0domcgtm; ay;awmfrlcJhav\/
,if;qk&Spfyg;rSm(1) 0óduom#du'ge

= oHCmtm; toufxufqkH; rdk;a&cHouFef;

50

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vSL'gef; cGifh&jcif;?
= {nfhonftm*EÅK&[ef;wdkYtm;
qGrf;vSL'gef;cGifh &jcif;?
(3) *rdubwå'ge
= c&D;oGm;&[ef;wdkYtm; qGrf;vSL'gef;cGifh&jcif;?
(4) *dvmebwå'ge
= olem&[ef;wdkYtm; qGrf;vSL'gef;cGifh&jcif;?
(5) *dvmEky|mubwå'ge = olemjyK&[ef;wdkYtm; qGrf;vSL'gef;cGifh&jcif;?
(6) *dvmeabZÆ'ge
= olem&[ef;wdkYtm; aq;vSL'gef;cGifh&jcif;?
(7) "k0,m*k'ge
= tNrJ,m*kqGrf; vSL'gef;cGifh&jcif;?
(8) O'uom#du'ge
= bdu©KeDoHCmtm; a&oEkyfouFef;vSL'gef;cGifh
&jcif;?
[laom þ&Spfyg;wdkYwnf;/ þqk&Spfyg;udkMunfhaomf 0domcgonf ,if;qk&Spfyg;udk
awmif;jcif;rSm rdrdtwGuf awmif;jcif;r[kwfaMumif; odomEdkifay\/ pifppf olr\
qkwdkYonf y&[dwtusdK;iSgomvQifjzpfay\/ ,if;tcsufudkMunfhaomf 0domcgonf
wpfudk,faumif;orm; r[kwfaMumif; avhvmod&SdEdkifay\/ þae&mü ouFef;? qGrf;?
,m*kwdkYudk vSL'gef;jcif;rS&&Sdaom tusdK;wdkYudkvnf; odem;vnfoihf\/ ,if;tusdK;
wkdYukd atmufygtwdkif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifao;\/
(2) tm*EÅKubwå'ge

ouFe;f vSL'gef;&usdK; trsdK;trsdK;
ouFe;f vSL'gef;&usKd ;wdYk rmS trsKd ;rsKd ;&Sad Mumif; usr;f *efrsm;ü azmfjyxm;ay\/
ydvdE´ 0päaw¬&tyg'gefü ouFef;vSL'gef;&usdK; &Spfyg;&SdaMumif; azmfjyxm;\/
,if;wkdYrSm(1) a½Ttqif;ESifhwlaom tqif;&Sdjcif;?
(2) cE¨mudk,fü tnpftaMu;r&Sd oefY&Sif;pifMu,fjcif;?
(3) ta&mift0gESifh jynfhpkHjcif;?
(4) bkef;wefcdk;tmEkabmfBuD;jcif;?
(5) odrfarGUEl;nHhaom udk,f&Sdjcif;?
(6) tjzL? t0g? teD t0wfykqdk;wpfodef;wdkY OD;xdyftxufü aqmif;rdk;vsuf
&Sdukefjcif;?
(7) ydk;ykqdk;? urÁvmykqdk;wdkYudk&jcif;?
(8) acgrykqdk;? 0gjcnfykqdk;wdkYudk&jcif;wdkYjzpf\/
"r® y '|uxmüum; ouF e f ; tvS L \tusd K ;onf trsd K ;orD ; wd k Y t m;
]]r[mvwmwefqm}}udk&jcif;? trsdK;om;wdkYtm; ]]wefcdk;jzifhNyD;aom oydwfouFef;udk
&í {[dbdu©K&[ef;}} jzpf&jcif; wdkYaywnf;[k azmfjyxm;jcif;udkvnf; awGU&ay\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 51

¤if;tjyif t|omvdeDt|uxmüum; ouFef;vSL&usdK; ajcmufyg;&Sdao;\/ ,if;
wdkYrSm(1) aumif;aom tqif;&Sdjcif;?
(2) aumif;aom toH&Sdjcif;?
(3) aumif;aom teHYtouf&Sdjcif;?
(4) aumif;aomt&omudk okH;aqmif&jcif;?
(5) El;nHhaomcE¨mudk,f&Sdjcif;?
(6) tema&m*guif;&Sif;wdkYyifjzpf\/
qGr;f vSL&usdK;ig;yg;
qGrf;vSL'gef;&mü tusdK;ig;yg;&SdaMumif; t*FkwdåK&fü azmfjyxm;ay\/ ,if;
wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf\/
(1) touf&Snfjcif;?
(2) tqif;vSjcif;?
(3) udk,fpdwfESpfjzm csrf;omjcif;?
(4) tm;cGefAvBuD;jcif;?
(5) ÓPfynmBuD;jcif;?
,m*ktusdK; trsdK;rsdK;
,m*kukd aomufo;Hk jcif;jzifh tusdK;ig;yg;ud&k &Sad pEdik yf gonf/ ,if;ig;yg;rSm(1) qmavmifjcif;udk y,fjcif;?
(2) rGwfodyfjcif;udk y,fjcif;?
(3) avudk atmufodkYpkefapjcif;?
(4) qD;tdrfudk pifMu,fapjcif;?
(5) tpmudk aMuusufapjcif;wdkYjzpf\/ þonfum; aomufokH;oltwGuf&&Sd
apaom tusdK;w&m;jzpf\/

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

,m*kudk vSL'gef;oltwGufum; tusdK;ig;yg;yif &&Sday\/ ,if;ig;yg;rSmtema&m*g uif;jcif;?
tqif;vSjcif;?
w&m;udk vsifjrefpGm qifjcifEdkifjcif;?
xrif;tazsmfudk &vG,fjcif;?
touf&Snfjcif; wdkYjzpfay\/
0denf;r[m0güum; txufygtusdK;(2)&yfudkaygif;í ,m*ktusdK;(10)yg;&Sd

52

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

aMumif;vnf; awGU&ao;ay\/
0domcg\ xl;jcm;csufrsm;
jrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfü toufwpf&mhESpfq,f&SnfolwdkYwGif 0domcg
onfvnf; wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmfü
toufwpf&mhESpfq,f&SnfolwdkYrSm ajcmufOD;&Sday\/ ,if;ajcmufOD;wdkYrSm(1) 0domcg?
(2) aygu©&omwdykPÖm;?
(3) jA[®m,kykPÖm;?
(4) Am0&d,ykPÖm;?
(5) t&SiftmeE´mrax&fjrwfESifh
(6) t&Sifr[muóyrax&fjrwfwdkYjzpf\/
þonfrSmvnf; 0domcg\xl;jcm;csufwpf&yfyifjzpf\/
wpfzef 0domcgonf om;q,fa,muf? orD;q,fa,mufwdkY xGef;um;cJh
av\/ xdkom;orD;ESpfq,fwdkYwGif wpfa,mufwpfa,mufwGif om;q,fa,mufpD?
orD;q,fa,mufpD xGef;um;jyefav\/ xdkajr;av;&mwdkYwGifvnf; wpfa,mufwpf
a,mufwGif om;q,fa,mufpD? orD;q,fa,mufpD xGef;um;jyefavaomaMumifh
jrpfaygif;&Spfaxmif&Sdav\[kqdk\/ þonfrSmvnf; 0domcg\xl;jcm;csufwpfckyif
jzpfav\/
þae&mü om;orD;ESpfq,f? ajr;av;&m? jrpf&Spfaxmif&Sd\qdkonfrSm
omrefMunfhaomf r,kHEdkifp&m jzpfay\/ odkYaomfvnf; *sD;eufbGcf atmha0g('f)
&Daumh('f) urÇmhthHzG,frSwfwrf;rsm;pmtkyfvm taxmuftxm;wdkYESifhEdIif;,SOfaomf ,kH
Munfp&mjzpfvm&ay\/ ,if;pmtkyfü atmufyg twdkif; azmfjyxm;ay\/
]]&Siaf rG;vGe;f /
/ urÇmwGif om;orD;tarG;EdkifqkH;tjzpf rSefuefaom
taxmuftxm;ESifhwuG vufcHEdkifonfhtrsdK;orD;rSm ½k&Sm;jynf? armfpudk
pD&ifyikd cf iG ehf ,fajrrS v,form;BuD; zsdK'dAk mqDvuf (1816-72)\ yxrZeD;
jzpf\/ xdktrsdK;orD;onf uav;(27)Budrf arG;zGm;cJh&m ESpfrTmyl; (16)Budrf?
okH;rTm;yl; (7)Budrf? av;rTmyl; (4)Budrf arG;zGm;jcif;jzifh uav;(96)a,muf
arG;zGm;cJh\/ xdkYaMumifh 'kwd,ZmtvufZE´m;\ eef;awmfodkYyif 0ifa&muf
cpm;cJh&oltjzpf xif&Sm;cJhonf/
rMumrDu cdkifvkHaomowif;wpf&yft& b&mZD;EdkifiHrS ½dkifrGef'dk
umaemAm\ZeD; *sdKqDrm umaemAm (touf-54)onf olr\ 38-

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 53

a,mufajrmufuav;i,fudk zGm;jrifcJhaMumif; od&avonf/ xdktrsdK;
orD;onf touf(15)ESpft½G,fwGif vufxyfcJhjcif; jzpfNyD; wpfESpf
wpfom;us arG;zGm;jcif;jzifh ,cktcg om;-14a,mufESifh orD;-24 a,muf
&SdayNyD/ 1972 ckESpf arvtwGif;u rdcifjzpfolu ]]'Duav;awGaMumifh
tvkyf½Iyf& aomursm;&wmrSefayr,fh arG;&usdK;awmh eyfygw,f&Sif}}[k
vnf;aumif;? zcifjzpfolu ]]'Dvdkpdwf½Iyfp&mrsdK;b,fvdk? b,fvdkjzpfvm
w,f rqdkEdkifygbl;Asm}}[kvnf; qdkcJhavonf/}}
wpfzef 0domcgonf toufBuD;aomfvnf; qHyifwpfacsmif;rSvnf; jzLjcif;
r&Sday/ toufwpfq,fhajcmufESpft½G,f trsdK;orD;uav;uJhodkY tpOftNrJEkysdKaeay
\/ om;orD;? ajr;? jrpfwYkd EiS t
hf wlomG ;vQif ]]b,f[m 0domcgygvdr}hf }[k ar;,lMunf&h
atmif EkysdKae\/ ae&mrSx&m tcgüom 0domcgudkodEdkifay\/ rnfodkYyifMunfhMunfh
oGm;jcif;? &yfjcif;? xdkifjcif;? avsmif;jcif; [laom £&d,mykwfav;yg;vkH;ü wifhw,f
vSyae\/ þonfrSmvnf; 0domcg\xl;jcm;csuf wpfckyifjzpfav\/
0d o mcgonf rd e f ; rom;yif j zpf a pumrl ,Of a us;od r f a rG U aomf v nf ;
tm;EGJUolum; r[kwfygay/ qifajymif;ig;pD; tm;tif&Sday\/ xdkYaMumifhyif tav;csdef
rsm;onfh r[mvwmwefqmudk 0wfqifEdkifjcif;vnf; jzpf\/ aumovrif;udk,fwdkif
yif 0domcgtm; qifajymifig;pD; tm;tif&Sdçr&Sd udk vufawGUprf;oyfzl;ay\/ wpfaeYü
0domcgonf trsdK;orD;ig;&mESifhtwl aZw0efausmif;odkY w&m;emoGm;pOf qif
ajymifBuD;udkvTwfí prf;oyfap\/ tNcHt&HtrsdK;orD;rsm; xGufajy;Muaomfvnf;
0domcgum; xGufajy;jcif;rjyKcJhay/ £a`E´&&yif oGm;av\/ ajy;0ifvmaom
qif a jymif B uD ; ud k vuf E S p f a csmif ; jzif h y if ES m armif ; ud k q G J í wG e f ; vd k u f a v\/
qifajymifonf 0domcg\ wGef;tm;aMumifh aemufodkYzifxdkif&uf usoGm;onf[l\/
þae&mü aumovrif;onf 0domcgtm; qifajymifvTwfí prf;oyfjcif;
onf 0domcg 'ku©a&mufrnf[kodvQifum; jyKrnfum;r[kwfay/ 0domcg\
tpGrf;owdåwdkYudk ,kHMunfí tjcm;olrsm;odap&eftwGufom prf;oyfjcif;jzpfwef&m
\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf oludk,fwdkifac:,lvmaom olaX;\orD; jzpfonfhtjyif
jrwfAk'¨\wynfhr jzpfaomaMumifhyif jzpf\/ þonfwdkYum; 0domcg\ xl;jcm;
csufwdkYyifjzpf\/
ykAmÁ ½kaH usmif;aqmuf&ef taMumif;zefvmjcif;
0domcgonf cGifhjyKcsuf&&SdonfhtcsdefrSpí aomwmyeft&d,m om0dumr
jzpfonfh tm;avsmfpGm bk&m;oGm;? ausmif;wuf0wfrysufay/ tenf;qkH; wpfaeYESpf
BudrfoGm;a&mufav\/ oGm;onfhtcgwdkif;üvnf; vufcsnf;roGm;ay/ rGef;rwnfh

54

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

rDomG ;vQif qGr;f ? cJz,
G ?f abmZOfwYdk ukd ,lomG ;\/ rGr;f wnfNh yD;aemufyikd ;f oGm;vQifum;
]]aq;ig;rsdK;}} ESifh ]]azsmf&nf&SpfrsdK;}} wdkYudk ,laqmifoGm;\/ jrwfAk'¨ESifhomru t&Sif
om&dykwå&m? t&Sifr[marm*¾vmefrSonf udk&ifi,fuav;txd oHCmtm;vkH;ESifh
tuRrf;0if &if;ESD;rI&Sday\/ &if;ESD;onfhtm;avsmfpGm udk&ifi,fuav;rsm;u 0domcg
vmonfhtcgwdkif; ]]vufxJrSm bmvSLp&mygovJ}}[k Munfhwwf\/ udk&ifi,frsm;u
0domcgtm; omoemhr,fawmfBuD;}}[k oabmxm;í tuRrf;w0ifqufqHouJhodkY
0domcguvnf; rdrd\ om;i,f? ajr;i,frsm;yrm oabmxm;\/ vdktyfonfrsm;udk
vnf; jznfhqnf;vSL'gef;NrJ jzpfay\/ aeYpOfaeYwdkif;vnf; rdrdtdrfü oHCmESpfaxmif
tm; tNrJqGrf;vSL'gef;av\/
wpfaeYü 0domcgonf uRefrrsm;NcH&Hvsuf jrwfAk'¨\w&m;pum;awmfudk
em,l&ef ausmif;awmfodkYoGm;av\/ ,if;odkYoGm;&mü ausmif;awmfodkY 0ifvwfaomf
]]jrwfAk'¨\txHawmfodkY ysHUvGifholwdkY\toGiftjyifjzifh oGm;jcif;iSgroihfavsmfacs}}[k
qifjcifrdum r[mvwm wefqmudk cRwfNyD; uRefr\vufokdY ay;tyfav\/ xdkY
aemuf Cer|uwefqmudk vJvS,f0wfí jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;awmfudk em,lav\/
w&m;NyD;qk;H íjyefaomtcg uRefronf r[mvwmwefqmudk w&m;emonfah e&müyif
arhusefaecJh\/
txl;ojzifh w&m;emNyD;jyefoGm;aom y&dowf\ wpfpkHwpf&maom0w¬K
arhusef&pfcJhvQif xdk0w¬Kudk t&SiftmeE´mrax&fonf odrf;qnf;íxm;awmfrlNrJjzpfay\/
t&SiftmeE´m rax&fonf xdkaeYü r[mvwmwefqmudkawGUjrif&í jrwfAk'¨tm; xdk
taMumif;udkavQmufxm;&m jrwfAk'¨\ ]]oihfavsmfaomae&mü odrf;qnf;ap}}[laom
trdefYawmftwdkif; apmif;wef;avScg;wpfzufü csdwfqGJxm;av\/
0domcgonf rusef;rmaom&[ef;rsm;ESifh udk&ifrsm;tm;jyKpkvkyfauR;jcif;?
vdt
k yfonfrsm;udk vSL'gef;jcif; tp&Sad omudpw
ö Ykd ukd aqmif½u
G Nf yD;aemuf ausmif;wdu
k f
twGif;rSxGufvm cJh\/ tjyifa&mufonfhtcg r[mvwmwefqmudk 0wfqif&ef
uRefrtm; awmif;av\/ xdktcgrS uRefronf ausmif;awmfüarhusefcJhonfudk
trSwf&av\/ 0domcgu jyef,lcdkif;\/ ]]tu,fí t&SiftmeE´mrax&f aumuf,lí
odr;f xm;vQif r,lc&hJ efEiS hf xdw
k efqmudk pGeYf vLS NyD;om;jzpfonf}} [kvnf; rSmMum;vdu
k f
av\/ uRefrvnf; t&SiftmeE´mrax&f\ tjcm;ae&modkYodrf;qnf;xm; onfudk
od&í rSmvdkufonfhtwdkif; jyefvnfí ,lrvmcJhay/ odkYaomfvnf; &[ef;awmfrsm;
apmifha&Smuf&ef 0efav;rnfpdk;aomaMumifh jyef,lap\/
aemufaeY rdrdtdrfü jrwfAk'¨qGrf;bkOf;ay;NyD;aomtcg 0domcgonf
xdak rhusecf ahJ om r[mvwmwefqmukd jrwfA'k t
¨ m; vSL'gef;av\/ odYk aomf jrwfA'k u
¨
]]wefqmrnfonf &[ef;wdkYtm; rtyfpyf}}[k rdefYíy,fawmfrlav\/ xdktcg
0domcgonf ]]t&Sifbk&m;.. wynfh awmfronf þwefqmudk wefzdk;jzwfí xdkaiGjzifh

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 55

jrwfAk'¨oDwif;okH;awmfrl&mausmif;awmfudk aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;ygrnfbk&m;}}[k
avQmufxm;av\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨uvnf; vufcHav\/ 0domcgonf ,if;
wefqmudk a½Tyef;wdro
f nftm; tzd;k jzwfap\/ ,if;wefqm\wefz;kd rSm oef;uk;d q,f
ESifh vufcrSm wpfodef;jzpfay\/ xdkYaemuf ,if;wefqmudk vSnf;ay:wifívSnfhvnf
a&mif;csav\/ 0,fEikd o
f nfo
h u
l m; r&Sad y/ xdYk aMumifh rdru
d ,
kd w
f ikd yf if0,f,cl &hJ av\/
þae&mü 0domcg\uRefronf r[mvwmwefqmudk o,f,lEdkifaMumif;
avhvmawGU &Sd&ay\/ odkYaomfvnf; 0wfqifxdkufaom bkef;uHrygvmay/ tb,f
aMumifhqdkaomf twdwfb0wdkYü ouFef;vSL'gef;cJhjcif; r&Sdjcif;aMumifh[k okH;oyf&
rnfjzpfay\/ xdYk aMumifh trsdK;aumif; orD;wdYk onf 0domcguJo
h Ykd r[mvwm wefqm
udk 0wfqifvdkygu &[ef;awmfwdkYtm; ouFef;vSL'gef; oihfay\/ odkYr[kwfygu
tm;tifaumif;aomfvnf; r[mvwmwefqmudk 0wfqifcGifh&rnfum; r[kwfay/
ykAmÁ ½kaH usmif;awmfBuD;udk aqmufvyk yf Hk
jrwfAk'¨onf om0wd¬NrdKU\ ta&SUbufwHcg;teD;ü ausmif;aqmuf&ef
ñTefMum;av\/ xdkYaemuf 0domcgonf ausmif;ajrae&mudk wefzdk;aiG oef;(90)jzifh
0,f,lvdkuf\/ xdkYaemuf ausmif;aqmufvkyf&ef vdktyfonfhypönf;rsm;udk 0,f,l&m
wefzdk;aiG oef;(90)ukefusav\/ 0gyumvü jrwfAk'¨wdkYonf a'opm&Dc&D;udk
<ucsDawmfrlNrJjzpf&um; 0domcgonf ausmif;aqmuf&mü MuyfrwfpDrHay;rnfh rax&f
wpfyg;udk xm;awmfrlcJh&ef avQmufxm;av\/ jrwfAk'¨uvnf; ]]rdrdoabmus
ESpfoufonfhrax&f\ oydwfudk ,lxm;vdkuf}}[k trdefYawmf&Sdav\/
0domcgonf t&SiftmeE´mrax&fudk oabmusESpfouf\/ rax&fjrwfESifh
vnf; &if;ESD;NyD;om;jzpfonfhtavsmuf Munfñdk&if;pGJvnf; &Sday\/ odkYaomfvnf;
vsifjrefpmG NyD;a&;onfom t"duusay\/ yk*K¾d vfa&;onf t"dur[kwaf y/ ryifryef;
bJ ausmif;awmfBuD; vG,u
f pl mG NyD;pD;zdYk &efrmS um; wefc;kd &Si\
f t&mom jzpf\/ wefc;kd &Sif
om pGrf;Edkif\/ xdkYaMumifh t&SiftmeE´m\oydwfawmfudkr,lbJ t&Sifr[marm*¾vmef
rax&f\ oydwfudkom ,lxm;vdkuf\/ jrwfAk'¨uvnf; xdkt&Sifjrwfudk aecJhzdkY&ef
trdefY&Sdvdkuf\/ t&Sifjrwfonf rdrd\wynfhig;&mESifhtwlusefaecJh\/
rax&fjrwf\ tmEkabmfaMumifh ,lZemig;q,f? ajcmufq,fa0;aomt&yf
odkY opfom;? ausmufponfwdkYtwGuf oGm;a&mufonfholrsm;rSm aeYcsif;jyefvmEdkifMu
\/ yifyef;rI? xdcu
kd rf v
I nf; rjzpfcMhJ uay/ þodYk jzifh rMumrDomvQif ESpx
f yftw
k w
f u
kd f
ausmif;BuD;NyD;pD;oGm;cJh\/ ,if;ausmif;BuD; \ ajrae&mtus,ft0ef;onf rif;y,f
&Spfy,f (tvsm;-912ay? teH 400 ay) us,f0ef;\/ ausmif;BuD;rSm atmufxyfü
wdu
k cf ef;aygif;ig;&m? tay:xyfü wdu
k cf ef;ig;&m&Sad y\/ xdYk aMumifh ,if;ausmif;BuD;ü
wdkufcef;aygif;wpfaxmifwdwd &Sday\/

56

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

ESpfxyfausmif;BuD;wpfaqmifwnf;jzifh xD;xD;rm;rm;jzpfaeí rwifhw,f
ojzifh ausmif;BuD;ud0k ef;&Hí ur®|mef;ausmif;aygif;ig;&m? jyom'fig;&m? wefapmif;&Snf
ig;&mwdkYudkvnf; aqmufvkyfjyef\/ azmfjyygt&mtm;vkH;udk rax&fjrwf\ BuD;Muyf
rIjzifh udk;vMumaomtcg tm;vkH;NyD;pD;oGm;av\/ ,if;ausmif;wdkufBuD;udk
trnftm;jzifh ]ykAmÁ &mr = ykAmÁ ½kaH usmif;wdu
k }f [k ac:Mu\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf ykAÁ
- om0wd¬NrdKU\ ta&SUbufüwnfaom? tm&mr-ausmif;wdkuf jzpfaomaMumifh
yifjzpf\/ ausmif;a&pufcsyGJü 0domcgonf jrwfAk'¨tm;yifhzdwfí ausmif;awmfBuD;
tm; vSL'gef;cJhav\/ jrwfAk'¨ESifhoHCmawmfwdkYtm;vnf; ausmif;awmfBuD;ü0guyf&ef
avQmufxm;cJh\/
0domcgonf rd;k av;vwdYk umvywfv;Hk ausmif;a&pufcsyGu
J kd usif;yav\/
xdktawmtwGif;0domcg\ oli,fcsif;rwpfa,mufonf tzdk;wpfodef;wefaom
t0wfudk ,lvmNyD; ajrtcif;tjzpfyg0ifvSL'gef;vdkí ae&may;&ef awmif;qdkav\/
cif;p&mae&mum; tvyfr&Sdygay/ xdkYaMumifh t&SiftmeE´mrax&fESifhwdkifyifí
oli,fcsif;r\o'¨gw&m;wdkY wdk;yGm;a&;twGuf avScg;&if;ajcokwfonfhae&müvSL&ef
wdkufwGef;cJhav\/ þonfudkMunfhaomf 0domcgonf tvSL'geay;&mü vdkavao;
r&Sdatmif ay;vSLcJhaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ 0domcgonf ausmif;a&pufcsyGJ\aemufqkH;
&ufjzpfaom wefaqmif;rkef;vjynfhaeYü oHCmawmftm; ouFef;rsm;udk qufuyf
vSL'gef;cJhav\/ 0gti,fqkH;aom oHCmawmfwdkYtm; vSL'gef;aomouFef;onfyif
wpfaxmifwefzdk;&Sday\/ xdkYtwl oydwfü pwkr"kudkxnfhívnf; vSL'gef;cJhav\/
þodkY rkd;av;vywfvkH; ausmif;a&pufcsyGJudk taMumif;jyKí oHCmawmf
wdkYtm; ypönf;av;yg;jzifh vSL'gef;rIjyKcJh&m pkpkaygif;ukefusaiGonf oef;udk;q,f
jzpf\/ þodkYvQif 0domcgonf(u)
ausmif;ajr0,f&mü
oef; 90/
(c)
ausmif;aqmufvkyf&mü
oef; 90?
(*)
ausmif;a&pufcsyGJusif;y&mü
oef; 90?
pkpak ygif; oef;aygif;ESp&f mh ckepfq,faomypön;f OpömwdYk ukd jrwfA'k \
¨ omoemawmftm;
vSL'gef;cJhav\/ þodkY ykAÁm½kHausmif;wdkufBuD;udk vSL'gef;onfh0domcgonf ausmif;
trBuD;[laom *kPfyk'fwpfckwdk;vsuf ]ausmif;trBu;D 0domcg}[k xif&Sm;vmcJhay\/
0domcg

get&mü olrwlatmif xl;cRefrIudk t|uxmq&mu atmuffygtwkdif;
rSwfcsufjyKxm;cJhay\/
]]jrwfAk'¨omoemawmftm; ypönf;av;yg;vSL'gef;olwdkYwGif trsdK;om;rsm;
teuf temxydPfola|;BuD;? trsdK;orD;rsm;teuf 0domcgudkrDol wpf
a,mufrQr&Sdacs}}

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 57

"r®*gxmwdjYk zifh oDusL;aom ausmif;trBuD;0domcg
ausmif;a&pufcsyGJ NyD;qkH;onfhnaecsrf;ü ausmif;trBuD;onf om;orD;?
ajr;? jrpfwdkY ESifhtwl ]]igawmifhwcJhaom t&mtm;vkH;onf jynfhpkHNyD}}[k pdwful;
0rf;ajrmufvsuf ausmif;awmf BuD;udkvSnfhvnfMunfh½I&if; yDwdt[kefaMumifh atmuf
azmfjyygt"dyÜg,f&Sdaom "r®*gxmwdkYudk om,mcsdKNrdefaomtoHjzifh oDusL;cJhav\/
,if;"r®*gxmwdkY\t"dyÜg,fwdkYrSm(u) ]]igonf b,ftcgü ykAÁm½kHausmif;tvSL'geudk ay;vSL&ygtHh
enf;}} [laom ig\awmifhwcsufonf ,cktcgü jynfhavNyD
wum;/
(c) ]]igonf b,ftcgü anmifapmif;? tif;ysOf? bkv
H QdK? ausmif;tok;H
taqmifwdkYudk vSL&ygtHhenf;}} [laom ig\awmifhwcsufonf
,cktcgü jynfh avNyDwum;/
(*) ]]igonf b,ftcgü qefuGJçpyg;vkH;çcJryg tom;a&m>yrf;aom
pma&;wHqGrf;udk ay;vSL&ygtHhenf;}}[laom ig\awmifhwcsuf
onf ,cktcgü jynfhavNyDwum;/
(C) ]]igonf b,ftcgü ckcH snfouFe;f ? 0gcsnfouFe;f wdYk ukd ay;vSL&
ygtHhenf;}} [laom ig\awmifhwcsufonf ,cktcgü jynfhav
NyDwum;/
(i) ]]igonf tb,ftcgü axmywf? qDOD;? qD? ysm;&nf? wifvJ
wnf; [laom aq;'gewdkYudk ay;vSL&ygtHhenf;}}[laom
ig\awmifhwcsufonf ,cktcgü jynfhavNyDwum;/
þ"r®*gxmrsm;udkMunfhaomf ausmif;trBuD;0domcgonf ykAÁm½kHausmif;
awmfBuD;udkom aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;cJhjcif;um; r[kwfay/ anmifapmif;? tifysOftp
&Sdaom ausmif;tokH;taqmif ypönf;rsm;ESifh qGrf;ç ouFef;ç aq; wkdYudkvnf; vSL'gef;
cJhaMumif; odomEdkifay\/ xdkYaMumifh ,aeYacwf ausmif;vSL'gef;onfh trsdK;aumif;
om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonf ausmif;trBuD;0domcgudk twk,l tm;usvsuf qGrf;?
ouFef;? ausmif;? aq;omru ausmif;tokH;taqmif ypönf;rsm;udkvnf; vSL'gef;oihf
ay\/ þae&mü 'ge[lonf tusKd ;ay;jcif;oabm&S&d m 0domcgvSL'gef;aom'gewdYk \
tusdK;w&m;wdkYudk þae&müazmfjyygOD;rnf/ (qGrf;? ouFef;? aq;wdkY\tusdK;wdkYudk
a&;om;cJhayNyD) ,if;wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfay\/
ausmif;vSL'gef;&usdK; (7)yg;
(1) ewfb0? vlb0wdkYü y#doaE¨ae&jcif;?

58

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

awmifhw½kHjzifh taqmufttkH&jcif;?
aMumuf½GHUxdwfvefYrIuif;jcif;?
jcaoFhçopfçusm;paom om;&Jrsm;ESifh bDvl;wdkYrzrf;,l? rESdyfpufEkdifjcif;?
raumif;aomtdyfrufudk rjrifrufjcif;?
owdaumif;jcif; (½l;oGyfazmufjyefrIuif;jcif;)?
b0tqufqufudkodjcif;? aemufqkH;b0ü t&[wåzdkvfudkyefqifvsuf
edAÁmefudk&&Sdjcif;?

anmifapmif;(ukwif)vSL&usdK; (11)yg;
(1) txl;xl;aom &wemjzifhNyD;aom ukwifudk&&Sdjcif;?
(2) &wemjzifhNyD;aom tdyf&mudk &jcif;?
(3) &wemjzifhNyD;aom jyom'fudk &jcif;?
(4) tzdk;xdkufwefaom tdyf&mcif;udk &jcif;?
(5) qif,mOfudk &jcif;?
(6) jrif;,mOfudk &jcif;?
(7) xrf;pifudk &jcif;?
(8) oefvsif;udk &jcif;?
(9) uReftrsdK;orD;wdkYudk &jcif;?
(10) uReftrsdK;om;wdkYudk &jcif;?
(11) wefqmqifNyD;aomtrsdK;orD;wdkYudk &jcif;/
tif;ysOf(yv’i)f vSL&usdK; (5)yg;
(1) jrifhjrwfaomtrsdK;üjzpf &jcif;?
(2) pnf;pdrfcsrf;om jynfhpkHjcif;?
(3) vltaygif;wdkY\ t½dktaocH&jcif;?
(4) ausmfaZmjcif;?
(5) rsufESmav;ck&Sdaom yv’ifudk&jcif;/
tif;ysOf(xdik cf )Hk vSL&usdK; (2)yg;
(1) &wemtwdNyD;aom xdkifckHudk&jcif;?
(2) qifpG,f pE´ul;ESpfudk&jcif;?
tif;ysOf (ajcaq;ck)H vSL&usdK; (2)yg;
(1) qif,mOf? jrif;,mOf tp&Sdaom,mOfudk&jcif;?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 59

(2) uRefa,mufsm;? uRefrdef;r ponfwdkYu aumif;pGmvkyfauR;jcif;/
bkv
H QdK (arG&U m)vSL&usdK; (6)yg;
(1) nDñGwfaomudk,f &Sdjcif;?
(2) olwpfyg;\t½dktaocH &jcif;?
(3) El;nHhaomudk,f &Sdjcif;?
(4) ½IcsifpzG,f wifhw,fjcif;?
(5) tjcHt&Hudk &jcif;?
(6) txl;tqef;tcif;udk &jcif;?
acgif;tk;H vSL&usdK; (5)yg;
(1) xl;qef;jrifhjrwfaomacgif;tkH;udk&jcif;?
(2) r*fzdkvfw&m;udk &&Sdjcif;?
(3) ay;urf;apmifha&SmufrI jA[®pdk&fpaomusifh0wfESifh jynfhpkHjcif;?
(4) tm;rxkwfbJ aAm"dyud©,w&m;rsm;ESifh jynfhpkHjcif;?
(5) oDv? orm"d? ynmESifh jynfhpkHjcif;?
ausmif;trBuD;0domcgonf rdrdjyKcJhaom aumif;rIukodkvfwdkYudkawG;awmrI
pm*gEkówd wzGm;zGm;jzpfvsuf 0rf;ajrmufae\/ ,if;odkY 0rf;ajrmufrIyDwd t[kef
aMumifhyif EIwfrSzGifhvsuf ½Tifvef;om,maom pum;wdkYudkxkwfazmfí oDusL;jcif;
yifjzpfay\/ tcsdKUaom&[ef;wdkYu 0domcgESifh rawGUqkHbl;aomaMumifh 0domcg
wpfa,muf pdwfazgufjyefí oDcsif;qdkaeonf[laom txifjzifh jrwfAk'¨tm; avQmuf
xm;av\/ jrwfAk'¨u ]]ig\orD;onf oifwdkYxifouJhodkY r[kwfay/ urÇmwpfodef;
u awmif;cJo
h nfq
h t
k wdik ;f tvdq
k E´jynf0h aomaMumifh 0rf;ajrmuf0r;fomjzpfí O'gef;
usL;&ifhjcif;jzpfaMumif; &Sif;vif;ajymMum;awmfrlcJhav\/ þonfudkaxmufaomf
0domcgonf rdrd\ 0rf;Adkufudk ajAmtrSwfjzifhxkum oDcsif;qdkí uonf}}[k a&;om;
oDqdkMuaom ,ckacwfoDcsif;wdkYonf rSefuefjcif; r&SdEdkifygay/ jrwfAk'¨\
pum;awmft& oDcsif;qdkí ujcif;r[kwfygay/
xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨onf atmufygw&m;awmfudk qufvufa[mawmfrlcJhay
\/
]]uRrf;usifaom yef;onfonf yef;ykHxJrS rsm;pGmaomyef;ukH;rsm;ukd oDukH;jyK
vkyfouJhodkY arG;vmNyD;aemuf {uefao&rnfhowå0gonf ukodkvfaumif;rI
wdkYudk rsm;rsm;jyKoihf ay\/}}

60

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

t|uxmq&murl - uRrf;usifaomyef;onfonf yef;tenf;i,fjzifh
yef;ukH;rsm;pGm roDukH;Edkif/ ruRrf;usifvQifrlum; yef;enf;onfjzpfap? rsm;onfjzpfap
oDu;Hk Edik rf nfr[kwaf cs/ uRrf;usifrv
I nf;&S?d yef;vnf;rsm;rlum; yef;uk;H rsm;pGm&atmif
oDukH;Edkifonfom/ xdkYtwl o'¨gw&m;enf;NyD; Opömrsm;aomyk*d¾Kvfonf ay;urf;
vSL'gef;rIrsm;pGmrjyKEdkif/ o'¨gç ypönf;ESpfyg;pkH enf;yg;ygrlum; rnfodkYrQ rvSL'gef;Edkif
ygay/ o'¨grsm;NyD; Opömenf;yg;vQifvnf; vSL'gef;rIrsm;rsm; rjyKEdkifygay/ 0domcg
onfum; o'¨gw&m;vnf;xufoef? ypön;f Opömvnf; rsm;jym;ojzifh ,ckuo
hJ Ykd tvSLyGJ
BuD;udk qifETJEdkifjcif;jzpfay\[k okH;oyfjyxm;cJhayao;\/ xdkYaMumifh o'¨g? Opöm
ESpfjzmjynfhpkHatmif BudK;yrf;oihfvSay\/ odkYrSom 0domcgausmif;trBuD;uJhodkY 'ge
w&m;wdkYudkjyKvsuf 0rf;ajrmufEdkifayrnfom jzpfay\/
jrwfA'k ç¨ 0domcgESihf ykAmÁ ½kaH usmif;wkEYd iS phf yfí rSwzf ,
G rf sm;
jrwfA'k o
¨ nf 0gawmf(20)twGi;f xdx
k Nkd rdKU½GmwkYd oYkd <ua&mufí 0guyfow
D if;
okH;ojzifh 0gqdk&mXmerNrJay/ ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;udk aqmufvkyfvSL'gef;NyD;onfhESpf
0gawmf(21)rSpí ausmif;'umBuD; temxydPfolaX;BuD;ESifh ausmif;trBuD;0domcg
wdkYtm; csD;ajr§mufvdkaomaMumifh om0wd¬NrdKUü edA'¨(tNrJ)0guyfawmfrl\/ 0gyumvü
t&yfwpfyg;odkY<ua&mufaomfvnf; 0gwGif;umvodkYa&mufaomtcgü om0wd¬NrdKYokdY
jyefvmum aZw0efESifh ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;wdkYüom vSnfhvnfoDwif;okH;awmf
rlcJh\/ þodkY tvSnfhjzifh oDwif;okH;&mwGif aZw0efausmif;wdkufü nOfhtcg oDwif;
okH;awmfrlvQif aemufaeYeHeufcif;ü &[ef;taygif;ESifhwuG om0wd¬NrdKUawmifbuf
wHcg;rS0ifí NrdKUwGif;üqGrf;cHNyD; ta&SUwHcg;rSxGufawmfrlum ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;
üom vSnfhvnf oDwif;okH;awmfrlcJh\/ xdkYtwl ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;ü nOfhtcg
oDwif;okH;awmfrlvQif aZw0efausmif;awmfBuD;ü aeYtcgoDwif;okH;awmfrl\/
þodkYvQif edA'¨0gudk aZw0efausmif;awmfBuD;ü (18)0g? ykAÁm½kHausmif;
awmfBuD;ü (6)0g qdkawmfrlcJh\/ tedA'¨0gqdkpOfu (14)0gajrmufü aZw0efausmif;
awmfBuD;ü (1)0gqdkzl;\/ xdkwpf0gESifh edA'¨(18)0gaygif;vQif aZw0efausmif;ü (19)
0g? ykAÁm½kHausmif;wdkufü edA'¨0gcsnf; oufouf(6)0gqdkawmfrlcJhaMumif;awGU&ay\/
xdkYaMumifh"r®y'|uxmü aZw0efausmif;awmfBuD;ü (19)0g? ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;
ü(6)0g aygif;(25)0g? om0wdN¬ rdKUü 0guyfawmfro
l nf[k jyqdx
k m; jcif;vnf;jzpfay\/
þae&mü jrwfAk'¨onf ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;ü oDwif;okH;pOf a[mMum;
cJhaom w&m;awmfwdkYudkvnf; odoihfao;\/ w&m;awmfwdkYudkjy&mü okwftrnfrQudk
om ñTef;jyrnf jzpfygonf/ ,if;okwfawmfrsm;rSm(1)
t*¾nokwf?
(2)
plVwPSmocF,okwf?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 61

(3)
*Pu arm*¾vmeokwf?
(4)
r[mykPÖrokwf?
(5)
plVykPÖrokwf?
(6)
tmemygeówdokwf?
(7)
plVoknwowf?
(8)
owåZ#dvokwf?
(9)
y0g&Pokwf?
(10)
ykPÖrokwf?
(11)
Z&m"r®okwf?
(12)
yXrykAÁm&mrokwf?
(13)
'kwd,ykAÁm&mrokwf?
(14)
wwd,ykAÁm&mrokwf?
(15)
pwkw¬ykAÁm&mrokwf?
(16)
arm*¾vmeokwf?
(17)
orpdwå0*fvm tZÑwåoHa,mZOfyk*dK¾ vf? A[d'¨oHa,mZOfyk*dK¾ vf
2rsdK;udk t&Sifom&dykwå&m a[mMum;awmfrl\/
(18)
omVokwf?
(19)
Oaygoxokwf?
(20)
Oaygoxokwf?
(21)
r[mupäm,e0w¬K?
(22)
Oaygow£wD¬eH0w¬K?
(23)
okreomraP&0w¬K?
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tmeE´aw¬&0w¬K?
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a&0waw¬&0w¬K?
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'G,wmEkyóeokwf? wdkYjzpfay\/
ausmif;trBuD;0domcgonf aomwmyefyk*d¾Kvfjzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm
&wemokH;yg;ESifh uif;írjzpfEdkifay/ aeYpOfaeYwdkif; rdrdtdrfü oHCmawmfwdkYtwGuf
qGrf;uGrf;a0,sm0pöaqmif½Guf&\/ wpfcgwpf&Hvnf; jyifyvlrIa&;udprö sm;udk vdkuf
ygaqmif½Guf&ao;\/ xdkodkY rtm;rvyfonfh Mum;rSmyif jrwfAk'¨&Sd&mausmif;awmfodkY
wpfaeYESpfacguf rSefrSefa&mufatmif oGm;ayao;\/ ausmif;a&mufonfhtcgüvnf;
bk&m;zl;jcif;? w&m;emjcif;wkdYrSm rnfonfhtcgrSrysufay/ a0ae,s wdkYtm;
&nf½,
G í
f a[mMum;cJah om w&m;awmfwYkdtm; emMum;cJ\
h / wpfcgwpf&üH vnf; rdrt
d m;
&nf½G,fí jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif a[mMum;aomw&m;awmfwdkYudk emMum;cJh\/

62

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

þae&mü jrwfAk'¨ udk,fawmfwdkif ausmif;trBuD;0domcgtm; a[mMum;aom w&m;
awmfrsm;udkvnf; odoihfayao;\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1)
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(2)
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'kwd,0domcgokwf?
(4)
yXr£"avmudwokwf?
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0domcgokwf?
(6)
0domcgokwf wdkYyifjzpfay\/
wpfzef ykAÁm½kHausmif;trBuD; 0domcg\b0ESifh pyfvsOf;í Zmwfawmfrsm;ü
vnf; awGU&Sd&ayao;\/ ,if;ZmwfwdkYrSm(1)
wduedygwf? uk@uukpdäodE¨0Zmwf?
(2)
yudPÖuedygwf? ok½kpdZmwf? wdkYyifjzpf\/
txufazmfjyyg0domcg ausmif;trBuD;tm;&nf½G,fí a[mMum;aom
okwfawmfwdkY\tus,fudkvnf;aumif;? 0domcg ausmif;trBuD;\b0ESifh pyfvsOf;í
awGU&S&d aomZmwfawmfwYkd\ tus,u
f v
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tus,f&Sif;vif;jyornf r[kwfawmhyg/
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G rf rI sm;
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h m;avsmfpmG jrwfA'k t
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csD;ajr§mufcJhol jzpfay\/ ol(r)rygvQif 'geyGJwdkY txrajrmufatmifyif 'get&mü
pHwifcJholjzpfay\/ þae&mü ausmif;trBuD;0domcgonf avmukwå&mydkif;üom
uRrf;usif\/ avmuDvrl aI &;ydik ;f r&S[
d k owfrw
S af umif; owfrw
S af yvdrrhf nf/ ,if;odYk
owfrSwfolwdkYudk atmufazmfjyygudpö&yfwdkYu ausmif;trBuD;0domcg\ vlrIa&;
udpw
ö dkYüvnf; vpf[if;rIr&SdaMumif;udk oufaojyaeay\/
ud,
k 0f efupd aö jz&Si;f ay;&jcif;
&mZN*dK[fNrdKUü ola|;orD;wpfa,muf&Sdav\/ olronf wwfodem;vnf
onfht½G,frSpí yg&rDt&Sdeft[kefaMumifh &[ef;rjyKvdkpdwf jzpfae\/ rdbwdkYxH
tBudrfBudrf cGifhawmif;aomfvnf; &[ef;jyKcGifh r&cJh&Smay/ t½G,fa&mufaomtcgü
tdrfaxmifjyKí udk,f0efwnfav\/ &[ef;jyKvdkaompdwfxm;um; aysmufroGm;cJhay/
wpfaeY &mZN*dK[fü eu©wfyGJobif&Sd&m tjcm;olrsm;u vdrf;usHjc,foaeaomfvnf;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 63

xdktrsdK;orD;av;rSmum; vdrf;usHjc,fojcif; r&Sdygay/ taMumif;udk cifyGef;onfu
ar;jref;Munf&h m cE¨mud,
k u
f kd vdr;f usHjcif;jzifh tusdK;r&Syd u
Hk kd NiD;aiGUzG,jf zifh ajymav\/
xdktcg cifyGef;onfu &[ef;jyKvdkujyK&ef cGifhay;av\/ xdkaeYüyif a'0'wf\
toif;tyif; wynfhr bdu©KeDrtxHü &[ef;jyKrdvdkuf\/
tdrfaxmifusNyD;p &[ef;jyKcJholjzpfcJhojzifh rlvu y#doaE¨&onfudk rodcJh
ay/ tcsdefMum avav udk,f0ef&ifhavavjzpf&m jyóemu ay:avawmh\/ xdktcg
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xdktcg bdu©KeDruav;onf om0wd¬NrdKU? aZw0efausmif;odkYoGm;a&mufum jrwfAk'¨
tm; taMumif;pku
H kd avQmufxm;av\/ jrwfA'k o
¨ nf tjzpfreS u
f o
kd ad omfvnf; &[ef;
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ausmif;trBuD;tp&Sdaom emrnfBuD;Oygoum? OygodumrwdkYudk ac:apí y&dowf
av;yg;tv,fü udk,f0efudpöudk pD&ifqkH;jzwfap\/ þudpöonf rdef;rwdkYESifh
oufqikd af om udpjö zpfí t&SiOf ygvdrax&fu ausmif;trBuD;0domcgtm; wm0efay;cJh
av\/
0domcgonf rax&f\wm0efay;csufudkvufcHvdkufav\/ xkdYaemuf
uefYvefYumukd umvdkufNyD; xdkuefYvefYum\twGif;ü udk,f0efaqmif&[ef;r\
cE¨mudk,fajymif;vJrI tajctaeudk Munfhav\/ vuf? ajc ponfwdkY\ azma,mifrI
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tjzpf rSwf,loihfay\/
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xdkacwftcgu (7)&ufwdkifwdkif t&ufaomufyGJ[líusif;yavh&Sday\/

64

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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qkH;r&ef 0domcgausmif;trBuD;tm; tyfESHxm;NyD; om;vnf; jzpfay\/ odkYaomfvnf;
t&ufaomufcsifMuonfh trsdK;orD;wdkYonf t&ufwdkYudk0Suf,lcJhí 0domcgESifhtwl
O,smOfxJodkY oGm;a&mufvnfywfcsdefü aomufírl;Mu\/ 0domcgu raomuf&ef
wm;jrpf\/ tdrfa&mufaomtcgüvnf; xdktrsdK;orD;wdkYonf cifyGef;onfwdkY\
t½dkufudkcHMu&\/ okdYaomfvnf; t&ufaomufcsifaomaMumifh tBuHxkwfav\/
jrwfAk'¨tm; zl;jrif&eftwGuf ausmif;odkYoGm;&ef 0domcgtm; awmif;qdkMuav\/
xdktcg0domcgonf þtcgüum; apmifhpnf;Muvdrfhrnf[laomtrSwfjzifh vdkufydkY
av\/
ausmif;a&mufaomtcg 0domcg\awmif;yefcsufaMumifh jrwfAk'¨onf
w&m;a[mav\/ w&m;a[maepOfüyif xdktrsdK;orD;ig;&mwdkYonf wdwfwdwfykef;
,lvmaom t&ufrsm;udk aomufpm;rl;,pfí jrwfAk'¨a&SUarSmufüyif uMu? ckefMu?
oDqdkMuav\/ þwGif tcGifhaumif;udk apmifhaeaom rm&fewfonf yl;0ifí jrwfAk'¨
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¨ nf t&uform; trsKd ;orD;rsm;tm;
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oGm;Muav\/ wpfzef jrwfAk'¨onf OPÖvkHarT;&SifawmfrS jzLaoma&mifjcnfawmfudk
vTwaf wmfrjl cif;jzifh jyefvnfítvif;a&mifukd jzpfapav\/ xdt
k cgrSom t&uform;
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jrwfAk'¨u]]OygodumrwdkY.. &m*? a'go? arm[ paom rD;(11)yg;wdkY tNrJawmuf
avmifaeygvsuf tb,faMumifh &,f½Tif&oenf;/ w&m;rjrif ESpfoufaysmf½Tif&
oenf;? rodrI t0dZmÆ trdu
k af rSmif zk;H vTr;f cHae&ygvsuf tb,fah Mumifh w&m;odjrif&ef
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\/ tdrfaxmif&SiftrsdK;om;wdkY\ tm;xm;&myif jzpfacs\/ xdkYaMumifh 0domcgausmif;
trBuD;onf bmoma&;? omoema&;üom tm;xm;&onfr[kwaf y/ vlraI &;üvnf;
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Oygodumr wdkYudk tpOftwdkif;&mxl;XmeEÅ&wkdYü xm;awmfrlvwfaomf þ0domcg

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 65

ausmif;trBuD;tm;
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wynfhr trsdK;orD;taygif;wkdYwGif rd*g&rmwm0domcgonf tomqkH;tjrwfqkH;
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aom apwemw&m;r&Sdu 'getxajrmufrnf r[kwfygay/ 'geajrmuf&eftwGuf
apwemonf taMumif;w&m;jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh pGefYBuJay;urf;vdkaom apwemw&m;
udk 'ge[kac:qd&k \/ vSLzG,yf pön;f 0w¬KwdYk ü wyfrufw,
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tavmbw&m;udk ]'ge}[k ac:\/ qGr;f ? ouFe;f ? ausmif;? aq; paom vSLzG,yf pön;f
rsm;udk pGeYf BuJay;urf;vSL'gef;&aom teufoabmaMumifh 'ge[k ac:qd\
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'ge\vu©Pm'dpwkuú
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66

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

yk*K¾d vfwYkdukd pm;apvdçk 0wfapvdk aomapwemw&m;onfvnf; xif&mS ;&Sad y\/ ,if;odYk
ay;vSLrIaMumifh jzpfav&m&m b0wdkYü aumif;usdK;w&m;rsm; &vdrfhrnf[laom tod
ÓPfvnf; a&SUoGm;&Sday\/ aemufqkH;yef;wdkiftjzpf 'ku©cyfodrf;wdkY\ Nidrf;at;&m
edAÁmefudk awmifhwNyD; pGefYBuJay;urf;rIjyK\/
bmomjcm;wdkY\ pGefYBuHrIrSm Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;uJhodkY ur®óuwm or®m
'd|dÓPf tajccH r&Sday/ edAÁmefudkawmifhwNyD;jyKvkyfjcif;vnf; r[kwfyg/ olwpfyg;wdkY
tm; pm;apvd?k 0wfapvdak om apwemw&m;onfom xif&mS ;&Sad y\/ þuJo
h Ykd bmom
jcm;wdkY\ay;urf;rIESifh Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY\ 'gew&m;rSmvnf; uGmjcm;vSay\/ qdkvdk
onfrSm &nf½G,fcsufjcif; uGmjcm;rIyif jzpf\/
'geESihf oHo&m&Snrf I
,if;odkY 'gerIjyKMu&mü tcsdKUaomolrsm;onf ]'geonf oHo&m&Snaf p
wwfaom w&m;}[k ajymqdkMu\/ oHo&mrSvTwfajrmuf&ef vdkvm;Muaom tavmif;
awmfrsm;onf 'gew&m;udk vdkvdkvm;vm;jyKcJhMuonfrSm oHo&m0#f'ku©rS vGwf
ajrmufaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifyh if jzpf\/ pifppf b0udak wmifw
h aom wPSmonfom
oHo&m&SnfaMumif; jzpf\/ enf;rSefvrf;rSefjyKaom 'geukodkvfrSmum; wPSmudk
y,faMumif;om jzpf\/ tavmif;awmfwYkdonf b0om,ma&;twGuf rawmifw
h cJah y/
tu,fí awmifw
h cJo
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om oHo&m&SnfaMumif; jzpfay\/
'geESifhpyfvsOf;í jrwfAk'¨u atmufygtwdkif; a[mMum;xm;\/
]]&[ef;wdkY.. tvSLay;jcif;tp&Sdaom ukodkvfw&m;wdkYudk raMumufyg
ukefvifh}}
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omwnf;}}
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'gew&m; udkvnf;aumif;? udk,f? EIwf? ESvkH;wkdYajzmifhrwfpGm usifhtyfaom
oDvw&m;udkvnf;aumif;? arwåmbm0em tyÜempsmefudkvnf;aumif;
rdrdoEÅmefü tzefzefjzpfap? yGm;rsm;&m\/ ynm&Sdolonf csrf;omaom
tusdK;udk ay;wwfuek af om 'ge? oDv? bm0emw&m;wdYk ukd jyKvkyt
f m;xkwf
NyD;í pd;k &draf MumifMh urIr&Sad om vlUbk?H ewfb?Hk jA[®mbkw
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wpfzef t|uxmq&mwdkYuvnf;]]bk&m;&SiftqlqlwdkYonf tEkykAdÁuxmckepfyg;wdkYwGif 'geuxmudk a&S;OD;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 67

pGma[mcJhonf}}[lívnf;aumif; ]]þtvSLay;jcif;rnfonf vl? ewf? edAÁmef okH;wef
aom pnf;pdrfcsrf;omudkay;jcif;\taMumif;jzpf\}}[lívnf;aumif; ]]þtvSLay;
jcif;onf t*¾om0u? r[mom0u? yuwdom0uwdkY\ yg&rDÓPf? yapöuaAm"d
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þodkY jrwfAk'¨\ rdefYMum;csufrsm;ESifh t|uxm q&mwdkY\pum;wdkYudk axmufqí
vnf; 'gew&m;onf oHo&mudk&Snfapwwfaom w&m;r[kwfaMumif; odomEdkif
ay\/
oHo&m&Snfjcif;onfum; 'gew&m;aMumifhr[kwfay/ 'geonf oHo&mudk
csJUxGif wwfaomw&m;vnf; r[kwfyg/ wPSm? rme? 'd|dw&m;okH;yg;onfom
oHo&mukd csJUxGifwwfaomw&m;[k jrwfAk'¨ a[mawmfrlcJh\/ t0dZÆmeD0&P
aMumifhvnf; oHo&mudkvnfapwwf\[lí vnf; wpfae&mü a[mxm;jyefao;\/
'geonf oHo&mudk &Snfapwwfaomw&m;jzpfaMumif; jrwfAk'¨ a[mawmfrlcJhjcif;
r[kwfay/ xdkYaMumifhyif jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmfu temxydPfESihf þ0domcg
ausmif;trBuD; tp&SdaomtrsdK;aumif;om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonf 'gew&m;udk
vufudkifrI jyKcJhMuonfomjzpf\/
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,aeY,ckjyK&aom ukodkvf 'geaMumifh &&ygvdk\[k qkawmif;vQif 0¥edódw
ukodkvfjzpf\/ rdrdqkawmif;jcif;aMumifh &&Sdtyfaompnf;pdrfrsm;onf tdk? em?
aorIqif;&JwkdYrSrvGwfuif;Edkifay/ xdkYaMumifh tdk? em? ao uif;&m edAÁmefudkom
awmifhwoihfay\/
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jrwfA'k o
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kd jf cif;ESiw
hf al Mumif; a[mawmfrcl \
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rdrd\ touf ao&rnfudk aMumufaomolonf ppfrwdkuf&Jay/ xdkYtwl rdrdypönf;
Opömukefrnfudk aMumufaomolonfvnf; rvSL'gef;ray;urf;&Jay/ ppfyGJü &JpGrf;
owdå&Sdaomol&Jaumif;onf ppfonftiftm;enf;aomfvnf; &JpGrf;owdår&Sdaom
wpfzuf&efoltrsm;udkyif atmifjrifEdkif\/ xdkYtwl ,kHMunfrIo'¨gw&m;? tm;xkwfrI
0D&d,w&m;? rpkHrufrI tavmbw&m; ponfwdkYESifhjynfhpkHolonf tenf;i,faom
tvSLyifjzpfaomfvnf; ray;&ufvdk ESajrm0efwdkwwfaom rapä&w&m;ESifh ray;csif?
rpGefYcsif? ay;vSL&rnfhypönf;udk wG,fwmwwfaom avmbw&m;wdkYudk ajrmufrsm;pGm
yifatmifjrif ESdrfeif;NyD;jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifhyif jrwfAk'¨u tvSLay;jcif;onf ppf
wdkufjcif;ESifhwlonf[k rdefYawmfrljcif; jzpf\/ þonfudk&nf½G,fí rmefvnfq&m
awmfonf rCa'0vuFmopfü-

68

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]]rkcsrSwf,l? avmuvlwGif? tvSLay;jcif;? ppfxdk;jcif;um;? r,Gif;wlrQ?
[luek pf w
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h w
d u
f if;uGm? pGeYf BuJ&mü ? o'¨gol&?J
AdkvfxkcGJvsuf? ppfuJ 0D&d,? vkHYvtxl;? &JacgifMuL;om;? AdkvfrSL;a½TÓPf?
qkwfrvSefbJ? pdwfoefcdkifusef;? cGJ,lrSef;avm}}
[k pyfqdkawmfrlcJh\/
,if;odYk ppfwu
kd jf cif;ESiw
hf al om ukov
kd af umif;rIwYkd ukd jyKvky&f mü taMumif;
okH;yg;jynfhpkH nDñGwfrSmvQif txajrmufEdkif\/ odkYr[kwfygu txrajrmufEdkifay/
,if;taMumif;okH;yg;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf\/
1/
uHç uH\tusdK;w&m;udk ,kHMunfaomo'¨gw&m;&Sdjcif;?
2/
vSL'gef;ylaZmfzG,fypönf;0w¬K xif&Sm;&Sdjcif;?
3/
tvSLcHyk*d¾Kvfxif&Sm;&Sdjcif;?
þ taMumif;w&m;okH;yg;wdkYwGif vSLzG,fypönf;ESihf tvSLcHyk*d¾KvfrSm
&vG,f\/ odkYaomf o'¨gw&m;jzpfay:&efum; cufcJvSacs\/ o'¨gw&m;&Sdoltm;
&EdkifcJaMumif;udk &Sift*¾orm"du aerdbkHcef;ysdKUü]]&eftykHwGif? cRHcRH0ifí? oH&SifcRwfEIwf? OD;vnfckwfom;? rnfxkwfpGrf;cuf?
ol&J xufvnf;? tdrfeufrJhyJ? 0rf;pmcJvsuf? pGefYBuJay;vTwf? a,mufsm;jrwf
um;? ywfywf azG&Sm? &cJpGm&Sifh? o'¨gaphayguf? þwpfa,mufvQif}}
[kpyfqdkxm;aMumif; awGUEdkifay\/
xkYd aMumifh ukov
kd af umif;rIwpfcjk yKvky&f mü txufazmfjyyg taMumif;t&m
okH;yg;ESifh jynfhpkHrSomvQif tvSL'ge txajrmufEdkifrnfjzpf\/ rnfodkYyifjzpfapumrl
trsKd ;aumif;om; trsKd ; aumif;orD;wkYd onf 'ge&SiBf uD;pHawmf0if 0domcgudt
k wk,u
l m
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tvSLray;aomol(2)OD;
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ray;&ufvdk ESajrm0efwdkaomyk*dK¾ vf?
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xdkwGif ray;&ufvdk ESajrm0efwdkaomyk*Kd¾ vfonf rdrdomvQif csrf;omcsif\/
olwpfyg; wdkYudk rcsrf;omapcsifay/ trSefrSm rpä&d,w&m;&SdolrSm wpfudk,faumif;
qefwwfaomyk*dK¾ vfrsm;yif jzpf\/ þrpä&d,&SdaomolwkdYtm; tb,frSmvQif tvSL
'gewdkYudk ay;vSLMuygtHhenf;/ arhavsmhayghq owdr&aomyk*dK¾ vfwdkY\tzdkYrSmum;
ajymp&m&Sdrnfr[kwfygay/ pifppf tvSL'geudk jyKvkyfMurnf r[kwfygay/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 69

'geukov
kd t
f jym;rsm;
'getrsdK;tpm;rsm;ukdvnf; atmufygtwkdif; avhvmEkdifayao;\/
,if;wkdYrSm(u)
tmrdo'ge? "r®'ge
'geonf tmrdo'geESifh "r®'ge[lí ESpfrsdK;tjym;&Sd\/ xdkESpfrsdK;wdkYwGif
qG r f ; tp&S d a om vS L zG , f 0 w¬ K ypö n f ; rsm;ud k tmrd o [k a c:í xd k t mrd o wd k Y u d k
vSL'gef;jcif;onf tmrdo'gernf\/ olwpfyg;wdkYtm; w&m;a[mjcif;ponfjzifh
w&m;udkay;vSLjcif;onf "r®'gernf\/ 'getm;vkH; wdkYwGif "r®'geonfom
tjrwfqkH;jzpfay\/
(c)
xm0&'ge? txm0&'ge
'geonf xm0&'ge? txm0&'ge[lí ESpfrsdK;jym;jyef\/ xdkESpfrsdK;wdkYwGif
opfoD;O,smOf? yef;O,smOfudk pDpOfpdkufysdK;vSL'gef;jcif;? c&D;oGm;rsm;tzdkY t&dyf&ap&ef
awmopfyifwdkYudk pdkufysdK; vSL'gef;jcif;? aomufa&tdk;pOf? a&wGif;? a&uef? Z&yf
wefaqmif;? apwD? ausmif;wdkYudk vSL'gef;jcif; wdkYonf ae&mwnfNrJaernfjzpfí
tNrJvSL'gef;jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh xm0&'gernf\/ txuf azmfjyyg xm0&'ge
wdkYuJhodkYr[kwfbJ acwåcPrQokH;aqmif&aom qGrf;ouFef;paom ypönf;rsm;udk
vSL'gef;jcif;onf txm0&'gernf\/
(*)
oy&d0g&'ge? ty&d0g&'ge
'geonf oy&d0g&'ge? ty&d0g&'ge [lí ESprf sKd ;jym;jyef\/ xdEk pS rf sKd ;wdYk wiG f
ouFef;udk vSL&mü ouFef;csnf;oufoufr[kwfbJ qGrf;? xD;? zdeyf tp&Sdaom
vSLzG,fypönf;rsm;ESifhpDpOf NcH&HívSLjcif;onf tNcHt&HESifhwuG vSL'gef;jcif;jzpfaom
aMumifh oy&d0g&'gernf\/ tNcHt&H vSLzG,fypönf;rygbJ ouFef;oufouf?
qGrf;oufoufjzifh pDpOfvSL'gef;vQif tNcHt&HrygbJ vSL'gef;jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh
ty&d0g&'gernf\/
(C)
yk*v
¾ u
d 'ge? oHCu
d 'ge
'geonf yk*v
¾ du'ge? oHCdu'ge[lí ESpfrsdK;jym;jyef\/ xdkESpfrsdK;wdkYwGif
yk*dK¾ vfwpfOD; ESpfOD;ponfjzifh ydkif;jcm;owfrSwfvSL'gef;jcif;onf yk*v
¾ du'gernf\/
oHCmawmfudk &nfrSef;í vSL'gef;jcif;onf oHCdu'gernf\/
(i)
umv'ge? tumv'ge
'geonf umv'ge? tumv'ge[k ESpfrsdK;jym;jyef&m uxdefouFef;
vSL'gef;jcif;? 0gqdkouFef;vSL'gef;jcif;? {nfhonf&[ef;? c&D;oGm;rnfh&[ef;? rusef;rm
aom&[ef;wdkYtm; qGrf;ponfvSL'gef;jcif;? tpma&pm&Sm;yg;aomtcgü vSL'gef;jcif;?
aumufOD;? opfOD;wdkYudk oDv&Sdol wdkYtm;vSL'gef;jcif;wdkYonf tcsdeftcgESifh
udkufnDatmif pDrHjyKvkyfvSL'gef;aomaMumifh umv'ge rnf\/ tcsdeftcgudk ra½G;bJ

70

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vSL'gef;vdkonfhpdwfjzpfaomtcgü vSL'gef;jcif;onf tumv'ge rnf\/
(p)
o'do'ge? to'do'ge
'geonf o'do'ge? to'do'ge[lí ESpfrsdK;jym;jyef&m tvSL'ge jyKvkyf
&m0,f wef;wlnDrQ&Edkifaom wlnDaomtvSL'gersdK;onf o'do'gernf\/
tcsif;csif; tNydKiftqdkifvSL'gef;Mu&mü wpfzufom;rsm;vdkufí rwkyEdkifatmif
tEdkif,lívSL'gef;jcif;onf to'do'gernf\/ ,if;uJhodkYaom to'do'geudk
aumovrif;onf tjcm;olrsm; wkyír&Edkifatmif vSL'gef;cJhzl;av\/
(q)
'ge'go? 'geo[m,? 'geomrd
'geonf 'ge'go? 'geo[m,? 'geomrd [lí okH;yg;jym;av\/
xdkokH;yg;wdkYwGif rdrdudk,fwdkif aumif;rGefaomtpm;tpmwdkYudk okH;aqmifaeaomfvnf;
tvSLcHyk*d¾KvfwdkYtm; rdrdokH;aqmifaomypönf;atmuf ,kwfnHhaomypönf;0w¬Kudk
ay;vSL'gef;jcif;onf 'ge'gornf\/ rdrdpm;okH;onfwdkYESifhwlpGm tvSLcHyk*d¾Kvf
tm;vnf; ay;vSLjcif;onf 'geo[m,rnf\/ rdro
d nf ,kwn
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kd m
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'geomrdrnf\/ pifppf þuJo
h Ykd 'geok;H rsdK;jym;jcif;onf tvSL&Si\
f vSLzG,f ypön;f udk
vdkufí uGJjym;jcif;jzpf\/
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wdkYwGif cJcJ,Of;,Of;jyKvkyfí vSL'gef;&aomtvSL'geonf 'kuú&'gernf\/ (okc
omraPavmif;\ olqif;&Jb0wGif vSL'gef;aomqGrf;wpfeyftvSLuJhodkYwnf;)
vltrsm; tBuD;tus,ftHhMoavmufatmif oD&d"r®maomurif;uJhodkY BuD;us,fpGm
vSL'gef;jcif;onf r[m'gernf\/ txufazmfjyyg 'kuú&'geuJhodkY cJ,Of;pGmjyKvkyfí
vSL'gef;&onfvnf;r[kwf? r[m'geuJhodkYvnf; vltrsm;tHhMoavmufatmif
BuD;us,fpGmay;vSLonfr[kwfaom tvSL'geonf omrn'gernf\/
(ps)
oyÜK&o
d 'ge (5)yg;
oyÜK&do'geonf ig;yg;&Sd\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1) uH? uH\tusdK;udk ,kMH unfaomo'¨gw&m;jzifh vSL'gef;jcif;[laom
o'¨g'ge?
(2) vSLzG,f0w¬Kypönf;udk pifMu,frGefjrwfatmif aumif;pGmjyKvkyfí
vSL'gef;jcif; [laom ouúp'ö ge?
(3) tcsdeftcgESifhoihfavsmfpGmvSL'gef;jcif;? oifhavsmfavsmufywfaom
tcsdefü vSL'gef;jcif;[laom umv'ge?
(4) tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfudkcsD;ajr§mufvdkaompdwfxm;jzifh vSL'gef;jcif;[laom
tEk*¾[dw'ge?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 71

(5) rdrd*kPfudkvnf;aumif;? olwpfyg;*kPfudkvnf;aumif; rxdcdkufap
bJ vSL'gef;jcif;[laom tEkyCmw'gewdkYjzpf\/
,if;oyÜK&do'geig;yg;wdkYwGif o'¨g'geaMumifh 'gejyKolonf pnf;pdrfOpöm
wdk;yGm;jcif;tjyif tqif;vSyjcif;[laom tusdK;xl;udk&&SdEdkif\/ ouúp'ö geaMumifh
pnf;pdrfOpömwdk;yGm;jcif;tjyif ta>ct&Hy&dowfrsm;u rdrdpum;udk av;pm;vdkufem
jcif;[laomtusdK;xl;udk &&SdEdkif\/ xdkYtwlyif umv'geonf pnf;pdrfOpömwdk;wuf
jcif;tjyif vdktyfaomtcsdefumv0,f vdktyfaomtusdK;w&m;wdkYudk rsm;pGm&Edkifjcif;
[laom tusdK;udk&Edkif\/ tEk*[
¾ dw'geonf pnf;pdrfOpömwdk;wufjcif;tjyif &&Sdaom
pnf;pdrOf pöm? rGejf rwfaom tok;H taqmifwYdk ukd ok;H aqmif&ef pdwq
f E´&jdS cif;? ok;H aqmif
&jcif; [laom tusdK;&Sd\/ tEkyCmw'geaMumifh pnf;pdrfOpöm wdk;wufjcif;tjyif
pnf;pdrOf pömwdYk ukd &eforl sdK;ig;yg;wdYk zsufq;D rIr&Sjd cif;[laom tusdK;wdYk ukd &&SEd ikd af y\/
(n)
oyÜK&o
d 'ge&Spyf g;
wpfenf;tm;jzifh olawmfaumif;wdkYay;vSLavh&Sdaom oyÜK&do'geonf
&Spfyg;tjym;&Sd\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1) oefY&Sif;pifMu,f wifhw,fvSyatmifjyKívSL'gef;jcif;?
(2) rGefjrwfaomtvSL0w¬Kudk vSL'gef;jcif;?
(3) oihfavsmfavsmufywfaomtcgü vSL'gef;jcif;?
(4) tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfwdkYESifh tyfpyfaomypönf;udkom vSL'gef;jcif;?
(5) tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfESifh vSLzG,fypönf;wdkYudk a½G;cs,fpdppfí vSL'gef;jcif;?
(6) rdrdwwftm;orQ rjywfvSL'gef;jcif;?
(7) vSL'gef;ay;urf;pOf pdwfMunfvifapívSL'gef;jcif;?
(8) vSL'gef;ay;urf;NyD; 0rf;ajrmufpGmpdwfxm;Edkifjcif;wdkYjzpfay\/
'gew&m;\tusdK;w&m;rsm;
jrwfAk'¨u 'gejyKvkyfjcif;aMumifh ,ckypöKyÜefb0ESifh wrvGefb0wdkYü&&Sd
apEdkifaom tusdK;w&m;wdkYudk oD[ppfolBuD;tm;'gejyKoltm; ypöKyÜefb0ü(1) vltrsm;wdkYcspfcifjrwfEdk;Mu\/
(2) tvSL&SifxHodkY NidrfoufwnfMunfaompdwf&Sdaom olawmfaumif;
rsm; csOf;uyf Muukef\/
(3) tvSL&Sifonf aumif;owif;ausmfMum;jcif;ESifhjynfhpkH\/
(4) tvSL&Sifonf rif;? ykPÖm;? ol<u,f? &[ef;y&dowftv,f &J0ifh
aom rsufESmjzifh ½Tif½Tifjyjy qnf;uyfEdkif\/

72

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(5) tvSL&Sifonf pdwfESvkH; MunfMunfvifvifjzifh aoqkH;&\/ ao
qkH;NyD;wrvGefb0üum; aumif;aom*wdjzpfaom ewfjynfodkY
a&mufEdkif\[k a[mMum;awmfrlcJhay\/ xdkYaMumifh ypöKyÜeftusdK;
ig;yg;ESifh wrvGeftusdK;wpfyg;wdkYudk &,lvdkaom olwdkYonf 'ge
w&m;udk vufudkifjyKoihfay\/
'ge\tusdK;ay;BuD;rm;zGNUH zdK;&ef taMumif;(6)yg;
,if;uJhodkYaom tusdK;w&m;rsm;BuD;rm;zGHUNzdK;ap&eftwGuf taMumif;(6)yg;
&SdaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;taMumif;(6)yg;rSm(1) rvSL'gef;rD a&SUtzdkYu BudKwif0rf;ajrmufjcif;?
(2) vSL'gef;qJtcgüvnf; pdwfapwemw&m;rsm; aumif;pGmMunfvif
jcif;?
(3) vSL'gef;NyD;aemuf ESpfouf0rf;ajrmufaompdwf&Sdjcif;[laom tvSL
&SifzufrS t*FgokH;yg;?
(4) &m*uif;NyD;oljzpfjcif; (odkYr[kwf) &m*uif;&ef usifhBuHtm;xkwf
aeoljzpfjcif;?
(5) a'gouif;NyD;oljzpfjcif; (odkYr[kwf) a'gouif;&ef usifhBuHtm;
xkwfaeol jzpfjcif;?
(6) arm[uif;NyD;oljzpfjcif;(odkYr[kwf) arm[uif;&ef usifhBuHtm;
xkwfaeol jzpfjcif;
[laom tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfzufrS t*FgokH;yg;wkdYjzpf\/ þodkY t*Fg(6)yg;ESifh jynfhpkHaom
tvSL'ge\ tusdK;onf EdiI ;f ,SOí
f ra&wGuEf ikd [
f k jrwfA'k u
¨ a[mMum;awmfrcl MhJ umif;
avhvmawGU&SdEdkifao;\/ xdkYaMumifh tvSL'getusdK;BuD;rm;rIudk tvdk&Sdolonf
t*Fg(6)yg;ESifhjynfhpkHatmifBudK;yrf;oihfay\/
vufiif;tusdK;ay;&ef t*Fg(4)yg;
t|uxmq&mwd k Y u vnf ; atmuf a zmf j yygt*F g av;yg;jynf h p k H v Qif
,ckb0üyif vufiif;tusdK;ay;EdkifaMumif; rdefYMum;Muao;\/ ,if;t*Fgav;yg;rSm(1) vSLzG,f0w¬Konf w&m;ojzifh&SmrSD;í&aom "rd®,v'¨ ypönf;jzpf
jcif;?
(2) o'¨gw&m;xufoefpGmjzifh apwemokH;wefnDñGwfívSL'gef;jcif;?
(3) tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfonf &[EÅm (odkYr[kwf) tem*grfyk*dK¾ vfjzpfjcif;?
(4) tvSLcHyk*d¾Kvfonf eda&m"ormywfrS xNyD;pjzpfjcif;wdkYjzpf\/
þt*Fgav;yg; ESifhjynfhpkHolwdkYonf ,ckb0üyif tusdK;ay;rIudk

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 73

cHpm;&&SdEdkif\/ ,if;odkYazmfjyaom t|uxmq&m wdkY\ pum;&yf
udk &nf½G,fNyD; rCa'0vuFmopfü]]xdkNyD;w0? vSL'geü? ypö,"rd®,m? apwemr[wf? orÜwf0w¬K? *kPfvGef
rIjzifh? pwkt*Fg? nDwkHygu? ypöu©0,f? yxrapwem? usdK;ay;pGm\}}
[k pyfqdkxm;cJh\/
'ger[kwaf om 'geig;rsdK;
Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf tvSL'getrsdK;rsdK;udk vdkavao;r&Sdatmif wwfpGrf;
orQ jyKpkaeMu\/ ,if;odkYjyKpk&m0,f avmuü aumif;rIr[kwfbJ aumif;rI[k
orkwfMuaom tvSL(5)rsdK;udkvnf; odoihfay\/ odkYrSom rjyKoihfrjyKxdkufaom
'gewdkYudk a&SmifMuOfMurnfjzpfay\/ ,if; (5)rsdK;rSm(1) rZÆ'ge
= ao&nft&uf? rl;,pfaq;0g;tvSL?
(2) orZÆ'ge = yGJobiftvSL?
(3) £wd¬'ge = rdef;rtvSL?
(4) Oob'ge = EGm;rtaygif;\tMum;ü EGm;vm;Oobudk vTwf
ay;jcif;[laom EGm;vm;OobtvSL?
(5) pdwåur®'ge = qef;Mu,fpGmjyKtyfaomrdef;r½kyf? a,mufsm;½kyf
tvSL? (udavomwd;k yGm;aMumif;jzpfaom rde;f rESihf a,mufsm; wdYk \
aysmfyg;ykHudk xkvkyfa&;qGJtyfaomt½kyfrsdK;)wdkY jzpfay\/ þig;rsdK;
aomtvSL'gewdkYudk ray;vSLoihfay/
þodkY 0domcgausmif;trBuD;onf omoemawmfü touf (120)wdkifwdkif
tvSL'gewdkYüom arGUavsmfcJhay\/ uG,fvGefaomtcgüum; edr®me&wdewfjynfü
okerd w
®d ewfrif;BuD;\ ewfrzd &k m;BuD;jzpfvsuf&adS eay\/ ,if; 0domcgausmif;trBuD;
onf xdkbkHrSonf tqifhqifhbkHpOfpHí edAÁmefodkY ul;ajrmufrnfholyif jzpfygownf;/
xdkYaMumifh 0domcgudk tm;ustwk,lvsuf ,aeYacwf trsdK;aumif;om; trsdK;aumif;
orD;wkdYonf 'gew&m;wdkYudk avhvmBudK;ukwftm;xkwfoihfay\/
þ0w¬Kudk avhvmaomf 0domcgavmif;vsmtrsdK;orD;onf omreftrsdK;orD;rsm;
aqmufwnf&efcufcJaom q,fyg;oDvudk tESpfESpfaomif;wdkYywfvkH; aqmufwnfcJh
aMumif; awGU&\/ þonfrSm q,fyg;oDvudk touf&SiforQumvywfvkH; aqmuf
wnfjcif;udk jyvdkjcif;jzpf[ef wlygonf/ q,fyg;oDv rqdkxm;bd ig;yg;oDvyg
oDvwpfyg;udyk ifvNHk cHKatmifrapmifph nf; Edik af om ,aeYacwfumv avmuom;wdYk EiS hf
csdefxdk;Munfhaomf 0domcgavmif;trsdK;orD;\ usifhpOfoDvrSm tHhMozG,f&m

74

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vnf;jzpf\/ twk,lzG,f&mvnf;aumif;\/ xdkYaMumifh ,aeYacwf trsdK;aumif;om;?
trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonf ig;yg;oDvrQudkjzifh BudK;pm;í usifhokH;oihfay\/
wpfzef 0domcgonf avmuDtvS*kPf? "e*kPfwdkYESifh jynfhpkHoljzpfonf
omru jrwfAk'¨\ orD;awmfjzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm aomwmyefwnf;[laom avm
ukw&å m"r®*P
k w
f Ykd jzifv
h nf; wifw
h ,fow
l pfa,mufjzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SEd ikd af y\/
þae&mü aomwmyef0o
d mcgonf umrcsrf;omudk rufarmí tdraf xmifjyKoavm[k
awG;Edkifay\/ (t&d,mwdkYonf "r®csrf;omxuf umrcsrf;omudk ydkíESpfoufjcif;um;
r[kwfygay/) tedpt
ö p&Sdaom vu©Pm,mOfokH;yg;\oabmudkum; em;vnfay\/
odkY&mwGif tNrJwrf;um; 0dyóemÓPfrsm; rjzpfEdkifay/ Oyrmtm;jzifh rpifvl;rnfudk
aMumufaomykPÖm;onf qifvdkufcH&onfhtcg xdkqif\ab;rS vGwfajrmuf&m rpif
&Sd&mt&yfodkY ruyfcsifaomfvnf;uyf&\/ xdkYtwlyif udavomtyl ESdyfpufcH&aom
aomwmyefonf xdkudavomtyl Nidrf;jcif;iSg umr*kPfudkcHpm;&mü ykxkZOfwdkY cHpm;
jcif;uJo
h Ykd udavom wd;k yGm;jcif;iSg cHpm;onfum; r[kwaf y/ umr*kPw
f Ykd \ tjypfukd
jrifNyD; ]]igonf þumr *kPfrsdK;udk y,f&OD;rnf}} [laom ('d|duif;aom) pdwfjzifhom
cHpm;ay\/ aomwmyefwpfa,muf taejzifh "r®ç umr[laom okcESpfrsdK;wdkYwGif
wpfrsdK;udkoma½G;cs,fyg[kqdkvQif "r®okcudkom a½G;cs,fay vdrfhrnfum; rrSm;ygay/
wpfzef cifyGef;onf\tdrfodkY vdkufyg&rnfh orD;0domcgtm; zcifjzpfol
"eÍö,ola|;BuD;onf rSwfom;zG,f&m Mo0g'q,fcsufudkay;cJhaMumif; avhvmcJhNyD;
jzpf\/ ,if;Mo0g'um; rdbu om;orD;jzpfoltm; twGif;a&;udprö sm;tm; rSmMum;
jcif;vnf;jzpfay\/ ,if;Mo0g'rSm 0domcgtwGufomr[kwfbJ aemifvmaemufom;
rsm;\ tdrfaxmifa&;tqifajy&eftwGuf taxmuftyHhwpfckjzpfaMumif;udkvnf;
awGUjrifEdkifay\/ xdkYaMumifh tdrfaxmif&SiftrsdK;orD;rsm; twk,lí Mo0g'udk
vdkufemoihfay\/ zcif"eÍÆ,ola|;BuD;onf Mo0g'rQudkomru orD; 0domcgtm;
apmifrMunfh½IEdkif&eftwGuf vlBuD;vlaumif;&SpfOD;tm; vTJtyfcJhaMumif;vnf;awGU
&ay\/ þonfudkMunfhaomf ,aeYacwfrdbwdkYonf rdrd\orD;tm; a,mufsm;tdrf
odkYvdkuf&mü tm;ri,fap&ef teD;tem;ywf0ef;usifü&Sdaom vlBuD;vlaumif;wdkYudk
tyfESHxm;oifhaMumif; azmfñTef;jyoaeay\/ qdkvdkonfrSm ta&;udpö&Sdvmygu
,if;vlBuD;vlaumif;wdkYrS ulnDapmifh a&Smuf&eftwGufyif jzpfay\/ þonfrSmvnf;
pHawmf0if0domcg\ taMumif;0,f twk,l zG,f&mwpfckyifjzpfay\/
0domcg\tzdYk &mü bmomjcm;todik ;f t0dik ;f ü ae&aomfvnf; rdr,
d MHk unf&m
Ak'¨0g'udk pGJNrJpGmcH,lí bmomjcm;rdom;pkudkyif Ak'¨bmom0iftjzpfodkYa&mufatmif
apmifha&SmufEdkifcJhaMumif; awGU&Sd&ay\/ þonfrSmvnf; 0domcg\ pGrf;aqmifcsuf
wpfckyifjzpfay\/ tvS*kPf? "e*kPf? "r®*kPfwdkYjzifh jynfhpkHaom0domcgonfyif
bmomjcm;wdkY\a&,mOfaMumü acwårQ yufvufarsmcH& ayao;\/ 0domcguhJokdY

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 75

*kPfaygif;pkH rjynfhpkHaom ykxkZOftrsdK;orD;wdkYtaejzifhum; bmomjcm;wdkY\ a&,mOf
aMumü xm0pOfarsmrnfrSm aocsmay\/ t,kwfpGtqkH;qdkaomf rdrd\qGJaqmifrI
atmufodkY rygEdkifaom EdkifiHom;jzpfaom bmomjcm;udk,ljcif;xuf rdrd\bmomudk
ouf0ifaom EdkifiHjcm;om;udk,ljcif;um;ydkí oihfawmfay\/ rnfodkYyifjzpfap
bmomjcm;? EdkifiHjcm;om; wdkYESifhraygif;zufjcif;onfom taumif;qkH;aom0g'yif
jzpfaMumif; okH;oyfrday\/
txl;tm;jzifh 0domcgonf ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;udk aiGoef;aygif; (270)
oef; tukefcHum wnfaqmufí omoemawmftm; vSL'gef;cJhaMumif;awGU&ay\/
0domcgonf ausmif;trBuD;jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm ypönf;av;yg;wdkYjzifhvnf; vdkav
ao; r&Sdatmif vSL'gef;cJholvnf;jzpfay\/ om0wd¬odkYa&muf&Sdvmaom tm*EÅK
&[ef;rSeforQwdkYonf 0domcg ausmif;trBuD;\qGrf;udk rpm;bl;ol r&Sdoavmufyif
jzpfacs\/ 'get&mü jrwfAk'¨vufxuf trsdK;orD; avmuwGif 0domcgausmif;tr
BuD;tm; rDolr&SdcJhay/ xdkYaMumifh jrwfAk'¨u 'gejyKMuol trsdK;orD;taygif;wdkYwGif
tjrifhqkH; tjrwfqkH;aom awmfpHxm;0if'ge&Sif {w'*fbGJUxl;udk 0domcg ausmif;tr
BuD;tm; csD;jr§ifhcJhay\/ txufazmfjyyg taMumif;t&mwdkYudk avhvmjcif;jcifh ,aeY
acwf trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonfvnf; 'ge&Sif0domcguJhodkY rdbwdkY\pum;udk vdkufem
oihf ay\/ udk,fusifhoDvwdkYudkvnf; apmifhxdef;oihfay\/ tajymtqdkudkvnf;
xdef;odrf;oihfay\/ yD,0gpmjzpfatmifvnf; ajymoihfay\/ tvSLtwef; ay;urf;
pGefYBuJrIwdkYüvnf; arGUavsmfaysmfydkufoihfay\/

YX;WZ

76

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tcef;-4

]awmf0ifpx
H m; ckZKÆ wå&m trsdK;orD;}
jrwfA'k \
¨ omoemawmf0,f omoemjyKolwikd ;f tcGit
hf a&;ud,
k pf D &SMd u\/
jrwfAk'¨\ omoemawmfonf rdef;r? a,mufsm;? qif;&J? csrf;om? vljzL? vlrJ? uav;?
vlBuD;[lí cGJjcm;rIr&Sday/ pGrf;Edkifygu rnfolrqdk omoemjyKcGifh&Sd\/ jrwfAk'¨
vufxufü tm;EGJUonf[kqdkaom trsdK;orD;rsm;onfyif xdyfwef;utrSefwu,f
omoemjyKcJhMu\/ y&d,wdå"r®udk oif,ljcif;? ydkYcsjcif;jzifhvnf; omoemjyKcJhMu\/
y#dywdåtusifhpcef;wdkYudk avhusifhtm;xkwfjcif;jzifhvnf; omoemjyKcJhMu\/ w&m;
a[majymjcif;jzifhvnf; omoemjyKcJhMu\/ Ak'¨omoemjyKolwdkY\ &nf½G,fcsufrSm
jrwfAk'¨\ 0g'onf avmuvlom;wdkY\tZÑwåoEÅmef0,f pdrfh0ifwnf&Sdap&efom
t"dujzpfay\/ jrwfA'k \
¨ omoemawmfwnf;[laom aerif;BuD; avmuwpfcv
k ;Hk odYk
ysHUESHYxGef;vif;&efom vdk&if;y"mejzpf\/ ,if;&nf½G,fcsufrsm;udk omoemjyK yk*dK¾ vf
wdkif;u tm;BudK;rmefwuf taumiftxnfazmfaeMu\/ rdrdwdkY\Edkif&mwm0ef? us&m
tcef;u@rsm;rSvnf; pGrf;tm;&SdorQvkyfaqmifaeMuay\/
,if;odkYvkyfaqmif&mwGif jrwfAk'¨vufxuf vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;wdkY\
tcef;u@ onf ta&;ygvm\/ jrwfAk'¨vufxuftrsdK;orD;rsm;onf owdå&Sd\/
&J&ifh\/ ÓPfynm xufjruf\/ pOf;pm;ÓPf&Sd\/ tppt&m&mwGifvnf;
EdIif;csdefwwf\/ tvkyfwpfckvkyfNyDqdkygu tjcm;olESifh rwlatmifvnf; vkyfaqmif
wwf\/ txl;ojzifh jrwfAk'¨\ omoemawmfjyefYyGm;a&; twGufatmuf azmfjyyg
ckZÆKwå&m\omoema&;aqmif½Gufcsufrsm;udkMunfhaomf olr\pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;udk
tm;& auseyfz,
G &f mawGU&S&d ay\/ jrwfA'k \
¨ awmf0ifpx
H m;orD;wpfa,mufjzpfaMumif;
udkvnf; olr\vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;u azmfñTef;aeay\/ olronf trsdK;orD;
tvkyform;wpfa,mufyifjzpfaomfvnf; jrwfAk'¨omoemawmfü txG#ftxdyfodkY

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 77

a&mufcJholvnf;jzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh atmufajcvlwef;pm;rS txG#ftxdyfodkY a&muf&SdcJh
aom awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;jzpfol ckZÆKwå&m\taMumif;ukd odxm;oifhay\/
ckZKÆ wå&m\twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
ckZÆKwå&monf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨\vufxufü [Hom0wDjynfwpfckaom
trsdK;tdrfwGif trsdK;orD;wpfOD;jzpfcJh\/ tcgwpfyg;ü olronf ]]jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;
awmfudkem,ltHh}}[kBuHí ausmif;awmfodkYoGm;cJh\/ ausmif;awmfa&mufpOf y'krkwå&
jrwfAk'¨onf OygodumrtrsdK;orD; wpfOD;tm; tMum;tjrif&Sdolvl0wfaMumif trsdK;
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 83

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84

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86

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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88

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pHxm; trsdK;orD;wpfa,mufjzpfykHudkvnf; olr\ arwåmw&m;BuD;rm;rIu xif[yf
jyoaeay\/ arwåm&Sif[lonf arwåmw&m;udk tNrJwrf;&Sifoefapolom jzpf\/
omrm0wD\ twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
omrm0wDonf ]y'krkwå&} jrwfAk'¨\vufxufü [Hom0wDjynf0,f wpfck
aomtrsdK; tdrüf trsdK;aumif;orD;wpfO;D jzpfc\
hJ / tcgwpfyg;ü olronf ]w&m;awmf
udk em,ltHh}[kBuHí ausmif;awmfodkY oGm;cJh\/ ausmif;awmfodkY a&mufpOf y'krkwå&
jrwfAk'¨\ trsdK;orD;wpfOD;tm; awmf0ifpHxm; arwåm&Siftjzpf ]{w'*fbGJUxl;} csD;jr§ifh
aeonfukd awGUjrifc\
hJ / xdYk aMumifh olronf ]igonfvnf; aemifaomtcgü þtrsdK;
orD;uJo
h Ykd yif awmf0ifpx
H m;arwåm&Sif {w'*fbUJG xl;udk &&S&d ygvd\
k }[k qkawmif;cJ\
h /
xdYk aemuf olronf toufq;Hk onfw
h ikd f ukov
kd af umif;rIwYkd ukd jyK\/ touf&n
S o
f rQ
umvywfv;Hk yg&rDawmfwYkd ukd jznfq
h nf;cJ\
h / olronf uG,v
f eG o
f nft
h cg ewfjynf
üjzpf&NyD; urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; vlUjynfewfjynfwdkYom usifvnfcJh&\/
a*gwr jrwfA'k \
¨ vufxufawmfüum; b'´0wDoal |;\orD;awmftjzpf xif&mS ;cJ\
h /
b'´0wDjynfü a&m*EÅ&uyfqu
kd af &mufjcif;
a*gwrjrwfAk'¨vufxufü aumorDÁjynf0,f aCmou? ukuú#? yg0g&du
[laom olaX;ok;H a,mufwYkdonf tcsi;f csi;f rdwaf qGzUJG vsuf aexdik Mf u\/ xdYk twlyif
b'´0wDjynf&Sd b'´0wDola|;onfvnf; aumorDÁjynf&Sd aCmouola|;ESifh tcsif;
csif; rjrifb;l Muaomfvnf; ESpjf ynfaxmif ukeo
f nfwYkd rw
S qifh tcsif;csif; vufaqmif
yPÖmrsm; ay;ydkYMuNyD; rjrifzl;aomfvnf; rdwfaqGrsm; jzpfMuav\/ wpfckaomtcsdefü
b'´0wDoal |;\tdrüf omrm0wDavmif; oli,frudk zGm;jrifc\
hJ / xdo
k il ,frudk emrnf
rSnfh&mü ]omrm}[k rSnfhac:Muav\/
tcgwpfyg;ü b'´0wDoal |;\tdr0f ,f a>rqdyEf iS w
hf al om (,Of;tem)a&m*g

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 89

jzpfymG ;av\/ ,ckacwf tac:ta0:tm;jzifu
h m; ]ausmufa&m*g}[k ac:Edik rf nfjzpf\/
xdka&m*gjzpfyGm;&mü yxrOD;pGm ,ifowå0gwdkY aoMu\/ xkdYaemuf ydk;rTm;? <uuf?
Muuf? 0uf? EGm;? uRerf ed ;f r? uRef a,musmf ;wdYk tpOftwdik ;f aoMu\/ xdo
k w
l YkdaemufrS
tdro
f l tdro
f m;wdYk aoMu\/ t&yfwpfyg;odYk a&Smifwrd ;f Edik o
f w
l Ykd om touf&iS Ef ikd \
f /
ra&Smifwdrf;olwdkYrSmum; vGwfvrf;r&Sday/ trSefrkcs aornfom jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh
b'´0wDola|;om;trd? om;tzokH;a,mufwdkYonf aetdrfESifh pnf;pdrfOpömwdkYudk
pGeYf cmG í a&m*guif;vGw&f m aumorDjÁ ynfoYkd a&Smifwrd ;f cJMh u\/ xdrk o
d m;pk ok;H a,muf
onf aumorDÁjynfodkYra&mufrD vrf;c&D;ü &du©mjywfMuav\/ odkYaomfvnf; yifyef;
BuD;pGmjzifh aumorDjÁ ynfoYkd oGm;a&mufMu\/ aumorDjÁ ynfoYkd a&muf&mwGif aCmou
ola|;xHoYkd a&S;OD;pGm oGm;a&mufrnf[Bk uHaomfvnf; tm;tifrjynfah o;ojzifh NrdKUjyif&dS
wpfckaomZ&yfü tm;jynfhonfhtcsdefudk apmifhpm;aecJhMu\/
ola|;BuD;ESihf ola|;uawmfBuD;wdYk uG,v
f eG jf cif;
xdt
k csde0f ,f aCmouola|;onf rdr\
d tdr0f ,f pwk'o
d mr@yfukd aqmuf
\/ tBuD;trSL;cefYxm;NyD; yk*dK¾ vftoD;oD;tm; aeYpOfrjywf tvSLBuD;udk ay;vSL\/
cdkudk;&mrJhaeaom b'´0wDola|;ZeD;armifESHwdkYonfvnf; tvSLr@yfodkY 0ifa&muf
awmif;cHjcif;iSm &SufaomaMumifh orD;jzpfol ]omrm}udkom xrif;awmif;cdkif;Mu\/
omrmonf xrif;xnfhp&mcGufudk ,laqmifcJhaomfvnf; trsm;enf;ol r@yfwGif;0if
í awmif;cHzdkY&efrSm r0Hh&Jay/ r@yfESifh reD;ra0;t&yfüom NidrfoufpGm &yfaeav\/
xdkodkYaeonfudk tvSLpDrHoljrifvQif ]]þtrsdK;orD;i,fum; rsm;pGm&Sufjcif;
&Sd\/ ½kyftqif;vSolvnf; jzpf\/ trsdK;aumif;orD;jzpf&Smvdrfhrnf}}[k BuHrd\/
xdkYaemuf trsdK;orD;i,fxH csOf;uyfí ]b,fESpfa,mufpmvdkoenf;}[k ar;jref;\/
]okH;a,mufpm}[kqdkvQif pm;zG,f[if; ESifhwuG okH;a,mufpmaomxrif;udk ay;\/
omrmonfvnf; rdr&d cJah om xrif;ESi[
hf if;udk rdbwdYk tm; auR;av\/ zcifoal |;BuD;
onfvnf; rsm;pGmaom &ufwdkYumvywfvkH; tpmiwfrGwfaomaMumifh vGefuJpGm
pm;rdav\/ xdkYaMumifh tpmraMua&m*gjzpfNyD; uG,fvGefoGm;cJh\/ aemufaeYü omrm
onf r@yfrS ESpfa,mufpmxrif;udkom ,laqmifNyD; rdcifBuD;tm; auR;arG;\/
rdcifBuD;onfvnf; ola|;BuD;enf;wl tpmraMuaoma&m*gjzifyh if uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;cJ\
h /
]omrm0wD}[k trnf&jcif;ESihf aCmouola|;BuD;\ arG;pm;orD;jzpfjcif;
xdktcsdefrSpí b'´0wDola|;orD; omrm\b0onf tvGefoem;p&mjzpf
cJh&\/ ypönf;Opömrsm;vnf; qkH;yg;cJh&\/ rdbESpfyg;vnf; uG,fvGefcJhMu\/ olr\
b0onf avmutv,fü rsufESmi,f&&Smonfh cdkudk;&mrJhb0odkY tvdkvdk qdkufa&muf
cJh&\/ wwd,ajrmufaeYü omrmonf wpfa,mufpmrQaom xrif;udk awmif;,l\/

90

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tvSLpDrHolu wpfa,mufpmom awmif;cH &jcif; taMumif;udk ar;jref;\/ xdktcg
omrmonf rdrd\b0ZmwfaMumif;udk wpfprusef ajymMum; av\/ tvSLpDrHolonf
omrmtm; ]]cspforD;.. rpdk;&drfygvifh? oihfudk ,aeYrSpí orD;t&müxm;tHh}} ajymqdkNyD;
rdrd\tdrfodkY ac:aqmifoGm;av\/ xdkYaemuf orD;t&mü xm;av\/
xdkowdkYorD;i,fonf pwk'domr@yf\ qlnHoHudk aeYpOfMum;&aom
aMumifh zcifjzpfol pDrHolESifhwdkifyifum tvSLr@yfudk qlnHoHrMum;ap&ef pDrH\/
tvSLr@yfudk tumt&HwdkYjzifh um&Hap\/ wpfa,mufomvQif 0ifí&aom wHcg;
aygufwdkYudkazmufap\/ t0ifwpfayguf? txGufwpfaygufjzpf&ef zefwD;\/ þodkY
tvSLr@yftm; tumt&HudkjyKaponfrSpí ]0wD}[k emrnfwpfvkH;wdk;NyD; ]omrm
0wD}[k ac:Muav\/ xdktcsdefrSpí ]omrm0wD}[laomemrnfonf xif&Sm;ay:vGif
av\/
aCmouola|;onfvnf; tvSLr@yf\ qlqlnHnHtoHudk rMum;&aom
tcg tvSLpDrHoltm; taMumif;pkHudk ar;jref;cJh\/ pDrHolonf orD;awmf omrm0wD
b0ZmwfaMumif;ESifhwuG tvSLr@yfudk pepfwus pDrHykHtaMumif;wdkYudk avQmufMum;
av\/ aCmouola|;onfvnf; taMumif;t&mtvkH;pkHudk Mum;od&aomtcg
omrm0wDtm; tvSLr@yfpDrHolxHrS csufcsif;ac:,lNyD; orD;t&mü xm;av\/
ckZÆKwå&mESifhwuGaom ig;&mrQaom trsdK;orD;i,fwdkYudkvnf; NcH&HvkyfauR;ap\/
xdktcsdefrSpí omrm0wDonf aCmouola|;\orD;awmftjzpf xif&Sm;cJhav\/
omrm0wDonf Oawerif;\ rdz&k m;jzpfvmjcif;
xdktcsdefonf aumorDÁjynfudk Oawerif; tkyfcsKyfcsdef jzpf\/ xdkrif;onf
r[maoG;? r[mEG,f0ifjzpfaomfjim;vnf; awmü BuD;jyif;cJhol jzpf\/ ajzmifhrwfaom
pdwfxm;um; &Sd\/ odkYaomf ]]cufxefMurf;wrf;ol}}[k xif&Sm;oljzpf\/ ][wd¬uEÅ
apmif;ESifh rEÅef}udkydkifqdkifaombk&if [lívnf; acwfNydKifrif;wdkY\tMum;ü wefcdk;
xGm;aeolvnf; jzpf\/ wpfaeYoü Oawerif;tkyfcsKyf&m aumorDÁjynf0,f tBuD;
us,fqkH;aom eu©wfyGJobifudkusif;yqifETJjcif;jzifh raumif;aomab;wdkYrS uif;a0;
\[k jA[®P0g'wdkYuqdkMu\/ ab;'Pftaygif;onfvnf; rusa&mufEdkif[kvnf;
,lqMujyef\/ ,if;odkYusif;yjcif;onf a&S;a[mif;jA[®PwdkY\ xkH;wrf;tpOftvm
ESifhtnD usif;yjcif;vnf; jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh yGJawmfaeY0,f tm;vkH;aom wdkif;oljynf
om;wdkYonf jrpfqdyfodkYoGm;í OD;acgif;aq;avQmfça&rdk;oefYpifMu&\/ omrm0wD
wdkYonfvnf; yGJawmfodkY oGm;a&mufolxJwGifyg0if&m yGJawmfusif;y&modkY rif;&ifjyifrS
jzwfoef;vsuf oGm;av\/ Oawerif;onf omrm0wDudk jrifjrifcsif; arwåmouf0if
oGm;\/ xdkYaMumifh aCmouola|;tm; orD;awmfudk qufo&efESifh tu,fí rquf
oygu aCmouola|;\tdru
f kd csdyyf w
d rf nfjzpfaMumif; &mZoHay;\/ odYk aomfvnf;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 91

aCmouola|;onf orD;awmf omrm0wDtm; rif;tm; rqufocJhacs/ xdkYaMumifh
omrm0wDwdkY yGJawmfoGm;pOf Oawerif;onf aCmouola|;tm; ta&;,lcJh\/
omrm0wDwdkY jyefa&mufvmí jzpfaMumif;ukefpifMum;od awGU&Sd&aomtcg rdrdtm;
aqmif,l&ef wrefwkdYudk apvTwfvdkuf\/ Oawerif;onfvnf; ]aumif;NyD}[k0efcHí
omrm0wDudk tNcHt&HESifhwuGaqmif,lNyD; tbdodufoGef; avmif;\/ t*¾ra[oD
rdzk&m;acgifBuD;t&müvnf;xm;\/ Oawerif;ü omrm0wDrdzk&m;tjyif p@yaZÆmw
rif;\orD;awmf 0gokv'wåmrdz&k m;ESihf rm*@Drzd &k m;[laom tjcm;rdz&k m;ESpyf g;vnf;
&Sdao;\/
rm*@D\ &efNidK;
jrwfAk'¨onf rm*@Dtrnf&Muaom yk@m;ZeD;armifESHwdkY\ t&[wåzdkvf
&tHhaomtaMumif;udk jrifojzifh uk½kwdkif;? ur®mo'r®ed*kH;odkY qGrf;cH0ifawmfrl\/
xdZk eD;armifEw
HS Ykd0,f rm*@D[yk if trnf&aom orD;wpfa,muf&\
dS / xdo
k rD;i,fonf
tvGeftqif;vSol jzpf\/ rdbwdkYonf ,if;wdkY\orD;ESifhavsmfaom a,mufsm;udk&Sm
vsuf vSnv
f nfumae\/ wpfaeYoü xdyk P
k mÖ ;armifEHS ESpaf ,mufwYkd onf jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf
&ifqdkifawGUNyD; orD;ESifhvufxyfay;&ef tBuHtpnfjzpfcJh\/ þodkY tBuHjzpf&jcif;
rSmvnf; ykPÖm;ZeD;armifESHonf y&AdkZf&[ef;\tEG,frS aygufzGm;aomolwdkYjzpf
aomaMumifhjzpf\/
ykPÖm;ZeD;armifESHonf orD;i,fudkvufpGJum qGrf;cH<uaeaom jrwfAk'¨\
aemufodkY vdkufav\/ jrwfAk'¨\txHodkYa&mufaomtcg ]]orD;awmftm; tvdk&Sdygrl
,lawmfrlyg}}avQmufxm;\/ jrwfAk'¨u ykPÖm;BuD;wdkYZeD;armifESHudk w&m;oHa0*
jzpfpdrfhaomiSg ]'doGme wPSH t&wdÍö &m*H}tp&Sdaom*gxmudk a[mawmfrl\/
,if;*gxm\t"dyÜg,frSm]]ykPmÖ ;BuD;... igonf bk&m;jzpfpumvü rm&fewf\orD;jzpfaom
tvGefvSyaom wPSm? t&wd? &m*g[laom ewforD;okH;a,mufwkYdonf
ighudk ajc&if;tvkyftauR;jyKjcif;iSg awmif;yefvmMuukef\/ xdkewforD;
wdkYudkjrifívnf; ESpfOD;&SufqkHaysmfjrL;ukefaom arxkeftusifhü tvdkqE´
tmoDoonf ightm;rjzpfcJh/ ,if;odkYjzpfygvsuf usifBuD;? usifi,f twd
jynfhaom þoifwdkY\orD; rm*@Dudk tb,frSmtvdk&SdawmhtHhenf;/
xdkoifwdkY\orD;udk ajcjzifhvnf; xdjcif;iSg igtvdkr&Sd/}}
[líjzpf\/ ,if;*gxm\tqkH;ü ykPÖm;ZeD;armifESHwdkYonf tem*grdzdkvfüwnfcJh\/
orD;rm*@Dudkvnf; nDjzpfol ykPÖm;tm;tyfESHí &[ef;jyKMuNyD; rMumrD &[EÅm
jzpfMuav\/ orD;rm*@Donfvnf; jrwfAk'¨\ rdrdcE¨mudk,fudkuJh&JUí w&m;a[m
ajymjcif;udk taMumif;jyKí jrwfAk'¨tay:ü &efNidK;zGJUav\/ rdef;rwpfa,mufudk

92

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

cspfcifpkHrufaom yk&dowpfa,muf\*½kpdkufta&;ay;rIonf wu,fpifppf xdkrdef;r\
tvdk&r®ufESifh tmomqE´udkjznfhjcif;rQomjzpf\/ ,if;\wPSm &m*pdwfonfum; a&mifh&J
&yfwefo
Y Gm;jcif;r&Sad y/ odkYaomfvnf; þtaMumif;t&mt& jrwfAk'¨onf omrmef
a,mufsm;wdYk jzpfavhjzpfx&Sad om &m*? a'go? arm[paom udavomwdYk ukd t<uif;rJh
y,fowfNyD;aomaMumifh]a,mufsm;wdkYpdwf? jrifwdkif;ndwfvsuf? qdwf\tvm;? EGm;\oabm? tm½kH
ajymwdik ;f ? vdu
k af vsmaxGjym;? olt
U jcm;ESi}hf
tp&Sdaom tvuFmpum;ESifhtnD jrifwdkif;acgif;ndwfwwfaom vlpm;rsdK;um; r[kwf
ay/ b0ü jrwfEdk;auseyfzG,f&mowif;aumif;udk jrwfAk'¨xHrS r&&Sdvdkufjcif;onfyif
rm*@DtwGuf a'goyGm;p&mwpfckomjzpfacs\/ xdkYaMumifh rm*@Donf Oawerif;
\ rdzk&m;jzpfvm&mtcgü jrwfAk'¨tay:ü aoaomufMuL;wdkYudk qJa&;&efapcdkif;cJh\/
omrm0wDwYkd w&m;xl;&&Sjd cif;
wpfaeYaomtcgü omrm0wDrdzk&m;\ yef;awmfquftrsdK;orD; ckZÆKwå&m
(tcef; 4 üazmfjyNyD;) onf jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk emMum;&NyD; aomwmywdåzdkvfü
wnfcJhav\/ xdkYaMumifh aeYpOfckd;,laeusjzpfaom aiGav;usyfudk rcdk;awmhbJ
aiG&SpfusyfvkH;jzifh yef;0,f,lí qufocJh\/ omrm0wDu taMumif;pkHudkar;jref;&m
jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk emMum;&jcif;aMumifh[k od&av\/ ckZÆKwå&m trsdK;orD;
tm;vnf; jrwfAk'¨\xHawmfrS w&m;awmfudkem,l&efESifh em,lNyD;aom w&m;awmfrsm;
udk olrwdkYtm; wqifhjyefvnfa[mjy&ef wm0efay;cJh\/ ckZÆKwå&monfvnf; wm0ef
ay;onft
h wdik ;f aqmif½u
G af v\/ xdYk aemuf omrm0wDonf ckZKÆ wå&mtm; trdt&mü
xm;í w&m;awmfrsm;udk wqifhem,lcJh\/ ,if;odkYem,l&müvnf; ig;&maom trsdK;
orD;i,fwdkYvnf; yg0ifcJhMu\/ ¤if;wdkYonf a&S;OD;pGm a[maomw&m;awmf\tqkH;ü
aomwmywdåzdkvfü toD;toD;wnfMuav\/ xdktcsdefrSpí jrwfAk'¨tm; ylaZmfvdk
Muukef\/ odkYaomfvnf; Murf;wrf;aom Oawerif;udk aMumufí rkefYwpfck? yef;
wpfyGifhudkrQ vSL'gef;Edkifjcif;? zl;ajrmfEdkifjcif;r&SdMuay/ xdkYaMumifh qGrf;cH<uvmaom
jrwfAk'¨udk eH&Hudkazmufíom zl;ajrmfMu&av\/
rm*@Duek ;f wdu
k jf cif;
omrm0wD\ b0wpfoufwmwGif olrtwGuf yg&rDjznfhbufrsm;&SdcJh\/
,if;wdkYxJwGif rm*@Donfvnf; wpfa,muftygt0ifjzpf\/ wpfaeYaomtcgü
olr\taqmifoYkd rm*@D xl;qef;pGm a&mufvm\/ aumif;aom vmjcif;r[kwo
f nf
udkum; &dyfpm;rd\/ odkYaomfvnf; omrm0wDonf a&SUtem*wfü BuHKawGU&rnfh
ted|m½kHavmu"HwdkYudk cg;raumh? acgif;rarmhbJ arwåm"mwfcHjzifh yuwdwnfNidrfpGm

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 93

&ifqdkifcJh\/ ,if;odkY &ifqdkifEdkifjcif;rSmvnf; em,lcJh&aom w&m;awmf\ pGrf;tm;
aMumifhyif jzpf\/
xdkodkYvm&mwGif rm*@Donf azmufxm;aom taygufwdkYudk jrifí azmuf
xm;&jcif;taMumif;udk ar;\/ omrm0wDvnf; jrwfAk'¨udk zl;jrif&eftvdkYiSg azmuf
xm;aMumif; ajzMum;av\/ rm*@Dvnf; &efoljzpfaom &Sifa*gwr\ om0dumrwdkY
udk rMumrD odap&rnf[kBuHí jyefoGm;av\/ xdkYaemuf Oawerif;xHoGm;í
omrm0wDwdkYonf t&Sifrif;jrwftm; cspfcifrIr&Sdukef/ a*gwrAk'¨udkom cspfcif
Muuke\
f / t&Sirf if;onf owdxm;awmfryl g/ uREfyk \
f pum;udrk ,kaH omf wdu
k ef &H w
H iG f
Munfyh g}}[k uke;f wdu
k \
f / Oawerif;onfvnf; tBudrBf udraf jymaomfvnf; r,kMH unf
ay/ taqmifvSnfhvnfí a&mufaomtcg azmufxm;aomtjcif;t&mwdkYudkar;\/
omrm0wD wdYk onfvnf; taMumif;&if;jzpfwikd ;f udk avQmufwifMu\/ Oawerif;onf
tjypfr,lbJ azmufxm;aomtaygufwYkd uykd w
d af p\/ wHcg;aygufwYkd ukd rsm;pGmjyKay;í
jrwfAk'¨tm; zl;ajrmf&eftcGifh ay;\/ rm*@D\ tBuHtpnfonfum; atmifjrifrI
r&SdcJhygay/ ]tEdkift½IH;}[laom a0g[m&wdkYESifhcsdefxdk;aomf þwpfcsDü rm*@D½IH;NyD;
omrm0wDEdkifonf[k qdk&ayrnf/ þyGJpOfonf rm*@DtzdkY qJa&;rIudkcH&jcif;?
Oawerif;\ omrm0wDr dz k& m;tay: cspfc ifr IomvG e f j cif ; paomtaMumif ;
w&m;aygif;pkHwdkYonf rm*@Dudk bufaygif;pkHrS wGef;xdk;wdkufcdkufvsufom&Sday\/
xdktaMumif;w&m; aygif;pkHwdkYaMumifh rm*@D\a'goonf Nidrf;at;Edkifrnfum;
r[kwfygay/
þü omrm0wDwkdYtkyfpkrSm eef;raqmif\tjyifodkY xGufcGifhr&olxJwGif
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jzpf\/ jyifyvlwdkYESifhul;vl; qufqHcGifhr&Sday/ jrwfAk'¨udkzl;awGUzdkY&ef þuJhodkY
taygufazmufjcif;onf obm0usaomenf;vrf;wpfckjzpfaMumif; od&SdEdkifay\/
xdkYaMumifhyif aumordÁ\pnf;rsOf;Oya'ESifh rNidpGef;jcif;jzpf\/ vlom;wdkYonf t&m
cyfodrf; pdwfaepdwfxm;rsm; jzLpifrGefjrwfoihf\/ odkYaomfvnf; tcsdKUolrsm;onf
&HcgaumufuspfpOf;vJwwfMujcif;rSm twåvTrf;rdk;rIaMumifhjzpf\/ twåBuD;rm;
vmaomtcg vlom;wdkYonf trSefudktrSm;[k jrifMu\/ trSm;udkum; trSef[k
xifMu\/ taumif;udk raumif;jrifMu\/ raumif;udkum; taumif;[kxif\/
xdYk jyif rdwaf qGu&kd efou
l o
hJ Ykdjrifí &efou
l u
kd m; rdwaf qGuo
hJ Ykd xifMu\/ þodYk xifjrif
jcif;rSm ysufpD;&efa&SUajy;edrdwfyif jzpfav\/ þodkY xifjrifolxJwGifvnf; rm*@D
wpfa,mufyg0ifaeay\/
xdkYaMumifh rm*@Donf rdrd\ukef;wdkufpum;jzifh rif;trsufryGm;aMumif;udk
odvQif wpfzefavQmufwifjyef\/ ]]t&Sifrif;BuD;... omrm0wDonf vif\aus;Zl;udk
rod/ aus;Zl;r&Sdaom a*gwr*kPfudkomrsm;pGm csD;rGrf;avh&Sd\/ t&Sifhtm;cspfcifonf

94

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

[k uREfkyfrxif/ tu,fí cspfçrcspf odvdkygrlum; ]rif;BuD;tusdK;iSg Muuf&Spfaumif
wdYk uo
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f ydYk vmap}[k apawmfryl g}}[k qdjk yef\/ rif;BuD;vnf; rm*@Dqw
kd ikd ;f
Muuf&SifwdkYudkydkY\/ omrm0wDwdkYuvnf; ]Muuf&SifwdkYudk tb,fodkYcsuf&tHhenf;}[k
qdkíaeav\/ xdktaMumif;udk rif;csif;wdkYu jyefavQmufvmvQif rm*@Duvnf;
]t&Sifa*gwr\ tusdK;iSgcsufíydkYygap}[k avQmufjyef\/ rif;vnf; rm*@Doifwdkif;
apjyefvQif rm*@D\wHpdk;udk&aom rif;csif;wdkYonf tMum;üowfíydkY\/ omrm0wD
wdkYonfvnf; aumif;pGmcsufí bk&m;xHodkYydkY\/ xdktaMumif;udk Oawerif;Mum;aomf
omrm0wDwdkYtm; trsufxGufoihf? roifhpOf;pm;íomaeav\/ a0cGJíum; r&
ao;yg/
odkYaomfvnf; rm*@D\tBuHwdkYonfum; rukefao;ay/ xdktcsdefü Oawe
rif;onf rdzk&m;wpfOD;wpfOD;\ jyom'fü ckepf&uf ckepf&ufpD pHNrJjzpf\/ wpfckaom
tcgü rm*@Donf rdrd\ jyom'frS omrm0wD\jyom'fodkY rif;BuD;ul;vdkvwfaomf
Oawerif; aqmifawmfrlNrJaom [wd¬uEÅrnfaom apmif;\twGif;ü tqdyfjyif;aom
a>ra[mufi,fudk vkHNcHKatmifxnfh\/ Oawerif;tm;vnf; ]omrm0wDxHoGm;vQif
owdxm;awmfrlyg}[kvnf; rSmvdkuf\/
omrm0wD\ arwåmpdwx
f m;
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vnf; tvefYwMum; [pfatmfvsuf ]uHaumif;íom toufcsrf;om&m&onf/ omrm
0wDwdkY\owdåudkodNyDavm}[k qdk\/ xdktcg Oawerif;onf jyif;pGmtrsufxGufí
csufjcif;ac:apNyD;vQif BuD;pGmaomav;udkwifvsuf tqdyfvl;aomjrm;jzifh ypfzdkY&ef
tm;xkwf\/ xdktcg omrm0wDonf olr\tNcHt&H armif;rwdkYtm; ]]t&SifrwdkY...
igwdkYü tjcm;tm;xm;p&m r&Sdawmhyg/ rdrdESifhxyfwl Oawerif;ESifh rm*@D rdzk&m;
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kd af omjrm;onf omrm0wD###BOT_TEXT###amp;ifqo
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 95

wnfae\/
Oawerif;onf ]]ig ypfvTwfvdkufaomjrm;onf ausmufudkaomfvnf; xdk;
azmufoGm; Edkif\/ aumif;uifüvnf; [efYwm;Edkifaomae&m r&Sd/ odkYaomfvnf;
þjrm;onf aemufodkYjyefvmNyD; ig\ESvkH;om;qD a&SU½Iae\/ toufr&Sdaom
þjrm;onfyif omrm0wD\*kPfudk odae\/ igonf vlom;ppfppfjzpfaomffvnf;
olr\*kPfudk rod}}[k BuHpnfrd\/ xdkYaemuf av;udkypfcsNyD; vuftkyfcsDum
omrm0wD\ajc&if;ü aqmifhaMumifhxdkifvsuf cGifhvTwfzdkY&ef awmif;yefawmh\/
xdt
k csderf pS í omrm0wDwYkd onf bk&m;zl;jcif;? w&m;emjcif;wdYk ukd vGwv
f yfpmG jyKcGi&hf cJh
av\/
þü omrm0wD\ arwåmw&m;wdYk onf Oawerif;ESihf rm*@DwYkd\ a'gorD;
wdkYudk atmifyGJcHcJh\/ arwåmonf omrm0wDwdkY\ wu,fhvufawGU cdkudk;&mjzpfcJh\/
]tauúma"e Zdaeaum"H= trsux
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l kd arwåmESihf atmifEikd &f m\}[laom jrwfAk'¨\
w&m;awmfudk vufawGU taumiftxnfazmfcJhjcif;yifjzpf\/
xdkYaemuf omrm0wDonf ]]t&Sifrif;BuD;vnf; jrwfAk'¨udk qnf;uyfawmf
rlyg/ uREfkyfwdkYtm;vnf; w&m;jyoqkH;rtHhaom &[ef;wpfyg;udk cGifhawmif;í
ay;awmfrlyg}}[k avQmuf\/ Oawerif;vnf; omrm0wDqdkwdkif; jrwfAk'¨xHuyfí
w&m;awmfudkem,l\/ eef;awmfodkY0ifí oifjyEdkifaom &[ef;awmfwpfyg;udk awmif;
cH&m &SiftmeE´mrax&ftm; &&Sdav\/ &SiftmeE´mrax&fonfvnf; omrm0wD
trSL;&Sdaom tNcHt&Hig;&mwdkYudk w&m;awmfudkoifMum;jyo\/ olrwdkYonfvnf;
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jzpf\/ olronf rdrx
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\/ rif;vnf; ]]aumif;NyD}}[k0efcHí tNcHt&HrSL;rwfwdkYudk pDrHcif;usif;ap\/ xdktcg
rm*@Du rdrd\baxG;udk ac:NyD;vQif ]]rif;BuD;ESifhuREfkyfwdkY O,smOfodkYxGufaomtcg
rif;BuD;\ tmPm[kqdkí omrm0wDwdkY\ jyom'fudk aumuf½dk;ywfí rD;wdkufyg}}[k
rSm\/ baxG;jzpfolykPÖm;onfvnf; rif;ESifhrdzk&m;wdkY O,smOfodkYoGm;aomtcgü
omrm0wDwdkY\jyom'fudk rD;wdkuf\/ xkdodkY rD;avmifaomaMumifh omrm0wD trSL;
&Sdaom armif;rig;&mwdkYonf xdknOfhüyif uHMur®mukefMuav\/ ,if;odkY rD;avmif
cH&csdefüvnf; omrm0wDwdkYonf arwåmjzifhaeav\/
omrm0wDw\
Ykd twdwb
f 0rS tukov
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omrm0wDtrSL;&Sdaom armif;rig;&mwdkY\ rD;wdkufcH&jcif;taMumif;rSm

96

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

a&S;twdwfu jyKcJhaom raumif;rItukodkvfuHBuD;\ tusdK;qufaMumifh jzpf\/
omrm0wDtrSL;&Sdaom armif;rig;&mwdkYonf bk&m;ryGifhrD Am&mPoDjynfh&Sifrif;BuD;
\ orD;awmfESifh tNcHt&HwdkYjzpfcJhMu\/ wpfaeYaomtcg **Fgjrpfü a&upm;&mrS
csrf;íwufvwfaomf eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;aeaom yapöuAk'¨g&Spfyg;wdkY\ ausmif;
wnf&Sdaomawmtkyfudk rD;wdkufMu\/ xdkrD;onf yapöuAk'¨gwdkY\ ausmif;ESifhwuG
a½TwkH;uJhodkYjzpfaeaom yapöuAk'¨gwdkYtm; avmifNrdKufaeonfudk jrifaomtg ]]igwdkY
t&Sifrif;BuD;\ t&Sifygaywum;? rif;BuD;Mum;odvQif igwdkYtm;&mZ0wfay;vwHh}}[k
xdwfvefY Mu\/ xdkYaMumifh yapöuAk'¨gtm; aopdrfhaomiSg xyfrHum rD;wdkufjyef\/
xdkt&SifjrwfwdkYonfum; ormywf\tmEkabmfaMumifh udk,fawmfü tEÅ&m,fr&Sdacs/
þodkYjyKcJhzl;aom raumif;rIuHaMumifh i&JücH&NyD;rS <uif;usefaom tusdK;quftm;jzifh
wpfNydKifeuf rD;wdkufcH&jcif;jzpf\/ xdkrD;avmifcH&rIüum; ckZÆKwå&mum;ryg0ifay/
(ryg0ifaMumif;udk tcef;-4 ü a&;om;NyD;NyD)/
rm*@D\ b0ed*;Hk
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raumif;rI tukodkvfuH<uif;\ ESdyfpufrIaMumifh zvormywfudk 0ifpm;jcif;iSgyif
rwwfEdkifMuukef/ wpfNydKifeufomvQif rD;vQHjyif;pGm avmifav\/ omrm0wD\
tapmifhta&Smufjzpfaom rif;csif;a,mufsm;wdkYonf Oawerif;xHoGm;í rD;avmifrIudk
avQmufMum;av\/ Oawerif;onf rD;avmifrI udk jyKvkyfolonf tb,folenf;}}[k
&SmazGpkHprf;ar;jref;aomf ]]rm*@Drdzk&m;jyKaomtrI}}[k odav\/ xdkYaMumifh ac:ap
NyD;vQif ]]rdzk&m;... oifonf aumif;aomtrIudk jyKayonf/ igjyK&rnfhtrIudkyif
oifjyKayonf/ oifrzd &k m;tm; igMunfño
kd jzifh qkvmbfrsm;pGmay;ygrnf/ oifrzd &k m;
\ aqGrsdK;wdkYudkvnf; ac:apygavmh}}[k qdkav\/ rm*@Donf xdkpum;udkMum;vQif
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trsdK;jyKí ac:ap\/
Oawerif;onf tvkH;pkHpka0;rdonf\tjzpfudkodí rif;&ifjyifüvnf;
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tydik ;f ydik ;f jzwfNyD;aomf ylvaS omrkYH t;kd uif;ü avSmaf p\/ þonfum; rm*@D\b0ed*;Hk
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arwåmw&m;om tEdkif&&SdoGm;ay\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 97

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toufESifhvJí oufaoxloGm;cJh\/ þae&mü arwåmtaMumif;ukd tenf;i,f
&Sif;vif;jyygOD;rnf/
arwåmw&m;
arwåm\tm½kHrSm cspfciftyf? jrwfEdk;tyfonfh owå0gynwftm½kH jzpf\/
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rjzpfEdkifay/ arwåmtwkta,mifrsm;om jzpfay\/ yifrjzpfonfh w&m;udk,frsm;udk
csdefqMunfhygu arwåmppfarwåmrSef rjzpfEdkifaMumif; odomvS\/ wPSmayr[k
ac:onfh avmbw&m;um; ,if;tcspfrsm;\ yifrw&m;udk,fppfppf jzpf\/ arwåm
\ yifr w&m;udk,fppfppfum; ta'goapwodufjzpf\/ þw&m;udk,f(2)yg;udk
csdefqíMunfhygu rnfonfh tcspfonf arwåmppf? rnfonfhtcspfonf arwåmwkjzpf
aMumif; odEdkifay\/ arwåmppfESifhywfoufí rSwfcsufav;rsdK;&Sd\/ ,if;av;rsdK;rSmarwåmppf[o
l nf(1) rsKd ;wlrsKd ;uGJ rjcm;bJ ouf&o
dS wå0grSeo
f rQ\ tusKd ;udv
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qufoG,f yGm;pD;jcif;vu©Pm&Sd\/
(2) ,if;odkY qufoG,fyGm;pD;atmifvnf; aqmif½Gufjcif;udp&ö Sd\/
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xdkodkY r[kwfygu arwåmwkom jzpfay\/ odkYaomfvnf; arwåmppfarwåmrSef jzpf&ef
rSmrl wdrfra,mifESifh eufovdk vG,fra,mifESifhcufwwfaom oabm&Sd\/ ykxkZOf

98

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vlom;[lonf twåçy& ESpf0teuf y&rzuf twåoufoufudkom Munfhwwfol
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f m;um
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üvnf; owå0grsm; csrf;omokc&&Sda&;? qif;&J'ku©rusa&mufa&;rsm;udk &nfrSef;
awmifhwum arwåmbm0emudk Budrfzefrsm;pGmyGm;rsm;um arwåmokwf y&dwf
awmfudktajccHvsuf 0dyóemur®|mef;udk tm;xkwf&efjzpfayawmh\/
arwåmpGr;f tm; tusdK;rsm;
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arwåmw&m;udkyif ñTefjy&ygvdrfhrnf/ arwåm"mwfonf Munfvifat;jrí Nidrf;csrf;
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a&ajrjcm;í a0;uGmaeaomfvnf; arwåmjzifhqufoG,fvQif teD;uav;[kqdk&\/
arwåmonf tvsm;teHr&Sdaomfvnf; toGm;tjyef&Sdaomw&m;jzpf\/ ]apmifNcKH í
rvkEH ikd ?f arwåmNcKH rv
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[k qdkaomfvnf; aiGjzifhqufqH½kHjzifh rNrJEdkifyg/ arwåmjzifh qufqHrSom &moufyef
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xufjrufaomvufeufrSm onf;cHjcif;[k qdkaom arwåmvufeufyifjzpf\/
a0vmrokwv
f m arwåmtusdK;
jrwfAk'¨u arwåm\pGrf;tm; BuD;rm;ykHtusdK;rsm;udk a0vmrokwfwGif

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 99

tqifh(10)qifh jzifh cGJjcm;NyD; a[mMum;xm;aMumif; atmufygtwdkif;awGU&SdEdkif\/
azmfjyxm;ykHrSm(1) xrif;&nfacsmif;pD;atmifvSLcJhaom bk&m;tavmif; a0vmrykPÖm;
BuD;\ tvSL'gersdK;xuf aomwmyefwpfO;D udk vSL&jcif;u omvGef
í tusdK;BuD;\/
(2) xdkYtwl aomwmyef(100)xuf ou'g*grfwpfOD;udk vSLjcif;?
(3) ou'g*grf(100)xuf tem*grfwpfOD;udk vSLjcif;?
(4) tem*grf(100)xuf &[EÅmwpfyg;udk vSLjcif;?
(5) &[EÅm(100)xuf yapöuAk'¨gwpfyg;udk vSLjcif;?
(6) yapöuAk'¨gtql(100)xuf bk&m;wpfqludk vSLjcif;?
(7) bk&m;wpfqlxuf bk&m;trSL;&SdaomoHCmawmfudk vSLjcif;?
(8) oHCmawmfuv
kd LS jcif;xuf pwk'o
d moHCmawmfu&kd nfp;l í ausmif;
aqmufvSLjcif;?
(9) pwk'domoHCmawmfudk&nfpl;í ausmif;aqmufvSLjcif;xuf
o&P*kHaqmufwnfjcif;ESifh ig;yg;oDvudkvkHNcHKapjcif;?
(10) o&P*kHaqmufwnfjcif;ESifh ig;yg;oDvudkvkHNcHKapjcif;xuf eHYom
wpf½SLcefY tcsdefydkif;avmuf arwåmyGm;rsm;jcif;u omí tusdK;
BuD;rm;\ [k azmfjyxm;\/
þodkYtusdK;BuD;rm;aomarwåmw&m;udk tjcm;wpfae&müvnf; jrwfAk'¨
onf ]]td;k tvk;H (100)jzifh wpfaeYvQif ok;H Budrcf sufívSL'gef;aom'gexuf EdYk wpfnp§ f
pmwpfcPwmrQ yGm;rsm;aom arwåmbm0emu ydkítusdK;BuD;rm;aMumif;}} a[mMum;
xm;onfudk awGU&av\/r[mpnfq&m awmfuvnf; þonfukdyif &nf&G,fí
atmufygtwdkif; "r®uAsmjzifh rSwfwrf;jyKxm;cJhygonf/
]wpfaeYo;Hk cg? tk;d wpf&mjzif?h csuu
f mxrif;? auR;arG;jcif;xuf? r,Gi;f pifppf?
Ekw
Yd pfnp§ pf m? Burd o
f ;Hk cgrQ? arwåmyGg;rsm;? usKd ;Bu;D rm;onf? bk&m;jrwfpmG rdecYf eG ;f
wnf;}
rsufarSmufawGEU ikd af om arwåmpGr;f tif (2)rsdK;
yuwdrsufpdjzifh 'd|jrifawGUEdkifaom arwåmpGrf;tif(2)rsdK;&SdaMumif; awGUEdkif
ygonf/ ,if;(2)rsdK;rSm(1) rdcif\EdkY&nfjzpf\/ rlvurdcifEdkY&nfonf teDa&mifaoG;jzpfaomf
vnf; om;orD;tay:cspfaom rdcif\arwåm"mwfaMumifh tjzL
a&mifEdkY&nftjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;aMumif; awGUEdkifay\/
(2) tjcm;pGrf;tifwpfckrSm vdyfOjzpfonf/ vdyfrrsm;onf Owkvmcsdefü

100 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

r[m ork'´&mrSwufí oJaomifjyifü Orsm;udk O\/ xkdYaemuf
oJjzifhzkH;cJhNyD; ork'´&modkY jyefqif;Muukef\/ ta0;rSom arwåm
ydkYaomaMumifh vdyfOrsm;rykyfbJ tcsdefusaomf vdyfuav;rsm;
aygufzGm;vmMuukef\/
þtcsufwkdYudkMunfhaomf arwåmpGrf;tifudk od&SdEdkifay\/
arwåmtusdK;(11)yg;
arwåmw&m;yGm;rsm;oltwGuf tusdK;w&m;(11)yg;rQ&SdaMumif;udk jrwfAk'¨u
a[mMum; xm;aMumif;udkudkvnf; atmufygtwdkif; awGU&\/ ,if;(11)yg;rSm1/
csrf;csrf;omom tdyf&jcif;?
2/
csrf;csrf;omom Ekd;&jcif;?
3/
raumif;aomtdyfrufudk rjrifrufjcif;?
4/
vlwdkYcspfjrwfEdk;jcif;?
5/
ewfwdkYcspfjrwfEdk;jcif;?
6/
ewfwdkYapmifha&Smufjcif;?
7/
rD;ravmif? tqdyfroihf? vufeufab;rSuif;a0;jcif;?
8/
pdwfvsifjrefpGmwnfMunfjcif;?
9/
rsufESmtqif;Munfvifjcif;?
10/
rawGra0ao&jcif; ESifh
11/
aoNyD;aomtcgü jA[®mhjynfodkYa&mufjcif; wdkYjzpf\/
arwåmrydrYk D a&S;OD;pGmjynfph aHk p&rnfw
h &m;(15)yg;
,if;odkYtusdK;w&m;wq,fhwpfyg;udkay;Edkifaom arwåmw&m;udkryGm;rsm;rD
atmuf azmfjyygw&m;t*Fg wq,fhig;yg;wdkYESifhjynfhpkH&rnfjzpf\/ odkYrSom
arwåmydkYorQvG,fulrnfjzpf\/ a'gow&m;wdkYvnf; 0ifa&mufrI&SdEdkifrnfr[kwfay/
,if;w&m;wq,fhig;yg;rSm(1) oauúm
= jyKpGrf;Edkif&rnf/
(2) OZk
= ajzmifhrwf&rnf/
(3) ok[kZk
= tvGefajzmifhrwf&rnf/
(4) ok0apm
= qdkqkH;rvG,f&rnf/
(5) rk'k
= El;nHhodrfarGU&rnf/
(6) tewdrmeD
= rmerBuD;&/
(7) oEÅKóaum
= ESpfoufa&mifh&J&rnf/
(8) okba&m
= tarG;tjrLvG,f&rnf/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 101

(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

tyÜudapöm
= trIudpöenf;&rnf/
ov’[ku0kwdå = ayghyg;rI&Sd&rnf/
oEdÅ`Ed´a,m
= Nidrfoufaom £a`E´&Sd&rnf/
edyaum
= &ifhoefaom ÓPfynm&Sd&rnf/
tyÜ*aAÇm
= Murf;wrf;aom trlt&mrsm;r&Sdap&/
ukavoGeEk*da'¨g = trsdK;wdkYü pGJvrf;jcif;r&Sdap&/
e p ck'´rmpa& udÍdö a,e 0dñl ya& Oy0a',sHK
= ynm&Sdrsm;uJh&JUMurnfhtrI rSeforQudk
tenf;i,frQ rjyKjcif;wdkY jzpfonf/
,if;wdkYudk tenf;i,fcsJUí azmfjy&onf&Sdaomf(1)
oauúm = jyKprG ;f Edik &f rnf/
jyKpGrf;Edkif&rnf qdkonfum; rdrdjyKvkyfrnfhtvkyfudk wwfajrmufem;vnfNyD;
í jyKvkyf&ef pGrf;Edkifoljzpf&rnf/ jyKvkyf&müvnf; toufudk riJhuGufbJ tm;xkwf
vkyfudkifEdkifol jzpf&rnf[k qdkvdkonf/ pD;yGm;&Smaom avmuDtvkyfjzpfap? w&m;tm;
xkwfaom avmukwå&mtvkyfudkjzpfap jyKvkyfonfhtcg ruRrf;usifbJ jyKvkyfrdaomf
]a&rul;wwfbJ a&ul;aomol}uJhodkY qkH;½IH;jcif;odkY a&mufrnf jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh
rdrdjyKvkyfrnfh rnfonfhtvkyfudkrqdk uRrf;usifpGmwwfajrmuf xm;zdkYvdkay\/ jyKvkyf
&mwGifvnf; ½kwfw&uftusdK;udk rjrifaomfvnf; pdwfysufuGufjcif;r&SdbJ ÓPf
ynma&SUoGm;&Sdaom 0D&d,w&m;jzifh pGrf;EdkiforQ BudK;pm;tm;xkwf jyKvkyfoifh\/
(2)
OZk = ajzmifrh wf&rnf/
ajzmifhrwf&rnf [lonfum; udk,f? pdwfESpfyg;jzifhrwfjcif;wnf;/
þOZkÓPfEiS jhf ynfph o
Hk o
l nf ud,
k t
f m;jzifjh yKvky&f mwGif aumufuspfpOf;vJrI
rjyKay/ jyKoiho
f rQaom udprö sm;udu
k m; tuGuu
f sus yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif; jyKvkyw
f wf\/
EIwjf zifah jymqd&k m wGiv
f nf; aumufuspfpOf;vJaompum;udk rajymay/ AGi;f AGi;f BuD;om
ajymqdkwwf\/ udk,fjyKonfh twdkif; EIwfuxGuf\/ EIwfuxGufonfhtwdkif;
udk,fujyK\/ ,if;yk*dK¾ vfonf ]jyKwidk ;f ajym- ajymwdik ;f jyK}aom yk*dK¾ vfrsdK;omjzpf\/
OZk*P
k rf u
S if;aomolwYkdonfum; rdrüd r&Syd gbJ yvTm;0g<um;wwf\/ uwdjyKvG,\
f /
wu,fum;r[kwfygay/ xdkYaMumifh rnfonfht&mudkjzpfap 0efcHrnfhtcg ½kwfw&uf
0efrcHao;bJ pOf;pm;EdIif;csdefoihf\/ rdrdaqmif½Gufrnfh t&mrSefygrS 0efcHoihf\/
(3)
ok[Zk k = tvGeaf jzmifrh wf&rnf/
tvGefajzmifhrwf&rnf[lonfum; t&m&mü odwwfpGmESifh twGif;pdwf

102 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

oabmxm; ½dk;om;ajzmifhrwfjcif;wnf;/
þ*kPfESifhjynfhpkHolrSm rdrd\tjypfrsm;udk zkH;zdvdkaomqE´rsm; r&Sday/
þavmuü ok[Zk *k P
k &f adS om yk*K¾d vfwYkd csnf;om jzpfcyhJ gvQif ab;&efr&Sb
d J csrf;ompGm
aexdkifMuzdkY&efom taMumif;&Sd\/ þuJhodkYaomolwdkYonf EIwfu txl;arwåm
rydkYaomfvnf; arwåmyGm;rsm;NyD;om;yif jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh t&m&mü pOf;pm;qifjcifí
udk,fçEIwfçESvkH; okH;yg;vkH;udk wpfom;wnf;usatmif aqmif½Gufvkyfudkif&ef vdktyfvS
\/ odkYrSom rdrdtusdK;? olwpfyg;tusdK;wdkYudk wdk;wufatmif aqmif½GufEdkifrnf
jzpf\/
(4)
ok0apm = qdq
k ;Hk rvG,&f rnf/
qdq
k ;Hk rvG,&f rnf[o
l nfum; w&m;ojzifh qk;H ronfukd tvG,w
f ul em,l
&rnf/ xdkYaemuf qkH;ronfhtwdkif;vnf; woa0rwdrf;bJvdkufemusifhBuHjcif;wnf;/
tcsdKUolonf qkH;roludk qifajcuefwwf\/ qkH;rjcif;udkvnf; rBudKufESpf
ouf/ qkH;ronfhtcg ]]vdkufemygrnf}}[k 0efcHaomfvnf; qkH;ronfhtwdkif; vdkufem
jcif; r&Sday/ xdkolrsm;onf owday;qkH;rpum;ajymjcif;udk tvdkr&Sday/ xdkYaMumifh
xdo
k w
l Ykd rmS avmuDçavmukw&å mESpjf zm tusdK;rsm; wd;k yGm;rI&rdS nf r[kwaf y/ ysufjym;zdYk
&efom taMumif;&Sday\/ qdkqkH;rvG,foljzpfcJhaomfum; BuD;yGm;rnfum; rvGJay/
vlBuD;onfyif vli,fajymMum;vmonfhpum;onf taMumif;,kwdå&SdcJhaomf vufcH
oihf\/
(5)
rk'k = El;nHo
h rd af rG&U rnf/
El;nHhodrfarGU&rnf[lonf aumif;aomt&mXmewdkYü awmifhwif;cufrmrI
r&SdbJ udkif; ñGwfvdkufygEdkifaom oabm&Sd&jcif;wnf;/
þ*kPEf iS jhf ynfph o
Hk o
l nf qGaJ qmifwikd ;f ygavh&adS om tnpftaMu;uif;aom
a½TuJhodkY aumif;aom t&mXmewdkYü vG,fulaom oabm&Sd\/ ½Tifvef;aom rsufESm&Sd
\/ rsufarSmifMuKwfjcif; r&Sd/ trsm;em;csrf;omaom pum;udk ajymqdkavh&Sd\/
rdrdESifhqufqHolwdkYtm; pdwfauseyfatmif ajymqdkwwf\/ aygif;oif;qufqHa&;
aumif;\/ xdkYaMumifh t&m&mü rmefrme rxm;bJ El;nHhpGm vdkufygaqmif½Gufoihf\/
(6)
tewdrmeD = rmerBu;D &
rmerBuD;&[lonf trsdK;tEG,f ponfwdkYjzifh rmefrmeaxmifvTm;jcif;?
olwyg;wdkYudk rxDrJhjrifjyKjcif;wdkYrS uif;jcif;wnf;/
þrmew&m;onf t,kwf? tvwf? tjrwf okH;a,mufvkH;ü jzpfwwf\/
þrmeonf tcsdKUolwdkYtm; rdrdoEÅmefwGif xif&Sm;&Sdaom*kPfudk tpGJjyKí jzpfvm

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 103

wwf\/ tcsdKUum; rdrd*kPf tay:ü rmefrmejzpfMu\/ pdwf"mwf rcdkifNrJí oabm
xm; ao;odrfaom tcsdKUolwdkYvnf; tenf;i,f rajymyavmufaom*kPfjzifhyif
rdru
d ,
kd u
f kd txifBuD;jcif;? olwpfyg;tay:ü txifao;jcif;wdYk ukd jzpfapwwfuek \
f /
tcsdKUolwdkYum;rl *kPfusufoa& wpfpkHwpf&m r&SdygbJvsuf tacsmufwdkuf rmefwuf
Muuke\
f / rmeBuD;olonf ud,
k Ef w
I t
f rlt&mwdYk jzifh rmefrmeudk wHceG x
f í
l jywwfavh
&S\
d / rmefrw
l wfou
l kd vltrsm;u rESpo
f ufay/ taetxdik f toGm;tvm armuf<um;
ojzifh vlwdkif;\ rsufpdütjrifuyf\/ avcyfxGm;xGm;ajymojzifh em;Mum;uyf\/
xdkYaMumifh ]rmeaxmifvmT ;? trsm;vlrek ;f ? arwåmwk;H }[k avmu0,f qdkMu\/ tqDtESpf
jynfh0aom aumufyJoD;ESHwdkYonf toD;tESHpnfum;avav atmufodkYudkif;ñGwf
avavjzpfouJhodkY rmefrmeudk ESdrfhcsavav *kPfusufoa&wdk;avavom jzpf\/
xdkYaMumifh rmew&m;udkrxm;oihfay/
(7)
oEÅKóaum = ESpo
f ufa&mif&h &J rnf/
ESpfoufa&mifh&J&rnf = [lonfum; aMumifhMuAsmyg& rrsm;bJ &SdorQypönf;
jzifh ESpfouf a&mifh&Jjcif;wnf;/ þavmuü qif;&Jjcif;? aMumifhMuAsmyg&rsm;
jcif;wdkY\ taMumif;&if;udk&Smaomf &oihf&xdkuforQESifh ESpfoufa&mifh&JrIr&SdbJ
vdck sirf supf u
d s,í
f tvdq
k E´rjynf0h Edik jf cif;yifjzpf\/ ykxZk OfwYkdonfum; jynf0h zdYk um;
cJ,Of;aypG/ b,fawmhrSjynfh0Edkifrnfr[kwfygay/ xdkYaMumifh rdrdwdkY\ &oihf&xdkuf
aomypönf;jzifh ESpfoufa&mifh&Joihf\/
(8)
okba&m = tarG;tjrLvG,&f rnf/
tarG;tjrLvG,f&rnf[lonfum; rnfolUudkrQ tylr&Sm? tvdkenf; tvdkuf
odí tarG;tjrLvG,foljzpfjcif;wnf;/
tvdk&r®ufBuD;olonf rdrd&onfxuf tvGefawmifhwwwf\/ rdrd&orQ
ypönf;jzifh b,faomtcgrQ tm;&wif;wdrfjcif;um;r&Sdygay/ xdkoludk rnfolurQ
oem;rnf r[kwfacs/ tvdkenf;olum; rsm;pGmay;vQif tenf;i,fomcH,lwwf\/
rcH,lbJvnf; aewwf\/ r>cif;rcsef ,ljcif;udkum; rjyKwwfacs/ aumif;onf?
qdk;onf? enf;onf? rsm;onf[lí ra½G;cs,fwwfay/ xdkYaMumifh olwpfyg;udkrSDí
toufarG;oljzpfrl ay;vSLorQjzifh a&mifh&Joihf\/ rdrdwdkYtvdktavsmuf toufarG;
oljzpfcJhaomf rdrd&orQ ypönf;tiftm;ESifh csdefqí 0wfpm;okH;pGJoihfonfom jzpf\/
(9)
tyÜuad pöm = trIupd eö nf;&rnf/
trIudpeö nf;jcif;[lonf rdrdtwGuftusdK;rrsm;onfhtvkyfwdkYudk y,f&Sm;í
tusdK;rsm; rnfhtvkyfrQudkom jyKvkyfjcif;wnf;/

104 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

&[ef;oHCmawmfyikd ;f üum; trIupd Bö uD;i,füarGUavsmfjcif;? taygif;tazmfü
arGUavsmf jcif;? pum;ajymjcif;ü arGUavsmfjcif;ESifh tdyfjcif;ü arGUavsmfjcif;[laom
arGUavsmfjcif;(4)yg;wdkYü aMumifhMurIr&SdbJ rdrdqH? rkwfqdwfudk &dyfy,fjcif;? ajconf;?
vufonf;vS;D jzwfjcif;? ouFe;f csKyfjcif;[laom udpiö ,fwYkdEiS o
hf m jzpfoih\
f / odYk ro
S m
&[ef;w&m;udk tm;xkwfEdkifrnfjzpf\/ vlrsm;rSmvnf; rdrdwdkYtwGuf tusdK;rsm;onfh
tvkyfudkom jyKvkyfoihf\/ tvkyfenf;vQif rdrdtvkyfudkom Edkifeif;pGm jyKvkyfEdkif\/
tusdK;pD;yGm;vnf; jzpfxGef;Edkif\/ ta&;ay:udpw
ö dkYü yg0ifulnDcGifh &&Sdí arwåw&m;
xm;&mvnf;a&mufay\/ xdkYaMumifh rdrdtusdK;jzpfxGef;rnfhtvkyfudkom jyKvkyf
oihfay\/
(10)
ov’[u
k 0kwåd = aygyh g;rI&&dS rnf/
ayghyg;rI&Sdjcif;[lonf toGm;? tvm? taetxdkif? t0wftpm;wdkYü
oihfawmf½kHom jzpfapjcif;wnf;/ &[ef;awmfrsm;jzpfygu &[ef;y&du©&mwdkYudkom
okH;aqmifoihf\/ vltrsm;rSmvnf; oGm;vmaexdkifrIü udef;BuD;cef;BuD;rvkyfbJ
½dk;½dk;ukwfukwfom oGm;vmaexdkifoihf\/ 0wfpm;qif,ifoihf\/ odkYr[kwfygu
rnfrQavmuf&mS BuHí &vrf;0ifvrf;&Sad omfvnf; tok;H rsm;í ravmufEikd b
f &J w
dS wf\/
xdkYaMumifh rdrdtajctaexufydkrdkí udef;BuD;cef;BuD;rvkyfoihfay/
(11)
oEd`Å Ea´d ,m = Nird o
f ufaom £a`E&´ &dS rnf/
Nidrfoufaom£a`E´&Sdjcif;[lonf £|m½kH[lorQü &m*paom t,kwfw&m;
wdkYjzifh wkefvIyfazmufjyefrIrjzpfbJ NidrfoufpGmaejcif;wnf;/ 'Gg&ajcmufyg;ü
owdw&m;jzifh vkHNcHKatmif apmifhxdef;cJhvQif þt*Fgwpf&yfonf jynfhpkHNyD jzpf\/
(12)
edyaum = &ifo
h efaom ÓPfynm&S&d rnf/
&ifhoefaomÓPfynm&Sdjcif;[lonf rdrdESifhqdkif&mvkyfief;[lorQü rwdrf;
acsmfatmif qifjcifwkHw&m;ESifhjynfhpkHjcif;wnf;/
rnfonfhudpu
ö dkrqdkjyK&mü qifjcifwkHw&m;udk pGJNrJpGm vufudkifxm;&rnf
jzpf\/ qifjcifwkHw&m; uif;rJhygvQif rSm;,Gif;wdrf;acsmfjcif;odkY a&mufrnfomjzpf\/
t&rf;rJhjyKvkyfjcif;onf tqkH;usvQif 'ku©ESifh ruif;onfomrsm;\/ xdkYaMumifh
rnfonfhudprö sdK;udkrqdk jyKvkyf&mü qifjcifpOf;pm;oihf\/ qifjcifww
Hk &m;jzifh qifjcif
pOf;pm;í jyKvkyftyfaom trIudpörsm;onf arSmufrSm; wdrf;acsmfEdkifzG,f taMumif;r&Sday/
rsm;aomtm;jzihf vrf;rSev
f rf;aumif;ud&k &Sv
d suf BuD;yGm;jcif;odYk a&mufonfom jzpf\/
xdkYaMumifh rnfonfhvkyfief;rqdk pOf;pm;qifjcifaom ]qifjcifwkH} w&m;udk vufudkif
xm;oihfvSay\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 105

(13)
tyÜ*aAÇm = Murf;wrf;aom trlt&mrsm;r&Sad p&/
Murf;wrf;aomtrlt&mr&Sdjcif;[lonf udk,fMurf;? EIwfMurf;? pdwfMurf;[l
aom ½dkif;pdkif;aom trlt&mrsdK;rS uif;vGwfjcif;wnf;/
udk,f? EIwf? pdwfwdkYMurf;wrf;jcif;onf MunfñdkzG,frjzpfay/ MunfñdkzG,f
rjzpfaom trlt&mwdkYudk vlwdkY\ rsufpd? em;ESifh pdwfESvkH;ü uefYvefYjzpfwwf\/
,if;udkyif ½dkif;pdkif;onf[k qdkMu\/ jyKrlykH? ajymqdkykH? ESvkH;oGif;ykH rMurf;wrf;aomf
,Ofaus;onf[kac:\/ ,Ofaus;jcif;onf avmuü usufoa&r*FvmESifhjynfhpkHaom
tqift
h wef;odaYk &mufjcif;jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh Murf;wrf;aom trlt&mwdkYudk tNrJrjywf
a&Smif&Sm;oihfay\/
(14)
ukavoGeEk*ad '¨g = trsKd ;wdüYk pGv
J rf;jcif;r&Sad p&/
trsdK;wdkYü pGJvrf;jcif;r&Sdap&[lonf t"dutm;jzifh oHCmawmfwdkYESifh
oufqikd \
f / xdYk aMumifh &[ef;awmfrsm;onf 'g,um? 'g,dumrwdYk ü ypön;f av;yg;udk
wyfrufaomtm;jzifh pGv
J rf;jcif;? ravsmufywfaoma&m,Sujf cif;paom trsdK;rsdK;aom
tpGJtvef;wdkYrSuif;vGwfjcif; wnf;/ &[ef;awmfrsm;onf 'um? 'umrwdkYtay:ü
qif;&J? csrf;om[lí pGJvrf;jcif;r&Sdrlí owå0gtm;vkH;udk rQwMuifemaom
oabm&SdvQif þt*Fg&yfonf jynfhpkH\/ vlwdkYrSmvnf; trsdK;Zmwftm;jzifh yk*dK¾ vf
wpfyg;ü cifrifpGJvrf;wwfaompdwfr&SdbJ rdrdudk,fydkiftpGrf;owdåudk xdxda&muf
a&muftok;H jyK&rnfomjzpf\/ xdYk aMumifh rnfonfu
h pd rö sdK;rqdk BuD;yGm;vdak omolonf
yk*¾vt"d|meftm;jzifh yk*d¾KvfpGJr&SdbJ "r®"d|meftm;jzifh w&m;vrf;aMumif;udkom
a½G;cs,foihfay\/
(15)

e p ck'´ rmpa& udÍdö a,e 0dñl ya& Oy0a',sKH = ynm&Srd sm;uJ&h rUJ nfh
trIreS o
f a½Gu
U kd tenf;i,frQ rjyKusi&hf /
ynm&Sdrsm;uJh&JUrnfh trIrSefoa½GUudk tenf;i,frQ rjyKusifh&[lonf ynm
r&Sdol t&mtaxmifyif csD;rGrf;aomfvnf; ynm&Sdwpfa,mufuJh&JUvQif tjypfESifhwuG
jzpfaomaMumifh xdkynm&Sd wdkYuJh&JUonfhtrIrsdK;ukd tenf;i,frQ rjyKusifhjcif;wnf;/
ynmrJholwdkYudk yrmPrjyKoihfay/ ynm&Sdol wdkYudkom yrmPjyKoihfay\/ q&mawmf
OD;Ak'u
f rl ]b,fou
l &hJ u
UJ &hJ UJ bk&m;ruJ&h aUJ tmifae}[k qk;H rawmfrcl \
hJ / xdYk aMumifh jrwfA'k ¨
qkH;rawmfrlonfhtwdkif;om vdkufemusifhBuHoihf\/ bk&m;tp&Sd aomynm&Sdrsm;\
tjypfwifcH&rnfh tusifh[lorQudk udk,f? EIwf? ESvkH; okH;yg;vkH;jzifh txl;a&Smif&Sm;
oihfay\/
þazmfjyNyD;aom w&m;(15)yg;wdkYjzifhjynfhpkHNyD; arwåmw&m;udk yGm;rsm;ygrl
,if;arwåm w&m;onf rdryd Ykdoaomol\txHoYkd a&muf&adS y\/ omrm0wDonfvnf;

106 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

arwåmydYk o&mü þt*Fg (15)&yfwYkd EiS hf jynfph o
Hk nfom jzpf\/ arwåmbm0emryGm;rsm;rD
,if;tcsuftvuf(15)csufESifh jynfhpkH&rnfjzpf\/ ,if;tcsuftvufrsm;rSm
arwåmbm0em\ a&SUoGm;tusifhrsm;jzpf\/ þtcsuf tvufwdkYESifh rjynfhpkHbJ
arwåmbm0em yGmrsm;ygu arwåmtusdK;(11)rsdK;udk tjynfht0 cHpm;&rnf r[kwfacs/
rdrd\ yifudk,fpdwfxm;udk arwåmw&m;jzifhvTrf;NcHKum wpfyg;ol odkYr[kwf
owå0g tm;vkH;udk tm½kHjyK&nfrSef;rIudk arwåmydkYonf arwåmyGm;onf[k ac:qdk\/
,if;odkYarwåm bm0em yGm;rsm;&mü ]]oGm;? &yf? xdkif? avsmif;}}[laom £&d,mykwf
ydkif;jcm;owfrSwfrIr&Sdojzifh rdrdcsrf;om ovdk yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfEdkif\/ vlrsdK;ra½G;?
bmoma½G; ESpfoufjrwfEdk; tzdk;xm;xdkuf\/ urÇmhvlom; wdkif; arwåmw&m;udk
pHawmf0ifarwåm&SifrBuD; omrm0wDuJhodkY vufudkifxm;í usifhokH;aexdkifMuygvQif
vufeufrJhurÇmonf þavmuwpfvTm;wGif ay:xGef;vmrnfrSm {uefrvGJygay/
arwåmbm0em yGm;rsm;ykH
arwåmyGm;vdkaomolonf qdwfNidrf&mt&yfodkYuyfNyD; a'go\tjypfESifh
onf;cHjcif; cEDÅw&m;\tmedoifudk a&S;OD;pGmqifjcif&rnfjzpf\/ qifjcifykHrSm]]a'gow&m;onf tusdK;? taMumif;udrk Munf/h tqd;k taumif;vnf; rod/
tarSmif twd jzpf\/ aemiftzefzef &Supf &mudk ajym0Hah tmif? jyK0Hah tmif? ,kwrf molEiS hf
,kwfrmjcif;NydKif0Hh atmif apcdkif;\/ tusdK;w&m;udk z,f&Sm;í tjypfwdkYudk ,lwwf\/
usufoa&r*Fvmvnf; r&Sd}} ponfjzifh a'go\tjypfwdkYudkqifjcif&rnf/ xdkYaemuf
onf;cHjcif; cEÅw
D &m;\tmedoifwYkd uv
kd nf; a'go\ qefYusifbuftm;jzifh qifjcif&
rnfjzpf\/
þodkYqifjcifNyD;vQif udk,fcsif;pmwwfap&ef rdrdudk,fudk a&S;OD;pGmarwåm
ydkY&\/
arwåmydkYykHrSm]]igonf &efuif;vdk\/ &efuif;ygap/ pdk;&drfuif;vdk\/ pdk;&drfuif;ygap/
qif;&Juif;vdk\/ qif;&Juif;ygap/ csrf;omatmifaqmif½Gufvdk\/ aqmif
½GufEdkifygap}}
[líjzpf\/ xdkYaemuf q&m? q&m\t½G,fyk*d¾KvfwdkY\ oDvpaom *kPfaus;Zl;
wdkYudkqifjcifí tzefzefyGm;rsm;vQif arwåmw&m;onf pwkw¬psmeftxd &&SdEdkif\/
(528)oG,f arwåmudkvnf; yGm;rsm;Edkifay\/
,if;odYk arwåmyGm;rsm;&mwGif a&S;OD;pGm arwåmrydYk oihaf om yk*K¾d vf(4)a,muf&dS
aMumif;vnf; arwåmyGm;olwpfa,muftaejzifh odxm;oihaf o;\/ ,if;yk*K¾d vfwYkd rmS (1)
rkef;ol?
(2)
cspfol?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 107

(3)
(4)

olpdrf;?
&efolwdkYjzpf\/

,if;av;a,mufwdkYudk arwåmyGm;olonf a&S;OD;pGm arwåmrydkYoihfay/ þ
yk*K¾d vfwYkd üum; vk;H 0arwåmudk ryGm;tyf[k arwåmbm0emudk zsufwwfaomyk*K¾d vfwYkd ukd
od&rnf/ tb,faMumifh þav;a,mufwdkYü arwåmryGm;oihfoenf;[lrl rkef;oludk
cspfol\t&müxm;í arwåmyGm;jcif;onf arwåmxm;oltzdkY yifyef;\/ rdrdcspfoludk
tv,ftvwft&mXmeüxm;aom a,m*Dy*k K¾d vfonfvnf; yifyef;\/ olprd ;f jzpfou
l kd
tav;jyKxdkufaomyk*Kd¾ vft&m? cspftyfolt&müxm;&mwGifvnf; xdkYtwl yifyef;\/
&efolü tzefzef atmufarhaomolüvnf; trsufa'gowdkY jzpfwwf\/ xdkYaMumifh
a&S;OD;pGm arwåmrydkYoihfyg/
tjcm;aom arwåmrydkYoihfolrsm;vnf; &Sdao;\/ ,if;wdkYrSm vdifrwlaom
olEiS hf aoaom olwYkd jzpf\/ taMumif;rSm vdirf wlot
l m; arwåmydYk aomf xdo
k cl snf;om
arwåmyGm;ojzifh arwåmyGm;oltm; &m*jzpfwwf\/ aoolü arwåmyGm;olonf
tyÜemodkYvnf;aumif;? Oypm&orm"dodkYvnf;aumif; ra&mufEdkifacs/ xdkYaMumifh
azmfjyyg arwåmrydYk oiho
f w
l Ykd ukd a&Smif&mS ;í rdrrd pS í tjcm;olwYkd ukd arwåmyGm;oihaf y\/
Ak'0¨ g'ü arwåmw&m;udk txl;tav;ydx
k m;jcif; taMumif;ok;H &yf
]]arwåm}}[kqdk&m0,f cspfcifrI? oem;MuifemrI? rdwfaqGjzpfrI? iJhn§mrI?
cGifhvTwfrI? u½kPmoufrI tjcm;obm0wl aumif;jrwfaomtjyKtrlESifh pdwfxm;
rsm;udkqdkvdk\/ þw&m;\t"du vkyfief;udpu
ö m; vlESifhtjcm;aomowå0grsm;tm;
'ku©rSuif;apí csrf;omokcay;&ef jzpf\/ þ arwåmw&m;udk Ak'¨0g'üomru tjcm;
aombmom0g'wdkYüvnf; jrifhjrwfaom udk,fusifhw&m; jzpfaMumif; jyqdkxm;Mu\/
xkdYaMumifh arwåmw&m;onf Ak'¨0g'DwdkYtwGufom oD;jcm;&Sdaomw&m;rsdK;um;
r[kwfay/ odkYaomfvnf; Ak'¨bmomonf ,if;w&m;tay: txl;tav;ay;xm;
jcif;jzifh xdkw&m;udkjy|mef;aom tjcm;aombmomw&m;ESifh pm&dwåa&;wdkYxuf
xl;uJaomtjzpfudk &,lEdkif rnfjzpf\/
arwåmw&m;ü oDvtm;vkH;wdkY tusHK;0ifaMumif; Ak'¨0g'u jyqdk\/ arwåm
udk tjcm; okp½dkuftm;vkH;\ t&if;tjrpf[k azmfjy\/ arwåmur®|mef;udkMunfhaomf
owå0gtm;vkH; tay:ü cGJjcm;r Ir&SdapbJ arwåmpdwfysHUESHYap&ef a[mMum;xm;aMumif;
awGU&\/ arwåmw&m;wpfckwnf;udk ur®|mef;tm½kH[k oabmrxm;jcif;om xl;\/
Ak'¨bmomü arwåmw&m;udk txl;tav;ydkxm;jcif; taMumif;okH;&yf&SdaMumif;
avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/ ,if;wdkYrSm
(1) arwåmonf ]a'go}\qefYusifbufjzpfíaejcif;?

108 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(2) tzefzef y#doaE¨ae&jcif;[laom a'oemü tajccHvsuf&Sdjcif;?
(3) u½kPmpdwfxm;ü Ak'¨0g'vm arwåmw&m;onf tajccHaejcif;wdkY
yifjzpf\/
,if;taMumif;wdkYudk ay:vGifatmif&Sif;aomf(1)
Ak'¨bmomü arwåmw&m;udk txl;av;ydkxm;jcif;\ taMumif;
wpf&yfrSm arwåmonf a'go\qefYusifbufjzpfíaejcif;aMumifh jzpf\/ a'goonf
Ak'¨\,Ofaus;rIudk xlaxmif&mü tEÅ&m,fjzpf\/ ,if;a'gow&m;udk ysufpD;atmif
vkyf&efrSm qefYusifbufarwåmw&m;udkarG;jrL&ef ]]arwåmw&m;udk vufudkifxm;jcif;
jzifh a'gorSuif;NyD; Nidrf;csrf;aompdwfudk &,lEdkif\/ xkdYaMumifh arwåm\yxrvkyfief;
rSm ,if;\tpGrf;jzifh a'goudkypfy,f&efESifh Nidrf;at;aom tjzpfudk&,l&ef jzpf\/
qefYusifbufw&m;ESpfyg;onf tcsif;csif;rQwoGm;onfhtcg wpfckuwpfckudk
rvTr;f rd;k Edik b
f J &yfem;csed o
f Ykd a&mufwwfay\/ xdkYtwl arwåmonf a'goudkxdef;csKyfí
Nidrf;at;rIudkay;EkdifpGrf; &Sdvmay\/ arwåmw&m;ESifhpyfvsOf;í jrwfAk'¨onf rsm;pGm
a[mMum;xm;aMumif;awGUEdkif\/ xdkYaMumifh arwåmw&m;onf a'goESifh tpOf
qefYusifbuf jzpf\/ wpfck&SdvQif wpfckr&SdEdkifay/ ,if;a'goonf Nidrf;at;aom
pdwfudk t[efYtwm;jyKwwfaomaMumifh ,if;a'goudk aMumufrufzG,ftaumif;qkH;
&efol[k Ak'¨bmomu owfrSwf\/ a'goudkzsufqD;í arwåmw&m;udk yGm;rsm;rSom
vQif pdwf\Nidrf;csrf;rIudk &vdrfhrnf[kqdkjcif;onf Ak'¨0g'\arwåmw&m;tay:ü
tav;ay;aom oabmxm;jzpf\/ ESdrfhcsjcif;onf rmeBuD;jcif;ESifh? &ufa&mjcif;onf
tvdkBuD;jcif;ESifh? ÓPfynmonf t0dZÆmESifh qefYusifbufjzpfouJhodkY arwåmonfvnf;
a'goESihf qefu
Y sib
f uf jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh a'goudk arwåm\tpGrf;tm;jzifh wdkufzsufypf
&rnfomjzpf\/
(2)
arwåmudk Ak'¨bmomü wefzdk;xm;&jcif;\ 'kwd,taMumif;rSm
tzefzef y#doaE¨ae&jcif;[laom a'oemütajccHvsuf &Sd\/ ,if;a'oemawmft&
owå0grSeforQonf &Snfvsm;vSaom b0oHo&mü aqGrsdK;rawmfbl;ol[lí r&Sday/
þonfyif BuD;BuD;i,fi,f? *kPfedrfh? *kPfjrifhra½G; owå0gtcsif;csif; arwåmw&m;ESifh
av;pm;rIw&m;wdkYjzifh qifjcifokH;oyf qufqHEdkif&ef vrf;pyif jzpf\/ uREfkyfwdkYu
&efol[kowfrSwfxm;olonf b0oHo&mü uREfkyfwdkY\rdbrsm; jzpfcJhzl;aumif;
jzpfcJhayvdrfhrnf/ odkYaomfvnf; t0dZÆmtarSmif ydwfzkH;aeaomaMumifh &efol[kxifrSwf
aejcif;jzpf\/ xdkYtwl rdbESifhom;orD;wdkY wpdrf;jyifjyif oabmxm;rIüvnf; t0dZÆm
aMumifh t&if;tjcmjzpfaMumif; owd&Sd&ef taMumif;rwdkufqdkifjcif; jzpfay\/ xdkY
aMumifhwpfzef b0opfjzpfaMumif; a'oemawmft& uREfkyfwdkYonf tcsif;csif; arwåm
w&m;jzifh qufqHoihfayawmh\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 109

(3)
wwd,taMumif;rSm u½kPmpdwfxm;í arwåmw&m;onf
tajccHaejcif; taMumif;yifjzpf\/ arwåmw&m;onf 'ku©a&mufaeoludk jrif&
aomtcg rdrdü þvdkjzpfcJhaomf rnfodkY&Sdrnfenf;[laom qifjcifwwfonfh u½kPm
w&m;ü tajccH\/ toufwpfacsmif;onf owå0gwdkYtzdkY tvGefwefzdk;&SdvS\/
rnfonfhowå0grqdk toufab;rS aMumufMu\/ rdrdwdkY aoab;rS aMumufouJhodkY
tjcm;aomowå0gwdkYonfvnf; aMumufayvdrfhrnf/ vefYayvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaMumifh
olwpfyg;toufudk rowfoihfay/ arwåmpdwfudk arG;jrLoihf\/ udk,frBudKufonfudk
olwpfyg;tm;vnf; rvkyfrdap&ef a&SmifMuOf&rnfom jzpf\/ u½kPmpdwf\
arwåmw&m;tay: qufoG,frIESifhpyfí taxmuftxm;rsm;pGm &Sday\/ "r®y'ü]owå0gtm;vk;H onf ao&rnfuakd MumufMu\/ olwpfyg;udk rdrEd iS Ehf iId ;f í emusif
ap jcif;? owfjzwfjcif; rjyK&}
[kjyqdx
k m;\/ þonfuakd xmufí Ak'0¨ g'vm arwåmw&m;ü a&Smiftyfaom okp½du
k f
rsdK;omyg0ifonf[k rrSwfbJ jyKvkyftyfaomoabmvnf; yg0ifayonf[k rSwfom;
oihf\/ Ak'¨bmomonf jyKoihfonfudkjyK&efESifh rjyKoihfonfudk rjyK&eftwGuf
xyfwltav;ay;a[mMum;xm;\/ olwpfyg;udk emusifatmifrvkyf&? rowf&ovdk
wpfcsdew
f nf;rSmyif arwåmw&m;udx
k m;&Sd umuG,af y;&rnfjzpf\/ tajccH ig;yg;oDv
vm yxrodu©myk'fudk jrwfAk'¨onf a&SmifMuOf&efom a[monf[k tjrifrSm;wwf
Mu\/ odkYaomfvnf; arwåmw&m; yg0ifaeonfudkum; rnfolrQ rjiif;Edkifygay/
vlUtzGJUtpnf;ü arwåmw&m;onf t&m&mudkvTrf;rdk;aecJhaomf rnfonfh
oabmxm; uGv
J rJG rI sKd ;rS &SEd ikd af wmhrnf r[kwaf y/ jrwfA'k o
¨ nf a&S;OD;pGm vlom;wdYk tm;
arwåmxm;&ef a[mMum;jcif;jzifh om,mcsrf;ajrUaom vlUabmiftzGUJ tpnf; jzpfvmap
&ef BudK;pm;awmfrcl \
hJ / xdo
k Ykd BudK;pm;cJ&h müvnf; pHjyKxdu
k af om arwåm&Sirf sm; ay:xGuf
cJ\
h / Ak'u
¨ ,
kd w
f ikd u
f vnf; arwåm&Sirf sm;udk todtrSwjf yKbGUJ rsm; ay;cJ&h \/ xdYk aMumifh
Ak'¨0g'vm arwåmw&m;udk vlwdkif;vufcHNyD; usifhokH;oihf\/ odkYrSom vlUtzGJUtpnf;
onf om,mcsrf;ajrUrnfjzpf\/
omrm0wD awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*fbx
UJG ;l &&Sjd cif;
aemuftzdkYü jrwfAk'¨onf vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdkYudktpOftwdkif;
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*f bGJUxl;rsm;udk toD;oD;csD;jr§ifhvwfaomf omrm0wDrdzk&m;udk]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rrom0dumeH OygodumeH arwåm0d[m&DeH ,'d'H omrm0wD =
arwåm\ESifhaeMuaom igbk&m;\wynhf vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD; arwåm&Sifr
taygi;f wdYk wGif olronfom tjrwfq;Hk ? olronfomtawmfq;Hk ? olronfom
tomqk;H ? olronfom tapmqk;H wnf;}
[k ]awmf0ifpx
H m;arwåm&Sif {w'*fbUJG awmf}udk csD;ajr§mufcahJ vonf/ þawmf0ifpx
H m;

110 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

arwåm&Sif{w'*fbGJUawmftm; omoemawmfwpfavQmufvkH;wGif olrwpfOD;wnf;om
&&Scd jhJ cif;omjzpf\/ xdYk aMumifh awmf0ifpx
H m; arwåm&Sirf BuD;enf;wl owå0gtm;vk;H wdYk
tay:ü arwåmw&m; xm;oihfayawmh\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; arwåm&Sirf Bu;D omrm0wDonf rdcif? zcift&if;wdYk tm; xrif;awmif;íyif
auR;arG;cJh aMumif; awGU&Sd&ay&m ,aeYacwftrsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYtzdkY rdbwdkYudk
auR;arG;jyKpkjcif;ü enf;,lzG,f&mtcsufyif jzpfacs\/ wpfzufuMunfhvQifvnf;
þola|;orD;uJhodkY uHw&m;u &uf&ufpufpuf qkH;jzwfcsuf csvdkufvQifvnf;
cH,lEdkifpGrf;&Sdatmif owdåarG;xm;&rnfom jzpfay\/ BuHKawGU&onfhtcuftcJ
jyóemwdkYudk &ifqdkif ajz&Sif;&rnfrSm vlUwm0efwpf&yfyif jzpfay\/ wpfzef
omrm0wDonf arG;pm;zcif wdkYtm;vnf; zcif&if;yrm auseyfatmiftBuHay;í
apmifha&SmufcJhrIrSmvnf; twk,l zG,f&myif jzpfay\/ pepfr&Sdaomt&monf
rwdk;wufEdkifay/ wdk;wufzdkY&eftwGuf pnf;pepf&Sdaom omrm0wDudkyrmjyKí
vlwdkif;vlwdkif;onf t&m&mudk pepfwus vkyfudkifoihfay\/
omrm0wDonf arG;pm;zcifBuD; aCmouola|;\ b0ESifh"ewdkY\
ysufpD;&rnfhab;rS u,fwif&eftwGuf rdrdudk,fudk Oawerif;xH qufoapcJhaMumif;
awGU&S&d ay\/ þonfrmS omrm0wDonf arG;pm;zcifBuD;\ arwåm? u½kPm? apwem
ESifh n§mwmrIwdkYudk *½kjyK&mvnf; a&mufay\/ vlqdkonfrSm rdrdtusdK;wpfckwnf;
udkom OD;pm;ay;&ef rjzpfEdkifygay/ ywf0ef;usif taetxm;udkvnf; wGufqoihf
ay\/ xdYk aMumifh vlwikd ;f vlwikd ;f onf omrm0wDupkd x
H m;um aus;Zl;&Su
d ,if;aus;Zl;
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Edik af y\/ tvSjzifph w
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awmfcHaejcif;yif jzpf\/ a'goNidrf;at;&eftwGuf yGm;rsm;&rnfh w&m;um; arwåm

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 111

w&m;yif jzpfay\/ arwåmyGm;rsm;rSomvQif a'gow&m;wdkY avsmhyg;rnfjzpfay\/
omrm0wDtzdkYrSmum; jyKoltopf? jzpfolta[mif;[laom a,medaomreodum&udk
xm;EdkifaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ b0gb0rSygvmaom uHa[mif;? uHa<u;wdkYudk þb0
üyif tqkH;owfvdkaomqE´ &Sday\/ pHawmf0if ckZÆKwå&mtrsdK;orD;\ w&m;pum;udk
Mum;em&NyD;csdefrSpí twårvTrf;rdk;onfh jzLpifaompdwfudk cdkifNrJpGm apmifha&SmufcJh
aMumif; awGU&ay\/ rm*@Dtm; yg&rDjznfzh ufwpfa,muf taejzifv
h nf; owfrw
S cf hJ
olvnf; jzpfay\/ xdkYaMumifhvlom;wdkYonf &efolwdkYtay:ü wwfEdkif oa½GUonf;cH
cGifhvTwfí arwåmw&m;rsm; xm;oihfay\/
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atmifvnf; pnf;½k;H Edik cf o
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oihfvSay\/ omrm0wDonf &efrlolrSeforQudk arwåmjzifhom wkHYjyefcJhay\/ arwåm
w&m;jzifyh if &efjyKolwYkd ukd atmifEikd cf \
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eef; a½TMuiSef;jzifh pHjref;&apumrl twdwftukodkvfuH<uif;aMumifh BuD;us,f
jrifhjrwfvSaom taqmifta,mif tcrf;tem;wdkYonf jymykHtjzpfodkYom usa&mufcJh&
ay\/ þonfrSmvnf; tukodkvfuH\tcsdefra½G; tusdK;ay;wwfykHyifjzpfay\/
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omrm0wDonf vlyifaoaomfvnf; emrnfum; raoygay/ olr\*kPfwdkYonf
xifay:ausmfapm vsufyif&Sday\/ arwåmw&m;BuD;rm;pGm onf;cHcGifhvTwfEdkifaom
olrtm; jrwfAk'¨u pHawmf0if arwåm&Sif{w'*fbGJUxl;udk ay;tyfcJh&ay\/ ,if;odkY
bGJUay;tyfcsdefrSm olruG,fvGefNyD;rSom jzpfay\/ *kPf&SdolwdkYrnfonf *kPfudk
odtyf\/ xdkYaMumifh omrm0wDudkpHyrmxm;í ,aeYacwftrsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonf
rdb&if;wdkYudkvnf;aumif;? arG;pm;rdbwdkYudkvnf;aumif; ½dkaowkyf0yf vkyfauR;
oihaf y\/ wpfzef ,if;rdbwdYk \ aumif;&maumif;aMumif;udv
k nf; enf;tjzmjzmay;í
aeYaeYnn aqmif½Gufoihfay\/ pHawmf0if arwåm&SifrBuD; omrm0wDuJhodkY pHawmf0if
trsdK;orD;wpfa,mufrjzpfapumrl arwåmw&m;udk wwfEdkifoavmuf BudK;pm;ol
wpfa,mufjzpfoihfay\/ odkYrSom urÇmavmuonf Nidrf;at;rnfjzpfay\/

YX;WZ

112 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tcef;-6

awmf0ifpx
H m; Owå&m trsdK;orD;
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\/ arwåmw&m; r&SdaomaMumifh urÇmBuD;onf tusnf;wefae\/ opömw&m;
acgif;yg;aomaMumifh urÇmBuD;onf t½kyq
f ;kd ae\/ þurÇmavmuBuD;udk vSyatmif
aq;jc,frnfholrSm arwåmw&m;yif jzpf\/ arwåmonf vlwpfOD;pD\ b0udkvnf;
pdkajyatmif zefwD;ay;Edkif\/ vlom;taygif;wdkY cspfMunfrI &Sdap&efvnf; arwåmw&m;
u pnf;vkH;ay;\/ xdkYaMumifh arwåmw&m;uif;rJhaeaom þurÇmavmuBuD;onf
tEkjrLppfyGJodkYyif OD;wnfaeaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ ]arwåmNcKH rS vko
H nf} [laom
pum;twdkif; arwåmw&m;jzifh rxkHrTrf;aomtcg rdrd\vkHNcHKa&;rSm pdwfcsEdkifrnfum;
r[kwfygay/
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tcsif;csif; cspfjrwfEdk;wwf&efvnf; BudK;pm;oihf\/ þarwåmw&m;udk tokH;cswwf
&efvnf; avhvmoihf\/ arwåmw&m;udk vufudkifxm;jcif;jzifh (vlwpfOD;pD) avmu
BuD;onf twdik ;f rod om,mvSyvmaprnfjzpf\/ ab;&efuif;í at;csrf;rIukd aqmif
rnfjzpf\/ tzdk;rjzwfEdkifatmif wefbdk;jrifhwufvmrnf jzpf\/ ,if;odkY aumif;usdK;
teEÅESifhjynfhpkHaom arwåmw&m;\ jy,k*ftjzpf awmf0ifpHxm; arwåm&SifrBuD; omrm
0wDtaMumif;udk a&SUtcef;ü a&;om;cJhNyD;jzpf\/
xdkYtwlyif awmf0ifpHxm; arwåm&SifrBuD;omrm0wDenf;wl jrwfAk'¨\
omoemawmf0,f arwåmw&m;jzifh rdrd\todkif;t0dkif;udk atmifyGJqifEdkifonfomru
awmf0ifpHxm; psm,D{w'*fbGJUxl;udk vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;xktwGif; &,lydkifqdkifcJh
ol trsdK;orD;wpfa,muf ay:xGe;f cJ\
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 113

qefYusif bufjyKolwdkY\tay:ü onf;cHjcif;jzifh tEdkif&&Sdaom xyfwdk;om"uyif
jzpf\/ jrwfAk'¨vufxuf&Sd trsdK;aumif;om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;trsm;pkonf
arwåmw&m;udk tvSqkH;w&m;[k,lqMu&mwGif ,if;,lqolxJwGif atmufazmfjyyg
Owå&mola|; uawmfonfvnf; omrm0wDenf;wl wpfa,muftygt0if jzpfayonf/
xdkYtwl þOwå&m\ taMumif;udkazmfjy&mwGif xdkacwfvlaerI p½dkufvu©
Pmrsm;udkvnf;aumif;? xdkacwf###BOT_TEXT###quot;avhxkH;pHwdkYudkvnf;aumif;? arwåmw&m;\
pGrf;yum;udkvnf;aumif; oHa0*,lzG,f&m? enf;,lzG,f&m? pHjyKp&mwdkYjzifh jynfhESufae
aMumif; atmufazmfjyyg Owå&m\b0 tw¬KyÜwfu azmfñTef;aernfomjzpf\/
awmf0ifpx
H m;Owå&mola|;orD; twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
þOwå&mOygodumronf y'krkwå&jrwfpGmbk&m;\vufxufü [Hom0wD
jynf\ wpfckaomtrsdK;tdrf0,f trsdK;aumif;orD;wpfOD; jzpfcJh\/ wpfaeYaomtcgü
olronf jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;awmfudkem,lpOf jrwfAk'¨u Oygodumrwpfa,muftm;
psmefw&m;jzifh aeavh&Sdaom t&m0,f ]]{w'*fbGJU}}ay;aeonfudkawGUjrifcJh&\/
xdkYaMumifh olronf tm;usrIjzpfNyD; ]]aemiftcg igonfvnf; þOygodumr
trsdK;orD;uJhodkY psmefw&m;jzifhaeavh&Sdol vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;wdkYwGif {w'*f
bGJUxl;udk&&Sd&ygvdk\}}[k awmif;qkqdkcJh\/ ,if;odkYawmif;qkqdkNyD; yg&rDawmfrsm;
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xdktrsdK;aumif;orD;onf a*gwrjrwf
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okre ola|;BuD;udkrSDcdkíae&onfh ]]ykPÖoD[}} trnf&Sdaomtvkyform;ESifh ZeD;jzpfol
Owå&mwdYk \ orD;jzpfvm\/ xdo
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hf vm;wlpmG ]]Owå&m}}[kyif
rSnfhac:Muav\/ omoemhordkif; wpfavQmufü ]]Owå&m}}[laomtrnfESifh xif&Sm;
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þ Owå&mtrsdK;orD;onf wpfOD;tygt0if jzpf\/ ,if;(15)a,mufrSm atmufyg
twdkif;jzpf\(1) r*FvjrwfpGmbk&m;tavmif;tm; EdkYCemqGrf;vSL'gef;aom Owå&m
ola|;orD;?
(2) r*FvjrwfpGmbk&m;\r,fawmf Owå&mrdzk&m;?
(3) aumPm*rejrwfpGmbk&m;\r,fawmf Owå&mykaPÖ;r?
(4) psm,D{w'*fbGJU&aom ,ckOwå&mOygodumr?
(5) a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;\tvkyftauR Owå&m'g,dumr?
(6) &mZN*dK[fykPÖola|;\ZeD; Owå&m?

114 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

ykPÖola|;\orD;jzpfcJhbl;aom Owå&mewforD;?
A[kókw{w'*fbGJU&Owå&m'g,dumr (ckZÆKwå&m)?
em&'jrwfpGmbk&m;\ yxrt*¾om0dumr Owå&m&[ef;r?
r[myZmywda*gwrDESifhtwl &[ef;jyKcJhaom omuD0ifrif;orD;
Owå&m&[ef;r?
y#mpm&Dax&D\w&m;udkem,lí &[ef;jyKcJhaom om0wd¬NrdKUol
Owå&max&Dr?
aumPm*rejrwfpGmbk&m;\ 'kwd,t*¾om0dumr Owå&max&Dr?
y'krjrwfpGmbk&m;tavmif;\Muif&mawmf Owå&mrdzk&m;?
0dyóDjrwfpmG bk&m;\ tjrwfq;Hk tvkyt
f auR; Owå&mOygodumr?
eE´uppfolBuD;\orD;jzpfaom Owå&mOygodumr/

þae&mü psm,D{w'*fbGJU& ,ckOwå&mOygodumronf aemiftcgü eE´
oli,f\ rdcifjzpfvmaomaMumifh Owå&meE´rmwm[k trnfwGifvmcJh\/ a*gwr
jrwfAk'¨\tvkyftauR; 'g,um? 'g,dumrwdkYudk azmfjy&mü ]]Owå&meE´rmwm}}[kyif
azmfjyxm;aMumif; awGU&jyef\/ ,if;onf ,ckwifjyrnfh Owå&meE´rmwm[k vGrJ mS ;pGm
,lqEdik af y\/ tvkyt
f auR;'g,um? 'g,dumrrsm;udk azmfjy&mü Owå&m eE´rmwm[k
qdkonfum; rSef\/ odkYaomfvnf; tvkyftauR; Owå&mtaMumif;udk azmfjyaom
ygVdawmfwdkYü a[óEdÅ[k A[k0kpfBud,m&Sdaejcif;? tjcm;aomjrwfpGmbk&m;wdkY\
jrwfaom tvkyt
f auR; 'g,um? 'g,dumrwkYd udk ESpOf ;D pD?ESpOf ;D pD jyxm;jcif;wdYk aMumifh
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rnf/ ,if;Owå&mESifh eE´rmwmwdkYonf "r®y't|uxmü jyqdkaom ckZÆKwå&mESifh
a0VKuP²uDeE´rmwmwdkYyif jzpfzG,f&Sday\/ ,ckwifjyrnfh psm,D{w'*fbGJU& Owå&m
eE´rmwmum; rjzpfEdkifay/ þüeE´rmwmonf Owå&m###BOT_TEXT###daooejzpfí Owå&m
wpfOD;wnf;om jzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh ,ckOwå&meE´rmwmESifh a*gwrjrwfAk'¨\
tvkyftauR; jzpfaom Owå&meE´rmwmwkdYonf rwluGJjym;jcm;em;ay\/
ykPw
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&mZN*dK[f ola|;onf tvkyform;ykPÖudkac:,lNyD; ]]tarmifykPÖ... yGJvrf;obifwGif
aysmf½Tifvdku aysmf½Tifyg/ odkYr[kwf v,fxGefvdku v,fxGefyg}}[k qdkav\/
odYk aomfvnf; ZeD;onfOwå&mu ]]tdt
k &Si.f . ola|;[lonfrmS uREfyk w
f Ykd \ola|;jzpf\/
xkdYaMumifh oihftzdkY&m ajymorQ wifhw,f\/ odkYaomfvnf; rdrdvkyfief;jzpfonfh
v,fxGefrIudk rpGefYypfygESifh}}[k wdkufwGef;pum; ajymMum;\/ xdkYaMumifh ykPÖ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 115

wpfa,muf eu©wfyGJobifodkYroGm;? v,fawmxJodkYom v,fxGef&efoGm;av\/
taMumif;wdkufqdkifonfrSm xdkaeYü t&Sifom&dykwå&monf eda&m"ormywf
rSxí ]],aeY igonf tb,foltm; csD;ajr§mufrIjyK&vQif oihfrnfenf;[k qifjcif
vwfaomf ykPÖv,fxGeform;\ a&S;aumif;rI Oyedó,udkjrifawmfrlí qGrf;cHcsdef
wefojzifh ykPÖtvkyfvkyfaeaom v,fawmteD;odkY <uawmfrl\/ ykPÖonf ol\
v,fawmteD;&Sd NcHKwpfcu
k rkd sufEmS rlum &yfawmfral eaom t&Sijf rwfBuD;udk Munfñpkd mG
&Sdcdk;\/ xkdYaemuf t&Sifjrwfonf wHyludk tvdk&SdykHay:onf[k awG;awm&if; NcHKrS
tudik ;f wdYk ujkd zwfum aocsmpGm oyfNyD;aemuf wHyu
l kd rsuEf mS opf&ef a&ESiw
hf uG uyfvLS
vdkuf\/
t&Sifom&dykwå&monf rsufESmawmfopfNyD;vQif qGrf;cH<uawmfrl\/ xdktcg
ykPÖonf ]]þt&Sifum; tjcm;aomaeYwdkYü þvrf;udk r<uvm/ ,aeYrS ightm;
csD;ajr§muf&ef <uvmawmfrlonf jzpfayvdrfhrnf/ ig\tdrf&Sifronf ightwGuf
,laqmifvmrnfhxrif;udk rax&fjrwf\oydwfü avmif;xnfhívSLvdkufygrlum;
aumif;avpG}}[k BuHpnfrdav\/ xdktcg ykPÖ\r,m; tdrf&Sifronf ]],aeYum;
eu©wfyGJobifaeYwnf;}}[k BuHpnfatmufarhvsuf apmapmyif cJbG,fabmZOfwdkYukd
,laqmifNyD; cifyGef;ykPÖ&Sdaom v,fawmodkY oGm;a&mufydkYaqmifav\/ vrf;c&D;
tMum;üum; t&Sifom&dykwå&mudk trSwfrxif zl;awGU&NyD; þodkYtBuHjzpfcJh\/
]]tjcm;aeYü þt&Sifjrwfudk zl;awGU&aomfvnf; ighü vSLzG,fr&Sd/ vSLzG,f&Sdaomfvnf;
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[kvnf; qkawmif;\/ &Sifom&dykwå&monfvnf; ]]oif\ vdk&mqE´ jynfh0ygap}}[k
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xrif;ydYk vmcJ\
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qGrf;vSL'gef;cJhaMumif;udk ajymqdkav\/ ykPÖonfvnf; r,m;jzpfolOwå&m\
ajymjyonfhtaMumif;t&mwdkYü pdwfruGufbJ em;axmif\/ rlvuyif olawmfaumif;
jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm r,m;tm;vnf; ol\wHylESifha&tvSLudkvnf; ajymjyav\/
olwdkYvifr,m;ESpfa,mufonf wpfOD;\tvSLudkwpfOD;u om"kac:qdkMu\/ r,fu
vSL'gef;onfukd armifu ½Tiv
f ef;\/ armifuay;vSLonfukd r,fuMunfjzL\/ þodYk

116 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vifr,m;ESpfa,mufwdkY\oEÅmef0,f wpfxyfwnf; wlrQonfhukodkvfpdwfrsm;
wzGm;zGm;jzpfí aeav\/
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aygifay:ü acwårQ vJavsmif;pOfwGif tdyfaysmfoGm;cJh\/ tdyf,mrSEdk;onfwGif ol\
xGe,
f ufvufpv,fawmonf a½Ta&mifwvQyfvQyf awmufaeojzifh rsufprd sm; rSm;ae
ovm;[k awG;awmum ykPÖonf udk,fwdkif xoGm;íMunfh½I&m xGefpdkifajrBuD;wkH;
wdYk onf a½Tw;Hk a½Tpikd cf w
J YkdjzpfaeaMumif;udk awGU&S&d av\/ ykPo
Ö nf ZeD;onftm;ac:í
]]&Sifra&... tjcm;olwdkYpdkufysdK;tyfaom rsdK;aphonf okH;av;vMumrS toD;oD;\/
t&Sifom&dykwå&mrax&fjrwfwnf;[laom v,fajraumif;twGif;ü igwdkYpdkufysdK;onfh
o'¨grsdK;aphonfum; ,aeYyifrcRwf{uef trSefyiftoD;oD;\/ þwpfy,frQavmuf
aomajrt&yfü oQdoQm;oD;rQaom ajrpdkifaomfrSvnf; a½Trjzpfjcif;rnfonfr&Sd}}[k
vufawGUjyí ajymav\/
olwdkYonf eef;awmfodkYoGm;í bk&iftm; tusdK;taMumif;udk avQmufMum;
av\/ xdkYaemuf rif;BuD;onf a½TwdkYudkaqmif,l&ef vSnf;ESifhwuG rif;csif;wdkYudkap
vdu
k \
f / rif;csif;wdYk vnf; oGm;í ]]rif;BuD;\bke;f uHwnf;}}[k EIwu
f >rufqí
kd a½Tpikd cf J
wdkYudk aumuf,lMuukef\/ aumuf,lorQ a½TpdkifcJwdkYonf yuwdxGefpdkifajrcJrsm;
omvQif jzpfMuav\/ rif;csif;wdkYonf taMumif;pkHudk AdrdÁom&rif;tm; avQmufxm;
Mu\/ Adro
Ád m&vnf; ]]ykP\
Ö bke;f uHwnf;}}[k EIw>f rufNyD; aumuf,&l ef tBuHay;\/
rif;csif;wdkYonf AdrdÁom&rif;qdkonfhtwdkif; aumuf,lMu&m a½Ttwdom jzpfukef\/
,if;a½TwdkYudk vSnf;aygif;rsm;pGmjzifh,laqmifvmí eef;&ifjyifüykHxm;&m tjrifhtm;jzifh
xef;wpfqifh yrmP&Sdav\/
rif;BuD;onf trwfwkdYudkac:í ]]tb,fol\tdrfü þrQavmufaoma½T&Sd
oenf;}}[kar;&m r&SdaMumif; ajzMum;Mu\/ ]]þrQaomOpöm\t&Sifudk todkYjyKaomf
oihfrnfenf;}} [k ar;jref;aomf ]]"eomrd=ola|;rnfonfudk jyKtHhaomiSgoihfyg
onf}}[k qdkukef\/ xdkYaMumifh AdrdÁom&rif;onf ykPÖtm; tm;vkH;aoma½Tudkay;í
xdkaeYüyif ola|;t&mudk ay;\/ ykPÖola|;onf "eao|dr*Fvmudk jyKonf&Sdaomf
ckepf&ufywfv;Hk bk&m;trSL;&Sad om &[ef;oHCmtm; tvSLay;\ ckepf&ufajrmufaom
aeYü jrwfA'k \
¨ qGr;f a'oem\tqk;H ü ykPo
Ö al |;? ola|;uawmfOwå&mESihf ola|;orD;
Owå&mwdkYonf aomwmywdåzdkvfü wnfav\/
,ckvLS ,cktusdK;ay;jcif;\ taMumif;&if;av;csuf
aumif;rI'gejyK&mü rsufarSmufvufiif;tusdK;ay;aomuHrSm 'd|"r®a0'eD,
uHjzpf\/ aumif;rI'gewpfckckjyK&mü r[mukodkvfaZm0g& 0DxdwdkY rsm;pGmjzpfMu\/
,if;odkYjzpfMu&mü wpf0Dxd wpf0DxdwdkYü ukodkvfaZm ckepfBudrfwdkYjzpfMu\/ xdkaZm

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 117

ckepfBudrfwdkYteuf yxraZmpdwfwdkYüyg&Sdaom ukodkvfapwemudk 'd|"r®a0'eD,uH[k
ac:qdk\/ ,if;'d|"r®a0'ed,uHonf taMumif;nDñGwfvQif rsufarSmufb0ü
oufrJhjzpfonfh a½T? aiG paom ½kyf0w¬KtusdK;w&m;udk jzpfay:apwwf\/ ,if;odkY
'd|"r®a0'ed,uH\ tusdK;ay;&efrSm taMumif;t*Fg(4)yg;nDñGwfrS rsufarSmufb0ü
tusdK;ay;\/ odkYr[kwfygu 'kwd,b0 ponfüomtusdK;ay;rnfjzpf\/ ,if;
taMumif;t*Fg(4)yg;rSm(1) 0w¬KorÜ'g
= tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfonf ormywf(8)yg;udk&
aom tem*grf (odkYr[kwf)&[EÅmjzpfjcif;?
(2) ypö,orÜ'g
= vSLzG,f0w¬Konf w&m;ojzifh&tyf
aomypönf; ("rd®, v'¨)jzpfjcif;?
(3) apwemorÜ'g
= tvSLay;yk*d¾Kvf\ apwemokH;wefESifh
jynfhpkHnDñGwfjcif;?
(4) *kPmwda&uorÜ'g = tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vfuvnf; eda&m"ormywf
rS xNyD;pjzpfjcif;wdkY jzpf\/
þtaMumif;av;yg;ESijhf ynfph í
Hk tvSL&Siu
f vnf; a&S;aumif;rI (Oyedó,)
ESifh jynfhpkHjcif;&Sdaomf rsufarSmufb0ü csufcsif;tusdK;ay;\/ azmfjyygtaMumif;t*Fg
av;&yfrSm ypöKyÜefb0ü jynfhpkH&rnfht*Fgrsm;jzpf\/ tvSL&Sif\a&S;aumif;rIonf
twdwfb0\jynfhpkH&rnfht*Fg jzpf\/
þykPÖolqif;&JZeD;armifESHwdkY\ tvSL'geonfvnf; txufazmfjyyg
ypöKyÜefb0twGuf taMumif;av;yg;wdkYESifh jynfhpkHonfhtjyif armifykPÖudk,fwdkifuyif
ola|;jzpf&eftwdwb
f 0 a&S;aumif;rI (Oyedó,)ESiv
hf nf; jynfph o
Hk jl zpfí xdak eYrmS yif
r[m"eola|;BuD;jzpfatmif okH;rukef pGJrukefEdkifonfh oufrJha½TwkH;a½Tpdkif ½kyf0w¬K
tusdK;wdkYudk ay;jcif;jzpf\/ ,if;odkYr[kwfygbJ ykPÖ olqif;&JtzdkY apwemokH;wefü
wpfyg;yg;csdKUwJch ahJ omf 'd|"r®a0'eD,uH\tusdK;udk cHpm;&rnfr[kwyf gay/ xdYk aMumifh
tvSLaumif;rIjyKolwdkYonf tvSLay;yk*Kd¾ vfwdkY\bufrSjynfhpkH&rnfh ypöKyÜefb0twGuf
t*Fg(2)yg;ESifh twdwft*Fg(1)yg;wdkYudk jynfhpkHatmif txl;ojzifhavhusifh aqmif½Guf
oih\
f / odYk ro
S m aumif;rI\tusdK;onf ta[moduuHjzpfroGm;bJ tusdK;ay;rGejf rwf
Edkifrnfjzpf\/
orD;ay;&ef awmif;yefvmcJh
aemuftzdkYü &mZN*dK[fola|;BuD;okreonf ykPÖola|;ü t½G,fa&mufaom
orD;&Sdonf[k Mum;í rdrdom;ESihfaqmifESif;vdkaomaMumifh wrefrsm;udk apvdkuf\/
ykPo
Ö al |;onf xdpk um;udk Mum;vQif ]]orD;udk ray;Edik }f }[k pum;jyefvu
kd \
f / xdt
k cg

118 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

okreola|;BuD;onf ola|;rmefjzifh rcHr&yfEdkifjzpfum ]]oifonf ig\tdrfudkrSDí
aeoGm;NyD;rS ,cktcg wpfNydKifeufwnf;yif tpdk;&ol txufwef;pm;jzpfoGm;jcif;
aMumifh ightm;rmefwufum orD;udk ray;oavm}}[k owif;pum;udk wpfzefydkYap
jyef\/ ykPÖola|;BuD;onf tnHhrcHbJ ]]tarmifwdkY\ okreola|;onf [kwfrSefonf
udkyif ajymMum;OD;awmh a,mufsm;rnfonf tNrJwrf;qif;&Jae&rnf[k rrSwfoihfyg/
igum; ,cktcg oifwdkY\ okreola|;uJhodkYaomyk*dK¾ vfrsm;udk uRefjyKvkyfí odrf;,l
jcif;iSgyif pGr;f Edik yf g\/ trSerf mS oifwYkd \trsdK;tEG,u
f rkd u
l m; rwlEikd af y/ pifppfru
l m;
ighorD;onf aomwmyeft&d,mjzpfaom wynfhrwnf;/ aeYpOfaeYwdkif; tojym wpf
usyfwefaomyef;jzifh &wemokH;yg;tm; ylaZmfrIjyKaeol jzpf\/ ighorD;udk oifuJhodkY
aom rdpämt,l&Sdol\tdrfokdY tb,fenf;rQ rydkYoEdkif}}[k wif;wif;rmrmyif jyefMum;
ajymqdkvdkufav\/
þodkYvQif ykPÖola|;BuD;\wif;rmaomtjzpfudkod&vQif okreola|;onf
avaysmh oGm;um &S&d if;pGjJ zpfaom cifrif&if;ES;D rIukd rzsufq;D apcsifyg/ igonf ighacR;r
twGuf aeYpOfaeYpOf tojymESpfusyfwef yef;wdkYudk pDrHapygrnf}}[k owif;udk wpfzef
ydkYapjyefav\/ xdktcgusrS ykPÖola|;BuD;onf aus;Zl;odwwfoljzpfaomaMumifh
]]aumif;ygNyD}}[k0efcí
H orD;jzpfol Owå&mudk okreola|;tdro
f Ykd ydYk ap\/ orD;Owå&mudk
okreola|;om;ESifh vufxyfNyD;csdefrSpí okreola|;BuD; ESifh ykPÖola|;BuD;wdkYonf
crnf;crufawmfpyfc&hJ av\/ xdak cwfu xk;H pHtwdik ;f aqmif½u
G jf cif;vnf; jzpfayvdrhf
rnf/
þü rdpäm'd|dwdkYESifhvufxyfvkdaomrdbwdkYonf rdrd\orD;om;wdkY epfemrI
r&Sd&atmif tzufzufrS pOf;pm;qifjcifoihfyg\/ rdrdwdkYudk;uG,faombmomw&m;udk
bmomjcm;wdYk EydS pf ufrI r&Sad vatmifawmif;qdrk w
I Ykdukd awmif;qdo
k ihyf gonf/ awmif;qdk
csufwdkYudk vdkufavsmrSomvQif rdrdwdkY\orD;om;ESifh vufxyfapoihfygonf/ odkYr
[kwfu vufrxyfapoihfay/ tu,fí vufxyfay;ygu rdrd\orD;om;wkdYudk
bmomjcm;wdkY\ ESdyfuGyfrIudkcH&rnfjzpfaMumif; em;vnfoihfay\/ xdkYaMumifh buf
aygif;pkHrS pOf;pm;qifjcifí bmomjcm;wdkYESifh vufxyfrIudpu
ö dk aqmif½Gufoihf\/
csrf;ompGmae&aom rdrdwdkY\rdom;pktwGif;odkY pdwfqif;&Jp&mudprö sm; 0ifrvmatmif
tzufzufrS &ifqdkifwm;qD;oihf\/
Owå&m\ BuD;rm;aomo'¨gqE´
okreola|;uvnf; Owå&ma&mufvmonfhaeYüyif ol\om;jzpfoleE´ESifh
xdrf;jrm; ay;cJh\/ Owå&monf a,mu©rtdrfxufwGifae&if; pdwftvGefqif;&J&\/
taMumif;rSm olr\cifyGef; eE´onf tvSLay;jcif;udkwm;jrpf\/ tvSLvSLjcif;onf
aiGukefaomtvkyf[k ,lq\/ oDv rapmifh&[k wm;jrpfjyef\/ oDvapmifhjcif;onf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 119

umr*kPfcHpm;rIudk taESmifht,Sufjzpfaponf[k ,lq\/ Owå&monf rlvuyif
&wemokH;yg;\tqkH;trtwdkif; aexdkifcJhaom trsdK;orD;jzpf\/ olr\rdbrsm;
<u,f0csrf;omvmMuonfrSmvnf; tpOfwpdkuf ukodkvfa&;wGif pdwfyg0ifpm;cJhMu
onfwGif uHyGifhcsdefESifhBuHKBudKufcdkuf t&Sifom&dykwå&m\csD;ajr§mufrIaMumifh csrf;om
Edkifaom 'gerIudktxl;jyKum csrf;omvmcJhjcif;vnf;jzpf\/ þuJhokdY aumif;rIudk
rjyK&ojzifh Owå&monfrsm;pGm pdwfqif;&JaecJh&\/ olronf eE´wdkYrdom;pk\ aeykH
xdkifykHrsm;udkvnf; rBudKufay/ þodkY 'ge? oDvESifha0;ae&ojzifh pdwfqif;&Jum
aevdkufonfrSm ESpfvcGJMumoGm;cJh\/
wpfaeYwGif vlBuHKjzifh Owå&monf zcifxHokdY olrpdwfqif;&Jae&aMumif;
tpcsDum tusdK;taMumif;wdYk ukd pkv
H ifpmG ajymí aiGwpfaomif;ig;axmifay;ydYk &ef pum;
yg;vdu
k \
f / ykPo
Ö al |; BuD;vifr,m;wdYk onf aiGwpfaomif;ig;axmifukd ydYk ay;av\/
xdkaiGjzifh q&mZD0u\ ESrjzpfol oD&drmjynfhwefqmudkiSm;&rf;um ola|;om;eE´tm;
wpfq,fih g;&ufywfv;Hk jyKpkap\/ Owå&monfum; wpfq,fih g;&ufywfv;Hk Ak't
¨ rSL;&Sd
aomoHCmtm; tvSLBuD;ay;\/ udk,fwdkifudk,fus cJzG,fabmZOfrsm;udkpDrHNyD;vQif
bk&m;trSL;&Sdaom oHCmtm;qufuyf\/ bk&m;&SifqGrf;bkOf;ay;NyD; ausmif;awmfodkY
<uoGm;avaomf OykofoDvudkaqmufwnfí jyom'fxufüwufa&mufum rdrd\
oDvudk qifjcifum xdik af eav\/ þuJo
h Ykd v0ufveG af jrmuf Oykou
f ckd s&awmhrnfah eY
odkYa&mufaomtcg apmapmpD;pD;yif ,m*k? cJzG,fponfwdkYudk udk,fwdkiftkyfcsKyf csuf
jyKwf pDrHvsuf vSnfhvnfae\/
Owå&m\ twk,zl ,
G &f mpdwx
f m;
xdktcsdefü ola|;om;onf oD&drmESifhtwlwuG jyom'fxuf0,f aysmfyg;
ae&mu jyLwif;rS&yfí tjyifodkYMunfh&m acR;tvdrf;vdrf;? jymtvl;vl;jzifh csuf
a&;jyKwfa&;pDrHaeaom Owå&mudkjrifí ]rdr\
d pnf;pdru
f rkd ok;H aqmifbJ ukov
kd u
f jkd yK\/
rdu
k rf aJ vpG}[kBuHíNyHK;\/ Owå&muvnf; ol\a,mufsm;udkMunfhí ]wrvGeb
f 0
tusKd ;iSg ukov
kd rf jyK? rdu
k af vpG}[k BuHíNyHK;\/ oD&rd monf eE´EiS Ohf wå&mwdYk \ trlt&m
udjk rifí olUud,
k o
f l tdr&f iS rf [kxifrw
S u
f m Owå&mudk trsufxu
G Nf yD; jyom'fatmufoYkd
qif;vm\/ Owå&mola|;orD;onf oD&drm\ajy;qif;vmykHjzifhyif ]]þtrdkufronf
v0ufrQ þtdrfüae&jcif;aMumifh ]þtdrfonf ightdrf}[k trSwf&SdoljzpfoGm;avNyD}}
[koí
d xdck Püyif arwåmtyÜempsmefu0kd ifpm;um £a`E´rysuf &yfvsuo
f m aeav\/
oD&rd monf usdKufusdKufqal om axmywfyw
l Ykd jzifh Owå&m\OD;acgif;ay:odYk wtm;oGef
avmif;csvdkuf\/ arwåm\wefcdk;aMumifh qDylonf at;jraoma&uJhodkY OD;acgif;ay:rS
avsmusoGm;\/
xdkcPü oD&drm\teD;ü&yfaeaom Owå&m\uRefrwdkYonf jyuf&,fjyK

120 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vsuf ajymqdkMuukef\/ xdktcgusrS arhavsmhaeaomoD&drmonf rdrdrSm {nfhonf
jzpfaMumif;udk aumif;pGmodjrif qifjcifrdav\/ xkdYaMumifh rdrd\rSm;,Gif;rIudk
onf;cHyg&ef 0efcsawmif;yefc\
hJ / odYk aomfvnf; Owå&mola|;orD;onf ]]trdo&D rd m...
igum; oihftm; þae&mü tuefawmhrcHEdkifyg/ igum; zcif&SdaomorD; jzpf\/
jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifwnf;[laom ig\zcifudkuefawmh0efcsawmif;yefrS onf;cHtHh}}[k
ajymqdkav\/ xdkcPüyif jrwfAk'¨onf aemufyg&[ef;taygif;NcH&Hvsuf Owå&m\
aetdrfodkY qGrf;tvdkYiSg<ua&mufNyD; xdkifaeav\/ oD&drmonf jrwfAk'¨xHcsOf;uyfí
Owå&m ola|;orD;tay:ü usL;vGefcJhaomtjypfudk onf;cHyg&ef &Sdcdk;awmif;yef\/
jrwfA'k u
¨ vnf; onf;cH \[k rdeYf awmfral omtcg oD&rd monf Owå&mxHomG ;a&mufí
uefawmh\/
a'oemawmf\pGr;f tif
jrwfAk'¨onf Owå&m\qGrf;uyfyGJwGif qGrf;tEkarm'emtjzpf atmufyg
w&m;pum;udk a[mMum;awmfcJh\/
]trsux
f u
G o
f w
l u
Ykd kd trsurf xGub
f J arwåmjzifh atmif&m\/
pdw,
f w
k rf m&So
d w
l u
Ykd kd pdwaf umif;xm;jcif;jzifh atmifjrif&m\/
ESajrm0efw&kd o
dS w
l u
Ykd kd ay;urf;jcif;jzifh atmif&m\/
vdraf jymwwfow
l u
Ykd kd t[kwt
f rSet
f wdik ;f ajymjcif;jzifh atmif&m\/
w&m;a'oemawmf\tqkH;ü oD&drmjynfhwefqmrESifhtwl Owå&mola|;
orD;\a,mu©r? vifa,mufsm;eE´ESifh trsdK;orD;ig;&mwdkYonf aomwmywdåzdkvfü
wnfcJh&\/ oD&drmonf Owå&m[laomtaqGcifyGef;aumif;udk trSD&ojzifh i&Jus
rnfhab;rSuif;a0;cJh&\/
rsufarSmufb0üBuD;yGm;Edik o
f nft
h csuf(4)csuf
rnfolrqdk trSDaumif;&SdrS wdk;wufEdkif\/ odkYrSom vJrusoGm;rnfjzpf\/
jrwfAk'¨ uvnf; rsufarSmufb0ü wdk;wufBuD;yGm;vdkolwdkYonf atmufazmfjyyg
tcsuf(4)csufESifhjynfhpkH &rnfjzpfaMumif; a[mMum;cJh\/,if;(4)csufrSm(1)
x<uvkHYv0D&d,&Sdjcif;?
(2)
apmifha&Smufjcif;ESifhjynfhpkHjcif;?
(3)
rdwfaqGaumif;&Sdjcif; ESifh
(4)
rQwpGmtoufarG;jcif;wdkYjzpf\/
,if;(4)csufudkyif orÜ'g(4)yg;[k ac:a0:okH;pGJMu\/ avmuDBuD;yGm;a&;?
pD;yGm;a&; e,fy,fwkdYwGif ,if;tcsuf(4)csufESifhjynfhpkHvQif wdk;wufBuD;yGm;EdkifaMumif;
jrwfAk'¨u twdtvif; a[mawmfrlcJh\/ þpHawmf0if Owå&m0w¬KaMumif;yg oD&drm

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 121

jynfhwefqmronfvnf; Owå&m[laom rdwfaqGaumif;udk &&SdcJhojzifh tyg,fus
a&mufrnfhab;rS uif;a0;cJh&jcif; jzpf\/ tu,fí Owå&m[laomrdwfaqGaumif;udk
r&&Scd yhJ gvQif tyg,fi&Jü epfreG ;f rnfrmS {uefomjzpf\/ xkYd aMumifh avmuD avmukwå
&m csrf;omtrsdK;rsdK;udk &&SdvdkolwdkYonf þorÜ'gw&m;(4)yg;ESifhjynfhpkHatmif
BudK;pm;oihf\/
eE´rmwm[k trnf&jcif;
oD&drmjynfhwefqmronf aomwmyefjzpfNyD;aemufwpfaeYü jrwfAk'¨trSL;&Sd
aom oHCmawmfwdkYtm; aetdrfodkYyifhzdwfNyD; qGrf;qufuyfvSL'gef;cJh\/ aemifaom
tcgü eE´onf ol\ZeD;onfOwå&mtm; rdrd\trdt&müxm;av\/ xdktcgrSpí
Owå&mola|;orD;onf Owå&meE´rmwm[k trnfwGifcJhav\/ Owå&monf eE´ola|;
om;udk vrf;rSefodkYa&mufatmif ac:aqmifjcif;jzifh rdcifyDoonf[kqdk&rnfjzpfay\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; psm,D{w'*fb&UJG &Sjd cif;
aemufumvü jrwfAk'¨onf arwåm&Sif Owå&mtrsdK;orD;tm;]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr om0dumeH OygodumeH psm,DeH ,'d'HOwå&meE´rmwm =
igbk&m;\wynfh psmef0ifpm;ol vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;wdkYwGif eE´\r,fawmf
jzpfol Owå&mola|;orD;onf tjrwfq;Hk ? tomqk;H wnf;}
[k awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;ay;í csD;usL;cJh\/ pHjyKxdkufolwdkYudkpHjyK&rnfrSm
tEdIif;rJh jrwfAk'¨\ wm0efyifr[kwfygavm/
þ Owå&mtaMumif;wGiv
f nf; bmomjcm;ud,
k &l mü BuHK&onf'h u
k w
© Ykdukd awGUEdik af y\/
avmuwGif trsdK;orD;trsm;pkonf t½G,fa&mufcsdefü tdrfaxmifjyKMu\/ tcsdKUum;
rdrdESifht,l0g' wlrQoludkom vufxyfrIjyKMu\/ tcsdKUum; t,l0g'uGJjym;olwdkYESifh
ESpfyg;*a[pyfMu\/ ,if;odkYtdrfaxmifjyKMu&mwGif bmomjcm;udk vufxyf,laom
trsdK;orD;avmuf trdkufrJqkH;udk usL;vGefolonf avmuü &SdtHhrxifaMumif; þ
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122 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 123

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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 125

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tdEd´,EdkifiH\ "avhxkH;pHt& trSefwu,fyif &SdcJh\/ odkYaomfvnf; ,ckacwfü trsdK;
orD;rsm;vnf; trsdK;om;rsm;ESifh &ifabmifwef;vdkufaeojzifh ,if; 'ku©(2)yg;
r&Sdawmh[kqdkaumif; qdkMurnfjzpf\/ odkY&mwGif ,ckacwfüvnf; trsdK;orD;rsm;rSm
aoQmifaemufqHxkH;ygvsuf vifa,mufsm;rsm;twGuf pm;a&;? 0wfa&; paom
Am[d&udpörsm;udk aqmif½Gufay;&vsufyif&Sd\/ omoemEG,f0if oDv&SifESifh
tdrfaxmifrjyKaom trsdK;orD;wdkY\ b0wdkYum; tdrfaxmifrIudpu
ö dk y,fpGefYxm;ojzifh
OwkvmrI 'ku©rSwpfyg; tjcm;tma0edu'ku©(4)yg; udk cHpm;&zG,fr&Sdygay/
þae&mü okyÜ0gomrif;orD;onf tjcm;trsdK;orD;rsm;enf;wl udk,f0ef
aqmifjcif;'ku© jzpfonfum; rSef\/ odkYaomfvnf; omreftrsdK;orD; trsm;pkuJhodkY
ud;k vvG,f q,fvzGm;jcif;um; r[kwyf gay/ trsm;xufx;l í (odYk r[kw)f twdwb
f 0
\ tukodkvfuHaMumifh ckepfESpfMumatmif udk,f0efaqmifcJh&ol jzpf\/ ckepf&ufMum
atmifvnf; awGa0arharmaecJh&ol jzpf\/
y#doaE¨ae&jcif; tqifq
h ifüh qif;&JyHk
trsdK;orD;wdkY\ tma0edu'ku©ig;rsdK;wGif vifhtdrfodkYvdkuf&jcif;? vpOf
Owk"r®wmvm& jcif;ESifh vifhtm;jyKpkvkyfauR;&jcif;wdkYonf trsdK;orD;wdkY\tzdkY
'ku©[k r,lqapumrl ]a,mufsm; azmifp;D ? rde;f rrD;ae}[laom avmuokH;pum;twdkif;
udk,f0efaqmif&jcif;? om;zGm;&jcif;[laom tma0edu'ku©wdkYonf trsdK;orD;rsm;
twGuf omru trd0rf;wdkufodkY 0ifa&mufvmaomoaE¨om; twGufyg tvGefqif;&J
aMumif; awGU&SdEdkif\/ Ak'¨pmayüvnf; y#doaE¨ae&jcif;tqifhqifhü qif;&JykHwdkYudk
atmufygtwdkif;azmfjyxm;ay\/
(u)ud,
k 0f efwnf&jcif;ü 'ku©
vlowå0g\ trd0rf;üjzpfjcif;onf OyÜvMum? y'kr®mMum? Mumyk@&duf

128 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

paom teHYoif; xkaH omae&mü jzpfonfr[kwaf y/ raumif;aomteHYwYkdjzifh Mumjrifph mG
xkHtyfNyD; a&tdrfyrm pufqkyfzG,f&Sdaom trd0rf;wdkufü ig;ykyfponfwdkYü&Sdaom
ydk;avmufuJhodkYjzpf\/ q,fvwdkifwdkif trd0rf;rSjzpfaom awaZm"gwfjzifhusuf\/
auG;jcif;? qefYjcif;rSvnf; uif;\/ xdYk aMumifh ud,
k 0f efwnf& jcif;onf tvGejf yif;xef
aomqif;&Judk cHpm;&jcif;jzpf\/ trsdK;orD;wdkYonf udk,f0efwnf;[laom 0efaMumifh
yifyef;Mu&\/ vufajcwkdYonfvnf; zl;a&mifukef\/ þonfum; ukd,f0efwnf&
jcif;ü 'ku©wnf;/
(c) ud,
k 0f efaqmif&jcif;ü 'ku©
trd0rf;wGif;udef;aom owå0gonf trd\taqmwvsif acsmfcRwfjcif;
rjznf;rn§i;f uwdu
k u
f ½du
k f oGm;jcif;? taqmwvsif xdik jf cif;? taqmwvsif xjcif;?
vl;vnf;jyefvSefjcif; ponfwdkYü tvGefjyif;xefaom qif;&Jjcif;udkcHpm;&\/ Oyrm
tm;jzifh t&uform;\vufodkY a&mufaomqdwfoli,fuJhodkYvnf;aumif; tvrÜm,f
vufodkYa&mufaom a>ri,fuJhodkYvnf;aumif; a&S;½Iiifjcif;? txufodkY iifjcif;?
atmufodkY cgjcif;? zDvmcgjcif;wdkYESifhwlaom ya,m*jzifh tvGefjyif;xefaom qif;&J
jcif;udk cHpm;&\/ trdonf tvGefat;aoma&udk aomuf&mü tvGefat;aom
avmuEÅ&ufi&Jü jzpfouJhodkY cHpm;&\/ tylpmudkpm;&mü rD;usD;rdk;jzifh >yrf;ouJh
odkYjzpf\/ tief? tcsOfpaomtpmudkpm;rsdKaomtcgü yJcGyfjzifha½Gí tiefa&
yufjzef;jcif;paom ur®u&PodkY a&mufouJhodkY tvGefxufjrufaom qif;&Judk
cHpm;&\/ þonfum; udk,f0efaqmifcsdefü jzpfaom 'ku©wnf;/
(*) ud,
k 0f efysujf cif;ü'ku©
xdkoli,ftm; tajzmifhroGm; vrf;rSm;aom udk,f0ef&Sdaom trd\taqG
cifyGef;? udpBö uD;i,fü twlwuGjyKzufjzpfaomol? tuRrf;0ifaomolwdkYonfvnf;
Munfh½Ijcif;iSg rxdkufaom qif;&Jjzpf&mt&yfü jzwfjcif;? cGJjcif;ponfwkdYjzifh qif;&J
jzpf&\/ þonfum; udk,f0efysufjcif;ü 'ku©wnf;/
(C) arG;zGm;jcif;ü 'ku©
trd\uHaMumifjh zpfaomavwdYk onf ud,
k 0f efom;i,fukd OD;acgif;apmufx;kd ?
ajcaxmuf rdk;arQmftm;jzifh jyefvSefí trd\a,med0odkYcs\/ xdkrSwqifh tvGef
usOf;ajrmif;aom trda,med0jzifh tjyifavmuodkYxkwfiif,l&\/ þodkYtvGefBuD;pGm
aom'ku©udkcHpm;&\/ þonfum; arG;zGm;jcif;ü 'ku©wnf;/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 129

(i) trd0rf;rS arG;zGm;Ny;D &mü 'ku/©
arG;zGm;NyD;aomoli,fudk vufjzifhudkifjcif;? a&csdK;jcif;? vufajcponfudk
aq;jcif;? tnpftaMu;udkaq;jcif;? tnpftaMu;udk tESD;jzifhokwfjcif;paom umv
wdkYü tyfzsm;? oif"kef;oGm;wdkYjzifh xdk;qGonfESifhwlaom qif;&JwkdYjzpf\/ þonfum;
trd0rf;rSarG;zGm;NyD;&müjzpfaom 'ku©wnf;/
om;awmfo0D vdukd zGm;jrifjcif;
ckepf&ufajrmufaomtcg oky0Ü gomrif;orD;onf ]]raorD touf&iS pf Ofyif
igonf tvSL'geudkay;OD;tHh}}[k BuHpnfNyD; cifyGef;onf aumvd,rif;om;udk
teD;odkYac:\/ xdkYaemuf ]]tdk t&Sifhom;... oGm;ygacs/ uREkfyf\jzpf&yfudk jrwfAk'¨tm;
avQmufMum;NyD;vQif yifzh w
d af wmfrcl yhJ g? jrwfA'k \
¨ rdeYf Mum;csufrsm;udv
k nf; aumif;pGm
rSwfom;í uREfkyftm;jyefvnfajymMum;yg}}[k ajymqdkí jrwfAk'¨xHodkY apvTwf\/
cifyeG ;f onfonf jrwfA'k x
¨ o
H Ykd oGm;a&mufí ZeD;onf\ taMumif;udk avQmufxm;\/
jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ]]aumvd,rif;orD; oky0Ü gomonf a&m*gr&Sd yuwdcsr;f omapownf;/
a&m*gr&Sd yuwdcsrf;omvsuf a&m*guif;aomom;udk zGm;apownf;}}[k rdefYawmfrl
\/ jrwfAk'¨rdefYMum;awmfrlvdkufonfESifh wpfNydKifeuf a&m*gr&Sd yuwdcsrf;omvsuf
a&m*guif;aomom;udk zGm;jrifav\/ 0ef;&HíaeMuaom vltaygif;wdkYonf idk&onfh
tjzpfru
S ;l ajymif;um 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfí aumvd,rif;om;tm; om;\owif;udk
ajymMum;&ef oGm;a&muf av\/ aumvd,rif;om;um; jrwfA'k r¨ ed Yf Mum;awmfro
l nfukd
em,lNyD;aemuf jrwfAk'¨udk &Sdcdk;NyD;vQif ½GmwGif;odkY a&S;½IUjyefvmav\/
txufyg taMumif;t&mwdYk ukd Munfah omf &Sio
f 0D vdavmif;udk zGm;&mtcsed üf
udk,f0efudk vG,fulpGm arG;zGm;Edkifaom tmEkabmf&Sdaom t&Sift*Fkvdrmvrax&fjrwf
omoemawmfwGif;odkY r0ifa&mufao;[k ,lqEdkif\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh omoemawmf
0,f tusdK;rsm;vwHhaom om;awmf &SifoD0vdudk jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif csD;ajr§mufvdk
aomaMumifh t&Sift*Fkvdrmvax&fudk opömrqdkcdkif;jcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifay\/
cifyGef;onf aumvd,rif;om;onf xdkrif;csif;a,mufsm;wdkY tm;&0rf;om
ajy;vmqD;BudKykH tjcif;t&mudk jrif&vQif ]]jrwfAk'¨\qkay;rIonf atmifjrifNyD}} [k
BuHpnfrdav\/ ZeD;onf qDodkYoGm;í jrwfAk'¨\ rdefYMum;csufwdkYudk jyefMum;av\/
rif;orD;onfvnf; ]]t&Sio
hf m; yifzh w
d t
f yfcahJ om touf&iS q
f rG ;f onfyif r*FvmqGr;f
jzpfvdrfhrnf? wpfzef jyefoGm;ygOD;? ckepf&ufywfvkH; qGrf;bkOf;ay;&ef jrwfAk'¨udk
yifhavQmufacsygOD;}}[k ajymqdkav\/ cifyGef;onfonfvnf; rif;orD; ajymqdkwdkif;
jyKvkyfav\/
xdt
k cg wpfa,mufaom Oygoumonf bk&m;trSL;&Sad om &[ef;oHCmudk
eufzef tvdkYiSg qGrf;pm;yifhzdwfxm;NyD; jzpf\/ xdkOygoumum; t&Sifarm*¾vmef\

130 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tvkyftauR;jzpf\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf t&Sifarm*¾vmeftm; ac:awmfrlí rdrd
Oygoum&if;tm; okyÜ0gomrif;orD;\taMumif;udk ajymMum;NyD; aemufaeYrS
qGrf;auR;&ef ajymMum;yg[k apcdkif;av\/ t&Sifarm*¾vmefonfvnf; jrwfAk'¨
rdeYf qakd wmfrw
l ikd ;f Oygoumtm; ajymav\/ Oygoumonfvnf; Opömpnf;pdr?f o'¨g?
touf[laom w&m;okH;yg;udk tmrcHedkifygtHh aemufrSauR;rnf[kavQmuf\/ t&Sif
arm*¾vmefonfvnf; oif 'g,um\ o'¨gw&m;ukdum; tmrrcHEdkifyg/ pnf;pdrfESifh
toufudkom tmrcHEkdif\[k ajymqdkNyD; 'g,umxHrS qGrf;uyfcGifhukd awmif;cJh\/
ykxkZOfwkdY\ o'¨gw&m;um; rNrJygay/ xkdYaemuf jrwfAk'¨tm; okyÜ0gomrif;orD;\
qGrf;vSL'gef;cGifhudk avQmufMum;\/ tvSLwdkufqdkifaevQifum; jyóem ay:wwfpNrJ
yif jzpf\/
oli,fukdvnf; aqGrsdK;wdkY\ pdwfudkNidrf;csrf;aponf[lí ]oD0vd} [laom
trnfukd rSnahf c:Muuke\
f / xdo
k 0D vdowdYk om;onf ckepfEpS yf wfv;Hk 0rf;wdu
k üf aecJ&h
aomaMumifh arG;zGm;NyD; onfrSpí ckepfESpfom;t½G,fwdkYjyKEdkifaom trIBuD;i,fü
½Gufaqmifjcif;iSg wwfEdkif\/ xdkYaMumifhyif oD0vdowdkYom;onf ckepf&ufywfvkH;
tvSLBuD; ay;vSLtyfonf&Sdaomf arG;zGm;onfhaeYüyif "ru½dkPf(a&ppf)udk,lum
oHCmawmftm; vSL'gef;cJh\/
jrwfAk'¨xHrS vSL'gef;cGifhudk &&SdNyD;aomtcg aumvd,rif;orD; okyÜ0gom
onf ckepf&ufywfvkH; bk&m;trSL;&SdaomoHCmtm; rGefjrwfaomcJbG,fabmZOfwdkYjzifh
a&mifh&Jwif;wdrfonfhwdkifatmif wm;jrpfonfhwdkifatmif udk,fwdkifvkyfauR;jyKpk\/
om;awmfoD0vdudkvnf; jrwfAk'¨ESifh &[ef;oHCmtm; &Sdcdk;ap\/ pifppf okyÜ0gom
rif;orD;\ a&S;OD;pG mvSL'gef;aomtvSL\ rlv&nf½G,fcsufonf ruG,fvGefrD tvSL
'gejyKcsifonfh tmomqE´om jzpf\/ odkYaomfvnf; jrwfAk'¨\ arwåmtpGrf;jzifh
om;awmfoD0vdudk zGm;jrifNyD;&müum; r*FvmqGrf;jzpfcJh\/ om;awmfoD0vd owdkY
om;tm;vnf; a&ppftvSLjzpfcJh\/ þae&mü a&ppfvSL'gef;rIaMumifh &&SdEdkifaom
tusdK;wdkYudk odoihfao;\/
a&ppfvLS usdK; (5)yg;
a&ppfudkvSLaomoltm; tusdK;ig;yg;udk&&SdEdkif\/ ,if;tusdK;ig;yg;rSm(1)
cyford ;f aomewfwYkdxufyv
kd eG í
f ewfüjzpfaomtoufukd &&Sjd cif;?
(2)
&efolwdkY tcgcyfodrf; rESdyfpufEdkifjcif;?
(3)
vufeufjzifh rn§if;qJEdkifjcif;?
(4)
tqdyfjzifh rn§if;qJEdkifjcif;?
(5)
vlUoufwrf;udk jynfhausmfNyD;rSom aoqkH;Edkifjcif; wdkYjzpf\/
xkdYaMumifh txufazmfjyyg tusdK;tmedoifig;yg;udk tvdk&SdaomolwdkYonf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 131

oD0vdowdkY om;ouJhodkY a&ppfudk oHCmawmftm;vSL'gef;oihfay\/
oD0vdr,fawmf\ tmomqE´
xdktcgü t&Sifom&dykwå&monf oD0vdowdkYom;udk ]]oli,foiftm;
cefYusef;\avm? rQw\avm? qif;&J'u
k u
© if;\avm}}[k rdeYf awmfr\
l / ]]t&Sib
f &k m;...
wynfhawmfonf tb,frSm cefYusef;ygtHhenf;? rQwygtHhenf;? wynfhawmfonf
ckepfEpS yf wfv;Hk aoG;tdik x
f üJ aecJ&h ygonf}}[k avQmuf\/ xdt
k cg aumvd,rif;orD;
okyÜ0gomonf ]]ig\om;awmfonf w&m;ppfolBuD; t&Sifom&dykwå&mESifhtwlwuG
ajymqdkae\}}[k ESpfvdk0rf;ajrmufav\/ jrwfAk'¨onf oD0vdr,fawmf\ ESpfvdk
0rf;ajrmufjcif;udk odaomaMumifh ]oky0Ü gom... oifonf þom;rSwpfyg; þodo
Yk abm&Sd
aom om;rsKd ;udk tvd&k adS o;oavm}[k rdefYawmfrl\/ xdktcg okyÜ0gomrif;orD;u
]t&Sib
f &k m;... wynfah wmfronf þom;rSwpfyg; þodo
Yk abm&Su
d ek af om om;ckepfa,muf
wdu
Yk kd tvd&k ydS gao;onf}[k avQmufxm;\/ þtcsufudkaxmuf½Iaomf trsdK;orD;
wdYk onf om;orD;arG;zGm;jcif;ü rnfoYkd yif 'kur© sm;apumrl tm;r&Edik af Mumif;udk odom
Edkifay\/ xdktcgü jrwfAk'¨onf atmufyg O'gef;pum;udk usL;&ifhav\/
]rom,mtyfaomoabmw&m;onf om,mzG,ftoGifoabmjzifh vnf;
aumif;? rcspcf iftyfaom oabmw&m;onf cspcf sizf ,
G t
f oGio
f abmjzifv
h nf;
aumif;? qif;&Jaomoabmw&m;onf csrf;omzG,ftoGifoabmjzifhvnf;
aumif; arhavsmah eolukd vTr;f rd;k zdp;D \/}
rSeyf gonf/ arhavsmhaeoltm; rom,mzG,o
f nf om,mrIta,mifaqmifí
vSnfhpm;ESdyfpufwwf\/ xdkYtwl trkef;w&m;onfvnf; cspfjcif;w&m; ta,mif
aqmifívnf;aumif;? 'ku©onf okca,mifaqmifívnf;aumif;? arhavsmhaom
owå0gwdkYudk ESdyfpufwwf\/ þüvnf; okyÜ0gomrif;orD;onf ckepfESpfywfvkH;
om,mzG,fvnf;r[kwf? cspfcifrIvnf;ryg? csrf;omjcif;vnf;r[kwfaom 'ku©aygif;
pkHjzifh a&m>yrf;vsufae&ygaomfvnf; oD0vdowdkYom;wnf;[laom okccsrf;omjzifh
azmfjycJhNyD;aom 'ku©tm;vkH;udkvTrf;rdk;í yaysmufEdkifjcif;jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh okyÜ0gom
rif;orD;onf rnfodkYyif'ku©a&mufapumrl om;orD;arG;zGm;jcif;ü tm;r&jcif;jzpf
aMumif; awGUEdkifyg\/ tjcm;aomarxkefrSD0Jjcif;? wefqmqifjcif;wdkYüvnf; tm;&rI
r&SdaMumif;udkvnf; od&SdEdkifao;\/
orD;arG;aomfvnf; pdwrf av;oihf
,ckacwfwGif tdrfaxmif&Siftrsm;pkonf om;orD;rsm;udk arG;zGm;rIjyK&mwGif
om;udkom rsm;aomtm;jzifh vdkcsifMu\/ orD;rdef;uav;udkum; vdkcsifolenf;yg;Mu
ay\/ avmutokH;tEIH;üyif ]i,faomfum; om;? Bu;D aomfum; tm;}[kvnf;aumif;?

132 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]i,faomfum; orD; Bu;D aomfum; rD;}[kvnf;aumif; qd½k ;kd pum;rsm;jzpfay:vmMuay\/
pifppf xdkt&yfokH;qdk½dk;pum;rsm;rSm om;a,mufsm;av; arG;zGm;jcif;onf BuD;aom
tcgü rdbwdkYtwGuf tm;wpfckjzpfaMumif;udkvnf;aumif;? orD;rdef;uav; arG;zGm;
jcif;onf aemiftcgü rdbwdkYtwGuf rD;uJhodkYylavmifapwwfaMumif; jyqdkxm;rIrsm;
om jzpf\/ odkYaomfvn;f orD;rdef;uav; arG;zGm;aomfvnf; pdwfrav;oihfay/
]i,faomfum; orD;? Bu;D aomfum; xD;}[laom qdk½dk;pum;uJhodkY BuD;aomtcg xD;yrm
avvkHrdk;vkH rdom;pk'ku©wdkYudk at;csrf;atmif jyKvkyfay;EdkifaomorD;rsm;vnf;
&SdMuay\/ om;ESifh ywfoufívnf; ]om;&Sad omol om;aMumifyh }l [laom pum;udk
vnf; rarhoihfay/
jrwfAk'¨onfyif orD;rdef;uav;arG;zGm;í ESvkH;romr,mjzpfaeaom
yaoe'Daumovrif;tm; orD;rdef;uav;arG;aomfvnf; pdwfrav;oihfaMumif;udk
atmufygtwdkif; a[majymawmf rlcJh\/
]vlwdkYudktpdk;&aomrif;... orD;awmfudk auR;arG;okwfoifavmh? ynm&Sdaom?
tusifhoDv&Sdaom a,mu©rudk ewfuJhodkY½dkaoaom? vifudkvkyfauR;aom
tcsdKUaomrdef;ronfvnf; jrwf\/ t&yfrsufESmwkdY\ t&Sifjzpfaomrif;..
xdrk ed ;f rtm; tMuifom;a,mufsm;udk arG;zGm;\/ xdo
k o
Ykd abm&Sad om rde;f raumif;
\ om;onf &J&if\
h / wdik ;f jynfuv
kd nf; qk;H r tkycf sKyEf ikd \
f /
þodYk jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ynm&Sad omorD;? oDv&Sad omorD;? a,mu©r½dak oaom
orD;ESifh vifudk jyKpkvkyfauR;aomorD;wdkYudk rdef;rjrwfwdkY[lí a[mxm;ay\/ xdkY
aMumifh orD;rde;f uav;udk arG;zGm;aomfvnf; pdwrf av;oihaf y/ xdu
k o
hJ Ykd aom orD;rsm;
onf ]]i,faomfum;orD;? BuD;aomfum; xD;}} [laompum;twdkif; xD;uJhodkY vkHNcHKrIudk
ay;pGrf; Edkifaom orD;rsm;om jzpfay\/
oD0vdowdo
Yk m; omoemhabmifoYkd 0ifa&mufjcif;
t&Sifom&dykwå&mrax&fjrwfonf ckepf&ufajrmufaomaeYü oD0vdoli,f
ESifh pum;ESD;aESm ajymqdkawmfrl\/ xdktcg rax&fjrwfu ]]oD0vd.. oifonf þodkY
oabm&Sdaom y#doaE¨ae&jcif;wnf;[laom Zmwd'ku©tpkudk cHpm;NyD;csdefü &Sif&[ef;
rjyKcsifbl;avm}} [k ar;jref;awmfrl\/ oD0vdoli,fonf ]]rdbwdkYxHrS &[ef;jyKcGifh
&vQif &Sif&[ef;jyKvdkvSygonf}}[k jyefMum;avQmufxm;\/ xdktcg r,fawmf okyÜ0g
omrif;orD;onf om;awmfoD0vd rax&fjrwfESifh twl pum;ajymaeonfudkjrif\/
xdkYaemuf rax&fjrwfxHyg;okdY csOf;uyfum pum;ajymaejcif;\ taMumif;rsm;udk
ar;jref;avQmufxm;\/ xdktcg rax&fjrwfu ]]oD0vdu rdrdcHpm;cJh&aom trd0rf;
acgif; ude;f atmif;&onf'h u
k u
© akd jymí toifrb
d ESpyf g;wdYk u cGijhf yKtyfygvQif &[ef;jyK
ygtH[
h í
l ajymqdak y\}}[k rdeYf Mum;awmfr\
l / xdt
k cg oky0Ü gomonf om;awmfo0D vd

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 133

tm; &SifjyKcGifhay;\/
xdktcg rax&fjrwfonf oD0vdoli,fudk ausmif;awmfodkY ac:aqmifoGm;í
wpyÍöu ur®|mef;udk oifay;awmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf &SifjyKay;&mü ]]oD0vd..oihftm;
tjcm;aomMo0g'pum;udk ajymMum;&ef r&Sd? ckepfESpfumvywfvkH; rdrdcHpm;cJh&aom
'ku©a0'emudk qifjcifpOf;pm;avmh}}[k rdefYawmfrl\/ oD0vdoli,fonfvnf; rax&f
jrwf rdefYrSmxm;csuftwdkif; w&m;ESvkH;oGif;\/ xdkoli,fonf yxrqH0ef;udk &dwfcs
vdu
k af omcPrSmyif aomwmywdzå v
kd üf wnfav\/ 'kw,
d qH0ef;ud&k w
d cf svdu
k af om
tcg ou'g*grdzdkvfü wnf\/ xdkYtwl wwd,qH0ef;udk &dwfcsvdkufaomtcg
tem*grdzv
kd üf wnf\/ tm;vk;H aomqHwYdkukd &dwcf sNyD;onft
h csed üf um; &[EÅmjzpfomG ;
av\/ xdkoD0vdoli,fudk &Sif&[ef;jyKay;aomaeYrSpí &[ef;oHCmawmftm; qGrf;?
ouFef;? ausmif;? aq;[laom ypönf;av;yg;wdkYonf tvdk&Sdwdkif;jzpfay: rsm;jym;av
\/ oD0vdoli,ftm; qHcsay;olum; t&Sifr[marm*¾vmefrax&fjrwfwnf;/
aemufydkif;ü t&SifoD0vdonf vmbfvmbt&mü {w*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdcJh\/
þae&mü oD0vdoli,f\ &SifjyKykHudk twk,loihf\/ omoemawmf0,f
Ak'¨bmomudk ,kHMunfMuaomrdbwdkYonf om;&SifjyKtvSLawmfudk tjcm;tvSL'ge
rsm;xuf jyKvkyf&ef ydkrdkpdwftm; xufoefMu\/ om;a,mufsm;uav; arG;NyD[kqdk
onfrSpí &SifjyK&eftwGuf pD;yGm;Opömudk pkaqmif;&SmazGMuawmh\/ om;udk &SifrjyK
ay;&ao;orQumvywfvkH; rdbESpfyg;ü wm0efrausao;[k pGJNrJpGm ,kHMunfxm;
Mu\/ csrf;omonfhrdbrsm;uvnf; csrf;omonfhtavsmuf om;&SifjyKudpu
ö dk pDrHMu
\/ qif;&Jonfhrdbrsm;uvnf; rdrdpGrf;EdkiforQ om;&SifjyKudpöudk vkH;yef;Mu\/
qif;&Jr?I csrf;omrI omuGm\/ om;&Sijf yKcsifonfq
h E´rmS rlum; wpfxyfwnf; wlnMD u
onfudk awGUEdkif\/ þae&mü &SifjyKESifhtvSLwdkY\ jcm;em;ykHudkodoihf\/ &SifjyKjcif;
ESifhtvSLay;jcif;onf jcm;em;\/ wlnDrIr&Sdygay/ &SifjyKjcif;onf oDvyg&rDudk
xlaxmifjcif;jzpf\/ tvSLay;jcif;rSm 'geyg&rDukd jznfq
h nf; jcif;jzpf\/ oky0Ü gomrif;orD;wdYk
ZeD;armifESHonf om;awmfoD0vdtm; omoemhabmifodkY oGwfoGif;&mü &SifjyKjcif;ESifh
tvSLay;jcif;wdkYudk uGJjym;jcm;em;pGm vkyfaqmifcJhaMumif; awGU&ay\/
pifppf &SifjyK&mü wu,fta&;ygqkH;vdktyfcsufrSm okH;rsdK;&SdaMumif;
awGUEdkif\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1)
q&mOyZÑm,f?
(2)
o&P*kHyDorI?
(3)
y&du©&mjynfhpkHrIwdkYjzpf\/
txufazmfjyygt*Fg(3)csufESifh nDñGwfaomf opfwpfyif&if;üjzpfap?
0g;wpfyifatmufü jzpfap ouFef;0wfqifjcif; jzpfEdkif\/ iSufaysmyGJ? tkef;yGJyif
ygp&mrvdkygay/ jrwfAk'¨onf &SifjyKjcif; udk tusOf;tm;jzifhom ñTefjyxm;ay\/

134 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

r@yfrsm;? qdkif;rsm;? yGJrsm;? tauR;tarG;rsm;? taqmifta,mifrsm;wdkYonfum;
yumoewdkYomjzpf\/ &SifjyKjcif;ESifhum; wjcm;pDomjzpf\/ om;&SifjyKjcif;onf
oDvyg&rDudk xlaxmifjcif;jzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifh om;&SifjyK&mwGif cyfusOf;usOf;jzifh
pdwfat;csrf;ompGm jyKvkyfwwfzdkY vdkay\/ pifppf &SifjyKESifhtvSLudk wGJívkyfonf
jzpfap? cGJjcm;í vkyfonfjzpfap t"dutESpfom&rSm tukodkvfuif;EdkiforQuif;atmif
aqmif½GufwwfzdkYonfom ta&;tBuD;qkH;jzpfay\/
uHwt
l usdK;ay;
]uHwltusdK;ay;}[laompum;ykHonf Ak'¨bmom0if a&S;ynm&SifwdkYu
uHtaMumif;udk wpfpdwfwpfa'o azmfñTef;cJhonfh pum;ykHjzpf\/ þü uH[lonf
ygVdoufpum;vkH; jzpf\/ tvkyf[k t"dyÜg,f&\/ xdktvkyfonf udk,f? EIwf?
pdwfokH;yg;tm;jzifh uHokH;rsdK; uGJjym;\/ xdkuHwdkYrSm vIHUaqmfay;onfh taMumif;w&m;
r&SdygbJ tvdktavsmufum; jzpfay:vmrIr&Sdygay/ pdwfESihftwl tNrJ,SOfwGJ
jzpfay:aeonfh apwemapwodufw&m;\ vIHUaqmfay;rIaMumifh jzpfay:vmMujcif;
jzpf\/ rnfonfu
h pd rö qdk apwemrygvQif rxajrmuf? ratmifjrifEikd /f apwemygrSom
xajrmuf atmifjrifEdkif\/ jrwfAk'¨onfyif apwemudkuH[lí a[mawmfrlcJh\/
xkdYaMumifh apwemxufvQif uHxuf\/ apwemnHhvQifum; uHnHh&av\/ pifppf
tm;jzifh uHqdkonfrSm tusdK;w&m;rsm;udk jzpfyGm;ay:aygufvmapEdkifaom taMumif;
w&m;yif jzpf\/
uHum; rsdK;aphESihf oabmwlay\/ opfyifwdkYonf wpfyifESifhwpfyif
wlMuonfum; r[kwfay/ tcsdKUtyifum; tcsdKoD;udk oD;\/ tcsdKUtyifum;
tcsOfoD;udk oD;\/ taMumif;t&if;udk &SmazGMunfhaomf rsdK;aphcsif;rwlrIaMumifh
þuJhodkYjzpfaMumif;awGUEdkif\/ xdkYtwlyif rsdK;aphwnf; [laom uHtaMumif;w&m;
rwlMujcif;aMumifh rif;? ykPÖm;? ola|;? ol<u,f? ukefonf? v,fvkyf? t&m&Sd? rif;ap
[lí vlwef;pm; uGJjym;vm&jcif; jzpf\/
o&ufaphudk pdkufysdK;ygu o&ufyifaygufí o&ufoD;udk pm;&rnfjzpf\/
oHyk&maphudk pdkufygrlum; oHyk&myifaygufí oHyk&moD;udk pm;&ayrnf/ xdkYtwl
ukodkvfuHudkjyKvkyfvQif aumif;usdK;udk cH&rnfjzpf\/ raumif;rIudk jyKolrSmvnf;
raumif;usKd ;udk cH&rnfomjzpf\/ ukov
kd u
f o
H nf ukov
kd jf yKolaemufoYkd tusKd ;ay;&ef
tpOfvdkufaeonfhenf;wl tukodkvfuHonfvnf; tuk odkvfjyKol\aemufodkY tjypf
ay;&eftwGuf t&dyfyrm tpOfwpdkuf vdkufaeay\/
þokyÜ0gomrif;orD;ESifh om;awmfoD0vdwdkY\ taMumif;udkMunfhaomf
þypöKyÜefb0ü vmbfvmbaygrsm;aomoljzpfygvsuf r,fawmfokyÜ0gom rif;orD;
onf oD0vdoli,f\ udk,f0efudk ckepfESpfMumatmifaqmifcJh&\/ oD0vdoli,fonf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 135

vnf; r,fawmfokyÜ0gomrif;orD;\ 0rf;Mumwdkufü ckepfESpfMumatmif y#doaE¨
aecJh&\/ þuJhodkY aumif;usdK;? raumif;usdK;rsm;udk pHpm;? cHpm;&jcif;onf ,if;wdkY
om;trdESpfa,mufwdkY\ atmufazmfjyvwHhygtwdwftaMumif;wdkYaMumifhjzpfaMumif;
avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/ ,if;ukodkvfuH? tukodkvfuHwdkYudkjyKpOfu pdwfwloabmwl
jyKcJhMuonfhtwdkif; xdkuHwdkY\tusdK;tjypfwdkYudk twlwlcHpm;? pHpm;NyD; uHwltusdK;
ay;jcif;om jzpf\/
t&Sio
f 0D vdax&f\ twdwu
f o
k v
kd u
f H
t&SifoD0vdonf vGefavNyD;aomtcg y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfü
vmbfrsm;aomt&mwGif {w'*f&aom&[ef;wpfyg;udjk rifí ]]igonfvnf; aemiftcg
þ&[ef;ESifhwlpGmjzpf&aomf aumif;\}}[kBuHí ckepf&ufywfvkH; tvSLBuD;udk ay;vSL
\/ qkawmif;rIudkvnf; jyK\/ y'krkwå& jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; rcRwfjzpfvwHhonfudk
jrifí Asm'dwfMum;awmfrl\/ xdktrsdK;aumif;om;onf toufxufqkH; ukodkvf
aumif;rIudkjyKí vlUjynfewfjynfü usifvnf&\/
0dyóDjrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfüum; AE¨KrwDjynfrS reD;ra0;aom
wpfckaom½Gmü jzpfav\/ AE¨KrwDjynfom;wdkYonf rif;ESifhNydKifí jrwfAk'¨tm;
tvSLay;uke\
f / wpfaeYoü xdv
k w
l Ykd onf pkaygif;í tvSLBuD;ay;onf&adS omf ,if;wdYk
\tvSLüvSL'gef;&ef ysm;? wifvJ? EdkY"rf;udk &SmazGaomfvnf; r&&SdcJhay/ xkdYaMumifh
ysm;? wifvJ? EdkY"rf;wdkYudk &&Sd&eftwGuf NrdKUt0ifvrf;c&D;ü tapmifhxm;í &SmazGMu
ukef\/
xdktcg t&SifoD0vdtavmif;trsdK;om;onf rdrd½GmrS wifvJcJ? EdkY"rf;cJ
udkaqmif,lNyD; NrdKUü wpfpkHwpfckaom0w¬Kjzifh vJvS,f&ef xGufcGmcJh\/ NrdKUteD;odkY
a&mufaomtcgü ]]ajcçvufçrsuf ESmwdkYudk aq;aMumNyD;rSom NrdKUwGif;odkY 0iftHh}}[k
BuHrd\/ xdkYaemuf a&aygrsm;&mt&yfudk xdkrSþrS Munfhvwfaomf xGefwkH;OD;rQ
yrmP&Sdonfh ysm;aumifrygonfh ysm;wHBuD;udk jrifawGU&NyD; ,laqmifvsuf NrdKUwGif;
odkY0if\/
xdktcg tapmifhwdkYonf xdktrsdK;aumif;om;udkjrifvQif ]þ0w¬Kudk
tb,foUl twGuf aqmif,t
l ehH nf;}[k ar;\/ ]a&mif;cszdYk &ef ,laqmifc\
hJ }[k ajzMum;
\/ xdktcg tapmifhwdkYonf ]tu,fí a&mif;ygrlum; wpfusyfay;ygrnf}[kqdk\/
xdktcg &SifoD0vdavmif;trsdK;om;onf þodkYBuH\/ ]]þolonf wpfBudrfomqdk
umrQjzifh tzdk;rsm;pGmay;\/ pkHprf;OD;tHh}}[kBuHí ra&mif;Edkif[kqdk\/ xdktcg ESpfusyf
wdk;ay;\/ ESpfusyfjzifhvnf;ra&mif;}}[kqdkjyef\/ þenf;jzifh wdk;íwdk;í aps;wuf
ay;vmonfrSm aiGusyfwpfaxmifodkYyif a&muf&Sdvmav\/ xdktcg trsdK;aumif;om;
onf ]]þysm;&nfESifhEdkY"rf;onf tzdk;rsm;pGmrxdkufwefygbJ tb,fhaMumifh tqrwef

136 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tzd;k ay;í,lvo
kd enf;}}[k ar;\/ xdt
k cg tapmifw
h Ykd onf ]]tarmif... þAE¨KrwDjynf
ü NrdKUolNrdKUom;wdYk onf rif;BuD;ESit
hf NydKifjyKum 0dyóDjrwfA'k t
¨ m; tvSL'geay;&mwGif
ysm;&nfESifh EGm;EdkYcJudk tvSLrsufarSmufü rawGUjrif&í r&t& &SmrSD;aeMuyg\/
tu,fí r&ygu NrdKUolNrdKUom;wdkYu ½IH;&ygvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaMumifh tojymwpfaxmifukd
ay;í ig,lvkdygonf}}[kajz\/
xkdtcg trsdK;aumif;om;onf jynfoljynfom;wdkYom vSLoihfoavm?
Zeyk'fom;wdkY rvSLoihfygoavm}}[k ar;jyef\/ ]vSLoihf\}[k ajz\/ ]oifwdkY
jynfoljynfom;taygif;onf wpfaeYwnf;jzifh tojymwpfaxmif ay;vSLwwfol
wpf O D ; wpf a ,muf r sm;&S d y govm;}[k ar;jyef \ / ]rvS L bl ; ao;yg}[k q d k a omf
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tojymjzifh tarT;tBudKifwdkYudk 0,f,lí trIefYjyK\/ xdkYaemuf ytkH;&nfudkxnfhNyD;rS
ysm;&nfESifha&m\/ wpfzef y'kr®mMum½Gufüxnfhí jrwfAk'¨ESifh reD;ra0;aomt&yfü
rdrv
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taMumif;jyKí pwkr[m&mZfewfrif;BuD;wdkY vSL'gef;xm;aom ausmufoydwfawmfjzifh
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&[ef;aygif; ajcmufoef;&Spfodef; (6ç800ç000)wdkYtm; vSL'gef;írukefEdkifatmif
t"d|mefjyKawmfrlav\/
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tm; ]]bkef;awmfBuD;jrwfawmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;... ,aeY wynfhawmf\tvSLudk
AE¨Kr[Djynfoljynfom;tm;vkH;wdkY 'd|rsufjriftodyif jzpfyg\/ wynfhawmfonf
vnf; þaumif;rItusdK;qufaMumifh jzpfav&m&m b0oHo&mü vmbfvmb txG#f
tjrwfa&mufol? tNcHt&HtxG#ftjrwfa&mufol yk*d¾Kvfpifppf jzpf&ygvdk\}}[k
qkawmif;av\/ 0dyóDjrwfAk'¨onf ]]{0H a[mwk ukvykwå = þoif qkawmif;
onfhtwdkif; jzpfygap trsdK;aumif;om;..}}[k rdefYMum;awmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf NrdKUol
NrdKUom;wdkYtm; qGrf;tEkarm'emw&m; a[mMum;awmfrlNyD; ausmif;awmfodkY jyef<u
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rD;\ 0rf;Mumwdkufü y#doaE¨,lcJh\/ rax&fjrwf\ y#doaE¨,lcsdefrSonf y&dedAÁmef

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 137

pH0ifcsdeftxd vmbfvmb aygrsm;cJh\/ þonfum; &SifoD0vdax&f\ twdwf
ukodkvfuHjzpf\/ twdwfukodkvfuHaMumifh ypöKyÜeftusdK;udk &&Sdjcif;jzpf\/
om;trdEpS af ,muf\twdwt
f ukov
kd u
f H
þoky0Ü gomrif;orD;ESihf om;awmf&iS o
f 0D vdrax&fjrwfwYkd \taMumif;0,f
t&Sif oD0vdrax&fonf tb,fhaMumifh ckepfESpfMum* trd0rf;acgif;udef;atmif;&jcif;
qif;&J'u
k u
© kd cHpm;&ygoenf;/ t&Sijf rwf\r,fawmfonf tb,fah Mumifh ckepfEpS Mf um
udk,f0efaqmifjcif; qif;&J'ku©ESifh ckepf&ufMum udk,f0efaMumifh rdef;armawGa0&jcif;
qif;&J'ku©wkdYudk cHpm;&ygoenf;[k ar;zG,f&Sd\/ xdkodkYraumif;aomqif;&JrsdK;pkHudk
cHpm;&jcif;onf atmufazmfjyygvwHhaom twdwf tukodkvfuHwdkYudk t&SifjrwfwdkY
om;trdESpfa,muf jyKvkyfcJhaomaMumifhjzpf\/
xdkt&Sifjrwfom;trdwdkYonf wpfckaomtwdwfb0ü Am&mPoDrif;BuD;\
rd z k & m;BuD ; ES i f h om;awmf j zpf c J h \ / wpf c k a omtcsd e f w G i f aumovrif ; onf
ppfwyftvkH;t&if;jzifh Am&mPoDrif;udk wdkufzsufvkyfBuH\/ xdkAm&mPoDrif;\
rdzk&m;BuD;udkvnf; odrf;ydkufum rdzk&m;BuD;&mxl;ü xm; av\/
Am&mPoDrif;om;onf crnf;awmfppf½;HI í ewf½mG pHaomtcg a&xkw>f yefrS
wdwfwqdwf xGufajy;\/ xdkYaemuf AdkvfygtvkH;t&if;udkpk½kH;NyD; Am&mPoDjynf
odkYvmí xD;eef;jyeftyf&ef (odkYr[kwf) ppfwdkuf&ef &mZoHay; ta&;qdk\/ NrdKUwGif;&Sd
r,fawmfrdzk&m;BuD;onf ppfwdkufvQif vltrsm; qif;&JMurnfjzpfí NrdKUudkydwfqkdY
0ef;&Hxm;&ef tBuHay;\/ r,fawmftBuHay;onft
h wdik ;f rif;om;onf NrdKUwHcg;rBuD;
av;aygufwYkdukd txGut
f 0ifr&S&d atmif ydwq
f Ykdapmifah &Smufxm;\/ ckepfEpS Mf umatmif
NrdKUudk0ef;&HydwfqkdYxm;aomfvnf; NrdKUolNrdKUom;wdkYonf wHcg;i,frsm;rSxGufí jruf?
xif; ponfwdkYudk aqmifoGif;,lMuojzifh taMumif;rxl;bJ &Sdav\/ xdkowif;udk
r,fawmf rdzk&m;Mum;odí wpfzefxyfNyD;vQif wHcg;i,frsm;udkyg ydwfqdkY&ef tBuH
ay;jyefav\/ xdktBuHay;csuft& wHcg;i,frsm;udkyg ydwfqkdY0ef;&Hojzifh ckepf&uf&Sd
aomtcg NrdKUolNrdKUom;wdkYonf taeMuyfMu\/ xkdYaMumifh aumovrif;\ OD;acgif;
udkjzwfí rif;om;tm; qufoMuav\/ rif;om;onfvnf; NrdKUudk0ifí rif;tjzpfudk
cH,lodrf;ydkufav\/
þqdktyfNyD;aom raumif;rItukodkvfuHaMumifh xdkt&Sifjrwf om;trdwdkY
onf ckepfESpfMum udk,f0efudk aqmif&jcif;qif;&J'ku©? trd0rf;ü udef;atmif;&jcif;
qif;&J'u
k ?© r,fawmfü ud,
k 0f efaMumifh ckepf&ufMum rde;f armawGa0&jcif; qif;&J'u
k u
© kd
cHpm;&jcif;jzpf\/ pifppf þodYk jzpfjcif;rSm t&Sijf rwfom;trd\uHwt
l usdK;ay;jcif;yif
jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh pdww
f u
l ,
kd w
f pl ak ygi;f í ukov
kd af umif;rIjyKorl sm;onf xdu
k o
k v
kd u
f \
H
tusdK;udk twlwlcHpm;Mu&ouJhodkY tukodkvfuHudk wpfpdwfwnf;wpfaygif;wnf;

138 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jyKvkyfMuolrsm;rSmvnf; xdktukodkvfuH\tusdK;udk twlwlcHpm; Mu&rnfj zpf a Mumif ;
t&SifjrwfoD0vdax&fom;trdwdkY\ twdwfZmwfaMumif;u ñTefjyaeay\/
om;aumif; orD;aumif;
avmuwGif rdbwdkif;eD;yg; om;orD;udk,fpD &SdMu\/ tcsdKU ta&twGuf
enf;\/ tcsdKUum; ta&twGufrsm;\/ odkYaomfvnf; om;aumif;orD;aumif;um;
&Sm;yg;vS\/ Oyrmtm;jzif usD;euftaumifwpfaomif;wGif usD;jzLwpfaumif&Sm&
onfxuf cufvSrnf jzpf\/ rdb\t&Sdeft0gaMumifh om;orD;wdkY*kPfwufMu&
aomfvnf; om;aumif;orD;aumif; aMumifh rdb *kPw
f uf&onfum; tvGeyf if&mS ;\/
xkdYaMumifh rCa'0ü refvnfq&mawmfu]tbaumif;om;? pH&rsm;\/ om;aumif;tb? jzpfcpJ &G iS }fh
[k a&;om;xm;onfudk awGUEdkif\/ þokyÜ0gomrif;orD;ESifh om;awmf&SifoD0vd
wdkY\taMumif;wGifMunfhaomf rdbt&Sdeft0gaMumifh om;orD;*kPfwufjcif;udkvnf;
awGUEdkif\/ om;aumif;orD;aumif;aMumifhvnf; rdb*kPfwuf&jcif;udkvnf; jrifEdkif
\/
om;ok;H rsdK;
þavmuü om;okH;rsdK;&SdaMumif; Ak'¨pmayüjyqdkxm;\/ £if;wdkYrSm(1) rdbwdkYxuf oDvorm"dynmomvGefaom twdZmwom;?
(2) rdbwdkYESifhxyfwl rdbwdkY\ trltusifh oDv? orm"d? ynmESifhwlrQ
aom oDv? orm"d? ynm&Sdaom tEkZmwom;ESifh
(3) rdbwdkYatmuf oDv? orm"d? ynm,kwfavsmhaom t0Zmwom;
wdkYjzpf\/
þae&mü t&SifoD0vdax&fonf twdZmwom;rsdK;jzpfaMumif; awGUjrifEdkif
\/ aus;½Gmwpf½GmwGifvnf; a,mufsm;ysdKwdkYonf ½Gm\vuf½kH;yifjzpf\/ rdef;rysdK
uav;wdkYonfum; ½Gm\rsufESmjzpf\/ olwdkY\taetxdkifawmfrI? aumif;aom
trltusifh&SdrI? vSyysdK½G,frIwdkYudkMunfhí rdbbdk;bGm;rsm; auseyfMu&\/ *kPfwuf
Mu&\/ ESpfoufMu&\/ om;raumif;vQif rdbwdkY\ tm;xm;&m jzpfrvmEdkifay/
xdkom;aMumifhyif rdbwdkYvuf½kH;jyKwfusrnfjzpf\/ xdkYtwl orD; rdef;uav;
tusifhysufvQifvnf; rdbwdkYt&SufwuGJ tusdK;enf;jzpfMu&rnf jzpf\/ vlawm
xJvnf; 0ifEdkifrnfr[kwfay/ rdbwdkY\rsufESmudk zsuf&ma&muf\/ xdkYaMumifhyif
om;aumif; orD;aumif;jzpfvo
kd w
l Ykdonf rdbwdYk \*kPw
f ufatmif rjyKvkyEf ikd af pumrl
rdrdaMumifh rdbwdkY\ *kPfrysufatmif txl;tm;jzifh owdjyKoihfvSay\/ twdZmw
om; rjzpfapumrl t0Zmwom;um;rjzpfoihfay/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 139

rdbwd\
Yk arQmfvifch sufig;yg;
rdbwdkY\ om;orD;wdkYudkarG;jrLjcif;ü tusdK;ig;yg;udk arQmfvifhxm;Mu
aMumif;udk jrwfAk'¨u t*Fkwå&edum,fwpfae&mü a[mMum;xm;aMumif;udkvnf;
awGU&ay\/ ,if;arQmfvifh csufig; yg;rSm(1)
igwdkY\om;orD;wdkYonf igwdkYtm; vkyfauR;arG;jrLMuvdrfhrnf?
(2)
igwdkY\trIBuD;i,fwdkYudk jyKvkyfMuayvdrfhrnf?
(3)
igwdkYtrsdK;tqufonf Mum&SnfpGmwnfvdrfhrnf?
(4)
igwdkY\tarGcHjzpfayvdrfhrnf?
(5)
igwdkYb0wpfyg;ajymif;oGm;&vQif igwdkYtm; tvSL\tzdkYudk
ay;a0Muvdrfhrnf wdkYjzpf\/ þig;yg;wdkYudk rdbwdkif;u arQmfvifhxm;Mu\/
þig;yg;onfum; om;orD;\ rdbwdkY tay:ü jyKusifh&rnfh usifh0wfrsm;yif jzpf\/
azmfjyyg usifh0wfwdkYudk rjyKusifhygu om;qdk;orD;qdk;om jzpfMurnfjzpf\/ t0Zmw
om;orD;rsm;om jzpfMurnfjzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh rdbwdkY\tqkH;trudk em,lusifhBuHí
ukodkvfw&m;udk aeYpOfjyKvkyfoihf\/ odkYrSom om;aumif;orD;aumif;jzpfEdkif aMumif;
udk t&SifoD0vdwdkYom;trdtaMumif;u azmfñTef;jyoaeay\/
oky0Ü gomrif;orD; yPDwabmZOfukd vSL'gef;jcif;
r,fawmfokyÜ0gom rif;orD;onf tcgwpfyg;ü jrwfAk'¨trSL;&Sdaom
oHCmawmftm; txl;xl;tjym;jym; rsm;jrwfcsdKNrdefaom t&om&Sdonfh yPDw
abmZOfudk vSL'gef;qufuyfav\/ qGrf;bkOf;ay;NyD;aemuf jrwfAk'¨onf qGrf;tEk
arm'emw&m;udk atmufygtwdkif; a[mMum;awmfrl cJh\/
]cspforD;okyÜ0gom... oifonf tvSLcHyk*d¾KvfwdkYtm; ig;XmewdkYudk
vSL'gef;onfrnf\/ touftvSLudk vSLonfrnf\/ tqif;tvSLudk vSLonf
rnf\/ csr;f omokcudk vSLonfrnf\/ cGet
f m;Avudk vSLonfrnf\/ ÓPfynm
y#dbmefukd vSLonfrnf\/
tm,k'geudk ay;vSL&jcif;aMumifh touf&Snfaomewf? touf&Snf
aomvljzpf&\/ 0PÖ'geudkay;vSL&jcif;aMumifh tqif;vSaomewf? tqif;vS
aomvljzpf&\/ csrf;omokc'geudk ay;vSL&jcif;aMumifh csrf;omaomewf?
csrf;omaomvljzpf&\/ cGeftm;'geudk ay;vSL&jcif;aMumifh cGeftm;BuD;aomewf?
cGeftm;BuD;aomvljzpf&\/ ÓPfynmy#dbmeftvSL'geudk ay;vSL&jcif;aMumifh
ÓPfynmBu;D aomewf? ÓPf ynmBu;D aomvl jzpf&\/}
þuJhodkY yPDwabmZOfudkvSL'gef;rIonfyif {w'*fbGJUay;&ef taMumif;
wpf&yfjzpfcJhay\/

140 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

oky0Ü gomrif;orD; awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbx
UJG ;l udk &&Sjd cif;
xdrk aS emufü jrwfA'k o
¨ nf om0wdj¬ ynf aZw0efausmif;awmf0,f oDwif;ok;H
awmfrí
l vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;rsm;udk awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbUJG xl;udk ay;oem;awmf
rlonf&Sdaomf aumvd,rif;\orD;jzpfol þokyÜ0gomrif;orD;udk]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr om0dumeH OygodumeH yPDw'g,dumeH ,'d'H okyÜ0gom
aumvd,"Dwm = &[ef;wd.Yk .. rGejf rwfaomtvSL0w¬Kuakd y;vSLMuonfh igb&k m;\
wynfhr Oygodumrtaygif;wGif aumvd,omuD0ifrif;\orD; okyÜ0gomonf
tomqk;H tjrwfq;Hk jzpfay\/}
[k awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udk csD;jr§ifhawmfrlcJh\/ þodkYvQif vmbfrsm;ocif
{w'*ft&Sif\ r,fawmf aumvd,rif;orD; okyÜ0gomum; rGefjrwfaom vSLzG,f
0w¬KwdkYudk ay;vSLwwfaom t&m0,f tomqkH;tjrwfqHk; {w'*fbGJUudk&&Sdonfh awmf
0ifpHxm; vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wpfa,muf jzpfcJh&av\/
þ tcef;(7)0,f awmf0ifpx
H m; yPDw0w¬KtvSL&U iS rf oky0Ü gomrif;orD;taMumif;udk
okawoejyKxm;ygonf/ þpHawmf0if yPDw0w¬KtvSLU&Sifr okyÜ0gomrif;orD;
taMumif;t&mwGif txufwGifazmfjycJhNyD;aom pHawmf0iftrsdK;orD;rsm;uJhodkYyif rdrd
&,lvdkaomqkudk jrwfAk'¨wdkY\xHyg;ü awmif;qkqdkcJhonfudk avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/
qkawmif;rIjyKxm;onfholjzpfonfhtavsmuf 0D&d,&Sd&Sdjzifh pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUudk
&&SdatmifpGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhol jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh wpfpkHwpfckudk &,lvdkaomolonf
0D&d,udktokH;csjcif;jzifh &,lEdkifaMumif; þokyÜ0gom\taMumif;t&mwdkYu azmfñTef;
jyae\/
þ0w¬K0,f okyÜ0gomrif;orD;\ udk,f0efaqmifrIü omreftrsdK;orD;wdkY
uJhodkY ud;k vvG,?f q,fvzGm;[laomjzpf½dk;jzpfpOf "r®wmtm;jzifh udk,f0efaqmifcJh&jcif;
r[kwfay/ udk,f0efaqmifrIonf ckepfESpfMumcJh\/ ckepf&ufMumatmifvnf; awGa0
rdef;armaecJh&oljzpf\/ tcsdKUq&mwdkYurlum; ckepfESpfESifh ckepfvMumatmif udk,f0ef
aqmifcJh&onf[kqdkMu\/ rnfodkYyifqdkapumrl omreftrsdK;orD;wdkYxuf udk,f0ef
aqmifjcif;ü 'ku©trsdK;rsdK;udkcHpm;cJh&aMumif; awGU&ay\/ ,if;odkY ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
Mumatmif udk,f0efaqmif&jcif;onf udk,f0efaqmifrdcifESifh udk,f0efaqmifuav;
wdkY\ twdwftukodkvfuHaMumifhjzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ xdkYtwlyif
om;awmfudk udk,f0efaqmifcsdefrSpí pD;yGm;Opömwdk;wufí vmbfvmbaygrsm;cJh&
onfudkvnf; avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/ þodkYjzpfjcif;rSmvnf; om;trdESpfa,muf\
a&S;twdwfukodkvfuHwdkY\ axmufyHhjcif;jzpfaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ þtcsufrsm;udk
Munfí
h ok;H oyf&vQif ]uHwt
l usKd ;ay;}[laompum;onf xdt
k csed rf pS í ay:aygufvmcJh
oavm[kyif ,lqrd\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 141

ckepfESpfudk,f0efaqmifcJh&aom okyÜ0gomrif;orD;

ku©udkrqdkxm;bd

omreftrsdK;orD;rsm;tzdkY "r®wmtwdkif;jzpfaom'ku©wdkYonfvnf; ]a,mufsm;azmifp;D
rde;f rrD;ae}qdkonfhpum;twdkif; aMumufcref;vdvdygay/ okyÜ0gomwdkYZeD;armifESHtm;
om;&wemudk txl;tm;jzifhvdktyfaecsdefjzpf\/ taMumif;udk&Smaomf omuD0if
rif;om;rif;orD;toD;oD;wdkYonf xD;eef;udkpGefYvsufomoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufae
csdev
f nf; jzpf\/ ,if;tcsdeo
f nf ordik ;f pOftqufquf wnfaxmifcahJ om omuDE,
G f
zGm; rif;a,mufsm;rsm; uG,faysmufawmhtHhrl;rl;&Sdonfhtcsdefvnf; jzpf\/ txl;ojzif
omuD0ifrif;orD;rsm;onf bk&m;a*gwrod'¨w¬[ktoHMum;onfESifh aMumuf½GHUxdwf
vefYaecsdefvnf;jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh om;a,mufsm;udk tvdk&SdonfhZeD;armifESHtm;vnf;
tjypfrqdkomygacs/ rdb[lonfum; orD;arG;aomfvnf; cspf&rnfomjzpf\/
okyÜ0gomrif;orD;onf udk,f0ef
ku©rsdK;pkHudk oufomEdkifap&eftwGuf
bk&m;*kPf? w&m;*kPf? oHC*kPfwdkYudk qifjcifESvkH;oGif;aeaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/
þonfudkMunfhjcif;jzifh ,aeYacwf udk,f0efaqmifrdcifwdkYonfvnf; udk,f0ef'ku©
aygif;pkHrS vGwfuif;atmif &wemokH;yg;\ *kPfwdkYudk yGm;rsm;oihfay\/ okyÜ0gom
rif;orD;onf raorDtcsdefü qGrf;tvSL'geudkay;vSLvdkaMumif;vnf; awGU&SdEdkif\/
vifawmfarmifonfvnf; ZeD;onf\tvdkus pDrHjyKvkyfay;\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf;
okyÜ0gomrif;orD;\ udk,f0ef'ku©rS oufomatmifqkay;cJhaMumif;awGU&\/ Ak'¨
vufxufwGif udk,f0efaqmiftrsdK;orD;rsm;om;rzGm;Edkifaomf t&Sift*Fkvdrmvax&f
tm; oGm;a&mufí y&dwf½Gwfzwfapaom "avh&SdcJh\/ odkYaomfvnf; þokyÜ0gom
trsdK;orD;tm; t&Sift*Fkvdrmvtm; apvTwfcdkif;apjcif;r&SdaMumif; awGU&ay\/ xdkY
aMumifh t&Sift*Fkvdrmvax&fonf xdktcsdefu omoemhabmifodkYr0ifa&mufao;[k
okH;oyfrday\/ odkYr[kwf xdktcsdef t&Sift*Fkvdrmvax&fonf aumvd,jynfü
&Sd[efrwlay/
okyÜ0gomrif;orD;onf aomwmyeft&d,myk*dK¾ vfyifjzpfaomfvnf; trsdK;
orD;rsm;\ ud,
k 0f efaqmifjcif;udpüö um; a&mif&h rJ ?I tm;&rIr&Sad Mumif; ajymMum;cJah y\/
aemufxyfom;ckepfa,mufudkyif vdkcsifao;\[k ajymqdkcJh\/ þonfudkMunfhaomf
omreftrsdK;orD;wdkYonfvnf; umr*kPfpHpm;jcif;ü a&mifh&Jjcif;? tm;&jcif;?
wif;wdrfjcif;r&SdEdkifaMumif; avhvmokH;oyfrdyg\/
wpfzef oD0vdowdkYom;onf arG;zGm;NyD;pyif oHCmawmftm; a&ppf
vSL'gef;cJhaMumif; awGUEdkif\/ rdrd\b0udk tvSL'gejzifh pwifcJholjzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh
þoD0vdowdkYom;udk twk,ltm;usvsuf ,aeYacwf Ak'¨bmom0ifrdbwdkYonf
arG;cgpom;orD;wdkYtwGuf ukodkvfaumif;rIudk jyKoihfay\/ t½G,fa&mufvmol
om;orD;wdkYtm;vnf; tvSL'geüarGUavsmfrI&Sdatmif avhusifhoifMum;oihfay\/
þ0w¬KaMumif;ü &SifoD0vd\vmbfvmbaygrsm;ykHudk jrwfAk'¨onfyif awmf0ifpHxm;

142 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

{w'*fbGJUxl;udk ay;tyfcsD;jr§ifhcJh&\/ xdkYaMumifh wpfpkHwpfa,muf\ bkef;uHBuD;rm;
rIudk tjcm;wpfa,mufu rNydKifqdkifEdkifay/ wpfzef oD0vdowdkYom;onf omoemh
abmifodkY 0ifa&mufcJhNyD; &[EÅmjzpf\/ þae&mü &SifoD0vd\ omoemhabmif 0if
a&mufykHudk twk,lí &SifjyKjcif;udpüö yumoerzufbJ jyKvkyfoifhaMumif; avhvm
okH;oyfEdkifay\/
]rdbqdkonfrSm om;orD;udk rsufpdatmufutaysmufrcH? t&dyfwMunfh
Munfhjzifh cspfaerdwwfaomfvnf; xdkxdkaomom;orD;wdkYESifh &SifuGJvnf;uGJEdkifay\/
aouGv
J nf;uGEJ ikd \
f / cspcf ifaygi;f oif;qufqjH cif;um; auGuiG ;f aemufq;Hk &So
d nfomjzpf\/
uGu
J mG enf;rsKd ;pkw
H w
Ykd iG f &Si&f [ef;jyKíuG&J jcif;u ydjk rwfao;\}[k ,lqNyD; omoemhabmif
odkY 0ifa&mufrIudk csufcsif; cGifhjyKaomrdbwdkY\pdwf"mwfudkvnf; csD;usL;&rnfom
jzpf\/ rdbwdkY\arQmfvifhcsufig;rsdK;udk y,fazsmufí &SifjyKcGifhay;jcif;rSmvnf;
twk,lp&mygay/ xdkYaMumifh om;orD;wdkYonf rdbwdkYu tm;xm;&aom om;aumif;
orD ; aumif ; jzpf z d k Y t a&;BuD ; ay\/ ]om;wdkY ½kyf&nf? oDwmrnfom;? a&Munfcsrf;jr?
wpfaygufusu? rdbwdkY0rf;Nidrf;pwrf;}[laompum;twdkif; rdbwdkY\pdwfESvkH;ukd
Nidrf;at;apaom om;aumif;orD;aumif;rsm; jzpfoihf\/ om;qdk;orD;qdk;rsm; rjzpf
oihfay/
okyÜ0gomrif;orD;onf om;udkrarG;zGm;EdkifaomaMumifh rlvu raorD
ukodkvfvkyfcsifaomqE´jzpfcJh\/ om;awmfoD0vdudk arG;zGm;NyD;aemufydkif;wGif ,if;
tvSLonf om;twGuf vSL'gef;aom arG;aeYqGrf;vnf;jzpfcJh\/ uifyGef;wyfqGrf;
vnf; jzpfcJh\/ ,if;tvSLyGJudk ckepf&ufMumatmif jyKvkyfvSL'gef;cJh\/ ,if;
ckepf&ufvkH;üvnf; vSLzG,f0w¬KwdkYudk trGefjrwfqkH;taumif;qkH;udkom a½G;cs,fNyD;
vSL'gef;cJ\
h / wpfzef tjcm;tjcm;aomtcsdeüf jyKvkyaf omtvSLyGüJ vnf; rGejf rwfaom
abmZOf? aumif;jrwfaomabmZOfwdkYudkom jrwfAk'¨trSL;&Sdaom&[ef;oHCmtm;
ay;vSLavh&SdaMumif; awGU&ay\/ xdkYaMumifh jrwfAk'¨u ol\vl0wfaMumif trsdK;
orD;xktwGif; trGefjrwfqkH;aomvSLzG,f0w¬KwdkYudk ay;vSLwwfolxJwGif tomqkH;
tjrwfqkH; tapmqkH;aom ]]pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;}}udkay;tyfcJh\/ xdkYaMumifh
Ak ' ¨ b mom0if trsd K ;om;trsd K ;orD ; wd k Y o nf tvS L 0w¬ K wd k Y u d k vS L 'gef ; &mwG i f
rGejf rwfaomtvSL0w¬KwdYk uo
kd m ay;vSLoihaf y\/ odYk ro
S m qGr;f tvSL tusdK;ig;yg;udk
&&SdEdkifNyD; rdbwdkYutm;udk;aom; om;aumif;orD;aumif;wdkY jzpfvmEdkif aMumif;
þ]]pHawmf0if yPDw0w¬KtvSLU&Sifr okyÜ0gomrif;orD;}}\taMumif; tw¬KyÜwfu
wdkufwGef;aeay\/

YX;WZ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 143

tcef;-8

awmf0ifpx
H m; oky,
Üd m trsdK;orD;
vlom;onf tpkta0;ESifhaexdkifaom owå0gjzpf\/ ,if;odkYaexdkifEdkif
jcif ; rS m vl w d k Y \ twå p d w f & S d j cif ; omru y&pd w f y g&S d a omaMumif h j zpf o nf [ k
ynm&SifwdkYu qdkMu\/ odkYaomf vlwdkY\ todkuft0ef;wdkYudk avhvmMunfhaomf
twå[w
d vGeu
f aJ omvky&f yfwYkduo
kd m xifxif&mS ;&Sm; awGU&S&d rnfjzpf\/ y&[dwpdw?f
y&[dwvkyf&yfwdkYudkum; jrif&cJ\/ jrif&vQifvnf; rxifr&Sm; arS;arS; rSdefrSdefrQom
jzpf \ / xd k t cg ]vlom;wdkYonf wpfudk,faumif;qefaom twå[dworm;rsm;
omwnf;}[k pdwfysuftm;avsmhpGm jrifwwf\/ odkYaomf vlom;ESifhywfoufí
taumif;jrifpdwfrsm; ukefcrf;oGm;onfum; r[kwfay/
xdkYaMumifh ypöKyÜefumv? twdwfumvxJwGif trsm;u Munfñdkav;pm;
Edkifrnfhol vdkvm;tm;usEdkifrnfholrsm;udk avhvmMunfh&m0,f urÇmholemjyKwdkY\
rdcif[k wifpm;cH&onfh tDwvD EdkifiHzGm; zavm&ifEh u
kd w
f ifa*;vf (1820 - 1910)
onfvnf; wpfOD;yg0ifaeaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifrnf jzpf\/ olronf olemjyKvkyfief;ESifh
ywfouforQ udk,ftm;? ÓPftm;? aiGtm;wdkYjzifh pGrf;pGrf;wrH aqmif½GufcJh\/
,if;odkYaqmif½GufcJhonfrSm olrtdkrif;&ifha&mfí vlrrmtjzpf tdyf,mxJ vJaeonfh
tcsdefxdyif jzpf\/ olr\ xl;jcm;rGefjrwfonfh apwemESifhvkyfaqmifcsufwdkYaMumifh
rnfonfhrdef;rom;rS r&&SdcJhbl;aom ]atmf'gatmhrJ&pfbJG}U udkcsD;jr§ifhcHcJh&\/ olr
uG,fvGefNyD; aemufydkif;wGif tjynfjynfqdkif&m MuufajceDaumfrwDrS olrudk
*kPjf yKaomtm;jzifh ]]zavm&ifh Edu
k w
f ifa*;vf}} [laom bGUJ trnfjzifh olemjyKvkyif ef;ü
xl;cRefol trsdK;orD;wdkYtm; ESpfESpfvQifwpfBudrfus csD;jr§ifhcJh\/ pifppf olemjyKvkyfief;
onf tvGefw&mjrifhjrwfaom twå[dwrzufaom y&[dw vkyfief;oufouf
jzpf\/ jA[®pdk&fvkyfief;vnf; jzpf\/

144 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jrwfAk'¨onf twåudky,fpGefY&ef t"dutusqkH;taejzifh qkH;rawmfrl\/
w'*Fy[meftm;jzifh twåuckd PowfEikd v
f Qif rdru
d ,
kd u
f v
kd nf;aumif;? rdryd wf0ef;usif
todkif;t0dkif;udkvnf;aumif; cspfae&mrS rdrdEdkifiHudk cspfwwfvmrnfjzpf\/ 0du©rÇe
y[meftm;jzifh twåudk MumjrifhpGm owfEdkifvQifum; rdrdEdkifiHudkcspfae&mrS urÇmhvlom;
udk cspfwwfvmrnf/ orkapäy[meftm;jzifh twåudk tjrpfjywfatmifowfEdkifvQifum;
urÇmhvlom;udkcspfae&mrS avmuom;tm;vkH;udkcspfwwfvmrnf jzpf\/ twåudk
tjrpfjywfatmifowfEdkif&efum; t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfwdkYom wwfEdkif\/ zavm&ifh Edkufwif
a*;vfonf rdrd\EdkifiHudkcspfcifaompdwfjzifh EdkifiHol? EdkifiHom;wdkY\tusdK;twGuf
aqmif½u
G Ef ikd cf \
hJ / twåukd w'*Fy[mefjzifh y,fcmG cJNh yD;jzpf\/ w'*Fy[mefjzifh y,fcmG
NyD;olonf 0du©rÇe y[meftm;jzifh twåudky,fcGm&ef rcJ,Of;awmhay/ olronf
tcgtcGifh&wdkif; urÇmhvlom;wdkY\ tusdK;udk aqmif½Gufrnfom jzpf\/ þrQonfyif
ykxkZOfvlom;rsm;taejzifh tjrwfqkH;? tjrifhqkH; y&[dwpdwf"mwf&Sdaeonf[k
qdkEdkifrnfjzpf\/
pifppfvGefcJhaomESpfaygif; 2500 ausmf Ak'¨vufxuf omoemawmfüvnf;
,ckacwfenf;wl olemjyKvkyfief;rsm;&SdcJh\/ olemjyKvkyfief;udk aqmif½Gufolrsm;um;
twåudk orkapä' y[mefjzifh y,fowfxm;ol t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfrsm;jzpf\/ ,if;wdkYxJwGif
vl0wfaMumifolemjyKtrsdK;orD;wdkYwGif jrwfAk'¨\ {w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdcJhol wpfOD;
ay:aygufcJh\/ olrrSm ]]awmf0ifpHxm; urÇmholemjyK rdcifBuD; okydÜ,m}}yifjzpf\/
olr\ olemjyKykHESifh tw¬KyÜwdåudk atmufygtwdkif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/
oky,
Üd m\ twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
þokydÜ,m Oygodumrtavmif; trsdK;aumif;orD;onf y'krkwå&\
vufxuf [Hom0wDjynfü trsdK;aumif;orD;jzpfcJh\/ wpfckaomtcsdefü olronf
jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk em,lpOf jrwfAk'¨onf trsdK;aumif;orD;wpfa,muftm;
olemjyKt&m0,f tjrwfqkH;tomqkH;jzpfaom {w'*fbGJUxl;udk ay;tyfcJhonfudk jrif
awGUcJh&\/ xdkYaMumifh aumif;rIukodkvfrsm;udkjyKNyD; ,if;trsdK;aumif;orD;uJhodkY
awmf0ifpHxm;olemjyK {w'*fbGJUxl;udk awmif;qkqdkcJhzl;\/
ypöKyÜeb
f 0ü aomwmywdzå v
kd w
f nfjcif;
olronf ,if;odkYqkawmif;NyD; urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; ewfjynf?
vlUjynfwdkYüom usifvnfcJh&\/ a*gwrjrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfüum; Am&mPoD
jynf0,f wpfcak omtrsKd ;ü jzpf&\/ olr\trnfuv
kd nf; ]]oky,
Üd m}}[k rSnahf c:Mu\/
wpfckaomtcgü jrwfAk'¨onf &[ef;oHCmtaygif;NcH&Hvsuf Am&mPoDjynfodkY
<uvmawmfrl\/ xdktcgü olronf jrwfAk'¨udk zl;jrif&NyD; w&m;awmfudk emMum;NyD;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 145

onfhtqkH;ü aomwmywdåzdkvfüwnfcJh\/
þü olr\]]okydÜ,m}}[laomtrnfESifhwlaom tjcm;aomtrnfwpfck
jrwfA'k \
¨ omoemawmf0,f ay:xGe;f cJ\
h / olrrSm ]Mouúmurif;\orD;awmf oky,
Üd m
rif;orD;}}jzpfaMumif; awGU&Sd&ay\/ þüum; ]]Am&mPoDjynfol okydÜ,m}} omwnf;/
olr\cifyGef;rSmvnf; okydÜ,m [kyifjzpfonf/
oky,
Üd m\ tHrh cef;aom olemjyKpkyHk
wpfaeYaomtcgü okydÜ,m Oygodumronf rd*'g0kefausmif;wdkufawmfodkY
oGm;a&mufNyD; jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk em,lcJh\/ w&m;emNyD;aemuf ausmif;
pOfvSnfhvnfMunfh½I\/ ,if;odkY Munfh½IpOf wpfckaomausmif;ü &[ef;wpfyg;onf
0rf;avQmaq;pm;xm;í tm;EGJUum rusef;rmaeonfudk zl;awGUcJh&\/ xdktcg okydÜ,m
Oygodumronf xdk&[ef;awmftm;&Sdcdk;í ]]t&Sifbk&m;.. usef;rma&;twGuf tb,f
t&mudk &&SdrSoihfygrnfenf;bk&m;}}[k ar;avQmufav\/ xdktcg *dvme &[ef;
awmfu ]]'g,dumrBuD;... om;rsdK;pGyfjyKwf&nfudk&vQif oihfawmfyg\}}[k rdefYMum;av
\/ xdktcg okydÜ,mOygodumronf ]]&Sdygapt&Sifbk&m;.. wynfhawmfr ydkYvdkufyg
rnf}}[k avQmufxm;í NrdKUwGif;odkYjyefcJh\/
aemufwpfaeY0,f tvdkvdkjzpfaom yHhoultom;udk&&SdzdkY&ef tdrfapuRef
a,mufsm;udk aps;odkYvTwfvkduf\/ xdkuRefa,mufsm;onf ]]t&Sifr aumif;ygNyD}}[k
0efcHí Am&mPoDjynfwpfckvkH;udk vSnfhvnfaomfvnf; yHhoultom;udk rawGUjrif
&ay/ tb,fhaMumifh yHhoultom;r&&Sdoenf;[lrl ,if;aeYonf Am&mPoDjynf
wpfcv
k ;Hk \ om;owfciG rhf &aomaeYjzpfaomaMumifhyif jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh uRefa,mufsm;
onf okydÜ,mOygodumrtm; yHhoulom; r&&Sdjcif;taMumif;pkHudk ajymqdkav\/
okydÜ,molaX;uawmfonf ]]xdkzsm;emaom&[ef;onf om;rsdK;pGyfjyKwf
&nfudkr&onf&Sdaomf temaomfvnf; wdk;yGm;vwHh? odkYr[kwf aojcif;aomfvnf;
jzpfvwHh? 0efcHNyD;vsuf raqmifjcif;onf ightm;roihf? &onfhenf;jzifh ydkYrSoihf
awmfrnf}}[k BuHrd\/ xdkYaMumifh rdrd\tdyfcef;twGif;odkY0ifí rdrd\aygifom;udk
vSD;jzwfcJh\/ xdkYaemuf uRefrtm;? ]][,fuRefr.. a&mh,lavmh? þtom;udk
aumif;pGmpD&ifí þrnfaomausmif;ü emzsm;aom&[ef;tm; vSLavavmh.. ighudkar;
vQif emzsm;aeyg\}}[k avQmufavmh}}[kqdkíay;NyD; t0wfykqdk;jzifh aygifudkywfpD;í
wdkufcef;odkY0ifum anmifapmif;ü tdyfav\/ uRefronfvnf; cdkif;onfhtwdkif;
pDrHav\/
jrwfA'k t
¨ m; qGr;f uyfvLS 'gef;jcif;
xdktcg okydÜ,Oygoumonf okydÜ,m\tdrfodkY qGrf;a&mufí ]]okydÜ,m

146 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tb,frSmenf;}}[k uRefrudkar;\/ ]]t&Sif.. þokydÜ,mt&Sifronf wdkufcef;xJü
tdyfaeygonf}}[k ajymqdk\/ xdktcg okydÜ,Oygoumonf okydÜ,mOygodumrxHodkY
oGm;NyD;vQif ]]tb,faMumifh tdyfaeoenf;[kar;\/ ]]emaeonfjzpfyg\}}[k qdk\/
]]oihftm; tb,ftemenf;}}[k ar;\/
xdktcg okydÜ,mOygodumronf taMumif;pkHudkajymMum;av\/ xdktcg
okydÜ, Oygoumonf ]]tcsif;wdkY.. tHhMobG,f&SdygaypGmh? tcsif;wdkY... rjzpfbl;NrJ
xl;uJaypGwum;? þokydÜ,monf &wemokH;yg;\aus;Zl;udk tvGef,kHMunf\/
&wemokH;yg;udk tvGefMunfñdk\/ rdrd\tom;udkaomfvnf; pGefYvSLEdkifao;\/
þokydÜ,mtm; tjcm;wpfpkHwpfckaom rvSLEdkifaomt&monf tb,frSm&SdawmhtHh
enf;}}[k ½Tifvef;ESpfouf wuf<uaompdwf&Sdonfjzpfí jrwfAk'¨xHodkYoGm;a&mufcJh\/
jrwfAk'¨xHodkY a&mufaomtcg ½dkaopGm&Sdcdk;\/ xdkYaemufwpfckaom ae&müxdkifum
]]t&Sifbk&m;.. jrwfpGmbk&m;onf reufjzeftvdkYiSg &[ef;oHCmESifhtwl tuREfkyf\
qGrf;udkvufcHawmfrlyg}}[k avQmuf\/ jrwfAk'¨onf qdwfqdwfaeojzifh vufcHawmf
rl\/
xdt
k cg oky,
Üd Oygoumonf jrwfA'k \
¨ vufcjH cif;udo
k í
d ae&mrSxNyD;vQif
jrwfAk'¨udk &Sdcdk;vsuf t½dktaojyKum zJcGmoGm;av\/ xdktcg okydÜ,Oygoumonf
eHeuftcgü rGefjrwfaom cJbG,fabmZOfudk pD&ifNyD;aomf jrwfAk'¨tm; ]]t&Sifbk&m;..
qGrf;bkOf;ay;&ef tcsdefwefygNyD? qGrf;pDrH NyD;ygNyD}}[k avQmufMum;ap\/ xdktcg
jrwfAk'¨onf eHeuftcsdefü ouFef;udkjyif0wf\/ oydwfouFef;udk ,laqmif\/
xdkYaemuf okydÜ,OygoumtdrfodkY <ua&mufawmfrl\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf rdrd\
teD;tyg;üxdik af eaom oky,
Üd Oygoumtm; ]]oky,
Üd m Oygodumr tb,frmS enf;}}[k
ar;awmfrl\/ okydÜ,Oygoumonf ]]rrmrusef;jzpfaeygonf jrwfpGmbk&m;}}[k
avQmufwif\/ ]]rusef;rmaomfvnf; vmygapavmh}}[k rdeYf awmfrjl yef\/ ]]rvmEdik yf g
jrwfpGmbk&m;}}[k avQmufwif\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨u ]]xdkodkY rvmEdkifvQif ayGUcsDí
aomfvnf; aqmif,lcJhyg}}[k rdefYawmfrlav\/
xdktcg okydÜ,Oygoumonf okydÜ,mOygodumrudkayGUcsDí jrwfAk'¨\
xHyg;odkY aqmif,lcJhav\/ okydÜ,mOygodumr\tzdkY&m jrwfAk'¨udk zl;jrifvdkuf&
onfESifhwpfNydKifeufyif xdkrQBuD;pGmaom temonf tom;Ekwufum yuwdaumif;
aom ta&tarT;wdkYjzpfav\/ xdktcg ZeD;armifESH ESpfa,mufvkH;wdkYonf ]]tcsif;wdkY...
jrwfAk'¨\wefcdk;awmfBuD;jrwfjcif;onf tHhzG,f&SdpGmhwum;? rjzpfbl;NrJ xl;uJaypG
wum;? jrwfAk'¨udk zl;jrifvdkuf&onfESifh wpfNydKifeufyif BuD;pGmaomtemonf
tom;Ekwufí yuwdaumif;aom ta&? tarT;wdkYjzpfwkHbd\}}[k ajymqdkum
½Tifvef;ESpfouf wuf<uaompdwf&Sdukefonfjzpfí bk&m;trSL;&Sdaom oHCmawmfudk
rGefjrwfaomcJbG,fabmZOfwdkYjzifh qufuyfvkyfauR;Muav\/ jrwfAk'¨onf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 147

qGrf;bkOf;ay;NyD;vwfaomf okydÜ,ESifh okydÜ,mwdkYZeD; armifESHtm; w&m;a[mawmfrlNyD;
ausmif;awmfodkY jyef<uawmfrlcJh\/
odum© yk'u
f kd ynwfawmfrcl &hJ jcif;
jrwfAk'¨onf ausmif;awmfodkY jyefa&mufawmfrlaomtcg &[ef;oHCmudk
pnf;a0;apawmf rl\/ xdktpnf;ta0;ü atmufygtwdkif; ar;jref;awmfrlcJh\/
(Ak'¨)
&[ef;wdkY... tb,folonf okydÜ,mOygodumrudk tom;
awmif;oenf;/
(*dvme&[ef;) jrwfpmG bk&m;... wynfah wmfonf oky,
Üd mOygodumrudk tom;
awmif;rdygonf/
(Ak'¨)
&[ef;... ydkYaqmiftyfoavm/
(*dvme&[ef;) ydkYaqmiftyfygonf jrwfpGmbk&m;
(Ak'¨)
&[ef;... oifonf okH;aqmifrdoavm/
(*dvme&[ef;) wynfhawmfonf okH;aqmifrdygonf jrwfpGmbk&m;/
(Ak'¨)
&[ef;... oifonf rnfonfhtom;[k pkHprf;ar;jref;rdyg\
avm/
(*dvme)
rpkHprf; rar;jref;rdygjrwfpGmbk&m;
xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf okydÜ,mOygodumr\aygifom;pGyfjyKwfudk pm;okH;rd
aom &[ef;awmfudk rsm;pGmaomtaMumif;wdkYjzifh uJh&JU½Iwfcsawmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf
atmufazmfjyygodu©myk'fawmfudk ynwfawmfrlcJh\/
]&[ef;wdkY... o'¨gw&m;&Sdí MunfñdkaomvlwdkYonf rdrd\tom;udkaomfvnf;
pGev
Yf LS uke\
f / &[ef;wd.Yk .. vlom;udk rpm;tyf (rpm;aumif;)? pm;aom&[ef;tm;
xkvp’ Of; tmywfoihaf p? &[ef;wd.Yk .. rpkpH rf; rar;jref;bJ tom;udrk pm;tyf (rpm;
aumif;) pm;aom&[ef;tm; 'ku#ú t
f mywfoihaf p}
þodu©myk'fudk ynwfawmfrlcJhonfrSpí &[ef;wdkYonf vlom;udkrpm;Mu&awmhay/
awmf0ifpx
H m; olemjyK{w'*fbx
UJG ;l &&Sjd cif;
aemuftzdkY0,f jrwfAk'¨onf aZw0efausmif;wdkufawmfü aeawmfrlpOf
vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdYk tm; toD;toD; pHawmf0if{w'*fbUJG xl;udk ay;awmfrcl \
hJ /
,if;odkYay;awmfrl&mü þokydÜ,m OygodumrBuD;tm;vnf; olemjyKol vl0wfaMumif
trsdK;orD;xkwGif tjrwfqkH;? tomqkH;aompHawmf0if *dvmEky|muD{w'*fbGJUxl;udk
atmufygtwdkif;ay;awmfrlcJh\/
]{w'*H¾bdu©a0 rrom0dumeH OygodumeH *dvmEky|muDeH ,'d'H okydÜ,m Oyg

148 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

odum= &[ef;wdkY..olemudkvkyfauR;jyKpkwwfukefaom igbk&m;\wynfhr
vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdkYwGif okydÜ,mOygodumronf tomqkH;tjrwfqkH;
jzpfay\/}
jrwfA'k u
¨ ,
kd af wmfwikd yf if olemjyKpkcjhJ cif;
olemjyKvkyif ef;ukd jrwfA'k u
¨ ,
kd af wmfwikd v
f nf; jyKpkcahJ yonf/ jrwfA'k o
¨ nf
vly&dowf? ewfy&dowfwdkYudk tvSnfhus w&m;a[mawmfrl&\/ rdrd\ £`Ed´,
ya&my&d,wåÓPf? tmo,m Eko,ÓPfüxifvmaom ypdärb0duyk*d¾Kvfrsm;udk
eD;a0;rqdk oGm;oifu
h ud,
k w
f ikd o
f mG ;í u,fcRwf ay;&\/ y#dywfvnf; ñTejf yay;&\/
tcgtm;avsmfpGm jzpfay:vmaom jyóemwdkYudkvnf; ajz&Sif;ay;&\/ xdkjyóemwdkY
tay:ürlwnfNyD; 0denf;odu©myk'fwdkYudkvnf; ynwfay;&\/ &[ef;wdkY\ aerIxdkifrI
wdkYudkavhvmNyD; ykHpHusatmif jyKjyifay;&\/ rsm;jym;vSonfh wm0efwdkYtMum;ü
tvSL&SifwdkY\tvdkqE´udkvnf; jznfhqnf;ay;&ao;\/ udk,fydkiftcsdefum; jrwfAk'¨
twGuf enf;yg;vSacs\/ tvGefenf;yg;vSaom tcsdefwdktwGif;üyif zvormywf?
eda&m"ormywfwdkYudk 0ifpm;&\/ xdkodkYormywf0ifpm;csdefonfom jrwfAk'¨\
tem;,lcsdef jzpf\/ nOfhwpfck&Sd aemufqkH;,mrf\ okH;ykHwpfykHrQavmufaom tcsdefü
omvQif avsmif;pufcGifh&av\/ þodkY rsm;jym;vSaomAk'¨udpw
ö dkYwGif rtm;rvyf
onfMh um;rS &[ef;awmfwYkd \ usef;rma&;twGuv
f nf; ud,
k af wmfwikd jf yKpkay;cJah Mumif;
atmufygom"uwdkYudkMunfhaomf odomEdkifay\/
jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf ylw*d wåwó
d rax&f
om0wd¬jynfom;wpfa,mufonf jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk em,lcJh&NyD;
omoemhabmifoYkd 0ifa&mufc\
hJ / xdrk ax&frmS ]wdórax&f}jzpf\/ wpfcak omtcsed üf
xdkwdórax&f\udk,fü jyif;pGmaomtemonf aygufvm\/ a&S;OD;pGm rkefYnif;aph
cefY&Sdaom tdkif;trmwdkY aygufukef\/ xdktemwdkYonf wjznf;jznf; OoQpfoD;cefY
&Sdatmif BuD;yGm;vm\/ ,if;aemuf aygufuGJí cE¨mudk,fwpfckvkH;onf tayguft
ayguf jzpfae\/ xdktcsdefrSpí xdkrax&f\trnfonf ]]ylwd*wåwdó rax&f}}[k
xif&mS ;\/ xkrd aS emuftzdYk ü rax&ftm; tdik ;f trmwdYk onf t½d;k wdYk ukd azmufcpJG 0JG ifuek f
aomaMumifh rokwo
f ifEikd af omtjzpfoYkd a&mufav\/ ouFe;f wdYk onfvnf; jynfaoG;
wdkYjzifh vdrf;usHae\/ twlaewynfhwdkYonfvnf; Munfh½IjyKjyifokwfoifjcif;iSg
rwwfEdkifMuay/ rax&fudk wdrf;a&Smifí pGefYvTwfMuukef\/ xdkYaMumifh rax&fonf
udk;uG,f&mrJhí wpfyg;xD;wnf; anmifapmif;ü tdyfae&av\/
xdktcg jrwfAk'¨\ÓPfawmfwnf;[laom uGef,ufü ylwd*wåwdó
rax&f\ t&[wåzdkvfa&muftHhaomtaMumif;udk jrif\/ xdkYaemuf ]þ&[ef;udk

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 149

twlaewynfhponfwdkYonf pGefYypftyfavNyD/ ,cktcgü þ&[ef;tm; igbk&m;rS
wpfyg; tjcm;aomt&mü aqmufwnf&m rSDcdk&m r&SdavNyD}}[k qifjcifawmfrlNyD;
ausmif;awmfrS xGufawmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨onf rD;wif;ukyfodkY <uoGm;awmfrlí
a&aEG;wnfawmfrl\/ a&aEG;&NyD;aomtcg jrwfAk'¨onf ylwd*wåwdó rax&f\
anmifapmif;pGef;udk vufawmfjzifh udkifiifokH;oyfawmfrl\/ xdktcg &[ef;wdkYonf
jrwfAk'¨tm; udk,fawmfwdkifrvkyf&ef avQmufxm;Muukef\/ xdkYaemuf anmifapmif;udk
rí rD;wif;ukwfodkY aqmif,lcJhMu\/
jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; o&ufacgufudk cGm,lusdKcsufap\/ xdka&aEG;jzifh
rax&f\cE¨mudk,fudk oGef;avmif;qGwfjzef; yGwfwdkufa&csdK;ap\/ ouFef;udkvnf;
avQmfzGwfap\/ rax&f a&csdK;NyD;aomtcg ajcmufaoGUaomouFef;udk 0wf½kHapNyD;
wpfzefcgí qkyfe,fzGyfavQmfNyD;í aeylü jzefYvSef;ap\/ xdktcg rax&f\udk,fü
a&jywfcgrQjzifhomvQif 0wf½kHaomouFef;onfvnf; ajcmufaoGUav\/ rax&fonf
vnf; wpfxnfaomouFef;udk0wfí wpfxnfaomouFef;udk ½kHNyD;vQif ayghyg;
aomud,
k &f adS v\/ wnfMunfaompdwEf v
S ;Hk jzpfav\/ xdYk aMumifh tdy&f manmifapmif;
ü oufompGm tdyfpuf&awmh\/ xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;awmfudkem,lNyD; &[EÅm
jzpfcJh&\/
þodkYvQif jrwfAk'¨onf ol\wynfhom;om0uwdkY\usef;rma&;udkvnf;
udk,fwdkif olemjyKozG,f vkyfaqmifcJhaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ tjcm;om"uwdkYvnf;
&Sdayao;\/
jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf t&Sizf *¾Keax&f
wpfckaomtcgü t&Sifz*¾Kerax&fonf tema&m*gESdyfpufonfjzpfí
tvGefrusef;rrm jzpf\/ xdktcg t&SiftmeE´monf jrwfAk'¨odkYcsOf;uyfí ]]t&Sif
bk&m;... t&Sifz*¾Keonf tema&m*g ESdyfpufonfjzpfí tvGefrusef;rmyg/
t&Sifbk&m;... awmif;yefyg\/ jrwfAk'¨onf oem;awmfrlonfudk taMumif;jyKNyD;
t&Sifz*¾exHodkY <uawmfrlapcsifygonf}}[k avQmuf\/ jrwfAk'¨onf qdwfqdwfae
ojzifh vufcHawmfrl\/
xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨onf naecsrf;tcg wpfyg;wnf;udef;atmif;&mrSxí
t&Sifz*¾Ke txHodkY csOf;uyfawmfrl\/ t&Sifz*¾eonf <uvmawmfrlaomjrwfAk'¨udk
ta0;rSjrifí anmifapmif;rS xtHhaom trlt&mudkjyK\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf
t&Sifz*¾Ketm; ]]z*¾Keroihf? oifonf anmifapmif;rS ra½TUrajymif;ygESifh? olwpfyg;wdkY
jyifNyD;aomae&mwdkY&Sd&m xdkae&müxdkifawmfrlrnf}}[k rdefYawmfrl\/ jrwfAk'¨onf
cif;xm;aomae&mü xdkifNyD;aomtcg t&Sifz*¾Ketm; ]]z*¾Ke... todkYenf;? oifhtm;
cefYusef;\avm? rQw\avm? qif;&Ja0'emwdkY qkwf,kwfukef\avm? rwkd;bJ &Sd\

150 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

avm? qkwf,kwfaomtajctaewdkYonf xif\avm? wdk;wufaomtajctaeonf
rxifbJ&Sd\avm}}[k ar;awmfrl\/
xdktcg t&Sifz*¾Keonf ]]t&Sifbk&m;... tuREfkyftm; rcefYusef;yg? rrQwyg?
tuREfkyftm; jyif;jyukefaom qif;&Ja0'emwdkY wdk;wufygukef\/ rqkwf,kwfygukef/
wdk;wufaom tajctaewdkYom xifyg\/ qkwf,kwfaomtajctaeonf rxifyg}}
[k avQmufxm;\ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf t&Sifz*¾Ketm; uHw&m;a[mawmfrlí
ae&mrSxum zJcGg<uoGm;awmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf t&Sifz*¾Keonf jrwfpGmbk&m;<uoGm;í
rMumjrifhrDyif uG,fvGefav\/
jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf t&Si0f PÖvrd ax&f
tcgwpfyg;ü jrwfAk'¨onf &mZN*dK[fjynf a0VK0efausmif;awmfü oDwif;okH;
aeawmfrl\/ xdktcg t&Sif0uúvdonf tema&m*gESdyfpufí vGefpGmrusef;rrmjzpfí
tdk;xdef;onftdrfüaeav\/ xdktcg t&Sif0uúvdonf tvkyftauR;wdkYtm;
]]t&SifwdkY... vmMuukefavmh? oifwdkYonf jrwfAk'¨xH csOf;uyfí ]tvGefrusef;rmaom
0uúvd&[ef;onf t&Sifbk&m;\ ajcawmfwdkYudk OD;cdkufyg\}[k ig\ pum;jzifh
jrwfAk'¨\ajcawmfwdkYudk OD;cdkufMuavmh? t&Sifbk&m;... awmif;yefyg\/ jrwfAk'¨onf
0uúvd &[ef;xHodkY oem;onfudk taMumif;jyKí <uawmfrlapvdkygowJh}}[k þodkY
vnf; avQmufMuukefavmh}}[k rdefYqdk\/ tvkyftauR;wdkYonfvnf; t&Sif0uúvd
rdefYqdkonfhtwdkif; jrwfAk'¨tm; avQmufMum; OD;wifMuukef\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf;
qdwfqdwfaejcif;jzifh vufcHawmfrl\/
xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨onf ouFef;udk jyif0wfawmfrlNyD;vQif oydwfouFef;udk
,laqmifvsuf t&Sif0uúvdxHodkY csOf;uyfawmfrl\/ t&Sif0uúvdonf jrwfAk'¨
<uvmonfudk ta0;rSyifjrifí anmifapmif;rS atmufodkYqif;rnfhta,mifjyKav\/
xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf t&Sif0uúvdtm; rqif;&efESifh cif;xm;NyD;aomae&müom
xdkifrnf[kajymqdkum wm;jrpfcJh\/ xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨onf t&Sif0uúvdtm; ol\
usef;rma&;tajctaewdkYudk ar;jref;awmfrl\/ jrwfAk'¨onf t&Sif0PÖvd\
ajzMum;csuftm;avsmfpGm w&m;pum;udka[majymNyD; jyef<uawmfrlcJh\/
jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf t&Sit
f óZdax&f
tcgwpfyg;ü jrwfAk'¨onf &mZN*dK[fjynf a0VK0efausmif;awmfü oDwif;okH;
aeawmfrl\/ xdktcg t&SiftóZdrax&fonf uóyola|; aqmufvkyfaom
ausmif;ü tvGefrusef;rrm jzpfae\/ t&SiftóZdonfvnf; t&Sif0uúvduJhodkYyif
jrwfAk'¨tm; olUxHodkY<ua&mufawmfrlí yifhavQmufcdkif;\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf
yifhavQmufcsufudk vufcHawmfrlNyD; t&SifxHodkYoGm;a&mufawmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 151

jrwfAk'¨onf t&SiftóZdtm; usef;rma&;ESifhywfoufí tusdK;taMumif;udk ar;jref;
awmfrl\/ wpfzefjrwfAk'¨onf t&SiftóZdtm; w&m;pum;a[mawmfrlNyD;
ausmif;awmfodkY jyef<uawmfrlcJh\/
jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf y|r*dvme&[ef;
tcsdefum; jrwfAk'¨onf om0wd¬jynfü oDwif;okH;awmfrlaomtcsdefwnf;/
xdt
k cg &[ef;wpfyg;onf jrwfA'k t
¨ m; ]]t&Sib
f &k m;... þrnfaomausmif;ü rxif&mS ;
aom&[ef;i,fwpfyg;onf vGepf mG rusef;rrmjzpfaeyg\/ t&Sib
f &k m;... awmif;yefyg
\/ jrwfAk'¨onf xdk&[ef;xHodkY oem;ojzifh <uawmfrlapvdkyg\}}[k avQmuf\/
xdt
k cg jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ]]ti,f}}[laompum;udv
k nf;aumif;? ]]olem}}[laom
pum;udv
k nf;aumif; Mum;&ojzifh ]]olem&[ef;onf rxif&mS ;aom&[ef;}}[k odawmf
rlí xdk&[ef;xHodkY <uawmfrl\/ xdkolem&[ef;onfvnf; jrwfAk'¨<uvmonfudk
ta0;uyif jrifawGU\/ xdkYaMumifh anmifapmif;atmufodkYqif;rnfhta,mifjyK\/
xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf rqif;&efESifhusef;rma&;ESifh ywfoufaompum;rsm;udk rdefY
awmfrl\/ xdkYaemuf w&m;pum;awmfudka[mawmfrl\/ w&m;awmf\tqkH;ü xdk
rxif&Sm;aom *dvme&[ef;awmfuav;onf aomwmywdåzdkvfodkY qdkufa&mufcJh&\/
(þü w&m;awmfudk tus,fra&;awmhyg/)
jrwfA'k E¨ iS hf 'kw,
d *dvme&[ef;
þ'kwd,&[ef;onfvnf; yXr&[ef;uJhodkYyif vGefpGmrusef;rrm jzpf\/
xdk&[ef;onfvnf; jrwfAk'¨udk<uvmawmfrl&ef yifhavQmuf\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf;
<uvmawmfrlNyD; w&m;a[mawmfrl\/ (w&m;awmfudktus,frjyqdkawmhyg)/
w&m;awmf\tqkH;ü xdk'kwd,*dvme &[ef;awmfonf t&[wåzdkvfodkY qdkufa&mufcJh
&\/
txufazmfjyNyD;aom taMumif;t&mwdkYudk avhvmMunfhaomf jrwfAk'¨onf
ol\wynfhwdkYudk BuD;çi,fra½G; emrusef;jzpfygu oGm;a&mufíolemjyKjcif;?
w&m;pum;a[majymjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfay;aMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif
*dvme&[ef;awmfwYkdtm; jyKpkvyk af uR;jcif;rSm tvGeyf if tHMh op&maumif;vS\/ omref
vlom;wdkYonfvnf; jrwfAk'¨udkenf;,lí olemjyKpkjcif;vkyfief;wdkYudk aqmif½Guf
oihfvS\/ þae&mü pHawmf0if urÇmholemjyKrdcifOD; okydÜ,m OygodumrBuD;onf
vnf; jrwfAk'¨udktwk,ltm;usí olemjyKvkyfief;wdkYudk tm;wufoa&m vkyfaqmif
cJholjzpfaMumif; avhvmokH;oyfrd\/

152 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

olemjyKvkyif ef;ESiphf yfvsOf;í Ak'0¨ g'vmrSwo
f m;zG,&f mrsm;
olemjyKvkyfief;[lonf jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif csD;rGrf;aomvkyfief;jzpf\/
,if;olemjyK vkyfief;ESifhpyfvsOf;í olemjyKwdkYü &Sdoifh&Sdxdkufaom t&nftcsif;rsm;?
jyKpkxdkufaomçrjyKpkxdkufaom vlem\t*Fgrs; tp&Sdonfjzifh rSwfom;zG,f&mrsm;udk
jrwfAk'¨ a[mMum;awmfrlcJh\/ ,if;odkYa[mMum; rSwfom;zG,f&mrsm;udk ,ckacwf
olemjyKvkyfief;ESifh,SOfpyfívnf; Munfhoihfay\/
olemjyKt&nftcsif;(5)yg;
olemjyKwpfa,mufü &Sdoihf&Sdxdkufaomt&nftcsif;(5)yg;&SdaMumif;udk
Ak'¨0g'u atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyxm;\/ ,if;ig;yg;rSm(1) udk,fwdkifaq;0g;azmfpyfEdkifjcif;?
(2) olemESifhoihfonfh aq;0g;"mwfpm? roihfonfhaq;0g;"mwfpm
ponfwdkYudk od&Sdem;vnfum roihfavsmfonfudky,fí oihfavsmf
onfudkom okH;aqmifapjcif;?
(3) vmbfvmb vufaqmifudk arQmfvifhcsufrxm;bJ arwåmpdwf
oufoufjzifh jyKpkjcif;?
(4) olem\ usifBuD;? usifi,f? wHawG;? tefzwf ponfwdkYudk r½GHr&Sm
okwfoifay; Edkifjcif;?
(5) olempdwf ½Tifvef;wuf<uxufjrufvmatmif tcsdeftcgtvdkuf
xdkufoifhaom w&m;pum;udk ajyma[mEdkifjcif;
wdkYjzpf\/ txufazmfjyyg t&nftcsif;ig;yg;ESifh jynfhpkHrSom olemjyKaumif;wpf
a,muf jzpfEdkifrnf jzpf\/ xdkodkYr[kwf azmfjyygt&nftcsif;wdkYESifh jynfhpkHrIr&Sdygu
olemjyKaumif;wpfa,muftjzpf Ak'¨0g't& owfrSwfEdkifrnfum; r[kwfygay/ xdkY
aMumifh olemjyKaumif;wpfa,muf jzpfEdkif&eftwGuf azmfjyNyD;aom t&nftcsif;wdkYudk
jynfhrDatmif avhusifhysdK;axmifoihfay\/
rjyKpkxu
kd af omolem\ t*Fg(5)yg;
olemjyKpkolonf olemESifhuif;í rjzpfEdkifay/ ,if;olemonfvnf; rjyKpk
xdkufaom olemESifh jyKpkxdkufaomolem[lí Ak'¨0g'u cGJjcm;jyoxm;ay\/
,if;wdkYwGif rjyKpkxdkufaom olem\t*FgrSm atmufygtwdkif;(5)yg;&SdaMumif;
azmfjyxm;ay\/ ,if;(5)yg;rSm(1) tema&m*gtm; ravsmufywfonfudk jyKvkyfavh&Sdjcif;?
(2) tema&m*gtm; avsmufywfonfü twdkif;t&Snfudk rodjcif;?
(3) aq;q&m ñTefMum;csuftwdkif; aq;udk rSD0JrIr&Sdjcif;?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 153

(4) tusdK;udv
k v
kd m;aomolemjyKtm; [kww
f ikd ;f rSepf mG a&m*gwd;k onfukd
]wdk;onf} [lívnf;aumif;? a&m*goufomonfudk ]oufom
onf} [lívnf;aumif;? a&m*gwefYaeonfudk ]wefY\}[lívnf;
aumif; rdrdjzpfay:aeaom tema&m*g\taMumif;udk xif&Sm;
pGmrjyKjcif;ESifh?
(5) jzpfay:vmonfh jyif;xefMurf;MuKwf? pyf&mS ;? emusif? rom,mzG,?f
rESpo
f ufz,
G jf zpfí toufaoavmufonfh ud,
k üf jzpfaom qif;&J
a0'emwdkYudk onf;cHrIr&Sdjcif;
wdkYjzpf\/ txufazmfjyygt*Fg&yfwdkYESifh jynfhpkHaomolemudk olemjyKyk*d¾Kvfonf
jyKpkjcif;iSgrxdkufay/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf txufazmfjyygt*Fg&yfwdkYESifh jynfhpkH
aomolemonf jyKpk&cufcaJ omolem jzpf\/ olemjyKrsm;tzdYk jyKpk&tawmfcufcaJ yrnf
jzpf\/
jyKpkxu
kd af omolem\ t&nftcsif;(5)yg;
rjyKpkxdkufaomolem\ t&nftcsif;rsm;udk azmfjyouJhodkY jyKpkxdkufaom
olem\ t&nftcsif;wdkYudkvnf; Ak'¨0g'wGif azmfjyxm;aMumif; awGU&SdEdkif\/ jyKpk
xdu
k af omolem\ t&nftcsif;rSm ig;yg;&S\
d / ,if;(5)yg;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpf\/
,if;wdkYrSm(1) tema&m*gtm; avsmufywfonfudk jyKvkyfavh&Sdjcif;?
(2) tema&m*gtm; avsmufywfonfü twdkif;t&Snfudkodjcif;?
(3) aq;q&m\ñTefMum;csuftwdkif; aq;udkrSD0JrI&Sdjcif;?
(4) tusdK;vdkvm;aomolemjyKtm; [kwfwdkif;rSefpGm a&m*gwdk;onfudk
]wdk;onf} [lívnf;aumif;? a&m*goufomonfudk ]a&m*gouf
omonf}[lívnf;aumif;? a&m*gwefYaeonfudk ]wefYae\}
[lívnf;aumif; rdrdjzpfay:aeaom tema&m*g\taMumif;udk
xif&Sm;pGm jyKwwfjcif;ESifh?
(5) jzpfay:vmonfh jyif;xef? Murf;MuKwf? pyf&Sm;? emusif? rom
,mzG,f? rESpfoufzG,fjzpfí toufaoavmufonfh udk,fü
jzpfaom qif;&Ja0'emwdkYudk onf;cHrI&Sdjcif;
wdkYjzpf\/ þt*Fgt&nftcsif;(5)yg;ESifhjynfhpkHaom olemudkomvQif olemjyKwdkYtzdkY
vG,fulpGm jyKvG,fay\/
&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ay;jcif;? aq;ukjcif; ponfwEYkd iS phf yfí odrw
S zf ,
G rf sm;
jrwfAk'¨onf olemjyKaomyk*d¾KvfwdkYtm; tNrJcsD;rGrf;pum;qdkaMumif;udk

154 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

a&S;üavhvmcJhNyD;jzpf\/ þae&mü &[ef;awmfrsm;tzdkY aq;ay;jcif;? aq;ukjcif;wdkY
onfvnf; olemjyKpkjcif;yif jzpf\/ odkYaomfvnf; 0denf;aMumif;t& udk,fwdkif aq;
ay;oihf? ray;oifh? aq;ukoihf? rukoihf yk*dK¾ vfrsm;&SdaMumif; awGU&SdEdkif\/ xdkYaMumifh
þae&mü &[ef;awmfwdkYtzdkY udk,fwdkifaq;ay;oihf? ray;oihftp&Sdaom aq;uk
olwdkYESifhoufqdkifaom 0denf;qdkif&m tcsuftvufwdkYudk jyqdkrnfjzpf\/ atmuf
azmfjyvwHhaom 0denf;aMumif;wdkYudk od&SdrSomvQif olemudkjyKpk&mü udk,fpdwfESpfyg;
csrf;om½Tifvef;pGmjzifh jyKpkEdkifrnfjzpf\/ xdkodkYr[kwfygu jyKpkrIü tcuftcJ awGUEdkif
ay\/
&[ef;awmfrsm;aq;ay;? aq;ukxu
kd af omyk*K¾d vfrsm;
&[ef;rsm;aq;ay;? aq;ukxdkufaomyk*d¾Kvfrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;
(11)a,muf&Sd aMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1) bdu©K (&[ef;a,mufsm;)?
(2) bdu©KeD (&[ef;rrsm;)?
(3) odu©rme (odu©rmef-&[ef;ravmif;rsm;)?
(4) omraP& (omraPa,mufsm;rsm;)?
(5) omraP&D (omraPrrsm;)?
(6) trd?
(7) tz?
(8) rdrd\rdbudk jyKpkvkyfauR;aeol?
(9) rdrd###BOT_TEXT###wfBuD;0wfi,fudk aqmif½Gufaeol?
(10) oHCa0,sm0pöudk aqmif½GufaeolESifh
(11) armif&Sifavmif; (ausmif;om;)
wdYk jzpf\/ txufazmfjyygyk*K¾d vf(11)a,mufwYkd rusef;rrmjzpfaomf rdrw
d wfuRrf;orQ
aq;ay; aq;uko&rnf jzpf\/ rdrdudk,fwdkif rukwwfaomf wwfuRrf;onfh aq;
q&mrsm;udk yifhac:í uko&rnfjzpf\/ ypfrxm;aumif;ay/ rusef;rmolü aq;?
aq;zdk;0g;c&SdvQif ol\Opömjzifh ukoay;&rnf jzpf\/ r&SdcJhaomf rdrd\Opömjzpfaom
aq;? aq;zdk;0g;cjzifh ukoay;xdkuf\/ tu,f í rdrdüvnf; r&SdcJhaomf(1) qGrf;cHvSnfhvnfjcif;[laom usifh0wfjzifhvnf;aumif;?
(2) aqGrsdK;awmfol? zdwfMum;xm;olwdkY\txHü awmif;íaomfvnf;
aumif;
&SmrSD;íukoay;&rnfjzpf\/ xdkodkY&Smr&cJhaomf zdwfrHrIudk rjyKaomyk*Kd¾ vfwdkY\ txHü
aomfryS if awmif;í ukoay;&ayrnf/ ,if;odYk rukoay;ygu tjypf&\
dS / &[ef;awmf
wdkYonf rdrdwdkY\ r,fawmf? crnf;awmfrsm;udk ausmif;odkYac:aqmifNyD;vQif ausmif;ü

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 155

xm;íyif jyKpkvkyfauR;aumif;\/ r,fawmfüum; jyKxdkufonfh jyKzG,fudprö SeforQudk
udkifwG,frIrjyKbJom jyKpkvkyfauR;&rnfjzpf\/ crnf;awmfüum; omraPwdkYtm;
jyKpkvkyfauR;ouJhodkYyif udk,fwdkifa&csdK;ay;jcif;? qkyfe,fay;jcif; paom trIudpö
tm;vkH;udkjyKvkyfum vkyfauR;aumif;\/ tjcm;aq;ukaumif;aom yk*dK¾ vfrsm;vnf;
&Sdayao;\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1)
tpfudkBuD;?
(2)
nDi,f?
(3)
trBuD;?
(4)
ESri,f?
(5)
a':av;?
(6)
a':BuD;?
(7)
bBuD;?
(8)
baxG;?
(9)
t&D;BuD;? t&D;av;
(10)
OD;BuD;? OD;av;
wdkYjzpf\/ ,if;wpfusdyfaom aqGrsdK;wdkYtm;vnf; aq;0g;ukoay;aumif;ao;\/
ukoay;ykHum;- xdkolwdkY\Opömjzpfaom aq;ESifhaq;ypönf;udkom,lí azmfpyfuko
ay;&rnf/ rdrd\Opömjzifhum; ukoray;aumif;ay/ tpm;jyefí vSL'gef;rnfqdkygu
ukoay;aumif;\/ txufazmfjyNyD;aom
(1)
&[ef;a,mufsm;paom (11)a,muf
(2)
tpfudkBuD;paomol (10)a,muf
wdkYrSwpfyg; tjcm;aomyk*Kd¾ vfwdkYtm; aq;vnf;ray;aumif;? aq;vnf;rukoaumif;
ay/ tu,fí ukoay;ygu ukv'loe'kuú#ftmywfoihfrnf jzpf\/ aq;ukay;oihf
olrsm;tm; rukovQifvnf; 'kuú#ftmywfoihfao;\/
&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ynmoifaumif;\
&[ef;awmfrsm;ESihf omraPwdYk rmS aq;ynm&yfwYkd ukd oifMum;aumif;onf/
tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf jrwfAk'¨onf *dvme&[ef;udk jyKpkvkyfauR;xdkufaom olem
jyK&[ef;jynfhpkH&rnfh t&nftcsif;(5)&yfudk a[mMum;awmfrlcJh\/ ,if;wdkYwGif
yg0ifaom atmufazmfjyyg t&nftcsif; ESpf&yfudkaxmufqaomf &[ef;awmfrsm;
aq;ynm&yfwdkYudk oif,laumif;aMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifayrnf/ ,if;t&nftcsif;
okH;&yfrSm(1) udk,fwdkifaq;0g;azmfpyfEdkifjcif;ESifh
(2) olemESio
hf iho
f nfh aq;0g;"mwfpm? roiho
f nfh aq;0g;"mwfpmwdYk ukd

156 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

od&edS m; vnfum roihaf vsmfonfwYkd uykd ,fí oihaf vsmfonfuo
kd m
okH;aqmifapjcif;
wdkYyifjzpf\/ ,if;tcsufwdkYudkaxmufqaomf &[ef;awmfrsm;ESifh omraPwdkYonf
aq;ynmudk oif,laumif;aMumif; od&SdEdkifay\/
oDvu©efygVd r[moDvcef; ponfwdkYü aq;0g;twwfudk rdpämZD0[k
a[mMum;xm;jcif;um; aq;ynmoifjcif;udk rdpämZD0[k a[mjcif;r[kwfay/ ,if;aq;
ynmoifMum;NyD;aemuf txufazmfjycJhNyD;aomyk*d¾Kvf(21)a,mufrS wpfyg;aomol
wdkYtm; aq;ukorIjyKrSom rdpämZD0jzpfaMumif; a[mawmfrljcif;omjzpf\/ aq;
ynmoifMum;rIudk wm;jrpfjcif; r[kwfay/ xdkYaMumifh &[ef;omraPwdkYonf aq;
ynm&yfwdkYudk oif,lNyD;vQif aq;ukoay;aumif;onfh yk*dK¾ vfwdkYtm; rdrdwwfuRrf;
xm;onfh aq;ynmjzifh aus;Zl;jyKum omoemjyKvkyfief;BuD;udk apwemo'¨gw&m;
xufoefpGmjzifh aqmif½GufEdkifygrlum; twdkif;rodaomtusdK;udk &&SdEdkifrnfjzpf\/
txufazmfjycJhaom taMumif;wdkYaMumifh &[ef;omraPrsm; aq;ynmoifaumif;
aMumif; rSwfom;&rnfom jzpf\/ ,if;aq;ynmjzifh toufarG;rIudkum; vkH;0
rvkyfoihfay/
tzd;k tcr,lbJ ukov
kd jf zpf aq;uk&usdK;
,if;odkYaq;ukorIjyKjcif;? olemjyKjcif;jyKvkyf&mü tusdK;aus;Zl;rsm; &&SdEdkif
aMumif; awGU&\/ om"ujzifh aq;ukojcif;tusdK;udkazmfjy&aomf ax&myg'gefvm
wdudpäuaw¬& tyg'gefudkazmfjy&rnfjzpf\/ ,if;tyg'gefazmfjyxm;onfrSm]]igonf AE¨KrwDNrdKUü aq;twwfynmudk aumif;pGmoif,t
l yfNyD;
onfjzpfí tema&m*g pGu
J yfvsuf qif;&J'u
k a© &mufaeukeaf om vltaygif;
wdkY\ csrf;omudk aqmif½Gufwwfaom aq;q&monf jzpfcJh\/ (xdktcg)
igonf oDv&Sad om tmEkabmfBuD;rm;aom rusef;rrmaom oDvm0EÅ&[ef;
udk awGUjrif&aomf Munfñdk0rf;ajrmufaompdwfonfjzpfí aq;udkay;vSL
cJh\/ apmifha&Smuftyfaom £a`E´&Sd aom taomutrnfjzifhxif&Sm;aom
0dyóD jrwfpGmbk&m;\ tvkyftauR;jzpfaom &[ef;onf xdkaq;aMumifh
yifvQif tema&m*g uif;aysmuf\/
þb'´urÇmrS udk;q,fhwpfurÇmxufü igonf aq;udk ay;vSLcJh
&aomtcgrSpí tyg,fav;yg;vm;&onfudk rodpzl;ay/ þodkYjzpf&jcif;
onf aq;vSL'gef;&jcif;\ tusdK;aywnf;/
þb'´urÇmxufrS &SpfurÇmxufü &wemckepfyg;wdkYESifh jynfhpkH
onfjzpfí rsm;jrwfonfh Adkvfygtiftm;&Sdaom oarÁmo"rnfaom pMu0
aw;rif;jzpfcJh\/ av;yg;aom y#dordÇ'gwdkYudkvnf;aumif;? &Spfyg;aom

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 157

þ0darmu©wYkd uv
kd nf;aumif;? ajcmufyg;aom tbdÓPfwYkd uv
kd nf;aumif;
rsufarSmufjyKtyfygukefNyD? jrwfpGmbk&m;\ tqkH;trawmfudk vdkufem
usifhokH;NyD;ygNyD}}
[k jzpf\/ txufazmfjyygom"uudkaxmufaomf aq;ukoay;&jcif;onf(1)
tyg,fav;yg;odkY rvm;&jcif;?
(2)
&wemckepfyg;ESifhjynfhpkHaom pMu0aw;rif;jzpf&jcif;ESifh
(3)
y#dordÇ'gav;yg;ESifhwuGaom &[EÅmyk*dK¾ vfjzpf&jcif;
[laomtusdK;w&m;wdkYudk &&SdEdkifaMumif; awGU&ayrnf/ xdkYaMumifh ajrmufrsm;pGmaom
tusdK;w&m; wdkYudk &&SdapEdkifaom aq;ukojcif;? olemjyKpkjcif;wdkYudk aqmif½Gufoihf
ayawmh\/
aq;vSL&usdK; (10)yg;

aq;ukaomol? olemjyKaomolom tusdK;w&m;wdkYudk cHpm;&onfr[kwf/
aq;udk vSL'gef;olwdkYtm;vnf; tusdK;w&m; (10)yg;udk &&SdEdkifaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd
Edkifay\/ ,if;q,fyg;wdkYudkjy&mü tyg'gefvm t&SifAmukvax&myg'gefudk om"u
tjzpfjy&rnfjzpf\/ ,if;tyg'gefü t&SiAf mukvtavmif;onf avema&m*gjzpfaom
taemr'óDjrwfAk'¨tm; aq;vSLcJh\/ ,if;odkY vSLjcif;aMumifh taemr'óDjrwfpGm
bk&m;\ Asm'dwfawmftwdkif; atmufazmfjyygtusdK;w&m; q,fyg;udk cHpm;cJh&aMumif;
awGUEdkifay\/ ,if;q,fyg;rSm(1) urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; ewfjynfü jzpf&jcif;?
(2) xdkewfjynfü wl&d,mwdkYudk wD;rIwfvsuf tcgcyfodrf; arGUavsmf&jcif;?
(3) ukodkvfuHtaMumif;t&if;onf wdkufwGef;tyfonfhtjzpfaMumifh vlUjynf
odkYvmí tBudrfwpfaxmifwdkifatmif pMu0aw;rif;jzpf&jcif;?
(4) ,if;odkY pMum0aw;rif;jzpfcsdefü wm0wðomewfjynfüvnf; acsmufcsm;
apí tpdk;&rIudkjyK&jcif;?
(5) ewfjzpf&müvnf; tema&m*guif;oljzpf&jcif;?
(6) vljzpf&müvnf; tema&m*guif;oljzpf&jcif;?
(7) a*gwrjrwfAk'¨vufxufü &[EÅmjzpfí y&dedAÁmefjyK&jcif;?
(8) udavomwdkYudk ½dIUNrdKufavmifuRrf;apí wPSma&,mOfudk ul; ajrmuf&
jcif;?
(9) Amukvtrnfjzifhxif&Sm;aom bk&m;wynfhom; jzpf&jcif;ESifh?
(10) tema&m*guif;&Sif;rIü pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJU&&Sdjcif;?
wdkYjzpf\/ txufazmfjyygtusdK;w&m;(10)yg;udk t&SifAmukvax&fonf a*gwr
jrwfAk'¨vufxufwGif tjynfht0 jynfhajrmufcJhay\/ þum; aq;vSLjcif;\ tusdK;

158 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

om"ujzpf\/ odYk jzpf&m tusdK;w&m;q,fyg;udv
k v
kd m;aom &[ef;&Siv
f t
l aygif;onf
aq;ypön;f udk vSL'gef;oihaf yawmh\/ xdYk jyif jrwfA'k u
¨ ,
kd af wmfwikd f csD;usL;awmfral om
olemjyKpkjcif;udk udk,fusdK;rzuf BudK;pm;aqmif½Guf oihfvSayawmh\/ wpfzufrSvnf;
aq;ynmoifjcif;? 0denf;awmfEiS t
hf nD aq;ukjcif;? aq;vSLjcif; wdYk uv
kd nf; wwftm;
oa½GUaqmif½GufoihfvSay\/ odkYrSom vlU½Gmavmuonf tema&m*g uif;&Sif;NyD;
usef;rmaomolwdkYESihfom awGU&SdEdkifrnfjzpfayawmh\/
ol e mjyKvk y f i ef ; [l o nf tvG e f w &mjrif h j rwf a om y&[d w vk y f i ef ;
jzpfaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;vkyfief;udk vkyfaqmif&mü jA[®pdk&fw&m;wdkY rOD;pD;bJ
r&acs/ olwpfyg;tusdK;? avmutusdK;udk aqmif½u
G jf cif;onf y&[dwjzpf\/ arwåm?
u½kPm? rk'w
d m? Oayu©m [laom w&m;av;yg;wdYk jzifh aejcif;onf jA[®p&kd w
f &m;wdYk ukd
OD;pD;íaejcif;jzpf\/ y&[dwpdwf? y&[dwvkyfief;udk vlwdkif; vkyfEdkifpGrf;r&Sday/
,if;odkYtcsdeftcgrsdK;ü pHawmf0ifokydÜ,monf twå[dwudky,fpGefYum y&[dwudk
aqmif½GufcJhaMumif; awGUEdkif\/ azmfjycJhNyD;aom zavmh&ifhEdkufwifa*;vf polwdkYonf
twåudky,fpGefYí y&twGuf aqmif½GufcJholrsm;jzpfMu\/ odkYaomfvnf; rdrdwwfEdkif
orQom y,fpGefYxm;ay\/ þpHawmf0if okydÜ,monfum; t&d,myk*d¾Kvfjzpfjcif;
aMumifh twåudkt<uif;rJh y,fpGefYxm;aMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifrnfjzpf\/
awmf0ifpx
H m;oky,
Üd monf rdr\
d toufuykd "merxm;bJ rdr\
d aygifom;udk
vSD;xkwfí pGyfjyKwfvkyfNyD; vSLcJhaMumif; awGU&Sd&ay\/ ,if;udkMunfhaomf awmf½kHwef½kH
yk*dK¾ vfrsm;? txl;ojzifh zavmh&ifhEdkufwifa*;vfpaom yk*dK¾ vfrsm;onfyif þuJhodkY
rdrd\aygifom;udk vSD;xkwfzdkY&ef 0efav;rnf jzpf\/ þpHawmf0ifokydÜ,monfum;
rdrad umif;pm;a&;udk y"merxm;? olwpfyg;aumif;pm;a&;udk a&SU½Ivsuf jyKrlaqmif½u
G f
ykHonfum; jrif&ol? Mum;&olrsm;tzdkY aMumufcref;vdvdyifjzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh
olemjyKt&mü tawmfqkH;? tomqkH;? tjrwfqkH;aom pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;udk jrwf
Ak'¨ udk,fawmfwdkif csD;jr§ifhawmfrlcJh&jcif;jzpf\/ &&SdcJhaombGJUxl;ESifh vkyfaqmifcJh
aomvkyf&yfwdkYudk csdefxdk;MunfhvQifvnf; vGefpGmxdkufwefonf[k qdk&rnfjzpf\/
wpfenf;tm;jzifh jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmfuyif olemjyKvkyfief;onf ay:aygufaeNyD
jzpfaMumif;vnf; okawoejyKEdkifay\/
jrwfA'k u
¨ zkd ;l awGUNyD; w&m;emMum;&onft
h cdu
k rf mS yif aomwmyefjzpfc&hJ aom
okydÜ,monf omoemwGif;&Sd &[ef;? omraPwdkY\ pm;? 0wf? aea&;? usef;rma&;[l
aom ta&;av;yg;twGuf qGrf;? ouFef;? ausmif;? aq; ypönf;av;yg;'g,dumr
tjzpfcH,lcJholjzpf\/ odkYaomfvnf; oli,fcsif;r 0domcgu vdkavao;r&Sd jznfhpGuf
yHhydk;ay;cJhaomaMumifh 0domcg\ tpGef;xGufavmufom ukodkvfjyKcGifh&cJh&Sm\/
xdkYaMumifhvnf; olronf *dvme&[ef;rsm;twGuf ydkrdkí ukodkvfpdwfrsm; tm;BuD;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 159

cJhjcif;vnf; jzpfEdkif\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh olr\b0gb0uygvmaom olemjyKt&mü
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJU&&ef tm;xkwfcJhaom yg&rDawmfwdkY\ EdI;aqmfrIaMumifh
þolemjyKvkyfief;ü pdwf0ifpm;jcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifay\/ rnfodkYyifjzpfapumrl
oky,
Üd m\ vky&f yfukd avhvmaomf omoemawmfü xl;jcm;aomvky&f yfEiS hf xl;jcm;aom
tvSLwdkYjzpfaMumif; rSwfwrf;wif&rnfom jzpfay\/ rsufarSmufacwfwGifvnf;
,if;vkyf&yfrsdK;udkawGU&Sd&efrSm vGefpGmcufcJayvdrfhrnf/
Ak'¨avmif;vsmwdkY\ pGefYjcif;BuD;ig;rsdK;wGifyg0ifaom t*Fy&dpmö *jzpfaom
t*FgBuD;i,fudk pGefYjcif;udk olronf jyKvkyfEdkifcJhay\/ ,if;odkYvSL&müvnf; olrwGif
wpfpkHwpf&maom tusdK;udk arQmfvifhrIaMumifhvnf; r[kwfay/ tjcm;ol csrf;om
apjcif;iSg rdrdomtepfemcHvsuf pGefYvTwfjcif;om jzpfay\/ tcgtm;avsmfpGm
tvdk&Sdoltm; tvdk&Sdaomypönf;udk ay;vSLrIaMumifh umv'gevnf; jzpfay\/
,if;odkY aygifom;udkvSL'gef;rIaMumifh okydÜ,monf tema&m*g zdpD;ESdyfpuf
cH&ay\/ rdrdudk,fudk touftEÅ&m,f&Sd\[k xifrdykHvnf;&\/ xdkYaMumifh olr
ruG,v
f eG rf D jrwfA'k E¨ iS o
hf C
H mawmfwYkdtm; yifzh w
d í
f aumif;rIjyKcJah Mumif; awGU&S&d ay\/
þonfudkMunfhaomf ,aeYumv ruG,fvGefrD 'gejyKjcif;wdkYonf pHawmf0ifokydÜ,m
\xkH;udk ESvkH;rlxm;onf[k wif&ayrnf/ rnfolrqdk ruG,fvGefrD aemufqkH;tcsdef
txd tm;udk;&mudk&SmMuay&m okydÜ,monfvnf; wpfa,muf tygt0if jzpfonfrSm
xifrSm;p&mr&Sdygay/
olr\tvSLyGJ0,f jrwfAk'¨onf rdrdxHodkYrvmEdkifaom okydÜ,mtm;
jzpfonfhenf;jzifh udk,fawmfjrwfxHodkY vma&muf&ef rdefYMum;awmfrl\/ xdktcg
oky,
Üd mudk rç,lvmMu&m oky,
Üd monf jrwfA'k u
¨ kd zl;jrifvu
kd &f onfEiS hf wpfNydKifeufyif
temonf yuwdjzpfvsuf aysmufuif;oGm;av\/ þonfudkMunfhaomf jrwfAk'¨\
wefcdk;awmfwdkY\twdkif;tqr&SdykHudk MunfñdkEdkifMurnfjzpf\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh
okydÜ,m\ aygifom;vSL'gef;rI t*Fy&dpmö *? ruG,fvGefrD vSL'gef;aom tvSL'gewdkY
\ tusdK;ay;aom 'd|"r®a0'ed,uHtaejzifh csufcsif;tusdK;ay;jcif;[kvnf; ,lqEdkif
ay\/ þae&mü jrwfAk'¨onf aygifom;pm;jcif;ESifhywfoufí Zmwfwlom;jzpfaom
vlom;udk rpm;&ef &[ef;awmfwdkYtm; odu©myk'fudkyif ynwfawmfrlcJh&aMumif; awGU&Sd
Edkifay\/ aemiftcgü jrwfAk'¨onf aZw0efausmif;awmfü vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;
wdkYtm; pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;udkcsD;jr§ifhcJh&mwGif okydÜ,monf olemjyKqdkif&m {w
'*fbUJG xl;udk csD;jr§ichf cH &hJ ay\/ ,cktcgwGif acwfpm;aom zavmh&ifEh u
kd w
f ifa*;vfbUJG ?
atmf'gatmharm&pfbGJUwdkYonfum; omrefvlyk*d¾KvfwdkYu csD;jr§ifhjcif; jzpf&um;
oky,
Üd m\pHawmf0if olemjyK{w'*fbUJG xl;udu
k m; rDEikd rf nfr[kwyf gay/ tb,fah Mumifh
qdkaomf þolemjyKqdkif&m{w'*fbGJUxl;udk jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif csD;jr§ifhawmfrlcJh&jcif;?
,if;bGJUxl; &&Sd&ef tcsdefumvrsm;pGm yg&rDjznfhcJh&jcif;aMumifhyif jzpf\/ odkYjzpf&um;

160 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

,aeYtrsdK;orD;xkonf pHawmf0if urÇmhomoemjyKrdcifBuD; okydÜ,mtrsdK;orD;uJhodkY
]]olemjyKqdkif&m pHawmf0if{w'*f bGJUxl;}}udk &&Sdatmif olrudkpHjyKí BudK;pm;oifhay\/
jrwfA'k o
¨ nf olemjyKolwYkd tm; csD;rTr;f rIjyKcJo
h nfomruao; ud,
k af wmfwikd f
yifvQif olem&[ef;rsm;tm; jyKpkawmfrlcJhaMumif; awGU&ay\/ ,if;odkY*dvme&[ef;wdkY
tm; jyKpkawmfrl&mü ausmom;&ifom;rcGJjcm;bJ rnfonfh*dvme&[ef;udkrqdk wpf
ajy;nDxm;NyD; olemjyKvkyfief;udk udk,fawmfwdkif aqmif½GufrIrSmvnf; jrwfAk'¨\
csD;usL;rukefEdkifaom *kPfawmfwpfyg;yif jzpfay\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf
y&[dwvkyfief;rsm;udkom jyKvkyfawmfrlaom jrwfAk'¨tzdkY þodkY ausmom; &ifom;
rcGJjcm;bJ udk,fwdkifudk,fus jyKpkawmfrlaom olemjyKvkyfief;wdkYonfyif jrwfAk'¨
\wpfpdwfwpfa'oaom y&[dwvkyfief;pkwdkYjzpfaMumif;rSm xif&Sm;vSay\/ jrwfAk'¨
onf ol\y&[dw vkyfief;\ wpfpdwfwpfa'ojzpfaom olemjyKvkyfief;rsm;udk pepf
wus&Sdap&eftwGuf *dvme\ t&nftcsif;? olemjyK\t&nftcsif;wdkYudkvnf;
a[mazmfñTefMum;xm;aMumif;vnf; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;tcsufudkMunfhaomf jrwf
Ak'¨onf olemjyKvkyfief;udk udk,f? EIwf? pdwf okH;yg;vkH;jzifh csD;ajr§mufawmfrlcJhaMumif;
avhvmawGU&SdEdkifrnfjzpfay\/
tcsdKUyk*d¾KvfwdkYu ]]&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ray;aumif;? aq;rukaumif;}}
ajymqdkMuay\/ ,if;wdkY\tqdkrSm rSefuefrIr&Sdygay/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf
jrwfAk'¨onf &[ef;awmfrsm;twGuf aq;ay;oihf? aq;ukoihfaomyk*d¾Kvfrsm;udk
a½G;cs,fay;xm;NyD;jzpfaomaMumifhyif jzpf\/ wpfpyfwnf;rSmyif &[ef;awmfrsm;onf
aq;ynm&yfwdkYudkvnf; oif,lcGifh&SdaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd Edkifay\/ txufazmfjyyg
aq;ukorI? olemjyKpkrw
I Ykd ukd avhvmawGU&S&d ojzifh olemjyKvkyif ef;wdYk EiS hf pyfvsOf;onfh
jrwfAk'¨\ñTefMum;csufwdkYonf ,ckrsufarSmufacwf aq;avmuom;wdkYtm;
taxmuftul jzpfap\/ &[ef;awmfrsm;twGufvnf; tm;aq;wpfcGufyifjzpfay\/
rnfodkYyifjzpfap þpHawmf0ifurÇmholemjyKrdcifBuD; okydÜ,m0w¬Kudk
avhvmzwf½I&jcif;jzifh y&[dwpdwftenf;i,fom&Sd&mrS y&[dwpdwfrsm; ydkrdkrsm;jym;
vmEdkifay\/ xdkYaMumifh okydÜ,mudkpHjyKívnf; olemjyKvkyfief;wdkYudk y&[dwpdwf
oufoufjzifh BudK;pm;vkyu
f ikd o
f ihaf y\/ ,if;odYk vyk u
f ikd o
f jzifh ]]olemjyKqdik &f m pHawmf
0if {w'*fbGJUxl;udk r&onfhwdkifatmif ]zavmh&ifh Edkufwifa*;vfbGJU? atmf'gatmh
arm&pfbGJU}}wdkYudk &&SdEdkifrnfum; trSef{uefyifjzpfayawmh\/ xdkYaMumifh ykxkZOf
vlom;wdkYcsD;jr§ifhonfholemjyKbGJUrsm;rSonf twkr&Sdaom jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif csD;jr§ifh
onfh ]]olemjyKqdkif&m awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;}}udk&&Sdatmif þawmf0ifpHxm;
urÇmholemjyK rdcifBuD;okydÜ,mudk pHjyKí BudK;pm;oihfvSaMumif; okH;oyfrdyg\/

YX;WZ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 161

tcef;-9

awmf0ifpx
H m; umwd,
d meDtrsdK;orD;
Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkYonf ukodkvfaumif;rIjyKMu&mü ,kHMunfrIo'¨gw&m;\
OD;aqmifrIjzifhom rdrdwdkYjyKvkyfvdkonfh &nf½G,fcsufrsm; NyD;ajrmufMu&av\/
,kHMunfrIo'¨gw&m; OD;aqmifrI? jy|mef;rIr&SdcJhaomfum; qdkif&mqdkif&m ukodkvfaumif;
rIwdkY jzpfajrmufzdkY&efrSm rvG,fulacs/ oHo,jzifhom jyKvkyf&onfh trIudpt
ö &yf&yf
wdkYonf vG,fulacsmarmpGm tNyD;wdkifa&mufEdkifrnfum; r[kwfygacs/
acwfumvtavsmuf jyKvkyf&onfh&[ef;cHjcif;? &SifjyKjcif; paomukodkvf
udp&ö yf wdkYonf cJ,Of;yifyef;pGm &SmazGpkaqmif;NyD; jyKvkyfaeMu&aomudprö sm; jzpf\/
,kMH unfro
I '¨gw&m; tm;BuD;aerIaMumifh udpt
ö &yf&yfwYkd NyD;ajrmufatmifjrifMu&onf
r[kwfygavm/ xdkYaMumifh omoemawmf0,f o'¨gw&m;onf ta&;tBuD;qkH;aom
w&m;wdkYwGif wpfyg;tygt0if jzpfvm&\/ pifppf Ak'¨bmom0if ykxkZOfwdkY\
,kHMunfrIo'¨gw&m;onfum; t&d,myk*dK¾ vfwdkY\ o'¨gw&m;uJhodkY xm0&wnfNrJae
onfum; r[kwfygay/ tNrJajymif;vJaeayonf/
jrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmftcgu omoemawmfudk rwkefrvIyf ouf0if
,kHMunfMuonfh trsdK;aumif;om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkY ay:xGef;cJh&m jrwfAk'¨onf
awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udk ay;tyfí csD;usL;&onftxd jzpfcJh\/ ,if;odkY omo
emawmfudk rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunf&mü pHawmf0if {w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdolwdkYwGif
trsdK;orD;xktwGif;rS wpfOD;wnf;aomyk*d¾Kvf ay:xGufcJh\/ ,if;rSm pHawmf0if
umwd,meD trsdK;orD;jzpf\/ olr\taMumif;tw¬KyÜwdåudk atmufygtwdkif;avhvm
awGU&SdEdkif\/

162 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

awmf0ifpx
H m; umwd,meD\ twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
þumwd,meD Oygodumtavmif; trsdK;aumif;orD;onf y'krw
k &å jrwfA'k ¨
\ vufxuf [Hom0wDjynfü trsKd ;aumif;orD; jzpfc\
hJ / wpfcak omtcsed üf olronf
jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk em,lpOf jrwfAk'¨onf trsdK;aumif;orD;wpfa,muftm;
omoemawmfü rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfrIt&m0,f tjrwfqkH;tomqkH;jzpfaom
awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udkay;tyfaeonfudk jrifawGUcJh&\/ xdkYaMumifh olronf
aumif;rIukodkvfrsm;jyKNyD; ,if;trsdK;aumif;orD;uJhodkY awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*f bGJUxl;udk
&&Sd&ef awmif;qkqdkcJhzl;\/
aemufq;Hk b0ü umwd,meDoal |;rjzpfjcif;
olronf ,if;odkYqkawmif;NyD; urÇmwpfodef;wdkY umvywfvkH; vlUjynf?
ewfjynfwdkYüom usifvnfcJh&\/ a*gwrjrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfüum; ]uk&&C&}
rnfaomNrdKUü ola|;orD; jzpfvmav\/ olr\trnfudk ]]umwd,meD}}[lí rdbwdkY
u rSnfhac:cJhMu\/ t½G,fa&mufaomtcgü olronf umVDola|;uawmf (aomP
uk#u
d PÖrax&f\r,fawmf)ESihf tvGe&f if;ES;D onfh oli,fcsif;rwpfa,mufjzpfav\/
umwd,meDoal |;r\ tpvo'¨gw&m;
wpfckaomtcgü aomPuk#duPÖ rax&fjrwfonf jrwfAk'¨xHawmfrS
jyefvmcJh\/ xdktcg rax&fjrwf\r,fawmf umVDola|;uawmfonf om;&[ef;tm;
]]jrwfAk'¨tm; ½Gwfqdk avQmufxm;cJhonfhenf;twdkif; r,fawmftm;vnf; w&m;a[m
awmfrlyg}}[k avQmufav\/ xdkYaMumifh rax&fjrwfonf nOfhtcg0,f uk&&C&
NrdKUv,f w&m;r@yftwGif; cif;xm;tyfaom "r®moeyv’ifay:üxdkifNyD; r,fawmfudk
w&m;em,lot
l jzpfxm;um w&m;pwifa[mav\/ xdt
k cg umwd,meDoal |;ronf
umVDESifhtwloGm;í y&dowftpGefrS w&m;udk½dkaopGmem,lvsuf wnfaeav\/
xdt
k csdeüf olc;kd ig;&mwdYk onf NrdKUtpGerf pS í OrifvP
kd af cgif;wl;Mu&m umwd
,meD ola|;r\tdro
f Ykd a&mufav\/ xdt
k cg "m;jyAdv
k o
f nf i,fom;cd;k olwYkd EiS t
hf wl
OrifvdkPfacgif;odkY r0ifbJ ]]þy&dowfum; tb,fhaMumifh pnf;a0;aeygvdrfh}}[k
pkHprf;&ef aomPrax&fw&m;a[m&m t&yfodkYoGm;\/ xdkYaemuf y&dowftpGef&Sd
umwd,meDola|;r\ausmaemufu &yfaeav\/
xd k t cg umwd , meD o l a |;ronf taptyg;uRef r ud k ]]oG m ;ygacs/
tdrfwGif;odkY0ifí qDrD;xGef;&ef qDudk,lcJhygavmh/ igwdkYonf qDrD;rsm;udk nd§xGef;í
w&m;emMuukeftHh/ ig\oli,fcsif;rjzpfol umVD\ukodkvftrIü tzdkYtpkudk ,lMu
ukeftHh}}[k ajymqdkvsuf apvTwfvdkufav\/ tdrfodkY a&muf&SdvmaomuRefronf
OrifvdkPfacgif;twGif;ü olcdk;wdkYudk awGU&jrif&í qDrD;xGef;&ef qDudk r,l0HhbJ w&m;yGJ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 163

odYk jyefvmcJ\
h / xdYk aemuf rdr\
d t&Sirf tm; ]]t&Sirf ... olc;kd wdYk onf OrifvP
kd af cgif;udk
wl;NyD; tdrfudkazmufaeMuyg\}}[k ajymMum;av\/ "m;jyAdkvfonfvnf; ]]tu,fí
þola|;ronf uRefr\pum;udkem,lí rdrdtdrfodkYvdkufygoGm;vQif þae&müyif
xdkola|;rudk oefvsufjzifh jzwftHh? tu,fí w&m;awmfudk emNrJwdkif;em,lcJhaomf
cdk;NyD;om;b@mwdkYudk jyefay;tHh}}[k BuHpnf xm;av\/
umwd,meDola|;ronfvnf; uRefrajymaompum;udk Mum;od&vQif
]]trd... toHrjyKygvifh? olcdk;wdkYonf rdrdjrifawGUaom0w¬Kudkom cdk;,lMuygvdrfhrnf/
igonfum; ,cktcgü Mum;em&ef cJ,Of;vSaom w&m;awmfudk emMum;aeyg\/
trdonf w&m;\tEÅ&m,fudkrjyKygvifh}}[k ajymqdkav\/ umwd,meDola|;r\
ajymMum;csufudk Mum;&aom"m;jyAdkvfonf ]]þodkY BuD;jrwfonfh ukodkvfqE´jzifh
wnfaeol ola|;r\tdrfu Opömudk cdk;,lMurnfqdkvQif igwdkYonf ajrrsdKcH&rnfrSm
{uefomjzpfacs\/}}[k qifjcifpOf;pm;rd\/ xdkYaMumifh cPcsif;yif ola|;r\tdrfodkY
oGm;í cdk;,lNyD;aomOpömtm;vkH;udk pGefYxm;apcJhNyD; cdk;om;wdkYESifhtwlwuG vma&mufí
y&dowftpGefü w&m;em,lav\/
umwd,meDola|;ronf t&SifaomPuk#duPÖrax&fa[maom w&m;
a'oem\ed*kH;ü aomwmywdåzdkvfü wnfav\/ t½kPfwufcsdefü "m;jyAdkvfonf
umwd,meDola|;r\ajcwdkYü OD;wdkufwkyf0yfí ]]t&Sifr... tuREfkyfwdkYtm;vkH;udk onf;
cHyg}}[k awmif;yefav\/ tusdK;taMumif; ola|;ruar;jref;&m "m;jyAdkvfonf
tjypftm;vkH;udk jyefMum;ajymqdkav\/ umwd,meDola|;ronf ]]tjypftm;vkH;udk
onf;cH\}}[k qdkav\/ xdktcg "m;jyAdkvfonf ]]onf;cH\[k ajymqdk½kHrQjzifh
tajytvnfonf;cHtyfonf rrnfyg/ pifppfaomfum; t&SifrwdkY\om; aomP
uk#duPÖ rax&fjrwf\txHü tuREfkyfwdkYtm;vkH; &Sif&[ef;jyKcsifyg\}}[k xyfrHí
awmif;yefpum; ajymMum;av\/
xdktcg umwd,meDola|;ronf cdk;om;tm;vkH;wdkYudkac:aqmifí t&Sif
aomPuk#duPÖrax&fjrwf\txHü &Sif&[ef;jyKay;apav\/ xdkcdk;om;ig;&mwdkY
onf rax&f\txHü &Sif&[ef;jyKNyD;aomf &[ef;w&m; yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfMuojzifh
t&[wåzdkvfodkYqdkufa&mufMu&av\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbx
UJG ;l &&Sjd cif;
aemuftzdkY0,f jrwfAk'¨onf aZw0efausmif;wdkufawmfüaeawmfrlpOf
vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdkYtm; toD;toD; pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;udk ay;awmf
rlcJh\/ ,if;odkYay;awmfrl&mü þumwd,meD OygodumrBuD;tm;vnf; omoem
awmfudk rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfMuol trsdK;orD;xkwGif tjrwfqkH;? tomqkH;jzpf
aom pHawmf0if ta0pöyÜoEé{w'*fbGJUxl;udk atmufyg twdkif;ay;awmfrlcJh\/

164 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]{w'*H¾ bdua© 0 rr om0dumeH Oygou
d meH ta0pöyo
Ü EémeH ,'d'H umwd,meD=
&[ef;wdkY.. omoemawmfudk rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfMuaom igbk&m;\
wynfhr vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;wdkYwGif umwd,meDonf tomqkH;? tjrwfqkH;
jzpfay\}
o'¨g
þae&mü ,kHMunfjcif; o'¨gw&m;taMumif;udk &Sif;vif;pGm odzdkYvdkay\/
o'¨g[laom a0g[m&rSmum; jrefrmvlrsdK;rsm;tzdkY &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD;aom a0g[m&
wpfckjzpf\/ xdkYaMumifhyif ]o'¨gw&m;odyaf umif;w,f? o'¨gMunfvif yg&rD&iS ?f o'¨gw&m;
rGv
J u
kd w
f m? o'¨gveG ;f qGr;f awmf&yf} tp&Sdonfh o'¨gw&m;ESifhoufqdkifonfhpum;wdkYudk
ajymqdo
k ;Hk EI;H rIwYkd u &if;ES;D uRrf;0ifrw
I Ykd ukd azmfñeT ;f aeay\/ odYk aomf ,if;o'¨g[laom
a0g[m&\ t"dygÜ ,ftjynft
h pkw
H Ykd uu
dk m; odo&l mS ;yg;ayvdrrhf nf/ xdYk aMumifh þtcef;
ü o'¨g[laom a0g[m&taMumif;udk &Sif;vif;wifjyrnfjzpf\/
o'¨g[laomyk'fudk t|omvdeDt|uxmü
]o'´[EdÅ {wm,? o,H 0g o'´[wd? o'´[erwåar0 0g {omwd o'¨g}[k
zGifhqdk&um; o'¨g\t"dyÜg,frSm ],kHMunfjcif;}[kqdkvdk\/ &if;jrpfteufrSmum;
aumif;pGmaqmifxm; wwfaomw&m;jzpfonf[k qdkvdk\/ ,if;odkY ,kHMunfjcif;onf
vnf; &wemok;H yg;ponfwYkd\ *kPaf us;Zl;udk aumif;pGm,kMH unfr?I uHç uH\tusKd ;udk
,kHMunfrI? a&S;b0? aemufb0 ponfwdkY &SdaMumif;udk ,kHMunfrIwdkYyif jzpf\/
tjcm;aomt&mwdkYudk ,kHMunfrIum; r[kwfygay/ ,if;,kHMunfrI o'¨grSmvnf;
pdwfr[kwfay/ tcgtm;avsmfpGmpdwfudk Munfvifwifhw,fatmif jyKjyifwwfaom
apwodufwpfyg;omvQif jzpf\/
o'¨g\vu©Pm'dpwkuú
y&rw¬w&m;wdkYonf trSefxif&Sm;&Sdaomfvnf; tvGefeufeJojzifh omref
ÓPfrsdK;jzifh rjrifEdkifay/ txnfudk,fj'yf? ta&miftqif;? ykHoP²mefponfwdkY
r&Sdjcif;aMumifh ,if;wdkY\ obm0udk rodrjrifjcif;vnf; jzpf\/ xkdYaMumifh þae&mü
o'¨g\oabmobm0udk tusOf;tm;jzifh odoihfay\/
o'¨gw&m;onf txl;tm;jzifh Munfvifjcif; (orÜom'e)vu©Pm? ajy;0if
jcif; (orÜu©E´e)vu©Pm? ,kHMunfjcif;vu©Pm? ,kHMunfoihf? ,kHMunfxdkufaom
&wemokH;yg;? uHç uH\tusdK;rsm;ü qifjcifqkH;jzwfjcif; (MouyÜe)vu©PmwdkY &Sd\/
o'¨gonf Munfvifapjcif; yom'e&oESihf ajy;0ifjcif;yu©Ee´ &o wdYk &\
dS /
ypöKy|meftm;jzifh raemufusKonf\tjzpfjzifh a,m*DÓPftm; a&S;½Ixifvmjcif;
[laom tumvkód, y'|mefESifh oa'¨,s0w¬KwdkYü qkH;jzwfjcif;[laom tusdK;udk

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 165

NyD;apaom t"drw
k yåd pöKy|mefwYkd jzpf\/ y'|meftm;jzifu
h m; ,kMH unfxu
kd af om0w¬KvQif
eD;pGmaomtaMumif;&Sdjcif;ESifh aomwmywdår*f\ taMumif;t*Fg[laom eD;pGmaom
taMumif;wdkY&Sd\/
o'¨gtrsdK;tpm; (4)rsdK;
azmfjyygo'¨gw&m;onf av;rsdK;jym;aMumif; usrf;*efwdkYü avhvmawGU&Sd
Edkif\/ ,if;wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf\/
(1)
tm*red,o'¨g?
(2)
t"d*ro'¨g (wpfenf;) ypöu©o'¨g?
(3)
yom'o'¨g?
(4)
MouyÜeo'¨g (wpfenf;) tpvo'¨g
,if;o'¨gw&m;wdkYESifhpyfvsOf;í atmufygtwdkif; t"dyÜg,ftoD;oD; rSwf,l
Edkif\/
(1)
oAÁñkbk&m;tavmif;wdkY\o'¨gw&m;onf tm*red,o'¨g rnf
\/ þtm*red,o'¨gonf omrefyk*d¾Kvfrsm;ESifh oufqdkifrIr&Sday/ oAÁñkbk&m;
tavmif;wdkYESifhom oufqdkifay\/ tavmif;awmfrsm;\ bk&m;&SifwpfqlqlxHrS
]]{uefbk&m;jzpfvdrfhrnf}}[k Asm'dwf&NyD;onfh tcsdefrSpí jzpfay:vmaom ,kHMunfrI
rsdK;jzpf\/
(2)
t&d,myk*d¾KvfwdkY\ o'¨gw&m;onf t"d*ro'¨grnf\/ (wpf
enf;) ypöuo
© '¨grnf\/ t&d,myk*K¾d vfonf jrwfA'k r¨ ed Yf awmfro
l nft
h wdik ;f owdy|mef
w&m;? r*¾if&Spfyg;tusifhwdkYudk usifh\/ ,if;odkYusifhaomtcg ½kyf? emrfw&m;wdkY\
jzpfrI? ysufrIudk owdjzifhpl;pdkuf½IrSwf&if; ½kyfemrfwdkY\obm0udk odjrifvm\/ xdkodkY
odjrifvmaomaMumifh ]]jrwfA'k \
¨ w&m;awmfrsm;onf wu,f[w
k \
f / wu,freS \
f /
bk&m;qk;H ronft
h wdik ;f usifv
h Qif wu,foyd gvm;}}ponfjzifh ,kMH unf? qk;H jzwfEikd v
f m
\/ w&m;todydkí &Sif;vif;vmonfESifhtrQ ,kHMunfrIvnf; ydkítm;aumif;vm\/
,if;odkY t&d,myk*dK¾ vftm; jzpfay:vmonfh ,kHMunfrIo'¨gw&m;onf tvGeftm;
aumif;&um; rnfonfhtaMumif;aMumihfrQ rysufpD;awmhay/ tNrJcdkifNrJaernfom
jzpf\/ ,if;uJhodkYaom o'¨gw&m;onf t"d*ro'¨g(wpfenf;) ypöu©o'¨grnf\/
(3)
ÓPfESifhr,SOfaomo'¨gw&m;onf yom'o'¨grnf\/ trSefrSm
bk&m;? w&m;? oHCmtaMumif;wdkYudk rnfodkYrQem;rvnfbJ ]bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm}
[laomtoHudk Mum;½kHrQjzifh ykxkZOfyk*dK¾ vfrsm;\pdwfxJü Munfvifpdwf? Munfñdkpdwf
rsm; jzpfay:vmwwfMu\/ ÓPfjzifhxJxJ 0if0ifodjrifjcif;um; r[kwfay/ xdkodkY
Munfvif? Munfñdkpdwfjzpfjcif;onf yom'o'¨gyifjzpf\/
(4)
umwd,meD\o'¨gw&m;uJhodkY &wemokH;yg;*kPfü rwkefrvIyf

166 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

ouf0if,kHMunfaomo'¨gw&m;onf MouyÜeo'¨grnf\/ þumwd,meD Oyg
odumrBuD;\ &wemokH;yg;tay:ü ,kHMunfrIrsdK;onfvnf; MouyÜeo'¨gyifjzpf\/
xdkYaMumifh ykxkZOfwdkYonf yom'o'¨grSonf MouyÜeo'¨gtqifhodkYa&mufatmif
umwd,meDtrsdK;orD;udk twk,loihfay\/
o'¨gw&m;&So
d \
l vu©Pm (3)yg;
avmuü a½T\t&nftaoG;aumif;çraumif;udk rSwfausmufwifí Munfh&
ouJhodkY þüvnf; o'¨gw&m;&Sdol[kwfçr[kwfudkvnf; atmufygvu©Pmrsm;ESifh
wdu
k q
f ikd í
f Munf½h EI ikd af y\/ o'¨gw&m;&So
d o
l nf atmufygvu©Pm(3)yg;ESihf jynfph &Hk
rnfjzpf\/ ,if;wdkYrSm(1)
oDv&Sdoludk awGUjrifvdkjcif;? qnf;uyfvdkjcif;?
(2)
olawmfaumif;w&m;rsm;udk em,lvdkjcif;ESifh
(3)
0efwdkrIr&Sdjcif; wdkYjzpfay\/
o'¨gw&m;&Sjd cif;\ tusdK;w&m;rsm;
wpfzef jrwfAk'¨onf o'¨gw&m;&SdolwdkYtm; &&SdEdkifaomtusdK;(11)yg;&Sd
aMumif;udkvnf; a[mawmfrlcJhay\/ ,if;wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf\/
(1)
oDv&Sdjcif;?
(2)
tMum;tjrifrsm;jcif;?
(3)
rdwfaumif;aqGaumif;&Sdjcif;?
(4)
em;vnfvG,f? odjrifvG,fjcif;?
(5)
xdkxdktrIudpw
ö dkYü uRrf;usifvdr®mjcif;?
(6)
w&m;emvdkjcif;?
(7)
tukodkvfudky,fjcif;iSg vkHYvtm;xkwfBudK;ukwfjcif;?
(8)
psmefav;yg;&&Sdjcif;?
(9)
ykaAÁed0goEkówdÓPfudk&&Sdjcif;?
(10)
'dAÁpu©KÓPfudk&&Sdjcif;?
(11)
&[EÅmjzpfEdkifjcif;/
þodkY o'¨gw&m;&Sdjcif;onf twdkif;rodrsm;jym;aomaumif;usdK;rsm;udk &&Sd
apEdkifaMumif; od&SdaomolwdkYonf ,kHMunfrIo'¨gw&m;udk t&if;tESD;jyKí avmuD
csrf;omESifh avmukwå&mcsrf;om wdkYudk&&Sdatmif aqmif½Gufoihfay\/ ,if;odkY aqmif
½Gu&f müvnf; yom'o'¨gw&m;rSonf pHawmf0if umwd,meDtrsKd ;orD;\ tpvo'¨g
(MouyÜeo'¨g)jzpfonfhwdkifatmif tywfwukwfBudK;pm;,l&rnfomjzpfay\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 167

þumwd,meDtrsdK;orD;onf ,kHMunfrIjzifh b0ü txG#ftxdyfodkY a&muf&Sd
vmoljzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ ,kHMunfrIqdk&müvnf; omref,kHMunfrI
rsdK;um; r[kwfygay/ omoemawmfudk rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfrIyif jzpfay\/
omref vlom;wpfOD;wGif&Sdonfh omref,kHMunfrIrsdK; r[kwfbJ omoemawmfudk
xJxJ0if0if pGJpGJNrJNrJ ,kHMunfcsuftjynfjzifh tm;udk;cJhonfhtavsmufvnf;
olr\b0onf aomwmyefyk*d¾KvfjzpfcJh½kHomru omoemawmfudk rwkefrvIyf
ouf0if,kHMunfol vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;wdkYwGif tjrifhqkH;? tjrwfqkH;aom
awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*f bGJUxl;udk &&SdcJhol jzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/
olr\b0udk okawoejyK&mwGif olronf tjcm;aom awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*f&Sifrsm;uJhodkYyif y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨vufxufrSonf awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;
&onftxd yg&rDawmfwdkYudk jznfhqnf;cJhol jzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ yg&rD
qkawmif;jynfh&m aemufqkH;b0üvnf; aomPuk#d uPÖrax&fjrwf\ r,fawmfjzpf
ol umVDola|;uawmf[laom rdwfaqGaumif;ESifh qkHawGUcJh&\/ rdwfaqGaumif;ESifh
qkHawGUrIaMumifhyif jrwfAk'¨###BOT_TEXT###quot;r®udk &if;ESD;cGifh&&SdcJh\/ "r®ESifh&if;ESD;onfhtavsmuf
omoemawmftay:ü rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfcJhaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd&rnfjzpf
\/ þ tcsufwdkYudkaxmufqaomf avmuD? avmukwå&mcsrf;omtrsdK;rsdK;wdkYudk
&&SdcHpm;vdk olwdkYonf rlvu yifudk,fp½dkufobm0wdkYaumif;&rnfhtjyif rdwfaqG
aumif;&Sdjcif;? olawmfaumif;wdkYudk emMum;&jcif; paomtaMumif;tcsufwdkYu
axmufyahH y;vdu
k jf cif;jzifh NyD;jynfph aHk omcsrf;omudk &&Scd pH m;Edik af Mumif; ok;H oyfrad y\/
awmf0ifpHxm;umwd,meDtrsdK;orD;\w&m;em,lrIrSm csD;rGrf;zG,f&m? tHhMo
zG,&f myif jzpfay\/ pdwaf eoabmxm;t&mudMk unfv
h Qifvnf; ]]cd;k olrsm;cd;k ,lMuvQif
awGUjrifaom0w¬Kudkom cdk;,lMuvdrfhrnf}}[laompum;rSm cdk;olrsm;xHrSypönf;udk
jyefvdkcsifpdwfr&SdykH? cdk;olrsm;cdk;aMumif; ajymoludkyif rESpfoufykHwdkYudkawGU&ay\/
aemufqkH; cdk;olrsm;u 0efcsawmif;yef&mwGif onf;cHcGifhvTwfykH? cdk;olrsm;udk &[ef;jyK
ay;ykHwdkYrSm tHhMozG,f&myifjzpfay\/ þjzpf&yfudkMunfhaomf "r®udk pl;pdkufpGmem,l
rIaMumifh tusdK;w&m;&&Sjd cif;yifjzpf\/ xdYk aMumifh w&m;em,lorl sm;taejzifh pHawmf0if
umwd,meDtrsdK;orD;uJhodkY em,lvQif toufab;rSvGwfajrmufjcif; paomtusdK;xl;
rsm;ud k p H p m;&rnf j zpf a y\/ w&m;emaecd k u f t csd e f ü vnf ; vl r I u d p ö t 00ud k
arhazsmufxm;NyD; w&m;awmfudkom tm½kHpdkufí av;pm;pGmem,loihfay\/ jrwfAk'¨
uvnf; ]"r®onf pifppfw&m;udu
k siahf qmifot
l m; apmifah &Smuf\}[k a[mMum;xm;ay
&m rdrdu"r®udkusifhaqmifvQif "r®uvnf; rdrdudkjyefí apmifha&Smufrnfomjzpfay\/
þae&müvnf; umwd,meDonf "r®uu
kd sifah qmifaomaMumifh "r®ujyefíapmifah &Smuf
aMumif; odomxif&Sm;ay\/
wpfzef "m;jyAdkvf\tcef;u@udk Munfh&müvnf; "m;jyAdkvfonf

168 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]]þola|;ronf uRefr\pum;udkem,lí rdrdtdrfodkY vdkufygoGm;vQif þae&müyif
oefvsufjzifhjzwftHh/ tu,fí w&m;emNrJwdkif;emaomf cdk;NyD;aomb@mwdkYudk
jyefay;tHh}}[k BuHpnfrd\/ "m;jyAdkvfonf BuHpnfrdonfhtavsmuf umwd,meD\
tay:ü jyKvkyfcJhaMumif; awGU&SdEdkif\/ þonfudkMunfhaomf xdkacwfumv&Sd
"m;jyAdkvfwdkYonf 'kp½dkufrIwdkYudk usL;vGefolrsm;jzpfaomfvnf; uwdwnfaomolwdkY
jzpfaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ rnfodkYyif 'kp½dkufrIudk usL;vGefoljzpfygap xdkolü
aumif;uGufwpfckonf tenf;qkH;&SdaMumif; þ"m;jyAdkvf\taMumif;t&mwdkYu
oufaocHvsuf&Sday\/
avmuü udpötrsm;tjym; NyD;pD;jcif;udk Munfh&mü ,kHMunfrI&Sd½kHrQjzifh
udpöwpf0ufNyD;aMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ þpHawmf0ifumwd,meD\ ,kHMunfcsuf
onfum; &wemokH;yg;? uH uH\tusdK;? a&S;b0 aemufb0wdkYü ,kHMunfrIwdkYyifjzpf
\/ rnfonfht&mürqdk owfrSwfxm;onfh e,fedrdwf&Sd\/ rl&Sd\/ abmif&Sd\/ xdkrlç
abmifç e,fedrdwfwdkYudk ausmfvGefoGm;vQif wpfzufpGef;odkY a&mufoGm;wwfay\/
,if;odkYa&mufoGm;ygu raumif;usdK;rsm; jzpfyGm;ay:aygufvmwwfay\/ o'¨gw&m;
um; ukodkvfw&m;jzpf\/ twdtusqdk&aomf tjypfr&Sdaumif;aomtusdK;udk ay;jcif;
&SdaompdwfwdkYESifhqufqHaom apwodufwpfyg;yifjzpf\/
xdkaumif;rGefonfh ukodkvfw&m;onfyif ,kHMunf&rnfhe,fedrdwf? rlabmif
udak usmv
f eG í
f r,kMH unf&rnft
h &mrsm;udk uGeYf omG ;ygu o'¨gppfo'¨grSef rjzpfawmhay/
o'¨gwk? o'¨ga,mifrsm;om jzpfrnfjzpfay\/ pum;ykHwGifvnf; ]o'¨gveG v
f Qif uGeYf
onf? ynmvGev
f Qif qGeo
Yf nf}[k awGU&Sd Edkifayao;\/ ,if; o'¨gwk? o'¨ga,mifwdkYjzifh
,kHMunfrIe,fedrdwfwdkYudk ausmfvGefíoGm;chJaomf bm0emur®|mef; pD;jzef;&müyif
o'¨g[efcsufrnDí w&m;rwufbJ jzpfwwfay\/ xdkYaMumifh ,kHoihf? r,kHoihf?
Munfñdkoihf? rMunfñdkoihfonfrsm;udk ynmjzifhpdppfí ,kHMunfoihf? ,kHMunfxdkuf
aom &wemokH;yg;? uHçuH\tusdK;? ,ckb0? aemufb0wdkYü ,kHMunfjcif;[k qdk
tyfaom omref Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY\,kHMunfrIrSonf awmf0ifpHxm;umwd,meD\
rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfaom tpvo'¨gw&m;rsm;jzpfatmif BudK;pm;twk,loihf
Muay\/

YX;WZ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 169

tcef;-10

awmf0ifpx
H m; eukvrmwk trsdK;orD;
avmuü wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; tvGef&if;ESD;pGmjzifh awGUMuqkHMu BuHK&jcif;udk
Ak ' ¨ b mom0if w d k Y u ]y|mef;quf&Sdjcif;aMumifhom þb0ü cspfcifaygif;oif; qufqH
ae&jcif;jzpf\}[k ,lqxm;Mu\/ ,if;tqdrk mS rSeu
f efayonf/ tb,faMumifq
h akd omf
,ckypöKyÜefb0ü cifcifrifrif &if;&if; ESD;ESD;aygif;qkHí wpfOD;udkwpfOD; cspfcifjcif;onf
rdrdwdkYusifvnfcJh&aom twdwfb0wdkYu &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifcJhaom txkHyg&rD t&if;cH
aMumifhyif jzpf\/ jrwfAk'¨uvnf; ]þavmuü&Sad om owå0g tm;vk;H onf aqGrsKd ;
rawmfcJhbl;olr&Sday}[k a[mMum;csufvnf;&Sdayao;\/ b0gb0u twlwuG
jznfhqnf;cJhaom yg&rDtxkHwdkYonf ,ckypöKyÜefb0ü &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifrIudk jzpfay:ap
ouJhodkY þypöKyÜef b0üjzpfaomtusdK;pD;yGm;aMumifhvnf; &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifjcif; udk
jzpfaponfr[kwfygavm/ jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmftcgüvnf; jrwfAk'¨ESifh tuRrf;0if
onfh trsdK;orD;wdkYwGif pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl; &&Sdaom trsdK;orD;wpfOD; ay:xGef;cJh
av\/ olrrSm tjcm;olr[kwf/ eukvrmwk trsdK;orD;omvQif jzpf\/ eukvrmwk
taMumif;udk azmfjy&mü olr\cifyeG ;f onf eukvydwo
k al |;udv
k nf; csex
f m;í r&ay/
eukvrmwk ZeD;armifEw
HS \
Ykd twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
þeukvrmwkESifh eukvydwk ZeD;armifESHavmif;wdkYonf y'krkwå&
bk&m;&Sif\ vufxufawmf0,f bk&m;&Sifu OygoumZeD;armifESHwdkYudk ]]bk&m;&SifESifh
tuRrf;0ifonft
h &mü tjrifq
h ;Hk tjrwfq;Hk jzpfonfh {w'*fbUJG xl;üxm;awmfro
l nfukd
awGUjrif&í t"dum&aumif;rIukodkvfudk jyKcJhMuNyD; ,if;odkY{w'*fbGJU&&ef awmif;qk
qdkcJhzl;av\/ ,if;odkYawmif;qkqdkNyD; yg&rDawmfrsm; jznfhqnf;cJh&m þa*gwrjrwf
Ak'¨vufxufawmfüum; qkawmif;jynfhcJhav\/

170 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

eukvrmwk ZeD;armifEw
HS \
Ykd ypöKyÜeb
f 0
xdkeukvrmwk ZeD;armifESHwdkYonf urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; ukodkvf
aumif;rIrsm;udk qnf;yl;tm;xkwfNyD; vlUjynf? ewfjynfwdkYü wpfvSnfhpD usifvnfcJh&
\/ a*gwrjrwfA'k \
¨ vufxufawmfüum; b*¾wikd ;f ? okork m&*d&NrdKUü ola|;rsdK;0,f
jzpfav\/ bk&m;&Sio
f nfvnf; &[ef;taygif;NcH&v
H suf a'opm&D<ucsDawmfr&l m okok
rm&*d&NrdKUodkYa&mufawmfrlí abouVm rnfaomawmtkyfü oDwif;okH;aeawmfrl
av\/
xdt
k cg eukvrmwk ZeD;armifEw
HS Ydk onf okork m&*d&NrdKUae vltrsm;ESiw
hf uG
jrwfA'k ¨ txHoYkd oGm;a&mufav\/ ,if;odYk omG ;a&mufNyD; yxrqk;H tBudrf jrifvQifjrif
jcif; ZeD;armifESHESpfOD;vkH;yif jrwfAk'¨udk ]]þolum; igwdkY\om;BuD;wnf;}}[k om;
[laomtrSwfonmudk jzpfapMuí jrwfAk'¨\ajcawmfwdkYü wkyf0yf\/ xdkYaemuf
]]cspfom;.. oifonf þrQumvMumatmif igwdkYudk pGefYypfí tb,ft&yfodkY
vSnfhvnfusufpm; oGm;vmaeoenf;}}[k ajymqdkMuav\/
trSefrSm eukvydwkola|;onf a&S;tcg b0ig;&mwdkYumvywfvkH;
bk&m;&Sif\crnf;awmf jzpfcJhav\/ b0ig;&mwdkYumvywfvkH; baxG;? b0ig;&mwdkY
umvywfvkH; bBuD;? b0ig;&m wdkYumvywfvkH; OD;BuD;jzpfcJhav\/ eukvrmwk
olaX;uawmfBuD;onfvnf; b0ig;&mwdkYumvywfvkH; bk&m;&Sif\ r,fawmf? b0
ig;&mwdkY umvywfvkH; rdaxG;? b0ig;&mwdkYumvywfvkH; rdBuD;? b0ig;&mwdkY umv
ywfvkH; t&D;jzpfcJhav\/ þodkY b0oHo&m&SnfpGmaomumvywfvkH; tcspf arwåm
"mwf qufpyfued ;f 0yfcahJ vaomaMumifh Ak'u
¨ jkd rifvQifjrifcsif;yif ]]om;}}[laom trSwf
onmudkjyKMuvsuf r&yfwnfEdkifMubJ xdkuJhodkY tuRrf;w0if ajymqdkMujcif;jzpf\/
jrwfAk'¨onf xdkola|;ZeD;armifESHwdkY pdwfauseyfjcif;odkY ra&mufao;orQ
]]z,fMuavmh}} [k rdefYawmfrrlacs/ olwdkYpdwfauseyfjcif;udkom iHhvifhaeawmfrl\/
xdkYaemuf xdkola|;ZeD;armifESHwdkY rdrdwdkY\ pdwftvdktwdkif;yif owd&Muí tv,f
tvwf yifudk,foabmodkY a&mufMuaomtcgrS jrwfAk'¨onf olwdkY\tvdktmo,
udk odawmfrlvsuf w&m;a[mawmfrlav\/ w&m;a'oemawmf tqkH;ü ZeD;armifESH
ESpfOD;vkH;yif aomwmywdåzdkvfü wifMuav\/
jrwfAk'¨onf aemuftzdkY0,f xdkola|;ZeD;armifESHwdkY touft½G,f BuD;&ifh
Muaomtcg wpfzef okokrm&*d&NrdKUodkY <ua&mufawmfrljyefav\/ xdkZeD;armifESH
wdYk onf ]]jrwfA'k <¨ uvmawmfr\
l }}[k owif;pum; Mum;od&vQif jrwfA'k t
¨ xHawmfoYkd
oGm;a&mufMuum &Sdcdk;í eufjzefaumif;rI tvdkYiSg yifhzdwfcJhMu\/ aemufaeYü rdrdwdkY
tdrf0,f jrwfAk'¨trSL;&Sdaom &[ef;oHCmudk txl;xl; tjym;jym; rsm;jrwfvSaom
t&om&Sdonfh qGrf;cJzG,f? abmZOfwdkYjzifh jyKpkvkyfauR;Mu\/ xkdYaemuf qGrf;udpö
NyD;qkH;aom jrwfAk'¨udk qnf;uyfMuvsuf oihfwifhavsmufywf tjypfvGwf&mt&yfü

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 171

xdkifaeMuNyD;vQif eukvydwkola|;u jrwfAk'¨udk ]]&Sifawmfbk&m;... wynfhawmfonf
i,f½G,fpOfuyif i,f½G,fol eukvrmwkola|;uawmfudk xdrf;jrm;vufxyfcJhonf
rSpí pdwfrQjzifhvnf; eukvrmwk ola|;uawmfudk vGefíusifhrdonf[k wynfhawmf
rodpbl;yg/ udk,fjzifhrlum; tb,fqdkzG,f&m&Sdyg tHhenf;/ &Sifawmfbk&m;... wynfh
awmfwdkYonf ,ckb0üvnf; tcsif;csif; ½IjrifvdkMuygukef\/ aemifwrvGefb0ü
vnf; tcsif;csif;½IjrifvdkMuygukef\bk&m;}}[k avQmufxm;\/
eukvrmwkola|;uawmfuvnf; jrwfAk'¨udk ]]&Sifawmfbk&m;.. eukvydwk
ola|;onf i,f½G,fpOfuyif i,f½G,folwynfhawmfrudk xdrf;jrm;vufxyf,lcJh
onfrSpí pdwfjzifhrQvnf; eukvydwkola|;udk vGefíusifhrdonf[k wynfhawmfr
rodbl;yg? udk,fjzifhrlum; tb,frSmqdkzG,f&m &SdygtHhenf;/ &Sifawmfbk&m;.. wynfh
awmfrwdkYonf ,ckb0üvnf; tcsif;csif; ½IjrifvdkMuygukef\/ wrvGefb0üvnf;
tcsif;csif; ½IjrifvdkMuyg\bk&m;}}[k avQmufxm;av\/
b0wdik ;f awGv
U ykd gvQif (iSujf zpfvQifyif wpfuikd ;f wnf; em;vdyk gvQif)
xdktcg jrwfAk'¨u eukvydwkola|;ESifh eukvrmwkola|;uawmf ZeD;
armifESHwdkYudk ]]'g,um('g,dumr)wdkY... ZeD;armifESHESpfOD;om;wdkYonf ,ckb0üvnf;
tcsif;csif; ½IjrifMu&ef? aemifwrvGefb0üvnf; tcsif;csif;½IjrifMu&ef tu,fí
tvdk&SdukeftHh? ESpfOD;vkH;wdkYonf(1) oro'¨g = wlrQaomo'¨gw&m;&Sdukef&m\/
(2) oroDvm = wlrQaomoDv&Sdukef&m\/
(3) orpm*g = wlrQaompGefYBuJrI&Sdukef&m\/
(4) orynm = wlrQaomtodÓPfynm&Sdukef&m\/
þo'¨g? oDv? pm*? ynm wlrQpGm&SMd uvQif xdZk eD;armifEw
HS Ykd onf ,ckb0ü
vnf; tcsif;csif; ½IjrifMu&ukef\/ aemifwrvGefb0üvnf; tcsif;csif;½IjrifMu&
ukef\}}[k rdefYawmfrl NyD;vQif atmufygtwkdif; qufírdefYawmfrlay\/
'g,umwdkY... ZeD;armifESHESpfOD;wdkYonf o'¨gw&m;vnf; &SdMu
uke\
f ? tvSLcHwYkd \ pum;t"dygÜ ,fuv
kd nf; em;vnfo&d MdS uuke\
f / ud,
k çf
EIwfç ESvkH; okH;yg;vkH;udkvnf; apmifhpnf;Muukef\/ xdkZeD;armifESHwdkYonf
tcsi;f csi;f (wpfa,mufonf wpfa,mufu)kd cspzf ,
G pf um; ajymMum;Muukef
vsuf? w&m;ojzifh toufarG;jcif; &SdMuukefonfvnf;? jzpfukef\/
xdkZeD;armifESHwdkY\tzdkY&m tusdK;w&m;wdkYonf qqwufyGm;
rsm;ukefonf jzpfukef\/ ab;&efrJhvQif; csrf;ompGmae&jcif;onf jzpf\/
wlrQaomoDv&SdMuukefaom ZeD;armifESH ESpfOD;om;wdkY\tay:ü? &efolwdkY
onf aumif;usKd ;awGjynfzh ;Hk ojzifh ESv;Hk rom rsuEf mS rvS remvdMk uukeo
f nf

172 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jzpfukef\/
0w¬Kumr t00udk awmifhwvifhqkH tvdk&SdMuukefvsuf wlrQ
aomoDvtusifh &SdMuukefaom ZeD;armifESH ESpfOD;om;wkdYonf ypöKyÜEé
þvlUb0ü olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd usifhBuHBudK;ukwf tm;xkwfMuí
ESpfoufjcif;yDwd udk,f0,f&SdMuukefvsuf ewfjynf avmuü ESpfvdktm;&
0rf;ajrmufMuukef\/
rSefygonf/ vlUavmuü wlrQaomo'¨g? wlrQaomoDv? wlrQaompm*?
wlrQaom todÓPfynm&SdMuukefaom ZeD;armifESHwdkYonf wpfa,mufonf
wpfa,mufudk az;az;rrjzifh ESpfoufzG,f? cspfcifzG,faompum;wdkYudk ajymMum;vsuf
w&m;ojzifh toufarG;rnfqv
kd Qif pD;yGm;wd;k wufEikd af y\/ wpfO;D udw
k pfO;D tjypfrjrif
cspfcifrIaMumifh ab;&efwkdYvnf; r&SdEdkifyg/ csrf; csrf;omomvnf; aeEdkif\/ þodkY
pD;yGm;wdk;wufí aysmf½TifrI? csrf;omrIwdkYjzifh tpOfjynfh0aeaom ZeD;armifESHtm;
&efolwdkYu remvdkr½IpdrfhMuay/ þuJhodkY vdk&mjynfh0í ZeD;armifESHESpfOD;om;wdkY
csrf;csrf;omom touf&SifaeEdkifjcif;\taMumif;udk &Smonf&Sdaomf ZeD;armifESH
ESpOf ;D om;wdYk \ wlrQaomo'¨g? oDv? pm*? ynmwdYk &rdS aI Mumifo
h mjzpfaMumif; odomEdik f
ay\/
xdkYaMumifh eukvydwk ola|;ESifh eukvrmwkola|;uawmfwdkYuJhodkY b0wGif
aysmfaysmf½Tif½Tif cspfcspfcifcifjzifh csrf;csrf;omom aevdkygvQif trsdK;aumif;om;?
trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonf wlrQaomo'¨g? oDv? pm*? ynmwdkYudk jzpfapoihfay\/
þodkY cspfcspfcifcif MuifMuifememjzifh t,loDvwlrQNyD; olawmfaumif;w&m;udk
emMum;í usifhBuHBudK;ukwf tm;xkwfrIjyKygvQif wrvGef b0ü csrf;csrf;omomjzifh
0rf;ajrmuf&rnfomjzpfay\/ xdkYaMumifh b0wdkif;awGUvdkaom? iSufjzpf vQifyif
wpf u d k i f ; wnf ; em;vd k M uaom trsd K ;aumif ; om; trsd K ;aumif ; orD ; wd k Y onf
wlrQaomo'¨g? wlrQaomoDv? wlrQaompm*? wlrQaomynmwdkYudkjzpfapvsuf
olawmfaumif;w&m;udk em,lí usifhBuHBudK;ukwf tm;xkwfoihfay\/ þodkYaom
taMumif;w&m;wdkYudk &nf½G,fí trnfrodpmqdk wpfOD;uvnf;
]vlUajr&yfcGif? tdrf&Siftdrfol? jrwf&nfwlvsuf? qk,lnDrQ? vSL'geESifh? oDvr,dkif?
o'¨gNyKd irf ?l bke;f vdiI af usmMf um;? rd;k ewfom;ESi?hf aqG0g;teD;? ewforD;od?Yk aumif;cs;D
tH&h m? ckr&d mS vsu?f oHomaemifvnf;?csppf nf;rajy? &Snf Mumav\}
[k zGJUqdkxm;cJhonfudkvnf; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/
þodkY eukvydwkola|;ESifh eukvrmwk ola|;uawmfBuD;wdkYonf txuf
azmfjyygwdkYtwdkif; rdrdwdkY\twGif;a&;wdkYudk jrwfAk'¨tm; rdrdwdkYESifhtvGef&if;ESD;aom
aqGrsdK;wpfOD;yrm&ifzGifhí ajymjyjcif;onf jrwfAk'¨\tay:ü ]]om;}}[laomtrSwfjzifh
tvGefuRrf;0if&if;ESD;pGm ajymqdkcJhjcif; jzpf\/ jrwfAk'¨uvnf; xdkZeD;armifESHwdkY\

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 173

tdrfwGif;a&;pum;wdkYudk y,fzsufrIr&SdbJ em;axmif½kHomru w&m;pum;udk
a[mMum;cJhaMumif; txufazmfjyyg orZD0Dokwåefu azmfñTef;jyoaeay\/
rif;uGef;wdyd#uq&mawmfBuD;uvnf; r[mAk'¨0ifü]]a&S;azmfjy&myg eukvydwkola|;BuD;ZeD;armifESHwdkY avQmufxm;
tyfonfudk taMumif;jyKí a[mMum;tyfaomokwåefudk yXrorZD0Dokwåef
[lí ac:\/ xdkokwåefoGm;udk av;eufpGmpOf;pm;qifjcifvQif eukvydwk?
eukvrmwkola|;BuD;? ola|;uawmfBuD; ESpfOD;vkH;wdkYyif jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif\
tay:ü om;t&if;ESifhrjcm; tvGeftuRrf;0if&if;ESD;tm;xm; cifrifaom
pdw&f MdS uaMumif; odomay\/ xdo
k Ykd tvGet
f uRrf;0if &if;ES;D tm;xm; cifrif
aompdwf&SdMuaomaMumifhyif rdrdwdkYpdwfü&SdorQudk r&SufraMumuf tvkH;pkH
zGifhí avQmufxm;Mujcif;jzpfavonf/}}
[k a0befa&;om;xm;ay\/
ZeD;aumif; eukvrmwk
vlom;wdkYonf 'ku©a&mufcsdefü tm;udk;rIudk&SmMu\/ teD;uyftm;ay;rnfh
ol udk vdkvm;\/ teD;pyfqkH;om"uudkjy&aomf usef;rma&;raumif;csdef jzpf\/
,if;odkYusef;rma&; raumif;csdefü vlom;wdkY\pdwfxm;onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh
tm;i,fwwfaomoabm&Sd&um; pdwfoufom&m wpfckckudk &SmazGMu\/ tm;&Sdrnfh
t&mwdYk ukd awmifw
h wwfMu\/ ,if;tcsdeüf vlemapmifw
h Ykd onf tvGet
f a&;ygay\/
usef;rma&;raumif;oltm; aq;wdkufjcif;? tm;ay;pum; ajymMum;jcif;jzifh teD;uyf
jyKpkoihfay\/ ,if;odkY teD;uyfjyKpkay;jcif;jzifh usef;rma&;aumif;vmaom yk*Kd¾ vfwdkY
onf avmuü xkESifha';yif/ jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmfuvnf; eukvydwkola|;ESifh
eukvrmwkola|;uawmfwdkYonf usef;rma&;raumif;csdefü tcsif;csif;tm;ay;pum;
ajymMum;NyD; cspfcif,k,rIjzifh usef;rma&;aumif;rGefvmonfhtaMumif;wpf&yf&Sday\/
,if;rSmtcgwpfyg;ü jrwfAk'¨onf b*¾wdkif;? okokrm&*d&NrdKU0,f abouVm
awmtkyfü oDwif;okH;csdef eukvydwkola|;onf tema&m*gjyif;xefESdyfpufí remr
usef;jzpf\/ xdktcg eukvrmwk ola|;uawmfonf eukvydwkola|;BuD;tm;
atmufygtwdkif; teD;uyftm;ay;í w&m;pum; ajymcJh\/
]]ol<u,f... oifonf iJu
h u
G jf cif;&So
d nfjzpfí raoygvif?h iJu
h u
G jf cif;&So
d nf
jzpfí ao&jcif;onf qif;&JvSyg\/ iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨
uJh&JUawmfrl\/
]]ol<u,f... oifhtm; eukvrmwkola|;uawmfonf iguG,fvGefaomtcg

174 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

om;i,f orD;i,fwdkYudk arG;jrL&ef rpGrf;Edkif&m? tdrfaxmifrIudk aumif;pGmxdef;odrf;&ef
rpGrf;Edkif&m}}[k tBuHjzpfwef&myg\/ ol<u,f... xdkt&mudk þodkYrrSwfoihfyg/ ol
<u,f... tuREfyk o
f nf Adik ;f iif&ef od;k arT;wdYk uakd jz&Si;f okwo
f ifí tcif;jyK&ef wwfuRrf;
vdr®myg\/ ol<u,f... tuREfkyfonf oifuG,fvGefaom tcg om;i,forD;i,fwdkYudk
arG;jrL&ef tdrfaxmifrIudk aumif;pGmxdef;odrf;&ef pGrf;Edkifyg\/ ol<u,f... xdkYaMumifh
oifonf iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí raoygvifh/ iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí ao&jcif;onf
qif;&JvSyg\/ iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨uJh&JUawmfrlyg\}}
]]ol<u,f.. oihftm; ]eukvrmwmol<u,fronf iguG,fvGefaomtcg
tdrfaxmifwpfqufjyKvdrfhrnf}[k tBuHjzpfwefyg\/ ol<u,f.. xdkt&mudk þodkY
rrSwfoihfyg/ ol<u,f.. wpfq,fhajcmufESpfwdkYywfvkH; vlüwnfaom jrwfaomtusifh
]*[|ujA[®p&d,oDv}udk aumif;pGmusifhokH;NyD;ygNyD/ xdkt&mudk oifvnf;odyg\/
ol<u,f.. xdYk aMumifh oifonf iJu
h u
G jf cif; &So
d nfjzpfí raoygvif/h iJu
h u
G jf cif;&So
d nf
jzpfí ao&jcif;onf qif;&JvSyg\/ iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonf jzpfí ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨
uJh&JUawmfrlyg\/}}
]]ol<u,f... oiht
f m; ]eukvrmwko<l u,fronf iguG,v
f eG af omtcg jrwf
Ak'¨tm; zl;ajrmfvdkoljzpfvdrfhrnfr[kwf? &[ef;awmfwdkYtm; zl;ajrmfvdkol jzpfvdrfhrnf
r[kwf}}[k tBuHjzpfwef&myg\/ ol<u,f... xdkt&mudk þodkYrrSwfoihfyg/ ol<u,f...
tuREfkyfonf oifuG,fvGefaomtcg jrwfAk'¨tm; omízl;ajrmfvdkoljzpfygrnf/
&[ef;oHCmtm; omízl;ajrmfvdkoljzpfygrnf/ ol<u,f... xdkYaMumifh oifonf iJhuGuf
jcif;&Sdonfjzpfí raoygvifh? iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí ao&jcif;onf qif;&JvSyg\/
iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨uJh&JUawmfrl\/
]]ol<u,f... oihftm; ]eukvrmwkol<u,fronf iguG,fvGefaomtcg
oDvwdYk ü jznfu
h siq
hf nf;yl;rIjyKvkyv
f rd rhf nfr[kw}f }[k tBuHjzpfwef&myg\/ ol<u,f...
xdkt&mudk þodkYrrSwfoihfyg/ ol<u,f... xdkjrwfAk'¨\ wynfhjzpfukefaom oDvwdkYü
jznfhusifhqnf;yl;Muonfh t0wfjzL0wf vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;[lorQwdkYwGif
tuREfkyfonf wpfOD;tygt0if jzpfyg\/ þt&mü ,kHrSm;rI? awG;awmrI&SdoljzpfcJhvQif
ylaZmftxl;udk cHawmfrx
l u
kd af om jrwfA'k o
¨ nf b*¾wikd ;f ? okork m&*d&NrdKU&Sd abouVm
awmtkyfü oDwif;okH;aeawmfrlyg\/ xdkjrwfAk'¨xHokdY csOf;uyfí ar;avQmufEdkifyg\/
ol<u,f... xdkYaMumifh oifonf iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí raoygvifh? iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonf
jzpfí ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨uJh&JUawmfrlyg\}}
ol<u,f... oihftm; ]eukvrmwkol<u,fronf twGif;oEÅmefü pdwf\
Nidr;f at;rI orm"dur®|mef;udk &&So
d rl [kw}f [k tBuHjzpfwef&m\/ ol<u,f... xdt
k &mudk
þodYk rrSwo
f ihyf g/ ol<u,f... xdjk rwfA'k \
¨ wynfjh zpfuek af om twGi;f oEÅmefü pdw\
f
Nidrf;at;rIorm"dur®|mef;udk &&SdMuonfh t0wfjzL0wf vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 175

[lorQwdkYwGif tuREfkyfwdkYonf wpfOD;tygt0if jzpfyg\/ þt&mü ,kHrSm;rI? awG;
awmrI&o
dS jl zpfcv
hJ Qif ylaZmftxl;udk cHawmfrx
l u
kd af om jrwfA'k o
¨ nf b*¾wikd ;f ? okork m&
*d&NrdKU&Sd abouVmawmtkyfü oDwif;okH;aeawmfrlyg\/ xdkjrwfAk'¨xHokdY csOf;uyfí
ar;avQmufEdkifyg\/ ol<u,f... xdkYaMumifh oifonf iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí raoyg
vifh? iJhuGufjcif; &Sdonfjzpfí ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨uJh&JUawmfrlyg\/}}
]]ol<u,f... oihftm; eukvrmwkol<u,fronf þ]"r®0de, omoemü
oufpif&m aqmufwnf&moufom&mudk&onfh 0dpdudpämudk vGefajrmufonfh odkYavm
odkYavm awG;awmrI uif;&Sif;onfh &J&ifhjcif;odkYa&mufonfh jrwfpGmbk&m;rSwpfyg;
tm;xm;&mr&Sdonfjzpfí jrwfpGmbk&m; omoemawmfüaeolr[kwf}[lí tBuHjzpfwef
&myg\/ ol<u,f... xdkt&mudk þodkYrrSwfoihfyg/ ol<u,f... xdkjrwfpGmbk&m;\
wynfhjzpfukefaom "r®0de, omoemüouf0if&maqmufwnf&m oufom&mudk&
onfh 0dpdudpämudkvGefajrmufonfh &J&ifhjcif;odkYa&mufonfh jrwfpGmbk&m;rSwyg; tm;
xm;&mr&Sdonfjzpfí bk&m;omoemawmfüaeMuonfh t0wfjzL0wf vl0wfaMumif
trsdK;orD; [lorQwdkYwGif tuREfkyfonf wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfyg\/ þt&mü ,kHrSm;
awG;awmrI&SdoljzpfcJhvQif jrwfAk'¨onf b*¾wdkif;? okokrm&*d&dNrdKU&Sd abouVm
awmtkyfü oDwif;okH;aeawmfrlyg\/ xdkjrwfAk'¨udk ar;avQmufEdkifyg\/ ol<u,f...
xdkYaMumifh oifonf iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonfjzpfí raoygvifh? iJhuGufjcif;&Sdonf jzpfí
ao&jcif;udk jrwfAk'¨uJh&JUawmfrlyg\/}}[k ajymqdkav\/
þodkY eukvydwkol<u,ftm; eukvrmwkol<u,fronf teD;uyftm;ay;
pum; ajymMum;cJhav\/ ,if;odkY teD;uyf tm;ay;pum;udk Mum;½kHrQjzifh eukvydwk
ol<u,fonf tema&m*gwdkYrS xajrmufcJh&\/ tema&m*gwdkYrSxajrmufNyD;aomf
rMumjrifhrDyifvQif awmifa0S;udk axmufí jrwfAk'¨xHawmfyg;odkYcsOf;uyfí &Sdcdk;NyD;vQif
wpfckaomt&yfü xdkifaeav\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf ol<u,ftm;]]ol<u,f... oihftm; eukvrmwkol<u,fronf tpOfapmifha&Smuf\/
tusdK;pD;yGm;udk tvdk&Sd\/ ol<u,f... oihftm; t&awmfaypG/ oifonf vlUtjzpfudk
aumif;pGm&tyfaypG/}}
]]ol<u,f... ig\wynfhjzpfukefaom oDvwdkYü jznfhusifhqnf;yl;Muonfh
t0wfjzL0wf vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;[lorQwdkYwGif eukvrmwkol<u,fronf
wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpf\/}}
]]ol<u,f... ig\wynfhjzpfukefaom twGif;oEÅmefü pdwf\Nidrf;at;jcif;
orm"d ur®|mef;udk&&SdMuonfh t0wfjzL0wf vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;orD;[lorQwdkYwGif
eukvrmwk ol<u,fr onf wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpf\/}}
]]ol<u,f...ig\wynfhjzpfukefaom þ"r®0de,omoemü ouf0if&m
axmufwnf&m oufom&mudk&onfh? 0dpdudpämudk vGefajrmufonfh? odkYavmodkYavm

176 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

awG;awmrIuif;&Si;f onf?h &J&ifjh cif;odYk a&mufonfh jrwfA'k r¨ w
S pfyg; tm;xm;&mr&So
d nf
jzpfí bk&m;omoemawmfü aeMuonfh t0wfjzL0wf vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;
[lorQwdkYwGif eukvrmwkol<u,fronf wpfOD;tygt0if jzpf\/
]]ol<u,f... oihftm; eukvrmwkol<u,fronf tpOfapmifha&Smuf\/
tusdK;pD;yGm;udk tvdk&Sd\/ oGefoifwwf\/ qkH;rwwf\/ ol<u,f... oihftm;
t&awmfaypG? oifonf vlUtjzpfudk aumif;pGm&tyfaypG}} rdefYawmfrlcJh\/
þonfudkMunfhaomf eukvydwkol<u,ftzdkY eukvrmwkwnf;[laom
rde;f raumif;udk &jcif;jzpf\/ rde;f rjrwfwpfa,mufukd awGUqk&H jcif;jzpf\/ b0gb0u
ygvmaom a&puftxkyH g&rD wdYk aMumifv
h nf; jzpf\/ eukvrmwko<l u,fronfvnf;
cifyeG ;f jzpfoel ukvydwo
k <l u,f\tay:ü rde;f rjrwfwYkd\ usi0hf wftwdik ;f vdu
k ef mcJo
h l
jzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SEd ikd af y\/ þae&mütvsOf; oiho
f jzifh trsdK;aumif;orD;rsm;
od&Sdem;vnfusifhBuHap&eftwGuf rdef;rjrwfusifh0wfwdkYudk jyoygrnf/
rde;f rjrwfusif0h wf (6)yg;
rdef;rjrwfwdkY vdkufemusifhaqmifoihfonfh 0wå&m;rsm;&Sday\/ ,if;0wå&m;
rsm;rSm ajcmufyg;&SdaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/ ,if;ajcmufyg;rSm(1) ykAÁK|m,deD
= vifa,mufsm;\a&S;OD;pGm tdyf,mrSxjcif;?
(2) ypämedygwdeD
= vifa,mufsm;\aemufrS tdyf,modkY0ifjcif;?
(3) uðum&y#dom0deD = tb,fudkjyKtHhenf;[k emcHavh&Sdjcif;?
(4) remypm&deD
= ESpfNcdKufpzG,f jyKavh&Sdjcif;?
(5) yd,0g'deD
= cspfcifzG,fpum;udk qdkavh&Sdjcif;?
(6) tewdpm&deD
= wpfyg;aoma,mufsm;wdkYtay:ü pdwfjzifhyif
ñGwfrI r&Sdjcif;
wdkYjzpf\/ ,if;rdef;rjrwfwdkY\ usifh0wfygtwdkif; eukvydwkol<u,fwnf;[laom
cifyGef;tay:ü eukvrmwkol<u,fronf usifhaqmifcJhaMumif;awGU&SdEdkif\/ ,aeY
acwf trsdK;orD;xkonfvnf; rde;f rjrwfwYkd \ usifph OfwYkd ukd vdu
k ef musifo
h ;Hk oihaf y\/
rCa'0usrf;jyK refvnfq&mawmfuvnf; ,if;usifh0wfwdkYudk rSwfom;&vG,ful
ap&ef atmufygtwdkif; vuFmjzifh rSwfwrf;wifxm;ay\/
]vifudkjrifu? tvsifxí? ,k,udk,fEIwf? usifhr,kwfom;? ykAÁK|m,deD? OD;csD
vufNyKd i?f &Suu
f mqdik íf ? vifxikd v
f iftyd ?f om;udo
k yd o
f ?Ykd ajcESyd v
f ufprf;? pdwcf sr;f
Munfjr? ½dkaocvsuf? aemufrS,SOfum? tdyfavhvmonf? ypämedygwdeD?
csdKtDem;qdrfh? ESpfodrfhzG,fpk? b,ftrIudk? b,fjyK&tHhenf;? jcnf;jcnf;EIwfoH?
acsio
H m,m? 0gpmodraf rG?U ar;avh&x
dS ? EIwcf sKd jrom;? uðum&y#dom0de?D rNzrD oke?f
rrIefrqef? jyefvSefr>ruf? ESpfoufzG,fom? usifhwwfpGmonfh?cspfzG,fjyuawh?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 177

omcsrf;ajrUatmif? ajymavh&Sdx? EIwfcsdKjrom;? yd,0g'deD? xdkNyDty? þavmuü?
vifrw
S yg;? ewfa,mufsm;ESi?hf awGjU im;aprl? t,lr,Gi;f ? pdwñ
f w
G jf cif;rQ? uif;vwf
wkHbd? usifhjrwf&Sdom;? tewdpm&deD? usrf;nDraoG? oaE¨Ouú|f? rdef;rjrwfwdkY?
usi0hf wfNzKd ;yk?H ajcmuftifpv
Hk su}f
r,m; (7)rsdK;
eukvydwkol<u,ftzdkY eukvrmwkol<u,fronf tzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom
r,m;rsdK;jzpf\/ eukvrmwko<l u,fronf cifyeG ;f onf touf&iS o
f rQumvywfv;Hk
cifyGef;onftay:ü tpOf apmifha&Smufoljzpf\/ cifyGef;onf tema&m*gjzpfí
tdyf,mxJü vJaecsdefüvnf; w&m;pum;ajym a[mvsuf tm;ay;cJholvnf;jzpf\/
jiLplrIvnf;r&Sday/ rdrdudk,fwdkifuvnf; aomwmyefyk*d¾Kvf jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm
oDvudk rusdK;aygufatmif xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufolvnf; jzpf\/ rdrd\cifyGef;
onfuv
kd nf; rcsKyfcs,fwwfay/ xdYk aMumifh eukvydwo
k <l u,ftzdYk tzd;k rjzwfEikd af om
r,m;rsdK; jzpfaMumif;um; odomEdkifay\/
jrwfAk'¨uvnf; avmuwGif r,m;trsdK;tpm;(7)rsdK;&SdaMumif; a[mMum;
xm;ay\/ ,if;(7)rsdK;wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpf\/
(1) olowfESifhwlaomr,m; = wpfyg;aoma,mufsm;wdkYü wyfpGef;aom
pdwf&Sdonfjzpfí rdrdviftm; jypfrSm;aompdwf&Sd\/ rdrdvif\ tusdK;
pD;yGm;rJhudk tvdk&Sd\/ Opömjzifh0,ftyfaomuRefuJhodkY rxDrJhjrifjyK\/
vifudkowftHhaomiSg vkHYvjyK\/
(2) cdk;olESifhwlaomr,m; = vif\twwfynm? v,fvkyfjcif;? ukef
oG,fjcif;udkjyKí &aomOpömudk tenf;i,frQaomfvnf; cdk;,ljcif;iSg
tvdk&Sd\/
(3) t&SifESifhwlaomr,m; = tdrfrIudpöudkjyK&eftvdkr&Sd/ ysif;&d\/
tpm;MuL;\/ Murf;MuKwf\/ trsufxGufwwf\/ raumif;ojzifh
qdkwwf\/ xx<u<u vkyfaqmifukefaomolwdkYudk ESdyfpufí qdk
wwf\/
(4) trdESifhwlr,m;
= cyfodrf;aomtcsif;t&mtm;jzifh vif\
tusdK;pD;yGm;udktvdk&Sd\/ trdonf om;udkapmifha&SmufouJhodkY vifudk
apmifah &Smuf\/ vifonf &SmazGqnf;yl;aomOpömwdYk ukd apmifah &Smuf\/
(5) ESrESifhwlaomr,m;
= ESrBuD;? ESri,fonf armifü½dkaojcif;&Sd
ouJhodkY rdrdvifü½dkao\/ vif\tvdkodkYvdkuf\/
(6) taqGcifyGef;ESifhwlaomr,m; = vifudkjrif&vQif MumjrifhpGmaom
umvrS vmaom taqGcifyGef;udkjrifí 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om&SdouJhodkY

178 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

0rf;ajrmuf\/ oDvESifhjynfh pkH\/ vifudk vkyfauR;wwf\/
uRefESifhwlaomr,m; = rdrdvifonf owfykwfjcif;'Pfjzifh Ncdrf;
ajcmuftyfonf&Sdaomf vifhtm;trsufrxGuf? onf;cH\/ vif\
tvdkodkYvdkuf\/
xdkckepfa,mufaomr,m;wdkYwGif olowfESifhwlaomr,m;? cdk;olESifhwlaom
r,m;? t&SiEf iS w
hf al omr,m;wdYk onf aoNyD;onfraS emufü i&JoYkdvm;&uke\
f / trdEiS hf
wlaomr,m;? ESrESifhwlaomr,m;? taqGcifyGef;ESifhwlaomr,m;? uRefESifhwlaom
r,m;wdkYonfum; aoNyD;onfrS aemufü edr®me&wdewfjynfodkY vm;&ukef\/
þa'oemawmfudkaxmufqaomf eukvrmwkol<u,fronf trdESifhwl
aom r,m;vnf;jzpf\/ ESrESifhwlaomr,m;vnf;jzpf\/ taqGcifyGef;ESifhwlaom
r,m;vnf;jzpf\/ uRefESifhwlaomr,m;vnf;jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh ,aeYacwf trsdK;
aumif;orD;wdkYonf eukvrmwk ol<u,frudk pHxm;NyD; trd? ESr? taqGcifyGef;?
uRefwdkYESifhwlaom r,m;aumif;wdkYjzpfoihfay\/ olowf? cdk;ol? t&SifESifhwlaom
r,m;qdk;rsdK;rjzpfatmif a&Smif&Sm;oihfayawmh\/ refvnfq&mawmfuvnf; rCa'0
vuFmü trsdK;aumif;orD;rsm; rSwfom;ap&eftwGuf]r,m;ckepfrsdK;? ,SdNrJ½dk;wGif? cdk;olt&Sif? olowfoGifodkY? tMuifr,m;?
vm;\i&J? tNrJrSwfbd? trdwrQ? ESrr,Gef;? cifyGef;ozG,f? uRefYES,fav;jzm?
r,m;rSmum;? edAÁmewfjynf? vm;NrJrnf\? ,if;onfhav;oG,f? r,m;0,fvnf;?
uRefYES,ftvm;? xdkr,m;rl? a,mufsm;qkyef? edAÁmefqkaumif;? awmif;urvGwf?
rcRwfwlwnf;? jynfhNrJrnf\/ rGef&nfxl;jrwf? xdkrdewfwdkY? usifh0wfwrl?
oabmjzLum;? pdwfwluRrf;0if? vlwdkYcGifEdIuf? vifESifhr,m;? jzpfcJhjim;u?
tm;remwrf;? r&Sufwrf;odkY? vlwrf;wpd? tpOf,Sdvnf;? [d&dMowåyf? tNrJuyf
vsuf? udk,fMuyfxJESD;? oabmNyD;&Sif? armifBuD;ESr? wrQwlyif? uRefocifodkY?
vifudkraoG? &Suf½dkao\/ raxatmufarh? rjyKavhbl;? aumufauGUBuHpnf?
avmfvnfp½du
k ?f pdwv
f v
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kd o
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[k a&;om;xm;onfudkvnf; awGU&Sd&ay\/
(7)

eukvrmwk ZeD;armifEw
HS Ykd pHawmf0if{w'*fbx
UJG ;l rsm;&&SMd ujcif;
aemuftzdkY0,f jrwfAk'¨onf aZw0efausmif;awmfüaeawmfrlpOf Oygoum?
Oygodumr wdkYudk tpOftwdkif; &mxl;XmeEÅ&ü xm;awmfrlvwfaomf þeukvrmwk
ZeD;armifESHwdkY\ tuRrf;w0if cifrif&if;ESD;aompdwf&SdMuvsuf ar;jref;avQmufxm;
tyfaompum;udk taMumif;tw¬KyÜwfjyKawmf rlum eukvydwkola|;BuD;udk]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr om0umeH OygoumeH 0dómoumeH ,'d'H eukvydwm
*[ywd=]&[ef;wd.Yk .. igb&k m;ESihf tuRr;f w0if cifrif&if;ES;D pum;udk ajymMum;Mu

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 179

onfh igbk&m;\ wynfhtrsdK;om;taygif;wdkYwGif eukvydwkola|;onf
tjrwfq;Hk jzpfay\}
[kvnf;aumif; eukvrmwkola|;uawmfBuD;udkvnf;]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr om0dumeH OygodumeH 0dómoumeH ,'d'H eukvrmwm
*[ywmeD}
]&[ef;wd.Yk . igb&k m;ESit
hf uRr;f w0if cifrif&if;ES;D aompum;udak jymMum;Muonfh
igbk&m;\wynfhtrsdK;orD;taygif;wdkYwGif eukvrmwk ola|;uawmfBuD;onf
tjrwfq;Hk jzpfay\}
[kvnf;aumif; toD;toD; pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;udk csD;jr§ifhawmf rlcJh&av\/ þokdY
vQif eukv ydwo
k al X;BuD;ESifh eukvrmwkoal X;uawmfBuD;wkYd onf jrwfA'k \
¨ pHawmf
0if {w'*fbJGUxl;wkdYukd &&SdcJhay&m ,aeYacwf trsdK;aumif;om; trsdK;aumif;orD;
ZeD;armifESHwkdYonfvnf; ,if;olaX;BuD; olaX;uawmfBuD;rsm;udk tm;ustwk,lNyD;
BudK;pm;usihfaqmifxkdufayawmh\/
þeukvrmwk ZeD;armifEw
HS Ykdonfum; tjcm;awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*f&iS rf sm;ESihf
tenf;i,f uGmjcm;ay\/ ,if;rSm ZeD;armifESHESpfOD;pvkH; b0awmfawmfrsm;rsm;ü twl
wuG aygif;zufcJh&jcif;yifjzpf\/ ,if;odkY b0rsm;pGmwdkYüjzpfvmcJhNyD; b0ed*kH;üvnf;
twlwuGyif uRwfwef;vnf;0ifcJh\/ pHawmf0if{w'*f bGJUxl;wdkYudkvnf; twlwuG
&&SdcJh Muay\/ b0aygif;rsm;pGmu ygvmaom&if;ESD;onfh txkHa&pufaMumifh jrwfAk'¨
udk zl;awGU&csdefü ]]om;...om;}}[k ac:a0:onftxd jzpfcJhMuay\/ trSefrSm b0oH
o&m &SnfpGmaomumvywfvkH; tcspfarwåm"mwf qufpyfudef;0yfrIaMumifhomjzpf
ay\/ jrwfAk'¨uvnf; ]a&S;a&S;b0wdu
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h nf;aumif;? þypöKyeÜ f
b0ü tusdK;pD;yGm;udkaqmif½Gufjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif; þESpfyg;aomtaMumif;wdkYaMumifh
jrifvQifjrifcsif; jyif;pGmaomcspfjcif;onf trSefpifppfjzpfay\/ Oyrmaomfum; at;jraom
a&jyifü &eHYoif;onfh Mumonf aygufa&muf BuD;yGm;vmouJhodkYyif cspfcifpkHrufjcif;onf
trSepf ifppfjzpfay\} [k a[mMum;csufvnf;&Sday\/ þeukvrmwkZeD;armifESHwdkY\
tcsif;csif;wpfOD;udkwpfOD; cspfcifjcif;? jrwfAk'¨tm; cspfcifjcif;wdkYrSm a&S;b0? ,ckb0
wdkYü twlwuGtusdK;pD;yGm;wdkYudk aqmif½GufcJhjcif;aMumifhomjzpfaMumif; okH;oyfEdkif
ay\/
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wpfOD;tay:wpfOD; vGefusL;pGm usifhBuHrIr&SdykHudk jrwfAk'¨tm;avQmufxm;onfudk
awGUEdkifay\/ þZeD;armifESHwdkYuJhodkYyif ,aeYrsufarSmufacwf tMuifvifr,m;wdkY
onfvnf; wpfO;D udw
k pfO;D cspfcifum em;vnfrI tjynfjh zifh tdraf xmifro
I m,matmif
usifhaqmifoihfay\/ wpfOD;udkwpfOD;u ,kHMunfpdwfcs&rSomvQif tdrfaxmifa&;okc

180 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

udk cHpm;&rnfjzpf\/ odYk r[kwyf gu tdraf xmifa&;om,majzmifjh zL;Edik rf nfum; r[kwf
ygay/ ,if;ZeD;armifESHwdkYonf twGif;a&;udpw
ö dkYudk avQmufxm;onf omruao;
b0wdkif; tcsif;csif; ½IjrifvdkMuygukef\[lívnf; avQmufxm;cJhMuay\/ jrwfAk'¨
onfvnf; b0qufwdkif; ZeD;armifESHwdkY twlwuGqkHawGUvdkaomf o'¨g? oDv? pm*?
ynm[laomw&m; av;yg;wdkYnDrQzdkYvdkonf[k a[mawmfrlcJhaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkif
ay\/ rnfonfhZeD;armifESHrqdk azmfjyygw&m;av;yg;wdkY [efcsufnDnD usifhokH;
aqmufwnfygu ,ckb0wGio
f mru b0qufwikd ;f twlwuG awGUqkEH ikd Mf urnfom
jzpfay\/ þypöKyÜefb0üvnf; wpfOD;udkwpfOD; az;az;rrjzifh ESpfoufzG,f? cspfcif
zG,af ompum;wdYk ukd ajymqdv
k suf azmfjyygw&m;av;yg;wdYk jynfph yHk gu pD;yGm;rsm;vnf;
jzpfxGef;Edkifrnfjzpfay\/ olawmfaumif;w&m;wdkYudk ESpfOD;om;usifhokH; vdkufemygu
ZeD;armifESHwdkY\b0onf ypöKyÜefomru wrvGefb0wdkYwGifvnf; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om
jzifh qkHawGUEdkifrnfjzpfaMumif; þ0w¬Ku azmfñTef;jyoaeay\/ xdkYaMumifh azmfjyyg
w&m; av;yg;wdkYudk wlrQpGm usifhokH;oihfouJhodkY olawmfaumif;w&m;udkvnf; em,l
usifhokH;oihfay\/
wpfzef eukvrmwkonf cifyGef;onf emrusef;jzpfaomtcgü w&m;pum;
udk ajymMum;jcif;jzifh emrusef;olcifyGef;onfudk a&m*ga0'emrSxajrmufapcJhaMumif;
awGU&Sd&ay\/ þonfrSmvnf; rdef;rjrwfwdkY\ usifh0wfudk vdkufemusifhokH;ol
wpfa,muftjzpf eukvrmwkol<u,frudk ay:vGifapyg\/ rnfolrqdk emrusef;
jzpfaecsdefü rsm;aomtm;jzifh pdwftm;i,fwwfaomoabm &Sd&um; pdwfoufom
&m&aMumif;udk &SmazGwwfMuay\/ xdkYaMumifh vlemapmifhonf a&m*gonf oufom
ap&eftwGuf tm;ay;pum;udkajymMum;oihf\/ wpfpkHwpfa,muf\ tqufrjywf
wGef;tm;ay;rIonf atmifjrifrI\t"duaomhcsufyif jzpfonfr[kwfygavm/ þü
eukvrmwkonf rdrdtay:ü pdwfrcsaomcifyGef;onftm; pdwfcsvufcsjzifh
b0ul;aumif;ap&eftwGuf tm;ay;pum;udk tqufrjywfajymqdkaMumif; avhvm
awGU&SdEdkifay\/ emrusef;jzpfolwdkYtzdkY&müvnf; ZeD;r,m;? orD;om;wdkYtm; pdwfrcs
jcif;rSmvnf; jzpfavhjzpfx&Sad om obmw&m;yifjzpfay\/ pdwaf umif;ESv;Hk aumif;jzifh
pdwaf jzmifph mG b0ul;ajymif;oGm;ap&eftwGuo
f m vlemapmifo
h o
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ajymqdkayjcif;jzifh taxmuftyHhay;oihfay\/ xdkYaMumifh vlemtm; teD;uyfjyKpk
olwdkYonf eukvrmwkudkyrmxm;um rusef;rmoltm; jyKpkvkyfauR;oihfay\/
eukvrmwkonf tusifph m&dwyå ikd ;f üvnf; aomwmyefjzpfonft
h m;avsmfpmG
ig;yg;oDvudk pGJNrJpGmusifhokH;oljzpfaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ wpfzef eukvrmwkonf
udk,fwdkif csrf;omaom ol<u,fryifjzpfvifhupm; Adkif;iif&ef? odk;arG;cif;udkjyKvkyf&ef
wwfuRrf;vdrm® aMumif; avhvmawGU&S&d ay\/ þonfuMkd unfah omf avmuvlom;wdYk
onf rnfrQyifcsrf;omapumrl twwfynmwpfckckudk tenf;qkH;wwfajrmufxm;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 181

oihaf Mumif; rSwo
f m;oifah y\/ qif;&Jorl sm; tzdYk um; ajymp&myifvrkd nf r[kwyf gay/
tNrJajymif;vJaeaomavmuBuD;ü Opömypönf;wdkY\ xm0pOf wnfNrJae&efrSmum;
tvGefyifcJ,Of;vS&um; b0wGif pm;? 0wf? aea&; tqifajyap&eftwGuf tenf;qkH;
twwfynmwpfckudk wwfajrmufxm;oihfay\/
wpfzef eukvrmwkonf tu,fí cifyGef;onf uG,fvGefonf&Sdaomf
aemuftdrfaxmif jyKrnfholr[kwfaMumif; jrwfAk'¨uyif axmufcHcsufay;xm;onfh
olyifjzpf\/ cifyGef;onfqkH;yg;NyD;aomZeD;onfudk twk,lp&mygay/ eukvrmwk
onf oDvNrJ\/ orm"dvnf;cdik \
f / jrwfA'k t
¨ m; xm0pOf ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfov
l nf;
jzpfay\/ eukvydwkol<u,ftzdkY&m eukvrmwkol<u,frwnf;[laom ZeD;aumif;
udak wGUqk&H jcif;onf b0gb0uygvmaom a&puftxkyH g&rDwYkd aMumifyh if jzpfaMumif;
avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/
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awmif;qkjyKcJzh ;l aomtcsderf o
S nf jrwfA'k v
¨ ufxufwikd af tmif jznfq
h nf;cJah om yg&rD
"mwfcHwdkYaMumifh þb0wGif jrwfAk'¨ESifh w&if;wESD;cifrifol trsdK;om; trsdK;orD;
xktaygif;wGif tjrwfq;Hk jzpfaom pHawmf0if {w'*fbUJG xl;wdYk ukd tjcm;olwYkd EiS rhf wlbJ
,if;wdkYZeD;armifESHESpfa,mufwdkY twlwuG&&SdaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ xdkYaMumifh
,aeYacwftrsdK;aumif;om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkYonf rdrdwdkYonf ZeD;? cifyGef;wdkYESifh
b0wdkif;twlwuG qkHawGUvdkygvQif eukvrmwk? eukydwkol<u,fZeD; armifESHwdkYudk
pHyrmxm;í o'¨g? oDv? pm*? ynmwdkYwlrQatmifusifhaqmifoihfay\/ xdkrSwpfqifh
olawmfaumif;w&m;wdkYudk emMum;usifhokH;jcif;jzifh b0wdkif;b0wdkif;ü twlwuG
aygif;qkH&rnfhtjyif jzpfav&mb0wdkYüvnf; csrf;omokcwdkYudkcHpm;Edkifrnfom
jzpfayawmh\/

YX;WZ

182 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tcef;-11

awmf0ifpx
H m; umVD trsdK;orD;
jrwfAk'¨onf bk&m;jzpfawmfrlNyD;aemuf Ak'¨bmomudkwnfaxmifawmfrl\/
w&m;a[mawmfrlNyD; Ak'¨bmom0ifjzpfatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJh\/ ol\wynfhom;
&[ef;awmfwYkd uv
kd nf; w&m;a[majymNyD; Ak'b
¨ mom0ifrsm; wk;d wufatmif pGr;f aqmif
apcJh\/ ,if;odkY Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm; wkd;wufjzpfay:vm&jcif;rSm Ak'¨ukd,fawmfwkdif
rsufarSmufa&S;&Ia[majymrI? wynfhom0uwdkY\ rsufarSmufvufawGUa[majymrI
wdkYaMumifhyifjzpf\/ odkYaomfvnf; jrwfAk'¨vufxufawmfü wpfyg;aomol\ pum;
udk Mum;½kjH zifh (jrwfA'k u
¨ rkd zl;awGU&bJ) Ak'b
¨ mom0ifjzpfvmaom trsdK;orD; wpfO;D ay:
xGucf zhJ ;l \/ olronf wpfqifph um;udMk um;rQ½kjH zifh aomwmywdzå v
kd o
f Ykd yif a&mufco
hJ l
jzpf\/ trsdK;orD;xktwGi;f ü yxrqk;H aom aomwmyefwnfov
l nf; jzpf\/ ,if;rSm
tjcm;olr[kwf/ umVDtrsdK;orD;yifjzpf\/ umVDtrsdK;orD;\ awmf0ifpHxm; b0
txkyÜwfudk ,aeYacwftrsdK;orD;xkonf twk,ltm;usoihfay\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; umVDtrsdK;orD;\ twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
þumVDtrsdK;orD;onf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨vufxufü [Hom0wDjynf
uk&&C&NrdKUü wpfckaomtrsdK;tdrfwGif trsdK;aumif;orD;jzpfcJh\/ tcgwpfyg;ü olr
onf jrwfAk'¨\w&m;awmfudk em,lpOf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨onf trsdK;aumif;orD;wpfOD;
tm; ]udk,fwdkifbk&m;&Sifudk rzl;awGU&bJvsuf wpfqifhMum;ojzifh bk&m;*kPfudk
ouf0if,kHMunfaom (tEkó0yÜoEé)t&m0,f tjrwfqkH;jzpfaom awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*f &mxl;}ü xm;awmfrlonfudk awGUjrifcJh&\/ xdkYaMumifh olronf ]aemiftcg
igonfvnf; þtrsdK;orD;uJo
h Ykd wpfqifph um;Mum;í jrwfA'k t
¨ m; ouf0if,MHk unfol
trsKd ;orD;taygif;wGif {w'*fbUJG xl;&&ygvd\
k }[k awmif;qkqckd \
hJ / ,if;odYk awmif;qk

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 183

qdkNyD; ukodkvfyg&rDrsm;udkjznfhqnf;cJh&m þa*gwrjrwfAk'¨\vufxufü qkawmif;
jynfhcJh\/
aemufq;Hk b0ü umVDoal |;orD;jzpfjcif;
xdktrsdK;aumif;orD;onf urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; ewfjynf? vlUjynf
wdkYüom usifvnfusufpm;cJh&\/ þa*gwrjrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfüum;
&mZN*dK[fjynfü ola|;orD; jzpfvmav\/ rdbwdkYu olr\trnfudk ]umVD}[k rSnfh
ac:Muav\/ olronf t½G,fodkYa&mufvwfaomf t0EdÅ'ud©Pyxwdkif;? uk&&
C&NrdKUom;ESifh rdbwdkYu xdrf;jrm;ay;pm;ojzifh xdkuk&&C&NrdKU ola|;om;tdrfodkY
vdkufygcJh&av\/ xdkYaemuf umVDrSm xdkcifyGef;onfESifh aygif;oif;qufqHrIaMumifh
EIwfikHoaE¨wnfcJhav\/
umVDonf EIwfikHoaE¨&ifhusufvwfaomf ]rdbESiahf 0;uGm&m olwpfyg;wd\
Yk
aetdrüf rD;½SL;oefpY if zGm;jrif&jcif;rnfonf roihaf vsmaf cs}[k BuHpnfpOf;pm;rdí rdrd\
NrdKUjzpfonfh &mZN*dK[f&Sd rdbtdrfodkYjyefvmcJh\/ wpfaeYaomnOfhtzdkYtwGif;0,f
rdr\
d aexdik &f m jyom'ftxufaumif;uifü &yfwnfvsuf &wemok;H yg;*kPaf us;Zl;udk
ajymqdkaeMuonfh omwm*d&ewfrif;? a[r0wewfrif; wdkY\w&m;pum;udkMum;em&
í wpfqifhMum;ojzifh omoemawmfü ouf0if,kHMunfrI o'¨gw&m;udk jzpfapNyD;vQif
bk&m;&Sifudk rzl;jrif&bJvsufyif aomwmywdåzdkvfü wnfav\/ umVDtrsdK;orD;\
w&m;pum;udk Mum;&aomtcsdefum; r[mouú&mZf 103- ck? 0gqdkvjynfh "r®pMum
w&m;a[mawmfrlaomaeY oef;acgif,Htcsdefjzpf\/
omwm*d&ewfrif;ESihf a[r0wewfrif;wdt
Yk aMumif;
omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0wewfrif;wdkYonf uóybk&m;&Sifvufxuf
ü trsdK;aumif;om; oli,fcsif;ESpaf ,muf jzpfc\
hJ / ,if;oli,fcsif;ESpaf ,mufwYkd onf
uóybk&m;&Sif\ o&D&arGawmfjrwfudk Xmyemí apwDawmfBuD;wnfNyD;aomtcgü
vlUabmifrx
S u
G í
f jrwfA'k ¨ rsufarSmufawmfu wynfch cH MhJ uaom om0uBuD;wdYk xw
H iG f
&Sifç &[ef;jyKMuukef\/ xdkoli,fcsif; &[ef;ESpfyg;onf tvZDÆ'kóDvyk*dK¾ vfudkom
iJhn§mapmifha&SmufrdaomaMumifh t*wd w&m;vdkufpm;rIjzifh aemifwwpfzefylyefjcif;
ukuúKpöjzpfum pkwdjywfa<uaovGefaomtcg txufewfjynfü rjzpfEdkifMubJ
xdk&[ef;ESpfyg;wdkYwGif wpfyg;onf [dr0EÅmawmtwGif; a[r0wrnfaom awmifü
a[r0wtrnf&Sdaom ewfbDvl;rif;jzpfav\/ tjcm;wpfyg;onfum; rZdÑra'o
twGif; omw rnfaomawmifü omwm*d&trnf&Sdaom ewfbDvl;rif;jzpfav\/
wpfckaom ewfobiftpnf;ta0;ü xdkewfbDvl;rif;ESpfa,mufwdkYonf
]]tu,fí wpfa,mufa,muf\a'oü tHhbG,fo&J xl;uJaomtaMumif;wdkYudk

184 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

awGUjrifMum;odcJhygu tjcm; wpfa,muftm; vma&mufajymMum;vSnfhyg}}[k tcsif;
csif; uwdu0wfjyKxm;Muav\/ þodkYvQif omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0wewfrif;
oli,fcsif;ESpfa,mufwdkYonf tcsif;csif;uwdu0wfpum;udk ajymqdkxm;rIjyKMuvsuf
xdkewfbDvl;b0udk rpGefYEdkifMubJ aygif;oif;qufqHaexdkifcJhMu&m bk&m;wpfql
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 187

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188 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 189

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jrwfonf ]],cktcgaomPudk &SifjyKay;&ef tcsdefwefNyD}}[k qifjcifawmfrlí
&SifjyKay;av\/ &SifjyKay;NyD;aemuf qufvufíyif &[ef;jyKay;&efjzpfaomfvnf;
xdktcsdefü &[ef;wdkYonfrsm;aomtm;jzifh rZdÑrwdkufüomvQif aeMuaomaMumifh
xdkuk&&C&NrdKUü &[ef;awmfESpfyg;okH;yg;avmufomvQif oDwif;okH; aexdkifawmfrl
Mu\/ xdktcsdefüvnf; &[ef;cHay;jcif;[laom OyorÜ'uHudk aqmif½GufcGifh&Sdaom
&[ef;oHCmta&twGufrSm oHCmwpfusdyf&SdrSom txajrmufav\/ xdkYaMumifh
aomP &SifomraPtm; &[ef;jyKay;&eftwGuf oHCmwpfusdyf&&Sdatmif pkaqmif;

190 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

rIonf okH;ESpfvGefrS jzpfajrmufav\/ odkYjzpf&um; tvGefyifyef;qif;&JpGm okH;ESpf
ausmfvGefrS *kdPf;oHCmwpfusdyf pka0;rdum OyZÑm,fq&m t&Sifr[mupönf;rax&f
jrwfonf o'd¨0d[m&duwynfhjzpfol aomP uk#duPÖomraPudk cJcJ,Of;,Of;
NidKNidKjiifjiif &[ef;cHay;&av\/
aomPuk # d u PÖ o mraPonf &[ef ; cH , l N yD ; aemuf OyZÑm,f q &m
t&Sifr[mupönf; rax&f\txHü ur®|mef;w&m;udk oifMum;em,l\/ xkdYaemuf
0dyóemudk yGm;rsm;tm;xkwfonf &Sdaomf xdkESpf0gwGif;rSmyif &[EÅmjzpfcJhav\/
,if;aemuf q&mrax&f\txHü okwåedygwf w&m;awmfudk oifMum;wwfajrmuf
av\/ 0guRwfaomtcg aomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf jrwfAk'¨tm; zl;ajrmfvdk
vSaomaMumifh OyZÑm,fq&m t&Sifr[mupönf;xH cGifhyefavQmufxm;av\/ xdktcg
OyZÑm,fq&m t&Sifr[mupönf;rax&fonf aomPrax&ftm; jrwfAk'¨xHyg;odkY
a&muf&Sd&mü &,l&rnfhqkwdkYudkajymMum;í cGifhjyKav\/
r,fawmfumVdoal |;uawmf\ vlBuHKtvSLawmf
t&SifaomPuk#duPÖonf OyZÑm,fq&mu cGifhjyKtyfNyD;aemuf r,fawmf
umVDola|;uawmfOygodumr\tdrfodkY <ua&mufav\/ xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨xHodkY
<ua&mufrnft
h aMumif;udk ajymMum;av\/ xdt
k cg r,fawmfumVDoal |;uawmfonf
]]aumif;ygNyDcspfom;.. oifcspfom;onf jrwfAk'¨udk zl;ajrmf&efoGm;a&mufvQif þ
urÁvmudkvnf; ,laqmifoGm;í jrwfAk'¨oDwif;okH;&m *E¨uk#Dwdkufawmfü ajrtcif;
jyKí cif;vSLcJhygavmh}}[k ajymqdkrSmxm;í urÁvmt0wfxnfudk ay;tyfvdkuf\/
t&SifaomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf r,fawmfvSLvdkufaom urÁvmt0wftxnf udk
,laqmifcJhí jrwfAk'¨oDwif;okH;awmfrl&m om0wd¬jynf aZw0efausmif;awmfodkY
<uawmfrlav\/
wpfcsufcw
k f ig;csufjywf
t&Siaf omPuk#u
d PÖrax&fonf aZw0efausmif;awmfoYkd a&mufaomtcg
jrwfAk'¨tm; ½dkaopGm&Sdcdk;vsuf tjypfvGwf&mt&yfü wnfaeav\/ xdktcg t&Sif
tmeE´mrax&fjrwfonf jrwfAk'¨\ rdefYrSmcsufjzifh t&SifaomPuk#duPÖtwGuf
ae&mcif;ay;\/ jrwfAk'¨onf ormywfudk 0ifpm;vsufaeawmfrl\/ t&SifaomP
uk#duPÖonfvnf; rsm;pGmaomnOfhywfvkH; ormywfudk 0ifpm;umaeawmfrl\/
jrwfAk'¨onfeHeufrdk;aomufcgeD;ü ]]þrQavmufaomtcsdeftcgjzifh aomP\udk,f
yifyef;EGrf;e,frI Nidrf;at;avmufNyD}}[k odjrif qifjcifawmfrlí t&SifaomPuk#d
uPÖudk ]]cspfom;&[ef;.. ½Gwfqdk&efw&m;onf oifcspfom;\ÓPfü xifapavmh}}[k
wdkufwGef;awmfrl\/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 191

t&SifaomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf tvGefcsdKNrdefom,maomtoHjzifh
tu©&mwpfvkH;udkrQvnf; rcRwf,Gif;rysufpD;apbJ okwåedygwfygVdawmfvm t|u0*f
[kac:aom umrokweå f tp&Sad om okweå af ygif;wpfq,fah jcmufow
k w
f Ykd ukd ½Gwq
f akd v
\/ okwåefrsm;NyD;qkH;aomtcg jrwfAk'¨onf t&SifaomPuk#duPÖtm; om"kaumif;
csD;ay;awmfrlí ]]cspfom;&[ef;... oifcspfom;onf t|u0*f okwfaygif;wpfq,fh
ajcmufokwfvkH;udk aumif;pGmoifxm;ay\/ aumif;aompum;oHESifh jynfhpkHay\/
oefYvnf; oefY&Sif;ay\/ tjypfvnf;uif;ay\/ teufudk odapaompum;vkH;wdkY
ESifhvnf; jynfhpkHay\/ cspfom;&[ef;... oifcspfom;onf 0g tb,frQ &SdNyDenf;}}[k
ar;av\/ xdktcg aomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf ]]jrwfpGmbk&m;.. wynfhawmfonf
wpf0gom &&Syd gao;onf}}[k avQmufxm;av\/ wpfzef jrwfA'k u
¨ ]]cspo
f m;&[ef;...
tb,fhaMumifhoifonf þodkYMumjrifhrS &[ef;jyKoenf;[k ar;awmfrl\/ xdktcg
t&SifaomP uk#duPÖrax&fonf ]]jrwfpGmbk&m;... wynfhawmfonf umr*kPfwdkYü
tjypfjrifaeonfrSm MumjrifhygNyD? odkYaomfvnf; vlUabmifüaeolwdkYonf usOf;
ajrmif;vSygukef\/ rsm;aomudp?ö rsm;aom jyKzG,f&SdvSyg\bk&m;}}[k avQmufxm;\/
xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf umr*kPfwdkYü trSeftwdkif;tjypfudk jrifaomol\
pdwfonf tcsdefumjrifhívnf; tdrf&mwnfaxmifvlUabmifü rouf0ifbJ y'krm
Mumzufü a&aygufuJhodkY qkwfepfavsmusonfomjzpf\[laomtaMumif;udk
odawmfrlí atmufygtwdkif; O'gef;usL;&ifhawmf rlcJh\/
]]ocFg&avmuü rNrJ? qif;&J? azgufvGJwwfaomtjypfwdkYudk 0dyóemÓPf
rsufpdjzifh xifvif;pGmjrif&aomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? Oy"dw&m;av;yg;
uif;qdw&f m edAmÁ efw&m;udk av;yg;aomr*fÓPfjzifh a0befx;kd xGi;f odjrif
jcif;aMumifv
h nf;aumif;? udavomwdYk raS 0;uGmaom t&d,molawmfaumif;
onf raumif;rI'pk ½du
k üf rarGUavsmf rESpNf cdKufraysmfyu
kd af cs/ (tb,faMumifh
enf;[lrlum;) [oFmrif;ES,f pifMu,faom um,uHrI ponf&Sdaom
yk*dK¾ vfonf rpifxlxyf t&yfEdIif;wk npfEGrf;aom tukodkvf w&m;tpkü
arGUavsmfESpfNcdKufaysmfydkuf½dk;xkH;wrf;r&Sday/ (xdkYaMumifhwnf;)}}
xd k t cg t&S i f a omPuk # d u PÖ r ax&f o nf ]]jrwf A k ' ¨ o nf igh u d k
0rf;ajrmufpum; rdefYMum;awmfrl\/ ig\OyZÑm,fq&m rSmxm;vdkufaompum;udk
avQmufxm;&eftcsdefwefNyD}}[k ae&mrSxí jrwfAk'¨tm; &Sdcdk;OD;cdkufí]]jrwfpGmbk&m;... wynfhawmf\OyZÑm,fq&m t&Sifr[mupönf;
onf jrwfAk'¨ajcawmfwdkYudk OD;acgif;jzifh &Sdcdk;vdkufyg\/ þodkYvnf;

192 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

avQmufxm;vdkufyg\/
jrwfpGmbk&m;... t0EdÅwdkif; awmifydkif;e,fonf &[ef;enf;yg;
yg\/ wynfhawmfonf okH;ESpfausmfvGefatmif NidKjiifyifyef;pGm xdkxdkt&yfrS
wpfusdyf&Sdaom &[ef;wdkYudk pnf;a0;apNyD;rS &[ef;tjzpfudk &cJhyg\/
jrwfAk'¨onf t0EdÅwdkif;awmifydkif;e,fü wpfusdyfatmufenf;aom*kdPf;jzifh
OyorÜ'uHudk cGifhjyKaumif;cGifhjyKawmfrlav&m\}}(1)
]]jrwfpGmbk&m;... t0EdÅwdkifawmifydkif;e,fü txufodkYpkefYwufí
rnf;eufaomEGm;cGg&m ca&mif;ajronf Murf;wrf;yg\/ jrwfA'k o
¨ nf t0EdÅ
wdkif;awmifydkif;e,fü txyftvTmrsm;aom\zdeyfudk cGifhjyKaumif;cGifhjyK
awmfrlav&m\/ (2)
]]jrwfpmG bk&m;... t0Edw
Å ikd ;f awmifyikd ;f e,fü vlwYkd onf a&csdK;jcif;
udk tav;jyKMuygukef\/ a&jzifhpifMu,f\[k t,l&SdMuygukef\/ jrwfAk'¨
onf t0EdÅwdkif;awmifydkif;e,fü rjywf&ufquf a&csdK;jcif;udk cGifhjyKawmfrl
av&m\/ (3)
]]jrwfpGmbk&m;... t0EdÅwdkif;awmifydkif;e,fü odk;a&? qdwfa&?
orifa&[laom om;a&wdkYudk cif;Muygukef\/ jrwfpGmbk&m;... Oyrm
tm;jzifh rZdÑrwdkif;wdkufe,fwdkYü NAdwfjrufzsm? jrm;jrufzsm? oifjrufzsm?
ydwfxnfjrufzsmwddkYudk cif;ukefouJhodkY jrwfpGmbk&m;... þtwlyif t0EdÅ
wdkif;awmifydkif;e,fü odk;a&? qdwfa&? orifa&[laomom;a&wdkYudk cif;Mu
ygukef\/ jrwfAk'¨onf t0EdÅwdkif;awmifydkif;ü odk;a&? qdwfa&? orifa&
[laom om;a&tcif;wdkYudk cGifhjyKaumif;cGifhjyKawmfrlav&m\/ (4)
]]jrwfpGmbk&m;... ,cktcgü vlwdkYonf odrf\tjyifodkY oGm;
a&mufaeaom&[ef;wdkYtm; ]þrnfaom&[ef;tm; þouFef;udk vSLyg
uke\
f }[k ajymqdMk uum ouFe;f vSLyg uke\
f / xdo
k Ykd tajymcH&aom owif;
okH;azmf&[ef;wdkYonf ouFef;tvSLcHMu&rnfh &[ef;wdkYxHvmí ]igh&Sif...
þrnfaomvlwdkYonf oihftm;ouFef;vSLukef\}[k ajymMuygukef\/
xdktcg ouFef;tvSLcHMu&rnfh xdk&[ef;wdkYonf ]igwdkY\tzdkY&m pGefYjcif;
0denf;uHrjzpfapvifh}[k atmufarhMuí rtyf[kawG;awmrI oHo,ukuúKpö
&SMd uonf jzpfí rcH,Ml uyguke/f jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ouFe;f ütyfaomy&d,m,fukd
a[mMum;aumif; a[mMum;awmfrlav&m\}}[k avQmufxm;av\/ (5)

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 193

xdktcg jrwfAk'¨onf atmufazmfjyygtcsufig;csufudk cGifhjyKawmfrlcJh\/
,if;ig;csufrSm(1) tvkH;pkHaom ypöEÅ&mZfZeyk'fwdkYü 0denf;"dk&f&[ef;vQif ig;a,mufajrmuf
&Sdaom *kdPf;oHCmjzifh &[ef;cHjcif;udk cGifhjyKjcif;?
(2) tvkH;pkHaomypöEÅ&mZfZeyk'fwdkYü txyftvTmrsm;aomzdeyfwdkYudkpD;&ef
cGifhjyKjcif;?
(3) tvkH;pkHaomypöEÅ&mZfZeyk'fwdkYü tqufrjywf&ufqufa&csdK;jcif;udk
cGifhjyKjcif;?
(4) tvkH;pkHaomypöEÅ&mZfZeyk'fwdkYü odk;a&? qdwfa&? orifa&[laom om;a&
tcif;wdkYudk okH;pGJ&efcGifhjyKjcif;?
(5) vlwdkYonf Oypm&odrfyodkYoGm;a&mufaeaom&[ef;wdkYtm; ]]þrnfaom
&[ef;tm; þouFef;udkvSLygukef\}}[k ajymqdkívSL&mü vufodkYra&muf
ao;orQ t"d|mefwif&rnfhta&twGufodkYra&mufEdkifay/ xdkouFef;udk
cH,ljcif;iSgcGifhjyKjcif; wkdYjzpf\/
þae&mü rZdÑra'oESifh ypöEÅ&mZft&yfwdkY\a'otydkif;tjcm;udkvnf;
odoihfao;\/ rZdÑra'o[lonf ZrÁL'dyfuRef;\tv,fjzpf\/ ,if;rZdÑra'o\
e,fedrdwfrSm ta&SUbufwGif *Z*Fved*kH;? ta&SUawmifbufwGif ov’0wDjrpf? awmif
bufwGif aowuPdÖed*kH;? taemufbufwGif xlPykPÖm;½Gm? ajrmufbufwGif
OoD&'¨Zawmif? þtwGif;t&yfonf rZdÑra'ojzpf\/ ,if;a'o\ tjyift&yf
wdkYonf ypöEÅ&mZft&yfwdkYomjzpfav\/
rZdÑra'o\tus,ft0ef;rSm tvsm;,lZem(300)? teH,lZem (250)?
t0ef;,lZem (900)&Sd\/ or®morÁK'¨? yapöuAk'¨? t*¾om0u? toDwdom0u?
jrwfAk'¨wdkY\r,fawmfESifh crnf;awmfrsm;? pMu0aw;rif;ESifh tjcm;tqifhtwef;
jrifhaom ykPÖm;ol<u,fwdkYonf þrZdÑra'oüyif jzpfMuukef\[kqdkMu\/
þü,lZemudk rdkifEIef;jzifhwGufcsufjyMu&mü t,ltq trsdK;rsdK;&Sd
aMumif;awGU&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;odkYazmfjyMuaomq&mwdkY\t,ltqwdkYrSm atmufyg
twdkif;jzpf\wpf,lZemudk
(u)
5 rdkifEIef;?
(c)
7ƒ rdkifEIef;?
(*)
16 rdkifEIef;?
(C)
1 rdkif? 1 zmvkH? 40 awmif?
(i)
12.72 rdkif?

194 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if H awmfveS af &;tpd;k &? wGucf surf t
I rsKd ;rsKd ;ESihf ywfouf
onfhpHEIef;rsm;vmtwdkif; wpf,lZemvQif 12.72 rdkifEIef;jzifh wGufcsufMunfhaomf
rZdÑra'o\tus,ft0ef;rSmtvsm; 3816 rdkif
teH
3180 rdkif
t0ef; 10448 rdik &f adS Mumif; avhvmawGU&SEd ikd af y\/
Ak'¨omoeduyx0D0ifusrf;üvnf; rZdÑra'otydkif;tjcm;udk (2)enf;cGJjcm;
xm;aMumif; awGU&Sd&ay\/ ,if;(2)enf;rSm omoemawmfenf;ESifh avmuDenf;wdkY
yifjzpf\/
omoemawmfenf;t& rZdÑra'o\
(1) ]]ta&SUbufedrdwfum; a&S;trnf uZ*Fved*r (*Z*Fved*kH;) ,cktrnf
uHoaZmvjzpf\/ wnf&mtm;jzifh Ad[m& (Ad[m&f)e,ftv,fydkif;ESifh
ta&SUbufoEÅmvESifh y&*em'dpBwdwfwdkYüwnf&Sd\/
(2) ta&SUawmifbuferd w
d u
f m; a&S;trnf ov’0wDe'D? ,cktrnf ]]qDvmþ
jrpf}} jzpf\/ wnf&mtm;jzifh AD[m&fjynfe,fawmifyikd ;f ar'deyD &k ("d'eyk&)
'dpBwdwf wdkYüwnf&Sdonf/
(3) awmifbufedrdwfum; a&S;trnf aowuPdÖued*r- aowuPdÖued*kH;
jzpf\/ wnf&mtm;jzifh AD[m&fjynfe,fawmifydkif; [mZm&DAm*'dpBwdwfü
wnf&Sdonf/
(4) taemufbufedrdwfum; a&S;trnf xlejA[®P*gr? xleykPÖm;½Gm? ,ck
trnf ]xmaeo&}jzpf\/ wnf&mtm;jzifh 'dvd’NrdKUajrmufbuf avmif*sD
wG'f (77)'D*&D? vwDåwG'f(30)'D*&DuPmv (u&fPmv) 'dpBudwfü
wnf&Sdonf/
(5) ajrmufbufedrdwfum; a&S;trnf OoD&'¨ZyAÁw - OoD&'¨Zawmif? ,ck
trnf wdAÁuf- wdAufvlrsdK;wdkY\tac: Oó0oE´r[m*d&d? ajrwdkif;
t&m&Srd sm;tac: Owfqefjzpfonf/ wnf&mtm;jzifh 'dvN’d rdKUrS ta&SUajrmuf
aumo(60)? rdkif(120) uGma0;aomt&yfü&Sdaom t&d'¨g& ([m&f'¨g&f)
ac:t&yfü teD;rSmwnf&Sdonf}}
[k jyqdkxm;&m þomoemawmfenf;t& edrdwfig;&yf\twGif;onf rZdÑra'oyif
jzpf\/ xdkrS tjyifbuftpGefusaomt&yfonf ypöEÅ&mZft&yfjzpf\/ tdEd´,EdkifiH
wpfckvkH;onf rZdÑra'o r[kwfygay/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 195

avmuDenf;t& rZdÑra'otydkif;tjcm;udkazmfjy&mwGif]]ta&SUbufedrdwfum; y,m*qdyfjzpfwnf&mtm;jzifh **FgjrpfESifh,rkem
(Zrkem)jrpfEpS cf w
k Ykd q&Hk m aumorDNÁ rdKUteD; ,ck Zvm[mAm' (Zvm[mA'f)
ac: NrdKUwnf&m jzpfonf/
(2) awmifbufedrdwfum; 0dÍÆsawmifwef;jzpfí wnf&mtm;jzifh AkHAdkife,f
ajrmufydkif; ESifh tdEd´,jynftv,fydkif; ocFwenf;tvdk Owå&yxwdkif;
tqkH;ESifh 'ud©Pyx wdkif;tpt&yfrSm wnf&Sdonf/
(3) taemufbufedrdwfum; uk½kacwå(uk½kwdkif;) 0deoeqdyfjzpfí wnf&m
tm;jzifh 'dvd’ ,cktac: a'vDNrdKUajrmufbufteD;rSmwnf&Sdonf/
(4) ajrmufbufedrdwfum; [dr0EÅmawmifjzpfí wnf&mtm;jzifh tdEd´,jynf
ajrmufbuftqkH;rSmwnf&Sdonf}}[k jyqdkMu\/
(1)

þodYk rEkocFwusrf;vm avmuDenf;t& rZdÑra'oudk edrw
d af v;&yfwYkd jzifh
ydkif;jcm; owfrSwfjyxm;onfudk awGU&\/ ¤if;edrdwf(4)yg;\tjyifbuft&yfudk
ypöEÅ&mZft&yf[k rSwf&rnfomjzpf\/ avmuDenf;tvdk t0EdÅwdkif;? OaZÆeDjynf?
a0'douNrdKUrsm;onf rZdÑra'otwGif;ü yg0ifaeonfudkawGU&ay\/ omoemawmf
enf; tvdktm;jzifhum; t0EdÅwdkif;onf ypöEÅ&mZft&yfü yg0ifonfudk awGU&ay\/
a&S;tac:ta0:tm;jzifh rZdÑra'o[lonf tdEd´,jynftv,fydkif;wpf0dkufqDrS
wdkif;ESifhjynfe,fwdkYudk aygif;pkíac:a0:aomt&yfjzpf\/ ,ckacwf tac:ta0:tm;
jzifhum; rZdÑra'o[lonf tdEd´,jynfajrmufydkif;rQom jzpfay\/ ,if;rS<uif;usef
aomt&yfwdkYonf ypöEÅ&mZf t&yfwdkYomjzpf\/
r,fawmftwGuf om;&[ef;\w&m;yGJ
wpfzef t&SifaomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf rdcif'g,dumrBuD;\ rSmMum;
vdkufaom pum;jzifh jrwfAk'¨tm; ]]jrwfpGmbk&m;... þur®vmt0wfxnfudk
umVDOygodumrBuD;onf t&Sib
f &k m;wdYk aeawmfr&l m *E¨u#k w
D u
kd üf ajrtcif;jyKvky&f ef
qufuyfvSL'gef;tyfygonfbk&m;}}[k avQmufxm;um urÁvmt0wfxnfudk
jrwfAk'¨tm; qufuyfav\/ xdkYaemuf jrwfAk'¨udk &Sdcdk;vsuf rdrdaexdkifoDwif;okH;&m
t0EdÅwdkif; uk&&C&NrdKU yywawmifausmif;odkY jyef<uawmfrlav\/
þodkY t&SifaomPuk#DuPÖrax&fonf q&mOyZÑm,ftrdefY&Sdcsuftwdkif;
jrwfAk'¨xHrS qkig;rsdK;udk &,lEdkifcJholjzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ þt&Sif
aomPuk#duPÖ&,lvmcJhaom qkwdkYonf ypöEÅ&mZft&yfa'owdkYü oDwif;okH;Mu
ukefaom &[ef;oHCmwdkYomru Ak'¨bmom0ifwdkY twGufvnf; tvGeftokH;0ifaom
qkwdkYjzpfaMumif; awGU&SdEdkifay\/

196 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

aomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf OyZÑm,fq&mxHarSmuf a&mufaomtcg
xdktaMumif;t&m tvkH;pkHudk jyefMum;avQmufxm;av\/ aemufwpfaeYü r,fawmf
umVDola|;uawmf\tdrf wHcg;0odkY <ua&mufí qGrf;cH&yfawmfrlav\/ r,fawmf
umVDoal |;uawmfonf ]]ighom;onf tdrw
f cH g;0rSm &yfaeowJ}h }[laom owif;pum;
udk Mum;od&í vsifjrefpGm vmí &Sdcdk;\/ xdkYaemuf om;&[ef;\ vufrS oydwfudk
vSrf;,lí tdrfwGif;ü ae&mxdkifcif;ay;um qGrf;qufuyfav\/
xdkYaemuf qGrf;bkOf;ay;NyD;aomtcg r,fawmfESifh om;&[ef;wdkYonf
atmufygtwdkif; tjyeftvSefar;jref;Muav\/
(r,fawmf) ]]cspfom;... oifcspfom;onf jrwfAk'¨udk zl;cJh&yg\avm/}}
(om;&[ef;) ]]tdrf;... zl;cJh&onf r,fawmf}}
(r,fawmf) ]]cspfom;... r,fawmfrSmMum;vdkufaompum;jzifhaum jrwfAk'¨tm;
r,fawmhf udk,fpm; &Sdcdk;tyfcJhyg\avm/}}
(om;&[ef;) ]]tdrf;.. &Sdcdk;tyfcJhonf r,fawmf? r,fawmfvSL'gef;vdkufonfh xdk
urÁvm t0wftxnfudkvnf; om;awmfudk,fwdkifyif jrwfAk'¨
oDwif;okH;aeawmf rl&m*E¨uk#Dausmif;awmfü r,fawmfBuD;rSmxm;
vdkufonfhtwdkif; ajrtcif;jyKum cif;xm;tyfcJhavNyD/
(r,fawmf) ]]cspfom;... todkYenf;/ oifcspfom;onf jrwfAk'¨tm; w&m;
pum;½Gwfqdk avQmufxm;cJhowJhqdk? jrwfAk'¨uvnf; oifcspfom;
tm; om"kaumif;csD; ay;awmfrlowJhqdk}}
(om;&[ef;) ]]r,fawmf... þtaMumif;t&mrsm;udk r,fawmfonf tb,fenf;
jzifh odtyfygoenf;/
(r,fawmf) cspfom;... r,fawmhftdrfüapmifhMuyfaeaomtdrfapmifhewfu ]]cspf
om;tm; jrwfAk'¨uom"kaumif;csD;ay;aomaeYü pMu0Vmaygif;
wpfaomif;ae ewfjA[®mwdkYonf om"kaumif;csD;ay;Muonf}}[k
r,fawmhfudk ajymMum; ygonf/
]]cspfom;.. oifcspfom; a[mMum;tyfcJhaom w&m;pum;udk
jrwfAk'¨tm; ½GwfqdkavQmufMum; a[mMum;tyfcJhonfhenf;twdkif;
yif r,fawmhftm;vnf; wpfzefjyefía[mMum;yg&ef awmifhwvifh
qdk r,fawmftvdk&Sdyg\cspfom;}}
þodkY r,fawmfumVDola|;uawmfBuD;\avQmufxm;awmif;yefcsufudk
t&SifaomP uk#duPÖrax&fonf qdwfqdwfaeojzifh vufcHawmfrlav\/
r,fawmfumVDola|;uawmfBuD;onf om;&[ef;\vufcHonfudkod&Sdum rdrd\
tdrfwHcg;0ü r@yfBuD;pGmaqmufvkyfapí jrwfAk'¨tm; ½GwfqdkavQmufxm; ajymMum;

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 197

tyfcJhonfhenf;twdkif;yif w&m;pum;udk a[mMum;apav\/ om;&[ef;jzpfol
t&SifaomPuk#duPÖonfvnf; r,fawmfumVDola|;uawmftwGuf w&m;a[m
awmfrlcJhay\/
þw&m;yGJtqkH;ü r,fawmfumVDonf ou'g*grftp&SdonfodkY a&muf&Sd
aMumif;udrk l rawGU&ay/ odYk aomfvnf; t&Siaf omPuk#u
d PÖ rax&f\ w&m;a'oem
tqkH;ü umVDola|;uawmf\oli,fcsif;rjzpfol umwd,meDola|;uawmfBuD;onf
aomwmywdåzdkvfü wnfcJhaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ (umwd,meDolaX;r
taMumif;udk tcef;-9 ü azmfjyNyD;jzpf\)/ t&SifaomP uk#duPÖrax&f jyefvnf
a[mMum;awmfrlaom w&m;awmfrSmvnf; jrwfAk'¨xHüa[mMum;avQmufxm;aom
okwåedygwfygVdawmfvm umrokwåeftp&Sdaom okwåefaygif; wpfq,fhajcmufokwf
wdkYyif jzpfay\/ ,if;wdkY\trnfrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;yifjzpf\(1)
umrokwf?
(2)
*k[|uokwf?
(3)
'k||uokwf?
(4)
ok'¨|uokwf?
(5)
y&r|uokwf?
(6)
Z&mokwf?
(7)
wdóarawå,sokwf?
(8)
yol&okwf?
(9)
rm*@d,okwf?
(10)
yk&mab'okwf?
(11)
uv[0d0g'okwf?
(12)
plVAsL[okwf?
(13)
r[mAsL[okwf?
(14)
wk0#uokwf?
(15)
twå'@okwf?
(16)
om&dykwåokwf?
txufazmfjyygokwfawmf (16)okwfvkH;onf okwåedygwf? t|u0*fwpfckwnf;ü
yg0ifaeay\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbx
UJG ;l rsm;&Sjd cif;
xdkrSaemufü jrwfAk'¨onf om0wd¬jynf aZw0efausmif;awmf0,f awmf0ifpH
xm; {w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;ay;onf&Sdaomf umVDola|;uawmftm;
]{w'*H¾ bdua© 0 rr om0dumeH Oygou
d meH tEkó0yÜoEémeH ,'d'H umVD Oygod

198 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

um uk&&C&dum=&[ef;wd.Yk . igb&k m;udk wpfqifMh um;jcif;rQjzifh MunfñMkd uonfh
igbk&m;\ wynfhr trsdK;orD; taygif;wGif uk&&C&NrdKUae umVDOygodum
trsKd ;orD;onf tomqk;H tjrwfq;Hk jzpfay\}
[k awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;udkay;tyfawmfrlcJh\/ wpfzef qufvufívnf;
{w'*fbGJUwdkYudkay;tyf&mwGif umVDola|;uawmfBuD;\ om;&[ef;jzpfol t&Sif
aomPuk#DuPÖtm;vnf; jrwfAk'¨u]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr om0umeH bdu©LeH uvsmP0guú&PmeH ,'d'H aomaPm
uk#d uaPÖm= &[ef;wdkY... csdKNrdefom,mpGmaomtoHjzifh w&m;pum;a[m
Mum;Muaom igbk&m;\ wynfhom0u&[ef;awmfwdkYwGif aomPuk#duPÖ
&[ef;onf tomqk;H tjrwfq;Hk jzpf\/}
[k awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udk ay;tyfcJhav\/ þodkYvQif r,fawmfumVD ola|;
uawmf ESifh om;&[ef; t&SifaomPuk#duPÖrax&fwdkYonf jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif
ay;aom ]]awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;}}wdkYudk toD;oD;&&SdcJh&m r,fawmfonf trsdK;
orD;wdkYwGif awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;wpfa,mufjzpfcJh&ay\/ om;&[ef;onfvnf;
&[ef;awmftaygif;wGif awmf0ifpHxm;&[ef;awmfwpfyg;jzpfcJh&ayawmh\/
þtcef; (11)wGifum; awmf0ifpHxm;umVDola|;uawmfBuD;taMumif;udk
avhvmcJNh yD; jzpfay\/ umVDoal |;uawmfBuD;ESiw
hf uG tjcm;tjcm;aomawmf0ifpx
H m;
{w'*f&Sif trsdK;orD;rsm;uJhodkYyif b0aygif;rsm;pGm yg&rDjznfhqnf;&cJh&oljzpfaMumif;
avhvm awGU&SdEdkifay\/ omrefpmzwfolwdkY taetm;jzifh awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*f&Sif
okZmwmonfom yxrqkH;aom aomwmyeftrsdK;orD;jzpfonf[k odxm;Muay\/
odkYaomfvnf; þawmf0ifpHxm; umVDola|;uawmfBuD;\taMumif;tw¬KyÜwfudk
avhvm&mwGifum; okZmwmtrsdK;aumif;orD;onf 'kwd,ajrmuf aomwmyefyk*dK¾ vf
jzpfí awmf0ifpHxm; umVDola|;uawmfBuD;onfom yxrqkH;aom aomwmyef trsdK;
orD;jzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ tu,fí awmf0ifpHxm; okZmwmtrsdK;orD;
onfom yxrqkH; aomwmyefwnfol trsdK;orD;jzpftHh? jrwfAk'¨onf awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*fbUJG xl;wdYk ukd ay;tyfcsD;jr§i&hf mwGif okZmwm trsdK;orD;tm; ]]aomwmyefwnfol
trsdK;orD;taygif;wGif tomqkH;? tjrwfqkH;aom awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;}} udk
ay;tyfrnfomjzpf\/ trSefrSm yxrqkH; aomwmyefwnfol trsdK;orD;onf umVDol
a|;uawmfBuD;om jzpfay\/ xdkYaMumifh jrwfAk'¨onf awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;
rsm;udk csD;jr§ifhay;tyf&mwGif okZmwmtrsdK;aumif;orD;tm; ]]yXrqkH;o&P*kHokH;yg;udk
qnf;uyfu;kd uG,af om trsdK;orD;taygif;wGif awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbUJG xl;}}udk vnf;
aumif;? umVDola|;uawmfBuD;tm; ]]wpfqifhMum;jcif;rQjzifh jrwfAk'¨tm; MunfñdkMu
onfh trsdK;orD;taygif;wGif tjrwfq;Hk tomqk;H aom awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbUJG xl;}}udk

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 199

vnf;aumif; toD;toD;ay;tyfcJhaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifh
jrwfAk'¨\avmuom;wdkYtm; csD;ajr§mufrIjyK&mwGif ae&mtuGuftvyfr&Sdatmif
axmifhapholjzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd&ay\/
þumVDola|;uawmfBuD;\taMumif;wGif omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0w
ewfrif;wdkY jrwfAk'¨ESifhpyfvsOf;í tcsDtcs tcsif;csif;ajymqdkaeMuonfudk avhvmcJhNyD;
jzpf\/ trSefrSm ,if;ewf rif;ESpfa,mufwdkY\ ajymqdkrIrsm;rSm bk&m;ppfç rppfudk
ar;jref ; aejcif ; omjzpf a y\/ þonf u d k axmuf q í ,aeY a cwf w G i f v nf ;
bk&m;ppfrppfudk ,if;ewfrif;ESpfa,mufwdkY ar;ajzMuonfhtwdkif; pdppfEdkifay\/
wpfenf;tm;jzifhum; twktywdkYaygrsm;aom þurÇmavmuü bk&m;tppfjzpf
aMumif; rSwfausmufwifEdkif&eftwGuf omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0wewfrif;wdkY\
ar;pdppfcsufwdkYu aemifvmaemufom; okawoDrsm;twGuf *½kjyKpHxm;p&m tcsuf
wpfcsufyifjzpfay\/
wpfzef omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0wewfrif;wdkYonf ]]tu,fí wpf
a,mufa,muf\t&yfü tHhbG,fo&J xl;uJaomtaMumif;wdkYudk awGUjrifMum;od
cJh&ygu tjcm;wpfa,muftm; vma&mufajymMum;vSnfhyg}}[k uwdu0wfjyKxm;cJh
Mu\/ xdkewfwdkYonf ,if;uwdu0wftwdkif; tcsif;csif; xl;uJaomtaMumif;wdkY
jzpfay:&mü vma&mufajymqdkcJhay\/ þtaMumif;udkaxmufaomf vlom;wdkYonf
uwdwpfckudkay;NyD;aomf ,if;uwdudk rzsufoihfay/ ]rif;rSmopöm vlrmS uwd} [k
qdkonfhtwdkif; uwdwnfol vlom;rsm;om jzpfoihfay\/
,if;omwm*d&ewfrif;ESihf a[r0wewfrif;wdYk jrwfA'k p¨ pfçrppfEiS phf yfvsO;f í
ar;jref;csuf? ajzMum;csufwdkYrSm yd#uwfwGif a[r0wokwåeftaejzifh xif&Sm;cJh
aMumif; avhvmawGU&SEd ikd af yao;\/ ,if;a[r0wokweå u
f kd okweå yd gwfygVdawmfwiG f
qufvufí okawoejyKEdkifay\/ þpHawmf0if {w'*f&Sif umVDtrsdK;orD;onf
rdrdtdrfacgifrdk;ay:ü jrwfAk'¨ESifhpyfvsOf;í tcsif;csif; ar;jref;jcif; ajzMum;jcif;udk
jyKvkyaf eaom a[r0wESihf omwm*d&ewfrif;wdYk \ pum;oHukd wpfqifMh um;jcif;rQjzifh
jrwfAk'¨üMunfñdkum olwpfyg;cl;cyfNyD;aomabmZOfudk pm;okH;&ouJhodkY vG,fulpGm
aomwmyefjzpfc&hJ oljzpf\/ þae&mü awmf½w
Hk ef½Hk omrefy*k K¾d vfwYkd onf wpfqifMh um;
jcif;rQjzifh jrwfAk'¨udk MunfñdkzdkY&efrSm vG,fulaomudprö [kwfygay/ vufawGUom"u
jyrSom ,kHMunfMuaom rsufarSmufacwftaetxm;ESifh csdefxdk;Munfhaomfum;
omíyif jzpfEdkifrnfr[kwfygacs/ þumVDola|;uawmfBuD;onf b0gb0u
jznfhusifhcJhonfhyg&rDwdkYu wdkufwGef;EdI;aqmfrIaMumifh wpfqifhpum;Mum;½kHrQjzifh
jrwfAk'¨udk av;pm;MunfñdkcJholjzpf\/ MunfñdkcJhonfhtavsmuf aomwmywdå
zdv
k o
f Ykd yif a&muf&cdS ahJ y\/ wpfqifMh um;pum;[l&müvnf; ,kMH unfxu
kd af omolwYkd \
ajymMum;aompum;udkMum;íom jrwfAk'¨tm; MunfñdkcJhjcif;jzpf&m\/ tu,fí

200 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

r,kHMunfxdkufolwdkY\ wpfqifhMum;pum;jzpfygrlum; umVDola|;uawmfBuD;twGuf
pOf;pm;p&mtrSefyifjzpfEdkifyg\/ rnfodkYyifjzpfapumrl umVDola|;uawmfBuD;
jznfu
h sifch ahJ omyg&rDt[kew
f Ykd \ tpGr;f owdaå Mumifh ]Ak'}¨ [k Mum;cgrwåjzifyh if Munfñkd
rIjzpfEdkifay\/ xdkYaMumifhyif jrwfAk'¨tm;wpfqifhMum;pum;jzifh MunfñdkMuol
trsdK;orD;taygif;wGif jrwfAk'¨onf umVDola|;uawmfBuD;tm; tomqkH; tjrwfqkH;
aom awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udkay;tyfí csD;ajr§mufrIjyKcJhjcif;omjzpfay\/
umVDtrsdK;aumif;orD;onf tdraf xmif&iS jf zpfonft
h m;avsmfpmG ]aomPuk#d
uPÖ } [l a om om;vd r ® m wpf a ,muf u d k arG ; zG m ;cJ h a y\/ ]vlvdr®mom;,Ofyg;}
qdkonfhtavsmuf aomP uk#duPÖowdkYom;onf vdr®m,Ofaus;olvnf;jzpf\/
,if;odYk vdrm® ,Ofaus;&efrmS vnf; ]]t&Sirf [mupön;f }}wnf;[laom olawmfaumif;\
w&m;"r®wdkYudk em,lusifhokH;jcif;aMumifhyif jzpf\/ xdkYaMumifh avmuü vdr®m,Of
aus;olrsm;jzpf&eftwGuf olawmfaumif;ESifhawGUqkH&efvnf; vdkay\/ awGUqkHonfh
tavsmuf olawmfaumif;w&m;wdkYudkvnf; em,loihfay\/ em,lonfhtavsmuf
vnf; vufcHusifhokH;oihfay\/ odkYrSom vdr®m,Ofaus;olrsm;jzpfEdkifaMumif; umVDol
a|;uawmfBuD;\om;awmf aomPuk#duPÖu azmfñTef;jyoaeay\/
wpfzef om;awmfaomPuk#duPÖ\ o'¨gw&m;udkvnf; twk,lEdkif
ao;\/ aomP ola|;om;onf oHa0*jzpfonfhtavsmuf omoemh0efxrf; &Sif
&[ef;jyKcJh\/ þü aomPuk#duPÖtzdkY &Siftjzpfonf vG,fulaomfvnf; &[ef;
tjzpfwufa&muf&müum; tvGecf ,
J Of;cJah Mumif; awGU&ayrnf/ tb,faMumifq
h akd omf
xdpk Ofu &[ef;wpfyg;jzpf&eftwGuf vdt
k yfaomoHCm ta&twGurf mS oHCmwpfusdyf
&SdrSom txajrmufay\/ aomPomraPtm; &[ef;cH&eftwGuf oHCmwpfusdyf
&&Sdatmif pkaqmif;&rIonf tcsdeftm;jzifh okH;ESpfMumjrifhcJh&jcif;aMumifhjzpf\/
awmf½kHwef½kH omrefykxkZOfyk*dK¾ vfwdkYtwGufum; pdwfysufzG,f&myif/ odkYaomfvnf;
aomP&SifomraPonf omoemü Munfñdk&if;pGJ&Sdonfhtavsmuf ZGJ&Sd&Sdjzifh
omoemwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufcJhonfom jzpfacs\/
aemufydkif;wGif aomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf jrwfAk'¨xHyg;odkYoGm;a&muf
zl;ajrmfNyD; wpfqufwnf;rSmyif jrwfAk'¨\wdkufwGef;awmfrlcsuft& okwåedygwf
ygVdawmfvm umrokwåef tp&Sdaom wpfq,fhajcmufokwfwdkYudk jrwfAk'¨\a&SUawmf
arSmufüyif ½GwfqdkcJhonf/ jrwfAk'¨uvnf; ]]om"k}}ac:awmfrlcJh\/ xdkYaemuf
q&mOyZÑm,f t&Sirf [mupön;f rax&fonf jrwfA'k x
¨ rH S awmif;tyfaomqkig;yg;udk
wynfjh zpfol t&Siaf omPuk#u
d PÖrax&frw
S pfqifh awmif;cHc\
hJ / ,if;awmif;cJah om
qkig;yg;udk jrwfAk'¨u cGifhjyKawmfrlcJhaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkif\/ ,if;qkig;yg;onf
,cktcgü omoemawmf0,f tvGeftokH;0ifaomqkrsm;jzpfaMumif; avhvmawGU&SdEdkif
\/ OyZÑm,fq&mtygt0if ig;yg;aomoHCmjzifh &[ef;cHEdkifjcif;? rjywf&ufquf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 201

a&csdK;Edkifjcif; tp&Sdaomt&mwdkYrSm ypöEÅ&mZfae &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;twGufomru
Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;twGufyg tokH;0ifvsuf&SdaMumif; awGUEdkifay\/ ,if;odkY oHCm
ig;yg;ESifh &[ef;cHrIudk cGifhjyKjcif;onf &[ef;oHCmenf;yg;vSaom ypöEÅ&mZf Zeyk'f
rsm;twGuf owif;aumif;wpfckyifjzpfay\/
aomPuk#duPÖrax&fonf r,fawmfjzpfol umVDola|;uawmfBuD;tm;
w&m;a[majymcJhaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd&ay\/ þonfrSm aomPuk#duPÖ
rax&fonf r,fawmfumVD ola|;uawmfBuD;tm; "r®jzifhcsD;ajr§mufjcif; jzpf\/ "r®jzifh
aus;Zl;qyfjcif;vnf; jzpf\/ r,fawmfonfvnf; ,cifuyif aomwmyefyk*d¾Kvf
jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm "r®jzifhavsmfnDpGm aexdkifonfudkvnf; awGU&SdEdkifay\/ jrwfAk'¨
onf awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;udk ay;tyfcsD;jr§ifh&mwGif r,fawmfumVD ola|;
uawmfBuD;tm; ]]jrwfAk'¨tm; wpfqifhMum;pum;jzifh MunfñdkMuonfh trsdK;orD;
taygif;wGif tjrwfq;Hk tomqk;H jzpfaom awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*fbUJG xl;}}udv
k nf;aumif;?
om;awmft&Sif aomPuk#d uPÖrax&ftm; csdKNrdefom,maomtoHjzifh w&m;pum;
a[majymMuaom &[ef;awmfwdkYwGif tjrwfqkH;tomqkH;jzpfaom awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*fbGJUxl;udkvnf;aumif; ay;tyfawmfrlcJh&\/ þuJhodkY om;trdESpfOD;om;wdkY
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;rsm; udk,fpDudk,fiS &&Sdjcif;rSm omoemawmfordkif;0,f
'kw,
d ajrmufyifjzpfay\/ (awmf0ifpx
H m; yPDw0w¬KtvSL&Sif oky0Ü gomtrsKd ;orD;ESihf
om;awmf vmbfrsm;ocif t&SifoD0vdrax&fwdkYonf yxrajrmufom;trdjzpf\/)
ed*kH;csKyftm;jzifh jrwfAk'¨vufxufü awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUwdkYudk&&SdcJhaom
vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD; (10)a,mufpvkH;wdkYonf yg&rDrjznfhrD y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨
\vufxufü awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*f &cJhMuonfh trsdK;orD;wdkYudk awGUjriftwk,l
tm;uscJMh uygonf/ ,if;odYk twk,t
l m;uscJo
h nft
h avsmufvnf; jrwfA'k x
¨ aH wmfyg;ü
qkawmif;í qkawmif;tm; avsmufywfaomaumif;rIwdkYudk jznfhqnf;cJhMuaMumif;
avhvmawGU&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;taMumif;wkdYaMumifhvnf; a*gwrjrwfAk'¨ vufxufü
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbJGUwkdYukd &,lEkdifcJhay\/ þae&mü awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*f&Sif
trsdK;orD;wdkYudk jrifawGUí tm;usrI? MunfñdkrI? ,if;uJhodkYjzpfvdkrIwdkYrSm aumif;aom
qE´rsm;om jzpfay\/ qE´aumif;udk taumiftxnfazmfrItaejzifh EIwfrS>ruf[í
qkawmif;jcif;? udk,fwdkifudk,fus yg&rDjznfhqnf;rIwdkYudkjyKMujcif; jzpf\/ txuf
azmfjyygtcsufwdkYudkMunfhaomf udpw
ö pfckatmifjrifap&eftwGuf qE´aumif;&Sdjcif;?
qkawmif;jcif;? vufawGUtaumiftxnfazmfjcif;[laom tcsufo;Hk csufvt
kd yfaMumif;
awGU&Sd&ayrnf/ ,if;tcsufwdkYjynfhpkHrSomvQif qE´&SdaomudpöwdkYonf NyD;ajrmuf
atmifjrifEdkifrnfom jzpfay\/ þawmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD; {w'*f&Sif(10)OD;wdkYonf
,if; tcsufokH;csufudk udkufnDatmif tokH;cscJhjcif;aMumifhom awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*f
bGJUxl;udk &&SdcJhjcif;jzpfaMumif; okH;oyfrday\/

202 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

xkdYaMumihf þAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;rsm;taMumif;udk zwf½I
avhvmí ,aeYacwf Ak'¨bmomtrsdK;aumif;om; trsdK;aumif;orD;taygif;wdkYonf
jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;wdkYudk tm;ustwk,lum BudK;pm;tm;xkwf
MuygvQif ,if;awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;rsm;enf;wl t&d,mr*fzdkvfwdkYudk &&SdEdkifjcif;?
jrwfAk'¨\ awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;wdkYudk &Edkifjcif;paom tusdK;xl;w&m; taygif;
wdkY jynfhpkHí oEdÅokctNidrf;"mwfudk vsifjrefpGmcHpm;&rnfom jzpfayawmhownf;/
t&Sit
f *¾ÓP(vSn;f ul;)
1365 ckESpf? jymodkvjynfhausmf (4)&uf? we*FaEGaeY
eHeuf 9 ; 00em&DwGif a&;om;NyD;pD;onf/

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 203

usrf;NyD;qkawmif;
- oked|dawm t,H *aE¦m? ,H yknH yuwH r,m/
£rdem yknuar®e? oDCH 0dE´mrd edAÁKwð/ (yxsm0wå*gxm)
oDCH odZÑEÅK ouFyÜg? pd&H wdXwk omoeH/
- uyÜrÜm,H *aE¦m Xmwk? ta&m*g okcdwm yZm/
(wwd,rum& 0dykvm*gxm)
r,m- t*¾ÓP? emrorkw?f tuREkyf o
f nf? (uawm- jyKpD&iftyfaom?) t,H *aE¦m]jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[k? xif&Sm;ac:rSwf? þusrf;jrwf
onf? oked|dawm- aumif;pGmaygufa&muf? NyD;ajrmufcJhavNyD/ r,m- t*¾ÓP?
emrorkwf tuREkfyfonf? ,HyknH- usrf;pmjyKpk? tMuifaumif;rIudk? yuwHaumif;pGmraoG? jyKpktyfcahJ vNyD/ £rdem yknuar®e- usrf;pmjyKpk? þaumif;rIaMumif?h
(t[H- t*¾ÓP emrorkwf tuREkfyfonf?) edAÁKwð- edAÁmefcsrf;omudk? 0dE´mrd&&Sdvdkyg\/
abmaEÅm- þusrf;pmudk? ½Ioltaygif;? olawmfaumif;wdkY? wkrSmuH- pm½Ioltaygif;
oifolawmfaumif;wdkY\?) ouFyÜg- aumif;rGefab;&Sif;? tjypfuif;aom? tBuHtpnf
rSeo
f rQwdYk onf? oDC-H vsifjrefrMum? apmvsifpmG omvQif? odZÑEÅK- ewfwYkd 0rf;ajrmuf?
vGefpGmawmufí? aygufa&mufNyD;ajrmufEkdifygapownf;/ omoeH- Ak'¨jrwfpGm?
wnfaxmifygí? &SpfjzmtHhzG,f? jynfhNzdK;<u,fbd? *kPfjynfhr*Fvm? tqHk;tr
omoemawmfonf? pd&H- tESpfig;axmifru Mumatmif? wdXwk- avmuoHk;yg;?
&[wfcsm;ü? cefYjim;wnfwHhEdkifygapownf;/ t,H *aE¦m- ]jrwfAk'¨vufxuf
awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[k? xif&Sm;ac:rSwf? þusrf;jrwfonf? uyÜrÜd- Ak'¨
omoem? wnfwHh&monfh? b'´urÇmywfvHk;vnf;? Xmwk- ab;b,mtjzmjzm?
ta0;ucGgí? t&SnfcHhpGm? wnfwHhEdkifygapownf;/ yZm- urÇmolurÇmom;?
owå0gtrsm;wdkYonf? ta&m*g- a&m*gruyf? Oy'frwG,f? tEÅ&m,fcyfodrf;rS?
uif;Nidrf;Muukefonf? okcdwm- udk,fpdwfESpfjzm csrf;omMuukefonf? (b0EÅKusrf;pma&;om; ukodkvfpGrf;yum;? ukokdvftm;aMumifh? xif&Sm;raoG? jzpfEdkifMuygap
ukefownf;/

YX;WZ

204 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

usrf;ud;k
(u) ygVdawmfusrf;rsm;
1/ tXu e0u 'ou
{um'ouedygwygVd
2/ tyg'geygVd (y)
3/ tyg'eygVd ('k)
4/ £wd0kwåygVd
5/ O'geygVd
6/ Oy&dyPÖmoygVd
7/ {u 'ku wdu pwkuú edygwygVd
8/ cE¨0*¾? oVm,we0*¾oH,kwåygVd
9/ ck'´uygXygVd
10/ ZmwuygVd (y)
11/ ZmwuygVd ('k)
12/ ax&*gxgygVd
13/ ax&D*gxgygVd
14/ "r®y'ygVd
15/ y#dordÇ'gr*¾ygVd
16/ y&d0g&ygVd
17/ yÍöu quú owåu edygwygVd
18/ ygxdu0*¾ygVd
19/ Ak'¨0HoygVd
20/ rZdÑryPÖmoygVd
21/ r[meda'´oygVd
22/ r[m0*¾ygVd (0denf;)
23/ r[m0*¾ygVd (okwf)
24/ r[m0*¾oH,kwdåygVd
25/ rdvdE´yO§mygVd
26/ rlvyPÖmoygVd
27/ 0drme0w¬KygVd
28/ o*gxm0*¾? ed'ge0*¾oH,kwåygVd
29/ okwåedygwygVd
(c) t|uxmusrf;rsm;
30/ "r®ygvax&f? t&Sif
31/
/
32/
/
33/
/
34/
/
35/
/
36/ Ak'¨'wåax&f? t&Sif
37/ r[mAk'¨aCmo? t&Sif

omoema&;OD;pD;XmeyHkESdyfwkduf

1991

/
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/
/

1984
1993
1972
1972
1998
1982
1970
1972
1991
1991
2000
2000
1972
1991
1991
1982
1984
1999
1982
1999
1981
1984
1991
1991
1991
2000
1991
1972

£wd0kwåut|uxm
O'get|uxm
p&d,myd#ut|uxm
ax&D*gxmt|uxm
ayw0w¬Kt|uxm
0drme0w¬Kt|uxm
Ak'¨0Hot|uxm
t*kFwå&t|uxm (y)

Ak'¨omoemtzGJUyHkESdyfwdkuf
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

1958
1958
1958
1959
1958
1958
1959
1968

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 205
38/
/
39/
/
40/
/
41/
/
42/
/
43/
/
44/
/
45/
/
46/
/
47/
/
48/
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49/
/
50/
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51/
/
52/
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53/
/
54/
/
55/
/
56/
/
57/
/
58/
/
59/
/
60/
/
61/
/
62/
/
63/
/
64/ a&S;rax&f
65/
/
66/ om&dykwåax&f? t&Sif

t*kFwå&t|uxm ('k)
t*kFwå&t|uxm (w)
tXomvdeDt|uxm
Oy&dyPÖot|uxm
ck'´uygXt|uxm
Zmwut|uxm (y)
Zmwut|uxm ('k)
Zmwut|uxm (w)
Zmwut|uxm (p)
ax&*gxgt|uxm
"r®y't|uxm (y)
"r®y't|uxm ('k)
yÍöyu&Pt|uxm
ygpdwsm'dt|uxm
ygxdu0*¾t|uxm
yg&mZdu@t|uxm
r[meda'´ot|uxm
r[m0*¾t|uxm
rZdÑryPÖmot|uxm
rlvyPÖmot|uxm ('k)
0dok'd¨r*¾t|uxm ('k)
oDvu©E¨0*¾t|uxm
okwåedygwt|uxm (y)
okwåedygwt|uxm ('k)
oH,kwåt|uxm (y)
oH,kwåt|uxm ('k)
tyg'get|uxm (y)
tyg'get|uxm ('k)
0de,o*F[t|uxm

(*) #Dumusrf;rsm;
67/ "r®ygvax&f? t&Sif
68/
/
69/ Ak'¨&ud©wax&f? t&Sif
70/ om&dykwåax&f? t&Sif
71/
/
72/
/

r[m0*¾#Dum
rlvyPÖmo#Dum ('k)
ZdemvuFm&#Dum
om&w¬'DyeD#Dum
t*kFwå&#Dum
t*kFwå&#Dum ('k)

(C) jrefrmjyefusrf;pmrsm;
73/ omoema&;OD;pD;Xme
74/
/

ck'´uygXygVdawmfjrefrmjyef
r[m0gygVdawmfjrefrmjyef

/
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/
/

1968
1968
1986
1970
1958
2001
2001
2001
2001
1959
1992
1992
1957
1986
1968
1968
1968
1993
1957
1993
1957
1996
1958
1958
1970
1970
1959
1959
1991

/
/
ok"r®0wDyHkESdyfwdkuf
Ak'¨omoemtzGJYyHkESdyfwdkuf
/
/

1961
1961
1302
1960
1961
1961

/
/

1998
2001

206 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)
(i) tjcm;jrefrmbmomusrf;pmrsm;
75/ t*¾"r®bd0Ho? t&Sif tbd"mefedó,opf? jraZmfyHkESdyfwdkuf? rEÅav;?
1969
76/ t*¾orm"d? t&Sif
aerdbHkcef;ysdKU? Ak'¨omoemtzGJUyHkESdyfwdkuf
1971
77/ atmifyef;? OD;
yudPÖuomoem0if? £pämo,yd#uyHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef 1321
78/ auvmo? t&Sif
t|uedygwftusOf;csKyf? pmayaygif;ul;yHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef 1991
79/
/
wdyd#u"&0kwåEÅ0dumodeD? omoema&;OD;pD;XmeyHkESdyfwdkuf 1980
80/ usD;oJav;xyfq&mawmf? Zdew¬yumoeD
/
1982
81/ puúygv? OD;
Ak'¨omoeduyx0D0ifusrf;? ok"r®0wDyHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef 1985
82/ pmwrf;tzGJU0ifwOD; urÇmhtHhzG,frSwfwrf;rsm;? py,fOD;pmay? &efukef
1981
83/ pHjrifharmif
Ak'¨eDwd? avmupmay? uefawmfav;? &efukef
1966
84/ aZmwmvuFm&? OD;
yd#uwfawmfESifhpyf rSwfpkaxGvm odaumif;p&m
jrwfqkrGefpmay
2002
85/ wif0if;? r? a'gufwm MunfndKzG,f&mrmwmrsm;? yg&rDpmay? &efukef
2001
86/ xGef;jrifh? OD;
ygVdoufa0g[m&tbd"mef? wuúodkvfrsm;yHkESdyfwdkuf
1968
87/ 'k? rJxD;q&mawmf
rmvmvuFm&0w¬KawmfBuD;? [Hom0wDyHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef 1961
88/ ynm0Ho? t&Sif
rdaxG;awmfa*gwrDESifh bdu©KeDomomem
a&TZifausmfyHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef
2000
89/ azjrifh
r[mu½kPm&Sifrsm;? pmayavmuyHkESdyfwkduf
2000
90/ b@ma&;ESifhtcGef0efBuD;Xme? wGufcsufrItrsdK;rsdK;ESifhywfoufonfhpHEIef;rsm;
91/ r[mpnfq&mawmf
jA[®0d[m&w&m;awmf? pmayaygif;ul;yHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef 1994
92/ rm*"Dompnf
tcgawmfaeYrsm;? yg&rDpmay? &efukef
1999
93/ armiftHh? r[m0dZÆm(bHkab)? r*Fvmed'gef;? omoema&;OD;pD;XmeyHkESdyfwdkuf
1993
94/ refvnfq&mawmf
rCa'0vuFmopf? 0gqdkOD;ausmif;wdkuf? &efukef
1995
95/ jrefrmpmtzGJU jrefrmqdk½dk;pum;? wuúodkvfrsm;yHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef
1996
96/
/
jrefrmtbd"meftusOf;csKyftwGJ-1(u-p) pmayAdrmefyHkESdyfwdkuf 1978
97/
/
jrefrmtbd"meftusOf;csKyftwGJ-2(q-e)
/
1979
98/ rif;wifrGef? a'gufwm arwåmESifhopömtzGifh? oif;vJh0if;yHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef
2001
99/ &efatmif
Ak'¨acwft&d,mEG,folawmfpiftrsdK;orD;rsm;
&efatmifpmay? &efukef
100/ av;Nidrf? r
tqifhjrifhAk'¨bmom0iftrsdK;orD;rsm;
vkyftm;yHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef
1998
101/ av;NrdKif
ax&Dax&m? vkyftm;yHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef
2002
102/ 0dpdwåom&mbd0Ho? OD; r[mAk'¨0if? 'kwGJ? omoema&;OD;pD;XmeyHkESdyfwdkuf
1982
103/
/
r[mAk'¨0if? q|wGJ (y)
/
1982
104/
/
r[mAk'¨0if? q|wGJ ('k)
/
1982
105/ omraPausmf
twk,lzG,f&mpdwfxm;rsm;? yg&rDpmay? &efukef
2001
106/ omoema&;OD;pD;Xme "r®y'0w¬K (y)? omoema&;OD;pD;XmeyHkESdyfwdkuf
1990
107/
/
"r®y'0w¬K ('k)
/
1993
108/
/
"r®y'0w¬K (w)
/
1997
109/ oD[Av? OD;
yd#uwfvrf;nTef (y)
/
1994

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 207
110/
/
111/ oDv0Ho? r[m? t&Sif
112/ ok"r®0wDpmwnf;tzGJU
113/ aombdw? b'´EÅ0de,
(p) t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm;
114/ Fa-Hsien
115/ Horner. B.I
116/ Rhys-Davids. T.W

yd#uwfvrf;nTef ('k)
/
1994
yg&rDawmfcef;ysdKU
/
1996
ok"r®0wDAk'¨0if? ok"r®0wDyHkESdyfwdkuf? &efukef
A[kokwyumoeDusrf;? omoema&;OD;pD;XmeyHkESdyfwdkuf 2000
"A Record of the Buddhist Countries"
The Chinese Buddhist Association, 1957
"Women under Primitive Buddhism"
Gaorge Routledge & Sons, Ltd, Broadway house; 68-78
Carter Lane, E.C, London, 1930
"Buddhist India"
Calcutta, Susil Gupta (India) Ltd, 1957

208 t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

þpmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tvSLaiGrwnfay;Muaom
tvSL&Sirf sm;pm&if;
1/ a'gufwmOD;jrifhxGef;+a':EG,fEG,fOD;xGef;? om;BuD; vrif;xGef;
om;i,f wm&mxGef; rdom;pk (qpf'eD? Mopaw;vs) 1500 a':vm
2/ OD;&Jrif;pkd; (w&m;&kH;csKyfa&SUae)+a':&D&D0if; rdom;pk
awmifOuúvmy? &efukef
715 a':vm
3/ OD;uGpf+a':oef;&DjzL
qpf'eD? Mopaw;vs
100 a':vm
4/ OD;cspfOD;+a':rkd;rkd;rdom;pk
/
50 a':vm
5/ OD;odef;pkd;+a':oef;oef;at;
/
50 a':vm
6/ a'gufwmat;ausmf+a'gufwma':trmcsdK?
om; aumif;jrwfvif;
/
50 a':vm
7/ a':oef;oef;aX;rdom;pk
/
20 a':vm
8/ OD;wifarmif0if; (c) OD;Muufrdom;pk /
20 a':vm
9/ OD;cifarmif&Drdom;pk
/
20 a':vm
10/ OD;ciffarmifnGefY+a':rOÆLrdom;pk
/
20 a':vm
11/ OD;nDnD+a':tdEk rdom;pk
/
20 a':vm
12/ OD;at;odkuf+a':pkpkaxG;
/
5 a':vm
13/ udkEdkif0if;+rEGJUEGJUpef; rdom;pk (okcrSwfwdkif? tif;pdefvrf;? &efukef)
50000 usyf

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

ku©rsm;..................................... 43
w&m;qkH;jzwfyGJ ..................................................................................... 45
emrnfopf&&Sdaom0domcg ..................................................................... 48
0domcg\ y&[dwqk&Spfyg; .................................................................. 49
ouFef;vSL'gef;&usdK; trsdK;trsdK; .......................................................... 50
qGrf;vSL&usdK;ig;yg; .............................................................................. 51
,m*ktusdK; trsdK;rsdK; ............................................................................. 51
0domcg\ xl;jcm;csufrsm; ..................................................................... 52
ykAÁm½kHausmif;aqmuf&ef taMumif;zefvmjcif; ........................................ 53
ykAÁm½kHausmif;awmfBuD;udk aqmufvkyfykH ................................................. 55
"r®*gxmwdkYjzifh oDusL;aom ausmif;trBuD;0domcg .............................. 56
ausmif;vSL'gef;&usdK; (7)yg; ................................................................ 57
anmifapmif;(ukwif)vSL&usdK; (11)yg; ................................................. 58
tif;ysOf(yv’if)vSL&usdK; (5)yg; ............................................................ 58
tif;ysOf(xdkifcHk)vSL&usdK; (2)yg; ............................................................ 58
tif;ysOf(ajcaq;ckH) vSL&usdK; (2)yg; ..................................................... 58
bkHvQdK (arGU&m)vSL&usdK; (6)yg; ............................................................ 59
acgif;tkH;vSL&usdK; (5)yg; ..................................................................... 59
jrwfAk'¨ç 0domcgESifh ykAÁm½kHausmif;wkdYESifhpyfí rSwfzG,frsm; ..................... 60
0domcg\vlrIa&;udp&ö yfrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif½GufrIrsm; .......................... 62
udk,f0efudpöajz&Sif;ay;&jcif; .................................................................. 62
tdrfaxmif&Sif trsdK;om;wkdY tm;xm;&aom0domcg ................................. 63
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&Sdjcif; ................................................... 64
'ge ..................................................................................................... 65

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

'ge\vu©Pm'dpwkuú ........................................................................ 65
'geESifh oHo&m&SnfrI ........................................................................... 66
taMumif;okH;yg;jynfhpkHrS tvSLjzpfjcif; .................................................. 67
tvSLray;aomol(2)OD; ........................................................................ 68
'geukodkvftjym;rsm; ........................................................................... 69
'gew&m;\tusdK;w&m;rsm; .................................................................. 71
'ge\tusdK;ay;BuD;rm;zGHUNzdK;&ef taMumif;(6)yg; ................................... 72
vufiif;tusdK;ay;&ef t*Fg(4)yg; .......................................................... 72
'ger[kwfaom 'geig;rsdK; ..................................................................... 73
tcef;-4 awmf0ifpx
H m; ckZKÆ w&å m trsKd ;orD; ............................................................................. 76
ckZÆKwå&m\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ....................................... 77
ckZÆKwå&m\ ypöKyÜefb0 ......................................................................... 77
ckZÆKwå&maomwmyefwnfjcif; ............................................................... 77
omrm0wDwdkY uRwfwrf;0ifjcif; ............................................................ 78
ckZÆKwå&m\twdwfuHrsm; tusdK;ay;ykH ................................................... 79
ckZÆKwå&mESifh £wd0kwfygVdawmf .............................................................. 81
"r®uxduwdkY odrSwfzG,f ...................................................................... 82
"r®uxdu av;rsdK; ............................................................................... 82
"r®uxdu t*Fg(5)yg; .......................................................................... 83
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJU&&Sdjcif; ............................................................ 84
tcef;-5 awmf0ifpx
H m; omrm0wD trsKd ;orD; ......................................................................... 87
omrm0wD\ twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ................................... 88
b'´0wDjynfü a&m*EÅ&uyfqdkufa&mufjcif; .......................................... 88
ola|;BuD;ESifh ola|;uawmfBuD;wdkY uG,fvGefjcif; ................................... 89
]omrm0wD}[k trnf&jcif;ESifh
aCmouola|;BuD;\ arG;pm;orD;jzpfjcif; ........................................... 89
omrm0wDonf Oawerif;\ rdzk&m;jzpfvmjcif; ................................... 90
rm*@D\ &efNidK; ................................................................................... 91
omrm0wDwdkY w&m;xl;&&Sdjcif; .............................................................. 92
rm*@Dukef;wdkufjcif; ............................................................................. 92
omrm0wD\ arwåmpdwfxm; ................................................................. 94
rm*@D\ aemufqkH;vufeuf ............................................................... 95
omrm0wDwdkY\ twdwfb0rS tukodkvfuH .......................................... 95
rm*@D\ b0ed*kH; ................................................................................ 96
arwåmw&m; ........................................................................................ 97

t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

arwåmpGrf;tm; tusdK;rsm; ..................................................................... 98
a0vmrokwfvm arwåmtusdK; ............................................................. 98
rsufarSmufawGUEdkifaom arwåmpGrf;tif (2)rsdK; ....................................... 99
arwåmtusdK;(11)yg; .......................................................................... 100
arwåmrydkYrD a&S;OD;pGmjynfhpkHap&rnfhw&m;(15)yg; ................................ 100
arwåmbm0em yGm;rsm;ykH ..................................................................... 106
Ak'¨0g'ü arwåmw&m;udk txl;tav;ydkxm;jcif;taMumif; ................... 107
omrm0wD awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;&&Sdjcif; ..................................... 109
tcef;-6 awmf0ifpx
H m; Owå&m trsdK;orD; ............................................................................. 112
awmf0ifpHxm;Owå&mola|;orD; twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ...... 113
ypöKyÜefb0ü ykPÖola|;BuD;\orD; Owå&mjzpfvmjcif; .......................... 113
ykPÖwkdYrdom;pk ola|;vnf;jzpf?
aomwmyeft&d,mrsm;vnf;jzpfMujcif; ............................................... 114
,ckvSL ,cktusdK;ay;jcif;\ taMumif;&if;av;csuf ...........................116
orD;ay;&ef awmif;yefvmcJh .................................................................117
Owå&m\ BuD;rm;aomo'¨gqE´ ...........................................................118
Owå&m\ twk,lzG,f&mpdwfxm; .........................................................119
a'oemawmf\pGrf;tif........................................................................ 120
rsufarSmufb0üBuD;yGm;Edkifonfhtcsuf(4)csuf ..................................... 120
eE´rmwm[k trnf&jcif; ..................................................................... 121
awmf0ifpHxm; psm,D{w'*fbGJU&&Sdjcif; .................................................. 122
tcef;-7 awmf0ifpx
H m; oky0Ü gom trsKd ;orD; ........................................................................ 124
okyÜ0gom\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; .................................... 125
aumvd,omuD0ifrif;orD;okyÜ0gomjzpfvmjcif; ................................. 125
udk,f0efwnfjcif; ................................................................................ 125
trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh tma0edu'ku© ig;rsdK; ............................................... 126
y#doaE¨ae&jcif; tqifhqifhüqif;&JykH .................................................. 127
om;awmfoD0vdudk zGm;jrifjcif; ............................................................ 129
a&ppfvSLusdK; (5)yg; ...........................................................................130
oD0vdr,fawmf\ tmomqE´ ............................................................. 131
orD;arG;aomfvnf; pdwfrav;oihf ....................................................... 131
oD0vdowdkYom; omoemhabmifodkY 0ifa&mufjcif; ............................... 132
uHwltusdK;ay; ................................................................................... 134
t&SifoD0vdax&f\ twdwfukodkvfuH ................................................135
om;trdESpfa,muf\twdwftukodkvfuH ............................................137

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

om;aumif; orD;aumif; .....................................................................138
om;okH;rsdK; ..........................................................................................138
rdbwdkY\ arQmfvifhcsufig;yg; ..............................................................139
okyÜ0gomrif;orD; yPDwabmZOfudk vSL'gef;jcif; ...............................140
tcef;-8 awmf0ifpx
H m; oky,
Üd m trsKd ;orD; ........................................................................... 143
okydÜ,m\ twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ...................................... 144
ypöKyÜefb0ü aomwmywdåzdkvfwnfjcif; ................................................ 144
okydÜ,m\ tHhrcef;aom olemjyKpkykH .....................................................145
jrwfAk'¨tm; qGrf;uyfvSL'gef;jcif; ........................................................145
odu©myk'fudk ynwfawmfrlcJh&jcif; ........................................................146
awmf0ifpHxm; olemjyK{w'*fbGJUxl; &&Sdjcif; ........................................146
jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkifyif olemjyKpkcJhjcif; ..............................................147
jrwfAk'¨ESifh ylwd*wåwdórax&f .........................................................147
jrwfAk'¨ESifh t&Sifz*¾Keax&f..................................................................148
jrwfAk'¨ESifh t&Sif0PÖvdrax&f ............................................................149
jrwfAk'¨ESifh t&SiftóZdax&f ..............................................................149
jrwfAk'¨ESifh y|r*dvme&[ef; .............................................................. 150
jrwfAk'¨ESifh 'kwd,*dvme&[ef; .......................................................... 150
olemjyKvkyfief;ESifhpyfvsOf;í Ak'¨0g'vmrSwfom;zG,f&mrsm; ..................151
olemjyKt&nftcsif;(5)yg; ..................................................................151
rjyKpkxdkufaomolem\ t*Fg(5)yg; .....................................................151
jyKpkxdkufaomolem\ t&nftcsif;(5)yg;............................................ 152
&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ay;jcif;? aq;ukjcif;
ponfwdkYESifhpyfí odrSwfzG,frsm; ......................................................... 152
&[ef;awmfrsm;aq;ay;? aq;ukxdkufaomyk*dK¾ vfrsm; .............................153
&[ef;awmfrsm; aq;ynmoifaumif;\ ...............................................154
tzdk;tcr,lbJ ukodkvfjzpf aq;uk&usdK; ............................................ 155
aq;vSL&usdK; (10)yg; ........................................................................ 156
tcef;-9 awmf0ifpx
H m; umwd,
d meDtrsKd ;orD; ..................................................................... 161
awmf0ifpHxm;umwd,meD\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ............. 162
aemufqkH;b0ü umwd,meDola|;rjzpfjcif; .......................................... 162
umwd,meDola|;r\ tpvo'¨gw&m; ............................................... 162
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;&&Sdjcif; .....................................................163
o'¨g ..................................................................................................164
o'¨g\vu©Pm'dpwkuú .....................................................................164

t&Sif t*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

o'¨gtrsdK;tpm; (4)rsdK; ...................................................................... 165
o'¨gw&m;&Sdol\ vu©Pm (3)yg; ..................................................... 166
o'¨gw&m;&Sdjcif;\ tusdK;w&m;rsm; ................................................... 166
tcef;-10 awmf0ifpx
H m; eukvrmwk trsKd ;orD; ................................................................. 169
eukvrmwkZeD;armifESHwdkY\ twdwfZmwfaMumif;a&S;qkawmif; ............ 169
eukvrmwkZeD;armifESHwdkY\ ypöKyÜefb0 .............................................. 170
b0wdkif;awGUvdkygvQif ........................................................................171
ZeD;aumif; eukvrmwk .......................................................................173
rdef;rjrwfusifh0wf (6)yg; ................................................................... 176
r,m; (7)rsdK; ..................................................................................... 177
eukvrmwk ZeD;armifESHwdkY pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;&&SdMujcif; ......... 178
tcef;-11 awmf0ifpx
H m; umVD trsKd ;orD; ............................................................................. 182
awmf0ifpHxm;umVDtrsdK;orD;\twdwfZmwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif; ....... 182
aemufqkH;b0ü umVDola|;orD;jzpfjcif; ..............................................183
omwm*d&ewfrif;ESifh a[r0wewfrif;wdkYtaMumif; ............................183
om;awmf aomPuk#duPÖ ................................................................ 187
yxroHa0* ...................................................................................... 187
'kwd,oHa0* ..................................................................................... 188
&[ef;jyKjcif; ...................................................................................... 189
r,fawmfumVdola|;uawmf\ vlBuHKtvSLawmf ................................. 190
wpfcsufckwf ig;csufjywf ................................................................... 190
r,fawmftwGuf om;&[ef;\w&m;yGJ ................................................ 195
awmf0ifpHxm; {w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;&Sdjcif; ................................................ 197
usrf;NyD;qkawmif; ............................................................................................ 203
tvSL&Sifrsm; ................................................................................................... 204

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

1

aus;Zl;wif&jdS cif;
aus;Zl; txl;wifxkdufolrsm;udk'Dae&mrSwqifh aus;Zl; (txl;) wif&Sdyg
aMumif; ajymyg&ap/
xkdYaMumifh
1/
pma&;oltm;i,fpOfrSonf,aeYxd avmuD? avmukwå&mpmay
rsm; oifMum;ay;onfhtjyif bufaygif;pkHrS tm;ay;csD;ajr§mufvsuf&Sdaom &ef
ukefwkdif;? vSnf;ul;NrdKUe,f? ykdufBuD;0J&Gm? ta&SUausmif;? r[m0dZdwm&mr pmoif
wkduf q&mawmf a'gufwm t&Sifa&0wmvuFm& q&mawmf tm;vnf;aumif;?
2/
&efukefNrdKU EkdifiHawmfy&d,wådomoemhwuúokdvfrS ygarmu©csKyf
q&mawmftrSL;&Sdaom ygarmu©? uxdu? enf;jyq&mrsm;ESifh vlynm&Sifrsm;
tm;vnf;aumif;?
3/
pma&;ol\ crnf;awmf (OD;oHacsmif; (c) OD;pdefÓPf)+ r,fawmf
a':0kdif; (c) a':vSjrifh? nDi,f armifvSpkd;OD;+racsmpkwkdYtm;vnf;aumif;?
4/
rlv&[ef;'g,umrBuD; a':odef;jrifh (atmif&wemyGifhqDpuf
rdom;pk? vSnf;ul;) tm;vnf;aumif;?
5/
odu©mxyf&[ef;'g,um 'g,dumrrsm;jzpfMuaom (OD;bkd;acG;)+
a':cifpdef rdom;pk (vSnf;ul;)? OD;wufjym;+a':jrifhMunfrdom;pk (vSnf;ul;)ESifh
OD;&Jrif;pkd;+a':&D&D0if;rdom;pk awmifOuúvmwkd htm;vnf;aumif;?
6/
þpmtkyjf zpfajrmufa&;twGuf rwnfvLS 'gef;ay;aom a'gufwm
OD;jrifhxGef;+a':EG,fEG,fOD;xGef;? om;BuD; vrif;xGef;? om;i,f wm&mxGef;
rdom;pk (qpf'eD? Mopaw;vs) ESifh tjcm;tvSL&Sifrsm;tm;vnf;aumif;?
7/
tcufcJaygif;pkHudk ausmfjzwfvsuf pmtkyfjzpfay:vma&;twGuf
BuD;MuyfpDpOfay;onfh t&SifOuúHo? rsufESmzHk;ESifh twGif;tjyiftqifrsm; ulnD
aqmif&Gufay;onfh apmvif;ausmfwdkYtm;vnf;aumif; aus;Zl;(txl;)wif&Sdyg
w,f/ xkdYjyif ukd,ftm;? ÓPftm;? "etm;wdkYjzifh tzufzufrS tm;ay;Muol
yk*K¾ dvftoD;oD;wdkYtm;vnf; aus;Zl;wif&Sdygw,f/
t*¾ÓP
qpf'eD?Mopaw;vs

2

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

3

yPmr ESihf y#dnmOf
- t*¾0HorSd oOÆmwH? Ak'¨H wdavmuylZdwH/
ao0dwH awe "r®O?ö oHCH 0E´mrd om0uH/ (yxsm0wå*gxm)
- v'¨H edóm, yAÁZHÆ? tmap&Oö ermrd wH/
oaAÁoH ykn0¹km,? £rH *EH¦ vdcgr}[H/ (yxsm0wå*gxm)
t[H- t*¾ÓP emrorkwf tuREkfyfonf? t*¾0HorSd- avmuxif&Sm;? trsdK;rsm;wGif?
xdyzf sm;jrifv
h ?S omuD,[k? yDowifNh zdK;? tqif;wd;k onf?h rif;rsKd ;xifay:? tEG,af wmfü?
oOÆmwH- rsdK;av;yg;tpOf? ordkif;wGifvsuf? awmf0ifausmfMum;? om;wpfyg;[k? xif
&Sm;zGm;ajrmuf? aumif;pGmawmufí? aygufa&mufolvnf;? jzpfawmfrlxaom?
wdavmu ylZdwH- jA[®mewfvl? oHk;bHkolwdkY? MunfjzLav;jrwf? ylaZmfawmfrltyf
xaom? Ak'¨Oö- opömav;yg;? jrwfw&m;udk? ydkif;jcm;xifxif? odjrifawmfrljim;?
jrwfpGmbk&m;udkvnf;aumif;? awe- xdkbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfBuD;onf? ao0dwHtNrJrjywf? rSD0JylaZmftyfxaom? "r®O-ö r*fzdkvfedAÁmef? "r®u©ef[k? q,fwefxifay:?
w&m;awmfudkvnf;aumif;? (wó- xdkbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfjrwfBuD;\?) om0uHom;jrwfykwå? om0u jzpfawmfrlaom? oHCOö- &Spfyg;t&d,m jrwfoHCmudkvnf;
aumif;? 0E´mrd- usrf;OD;tp yrmPü? OD;cs½dkusdK;yg\bk&m;/
(0E´dwGm- usrf;OD;tp yPmrü OD;cs½dkusdK; &Sdcdk;NyD;í? ,H tmap&H- MunfvifNrJxl;?
NrdKUvSnf;ul;wGif? xdyfOD;,SOfwGJ? ydkufBuD;0J[k? ac:NrJonm? a&Taus;&Gm&Sd? r[m0dZdwm
&mr ausmif;wdkufvS\? pmcsaus;Zl;&Sif? tMuifq&mawmfocifudk)? edóm,bkef;awmfuHawmf? ynmawmfpk? trSDjyKí? yAÁZHÆ- omuD,Zmwf &Sif&[ef;jrwftjzpfudk?
(r,m- t*¾ÓP? emrorkw?f tuREkyf o
f nf?) v'¨-H aumif;pGmxkwaf csmuf a&muftyf
ayNyD/ wH tmap&Oö- wwfozd Ykd a&;? enf;ay;ydYk cs? teEÅ*P
k &f iS ?f xdrk [m0dZw
d m&mrwdu
k f

4

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

q&mawmfocif? aus;Zl;&Sifudkvnf;? ermrd- usrf;OD;tp? yPmrü? OD;cs½dkusdK;?
&Sdcdk;yg\bk&m;/ (eródwGm- usrf;OD;tp yPmrü OD;cs½dkusdK; &Sdcdk;NyD;í?) oaAÁoHcyfodrf;rsm;pGm? Munfomxif&Sm;? trsdK;aumif;om;? trsdK;aumif;orD;wdkY\?
ykn0¹km,- ½Iwdkif;ydkrdk? ukodkvfwdk;yGm;? tusdK;rsm;&eftvdkYiSg? £rH *EH-¦ ]jrwfAk'¨
vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[k xif&Sm;ac:rSwf? þusrf;jrwfudk? vdcgrd
(vdcdóH)- ynmcGeftm;? &Sdjim;avsmfpGm? apwemESifh? o'¨g&TifjrL; MunfEl;0rf;om?
a&;om;ygawmhtHhownf;/

YX;WZ

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

5

earm wó b*0awm t&[awm or®morÁK'ó
¨ /
tcef;-1

pmtkyaf cgif;pOfukd t"dygÜ ,fziG q
hf jkd cif;
þusrf;\ acgif;pOfrSm ]Ak'v
¨ ufxuf awmf0ifpx
H m; trsKd ;orD;rsm;} jzpf\/
pmtkyfacgif;pOfvm t"dyÜm,fqdkvdkcsuf tjynfhtpkHudk atmufygtwdkif; avhvmEdkif
ay\/
]Ak'v
¨ ufxuf}[l&mü...
Ak'¨[lonf opömw&m;av;yg;udk udk,fawmfwdkifvnf; odawmfrl wwf\/
udk,fawmf wdkifrSwpfyg; tjcm;olwdkYudkvnf; odapawmfrlwwf\/ xdkYaMumifh ]Ak'¨}rnf
ay\/ ,if;]Ak'¨}[laom trnfudk crnf;awmf oka'¨g"erif;BuD;? r,fawmf rm,ma'0D
tp&Sdaom yk*dK¾ vfwpfOD;wpfa,mufurQ ay;tyfçrSnfhac:tyfaom trnfawmfum;
r[kwyf gay/ pifppfaomfum; bk&m;jzpfawmfr&l m aAm"dr@dKifü "r®tvk;H pkH wkYd uo
kd ad om
oAÁñkwÓPfawmfudk &&Sdawmf1rlonfESifh wpfNydKifeuf tvdktavsmuf ]Ak'¨}[k trnf
awmf &&SdvmcJhjcif; jzpfay\/
jrwfA'k ¨ ud,
k af wmfwikd u
f vnf; ]]aovykPmÖ ; ... igonf r*¾opömudk yGm;rsm;
NyD;NyD? ork',opömudk y,fNyD;NyD? 'ku©opömudk ydkif;jcm;íodNyD;NyD? eda&m"opömudk rsuf
arSmufjyKNyD;NyD? xdkYaMumifh ]Ak'¨}rnfawmfrl\}}[k EIwfawmfrS rdefYawmfrlcJhaMumif; awGU&Sd&
ay\/
þusrf;vm Ak'¨vufxuf[l&müvnf; ,if;odkY ]Ak'¨}trnfawmf&aom
a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif\ oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOf (y&dedAÁmefr0ifrD) tcsdeftcgudk ]]Ak'¨
vufxuf}}[k þusrf;u &nfñTef;ay\/

6

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

]awmf0ifpx
H m; trsdK;orD;rsm;}[l&mü...
]awmf0ifpx
H m;trsKd ;orD
H ;rsm;}[l&mü ]awmf0if}[laom a0g[m&udk ]pH}udk
jrefrmtbd"meftusOf;csKyfü ]]pH-e^pef^ t&nftcsif;EdIif;,SOf&ef tajccHjyKxm;aom
t&m/ EdIif;,SOftyfaomt&m/ taumif;qkH;erlem}} [kvnf;aumif;? ]]awmf0ife^awmf0if^(Oypm) awmfav;0 0ifouJhodkY jrifhjrwfol}}[kvnf;aumif; zGifhjyxm;
ay&m þtvdk awmf0ifpx
H m;[lonf pHerlemxm;&ef taumif;qk;H jzpfonfh awmfav;0
0ifouJhodkY jrifhjrwfol}}[k t"dyÜm,f&ay\/ þt"dyÜm,f twdkif;yif avmuü
vifom;tay:ü &mEIef;jynfhopöm&SdNyD; tdrfaxmifa&;ç vlrIa&;wdkYüvnf;uRrf;usif?
rif;a&;pdk;a&;wdkYüvnf; &Sif;vif;aqmif½Gufwwfaom tr&m[laomtrsdK;orD;?
Am&mPoDrif;\ t*¾ra[oDvkyf&ef ajymqdkrIudk vufcHrIrjyKbJ vifom;udEé&mESifh
opöm&SdpGm aygif;azmfaom udE&é D? a0óEÅ&mrif;tay:ü armifao&if r,fygvdkufao
r,f? rcGJbl;qdkonfh r'Da´ '0D[laom trsdK;orD;? Elema&m*gpGJaeaom vifawmfarmif
aomwd¬aoeudk rcGJbJ a&yla&csrf; urf;vSrf;aom orÇLv[laom trsdK;orD;tm;jzifh
av;a,mufaomtrsdK;orD;wdkYudk awmf0ifpHxm;avmufí awmfav;0[k owfrSwfMu
ay\/ ,if;trsdK;orD;av;a,mufwdkYonfum; Zmwfawmfvm trsdK;orD;rsm;yifjzpf
\/ xdkYjyif omrefvlom;wdkYu awmf0if\[k owfrSwfcHxm;&olvnf; jzpf\/ ,if;
wdkYum; t&d,m r[kwf? omrefykxkZOfwdkYom jzpfay\/ (qkdvkdonfrSm tr&mpaom
av;OD;wkdYonf Ak'¨vufxufwGif xif&Sm;jcif;r[kwf? tavmif;awmfb0wGifom
xif&Sm;aom trsdK;orD;rsm; jzpf\[lvkd/)
aAm"dr@dKifü oAÁñkwÓPfawmf\ tmEkabmfawmfaMumifh w&m;rif;tjzpf
odkY a&mufawmfrlaom jrwfAk'¨onfum; ]]igonf w&m;rif;tjzpfudk &&SdawmfrltyfNyD/
,cktcg vltaygif;jzifh tusdK;r&Sd? vltrsm;udk ta&;xm;&efrvdk? twkr&Sdjrwfaom
zvormywfcsrf;omudk cHpm;awmfrltHh}} [k ESvkH;oGif;jcif;rjyKbJ y&dowfav;yg;
tv,f0,f cif;xm;tyfaom jrwfaom bk&m;&Sif\ae&mü xdkifaeawmfrlvsuf t*Fg
&Spfyg;ESifhjynfhpkHaom toHawmfjzifh "r®udkxkwfazmfcJh\/ ,if;odkY "r®udkxkwfazmf&mü
tukodkvftrIwdkYudk jyKvkyfolrsm;udk tyg,fav;yg;udkjyvsuf aMumuf vefYap&ef
ESdyfuGyfí w&m;awmfudka[mawmfrl\/ ukodkvftrIwkdYudk jyKvkyfolrsm;udkum; b0*fü
xdkifaeapbdtvm; ewfjynfcsrf;omwdkYudkjyvsuf w&m;awmfukd a[mMum;awmfrl\/
,if;odkY a[mMum;NyD;aemuf yk*Kd¾ vftvdkuf tusifh*kPfxl;ESifhxl;jcm; udkufnDolwkdYtm;
]{w'*fbx
UJG ;l }udk ay;tyfí omoemawmfwGif awmf0ifpHxm;oltjzpf owfrSwfawmfrl
cJhay\/
Oyrmtm;jzifh pMu0aw;rif;onf pMum&wem\tpGrf;tmEkabmfaMumifh
pMumrif;\ pnf;pdrfudk &&SdNyD;aemuf ]]igonf pMumrif;tjzpfodkY a&muf&SdNyD? ,cktcg

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

7

vltaygif;jzifh tusdK;r&Sd? vltrsm;udk ta&;xm;&efrvdk? pMumrif;\pnf;pdrfudkom
cHpm;awmhtHh}}[k ESvkH;roGif;bJ w&m; qkH;jzwf&mvTwf½kH;obifü tNrJrjywfxdkifvsuf
ESdyfuGyfxdkufolwdkYudk ESdyfuGyf\/ csD;jr§ifhxdkufol wdkYudk csD;jr§ifh\/ &mxl;ay;xdkufaom
*kPfaus;Zl;&Sdolrsm;udk &mxl;rsm;ay;ouJhodkYyif jzpfay\/
jrwfAk'¨onf þOyrmtwdkif; omoemawmfü awmf0ifpHxm;xdkufolrsm;udk
{w'*f bGJUxl;rsm;ay;í a½G;cs,fcJhay\/ þae&mü {w'*f[laoma0g[m&udk
&Sif;vif;pGmodzdkY vdkygvdrfhrnf/
{w'*f
{w'*f[lonf ]{w'*H}¾ [laom ygVdpum;rS qif;oufvmaom a0g[m&
wpfckjzpf\/ {w'*H-¾ udk {wH+t*H-¾ [k ESpfyk'fcGJ&rnf/ xdkESpfyk'fwdkYwGif {wH[laom
yk'fonf yk*dK¾ vfudkpGJaomyk'f jzpf\/ t*H[
¾ laomyk'fonf tp? txG#f (tzsm;)? tpk?
tjrwf[laom av;rsdK;aomteufudka[m\/ þüum; txG#f(tzsm;)ESifh tjrwf[l
aom teufESpfrsdK;udk ,l&\/ xdkYaMumifh {w'*f[laom ygVdoufa0g[m&udk txG#f
tjrwfyk*dK¾ vf (odkYr[kwf) tomqkH;? tjrwfqkH;yk*dK¾ vf[k t"dyÜg,f zGifhqdk&rnfjzpf\/
ygVdoufa0g[m&tbd"mefüvnf; {w'*f[laomyk'fudk ]]qdkif&m*kPfxl;&Sd
olwdkYwGif txl;tjrwfqkH;yk*dK¾ vf? xdyfqkH;yk*dK¾ vf}}[k zGifhxm;jyef\/ xdkYaMumifh {w'*f
[lonf jrwfAk'¨ udk,fawmfwdkif omoemawmfü pHawmf0iftjzpf owfrSwfxdkufolwdkY
tm; csD;jr§ifhaombGJUxl;yif jzpfay\/ wpfenf;tm;jzifhum; þusrf;tvdkt&rl jrwf
Ak'¨udk,fawmfwdkif {w'*fbGJUxl;ay;í a½G;cs,fxm;oludkom awmf0ifpHxm;[k okH;EIef;
rnfjzpfygonf/
awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*fbx
UJG ;l ay;&mü pHxm;aom taMumif;av;rsdK;
jrefrmpum;wGif ]cs;D rGr;f wefonf vl&nfu½kd }I [laom qdk½dk;pum;&Sday\/
,if; qdk½dk;pum;t& csD;rGrf;í xdkufwefoludk olUt&nftcsif;ESifh xdkufwefonfht
avsmuf csD;rGrf;&rnfom jzpf\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; ukd,fawmfjrwf\ wynfhom0u?
om0dumrwkdYtm; a&S;a&S;aom b0oHo&mwdkYü jznfhusifhqnf;yl;cJhaom yg&rD
ukodkvfESifh awmifhwyefqifcJhaom qkawmif;t avsmuf oDv*kPf? orm"d*kPf?
ynm*kPf ponfwdkYjzifh vGefuJaom yk*dK¾ vfxl;ç yk*dK¾ vfjrwfwdkYudk y&dowftv,fü
udk,fawmfwdkif ]awmf0ifpx
H m; {w'*fbx
UJG ;l rsm;}udk csD;usL;ay;oem;awmfrlavh&Sday\/
azmfjyyg awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;rsm;udk csD;jr§ifh&mü jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif pHxm;
aom taMumif;av;rsdK; &Sday\/ xdkav;rsdK;aomtaMumif;wdkYteuf tenf;qkH;wpf
yg;ESifh nDñGwfrSom ¤if;bGJUxl;udk &&SdEdkifay\/ ,if;taMumif;av;rsdK;rSm atmufyg
twkdif; jzpf\/

8

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(1) t|KyÜwdå

= oufqdkif&mtrIudpöwkdYü uRrf;usifaMumif; t
axmuf txm;cdkifvkHjcif;?
(2) tm*re
= a&S;a&S;b0wdkYüvnf; ,if;trIudpöwkdYü uRrf;
usifcJhjcif;?
(3) pdP0Ö oD
= ,if;trIudpt
ö ay:ü avhusufrIrsm;jcif;?
(4) *kPwda&uwm = *kPftm;jzifh xl;cRefvGefuJjcif;/
xdak v;rsKd ;wdYk teuf jrwfA'k \
¨ awmf0ifpx
H m;{w'*fbUJG xl;rsm;udk &&Sad omol
wdkYteuf tcsdKUrSmwpfrsdK;? tcsdKUrSmESpfrsdK;? tcsdKUrSmokH;rsdK;? tcsdKUrSmav;rsdK;vkH;ESifh jynfhpkH
Muonf[k qdk\/ ,if;pHawmf0if {w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdolwdkYrSm ta&twGuftm;jzifh
&[ef;a,mufsm; (41)OD;? &[ef;rde;f r(13)OD;? vl0wfaMumiftrsdK;om;(11)OD;ESihf vl0wf
aMumiftrsdK;orD;(10)OD;wdkY ay:xGef;vmcJhay\/ ,if;wdkYteuf þpmtkyfü
awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;rsm;t& awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;udk&&SdMuaom vl0wf
aMumif trsdK;orD; (10)OD;taMumif;wkdYudkom a&;om;okawoejyKrnfjzpfygonf/
þtrsdK;orD;(10)OD;rS tjcm;aom&[ef;r(ax&Dr)tjzpf xif&Sm;aom trsdK;orD;
wdkY\taMumif;rsm;udkvnf;aumif;? Zmwfawmfvm tr&m? udEé&D? r'D´? orÇLv[laom
trsdK;orD;wdkY\taMumif;rsm;udkvnf;aumif; þusrf;ü a&;om;azmfjyrnfum;
r[kwfygay/
xdkYaMumifh ]Ak'v
¨ ufxuf awmf0ifpx
H m; trsKd ;orD;rsm;}[laom þpmtkyaf cgif;
pOfjzifh ]a*gwr jrwfpGmbk&m; oufawmfxif&Sm;&SdpOftcgu awmf0ifpHxm;{w'*fbGJUxl;
wdu
Yk kd &&Scd MhJ uaom vl0wfaMumif trsKd ;orD;q,fO;D } [laom t"dyÜm,fudk azmfñTef;jyoae
ay\/
,if;awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh &&SdcJhaom {w'*fbGJUxl;wdkYrSm
atmufygtwdkif;yif jzpfay\/
(1) awmf0ifpHxm; okZmwm trsdK;orD;
yXro&P*re {w'*fbGJU (yxrqkH; o&P*kHokH;yg;wnfjcif;)?
(2) awmf0ifpHxm; 0domcg trsdK;orD;
'g,D{w'*fbGJU (tvSLay;jcif;)?
(3) awmf0ifpHxm; ckZÆKwå&m trsdK;orD;
"r®uxdu{w'*fbGJU (w&m;a[mjcif;)?
(4) awmf0ifpHxm; omrm0wD trsdK;orD;
arwåm0D[m&D{w'*fbGJU (arwåmw&m;jzifhaejcif;)?
(5) awmf0ifpHxm; Owå&m trsdK;orD;
psm,D{w'*fbGJU (psmef0ifpm;jcif;)?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm;

9

(6) awmf0ifpHxm; okyÜ0gom trsdK;orD;
yPDw'g,dum{w'*fbGJU (rGefjrwfaom0w¬Kudk ay;vSLjcif;)?
(7) awmf0ifpHxm; okydÜ,m trsdK;orD;
*dvmEky|muD{w'*fbGJU (olemudkjyKpkjcif;)?
(8) awmf0ifpHxm; umwd,meD trsdK;orD;
ta0pöyÜoEé{w'*fbGJU (omoemawmf0,f rwkefrvIyf ouf0if,kHMunfjcif;)?
(9) awmf0ifpHxm; eukvrmwk trsdK;orD;
0dómodu{w'*fbGJU (jrwfAk'¨ESifh tuRrf;0ifjcif;)?
(10) awmf0ifpHxm; umVD trsdK;orD;
tEkó0yÜoEé{w'*fbGJU (wqifhMum;&kHrQjzifh Munfñkdjcif;)?
þawmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD; (10)OD;wdkY\ taMumif;t&mwdkYudk azmfjyvwHh
aom tcef;wdkYü jynfhpkHpGm okawoejyK a&;om;azmfjyrnf jzpfygonf/
tcef;(1)ü jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm;trsdK;orD;rsm;[laom pmtkyaf cgi;f pOf\
t"dygÜ ,f tESpo
f m&udkazmfñTef;xm;ygonf/

YX;WZ

10

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

tcef;-2

awmf0ifpx
H m; okZmwm trsdK;orD;
vlom;onf ywf0ef;usifESifh ae\/ ywf0ef;usifqdk;ESifhvnf; awGU&\/
ywf0ef;usifaumif;ESifhvnf; BuHK&\/ 0ef;usifqdk;u raumif;usdK;udk pDrHay;ouJhodkY
0ef;usifaumif;u aumif;usdK;udk zefwD;ay;\/ aumif;usdK;udk t&om&Sd&Sd cHpm;vdkMu
aomfvnf; qdk;usdK;udkrl aMumufwwfMu\/ vefYwwfMu\/ xdkodkYjzpfjcif;rSm "r®wm
yifjzpf\/ vlUywf0ef;usifonf aMumufp&mwdYk jzifh 0ef;&Hae\/ vefYp&mwdYk jzifh umqD;
ae\/ a&BuD;\/ rdk;onf;xefpGm ½Gm\/ awmrD;avmif\/ avrkefwdkif; wdkuf\/
,if;odYk aom obm0ab;tEÅ&m,fwYdkonf vlom;wdYk tm; Ncdr;f ajcmufvsuf &SMd uay\/
vlom;wkdYonf ,if;odkY aMumufvefYMuojzifh tm;udk;&SmMu\/ cE¨mukd,f
twGif;üvnf; &SmMu\/ tjyifüvnf; &SmMu\/ obm0ab;&efwdkYudk tZÑwå
tpGrf;jzifh wGef;vSefMu\/ r&onfh tqkH;ü awmif;yefwdk;vQdK;Mu\/ awmawmifudk
vnf; awmif;yefMu\/ a&udkvnf; wkd;vQdK;Mu\/ ajrudkvnf; c,Mu\/ rD;udk
awmif;yefzkdYvnf; 0efrav;ouJhokdY avudk awmif;yefzdkY&efvnf; toihfay/ rdrdxuf
pGrf;tm;BuD;oludk taMumufydkcJhMu\/ tvefY,dkcJhMu\/ awmif;yefwdk;vQdK;Mu&mrS
tm;udk;p&mtjzpf rSwfxifvmMu\/ þodkYjzifh udk;uG,frItrsdK;rsdK;wdkY ay:ayguf&\/
,if;udk;uG,frIrsm;rSm azmif;yGoxuf azmif;yGvm\/
ordkif;rwifrDumvrSonf vlom;wdkYonf opfyif? awmawmif? a&? ajr?
ork'´&m tp&SdonfwdkYudk udk;uG,f&mtjzpf rdrdwdkY\pdwful;wnfhovdk udk;uG,frIjyKcJh
Mu\/ odYk aomf ud;k uG,f &mtppf [kwo
f nfçr[kwo
f nfuu
kd m; rnforl Q uGu
J jJG ym;jym;
rodMuay/ tarSmifvrf;wGif prf;w0g;0g; avQmufvSrf;aeolrsm;ESifhom wlMu\/
r[mouú&mZf (103)ck? uqkefvjynfhaeYwGifum; avmuü udk;uG,f&mtppf ay:
aygufvm\/ ,if;udk;uG,f&mtppfrSm a*gwrjrwfAk'¨yif jzpf\/ ,if;Ak'¨&wem

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 11

ESifhtwl "r®&wem[laom udk;uG,f&mtppfwdkY ay:aygufvmay\/ xdkESpf 0gqdk
vqef; (5) &ufwGif ,if;udk;uG,f&mtppfudk vlom;wdkYrS pwifawGU&SdMu\/ ,if;
vlom;wdkYrSm Ouúvmywdkif;rS ]wykóESib
hf vdu
’ m}[laom ukefonfnDaemifwdkYyif
jzpf\/ xdktcsdefü avmuwGif oHCm&wem ray:xGef;ao;ojzifh ukefonfnDaemif
wdYk onf a'G0gpduo&P*kw
H nf Oygoumrsm;tjzpf cH,Ml uav\/ xdn
k aD emifwYkdonf
rsuf&rf;rSef;q udk;uG,f&m&SmMuonfholrsm;wGif yxrqkH; udk;uG,f&mtppfudk pwif
awGU&Sdol Oygoumrsm;yif jzpfMu\/ jrwfAk'¨\tqkH;tratmufodkY 0ifa&mufvmol
Ak'¨bmom0if trsdK;om;rsm; jzpfvmMu\/
aemufyikd ;f wGif jrwfA'k o
¨ nf owå0gwkYd tm; vSnv
hf nfí w&m;a'oemawmf
ukda[mMum;awmfrlNyD; Ak'¨omoemawmfudk wnfaxmifawmfrl\/ w&m;a[mNyD; Ak'¨
bmom0ifjzpfatmif pGrf;aqmifcJh\/ ol\ wynfhom; &[ef;awmfwkdYudkvnf; w&m;
a[mNyD; Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;wdk;wufatmif pGrf;aqmifapcJh\/ ,if;odkYa[majymcsuf
aMumifh trsdkK;om;rsm;omru trsdK;orD;rsm;yg Ak'¨bmom0if jzpfvmMu\/ xdkodkY
jzpfvmaom Ak'¨bmom0if trsdK;orD;xktwGif; yxrqkH;aomudk;uG,f&mtppfjzpf
onfh o&P*ko
H ;Hk yg;udk ud;k uG,q
f nf;uyfot
l aygif;wGif aoemed*;Hk olaX;BuD;\orD;
okZmwmonf jrwfAk'¨\omoemawmf0,f awmf0ifpHxm;aom Ak'¨bmom0if
trsdK;orD; wpfa,mufyif jzpf\/ awmf0ifpHxm; olaX;orD; okZmwm\ b0Zmwf
aMumif;onf Ak'¨bmom0if trsdK;orD;rsm;tzdkY pHxm;p&m jzpf\/ tm;usp&m aumif;
\/ twk,lp&m Oyrmtppf jzpf\/ þokZmwmonf Ak'¨omoemawmf0,f trsdK;
om;rsm;enf;wl vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdYk \ awmf0ifpx
H m;yku
H akd zmfñeT ;f \/ ,if;odYk
tm;ustwk,l pHxm;pHjyKp&maumif;aom awmf0ifpHxm;okZmwm\ b0Zmwf
aMumif;udk ,aeYacwf trsdK;orD;rsm; odxm;oihfay\/
okZmwm emrnfwrl sm;
jrwfAk'¨vufxufwGif vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;xktwGif; pHawmf0if {w'*f
bGJUxl;udk yxrqkH;&&SdolrSm aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD; okZmwmyif jzpf\/ ,if;
ok Z mwm[l a om trnf j zif h xif & S m ;aom trsd K ;orD ; rsm;rS m jrwf A k ' ¨ w d k Y \
omoemawmfwGif (11) OD;rQ&SdaMumif; avhvmawGU&Sd&ay\/ xdkolwdkYrSm(1) okZmwmax&Dr (aombdwjrwfAk'¨\t*¾om0dumr)?
(2) okZmwmax&Dr (yd,'óDjrwfAk'¨\ t*¾om0dumr)?
(3) okZmwm (y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨\r,fawmf)?
(4) okZmwm (aum@njrwfAk'¨\r,fawmf)?
(5) rmCvkvif\ZeD; okZmwm (aemiftcgwGif odMum;rif;\rdzk&m; okZmwm)?
(6) okZmwmolaX;orD; (bk&m;jzpfrnfhaeYü CemEdkYqGrf;'g,dumr)?

12

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)

okZmwm Oygodumr (emwdu½Gmol aomwmyef)?
ausmif;tr0domcg\nDrawmf okZmwm?
rPdapm&Zmwfvm okZmwmtrsdK;orD;?
omauwNrdKUol okZmwmax&DrESifh
okZmwmrdzk&m;- wdkYjzpfMu\/

,if;(11)OD;xJwGifyg0ifaom aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD;? CemEdkYqGrf;
tvSL&Sif okZmwmolaX;orD;udkom jrwfAk'¨udk,fawmfwdkif ]]{w'*H¾ bdu©a0 rr
om0dumeH OygodumeH yXrH o&PH *päEDÅeH ,'d'H okZmwm aoed,"Dwm}} [lí
&wemokH;yg;udk qnf;uyfudk;uG,fol igbk&m;\wynhf vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;xk
taygif;wGif aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD; okZmwmonfom tjrwfqkH;? olronfom
tawmfqkH;? olronfom tomqkH;? olronfom tapmqkH;[k qdktyfaom ]yXr
o&P*re {w'*fbx
UJG ;l }udk csD;jr§ifhawmfrlNyD; omoemawmf0,f pHawmf0if trsdK;orD;
wpfOD;tjzpf ajr§mufpm;awmfrlcJh\/ azmfjyvwHhwdkYonfum; aoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;
\orD; okZmwm\ b0tw¬KyÜgwf Zmwfvrf;jrwfwdkYonfomjzpfay\/
awmf0ifpx
H m; okZmwm trsdK;orD;\ twdwZf mwfaMumif; a&S;qkawmif;
xdkaoemed*kH;olaX;BuD;\orD; okZmwmonf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨\ vuf
xufü [Hom0wDjynf\ wpfckaomtrsdK;tdrfwGif trsdK;orD;wpfOD;jzpfcJh\/ tcg
wpfyg;ü olronf jrwfAk'¨\ w&m;awmfudk em,lpOf y'krkwå&jrwfAk'¨onf Oyg
odumr trsdK;orD;wpfOD;tm; a&S;OD;pGm o&P*kH wnfaomt&mü ]]awmf0ifpHxm;
{w'*fbUJG }} ay;aeonfukd awGUjrifc\
hJ / xdYk aMumifh olronf ]]aemiftcg igonfvnf;
þ trsdK;orD;uJhodkY a&S;OD;pGm o&P*kHwnfol vl0wfaMumif trsdK;orD;wdkYwGif {w'*f
bGUJ xl;&&S&d ygvd\
k }} [k awmif;qkqckd zhJ ;l av\/ ,if;odYk awmif;qkqNkd yD; yg&rDawmfrsm;
jznfhqnf;cJh&m þa*gwrjrwfAk'¨\vufxufawmfüum; qkawmif;jynfhcJh\/
ypöKyÜef qkawmif;jynfo
h nfh okZmwm
xdktrsdK;orD;onf urÇmwpfodef;wdkYumvywfvkH; ukodkvfaumif;rIrsm;udk
qnf;yl;tm;xkwfNyD; vlUjynfewfjynfwdkYü wpfvSnfhpDusifvnfaecJh&\/ a*gwr
jrwfAk'¨vufxufüum; jrwfAk'¨ryGifhrDyif a&S;OD;pGmomvQif O½ka0VawmtkyfteD;
aoemed*kH;ü aoed,trnf&Sdaom olaX;BuD;\orD; jzpfcJh\/ olr\trnfrSm
]okZmwm}[k wGifav\/ okZmwmolaX;orD;onf t½G,f a&mufcsdefü aoemed*kH;&Sd
wpfcak omanmifyifü ]]t&Siaf nmifapmifeh wfrif; ... tuREfyk rf onf rsdK;½d;k Zmwfwal om
vifa,mufsm;udk&í yXrtBudrfudk,f0efwnfvwfaomf om;OD;a,musfm;udk &&Sd&yg

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 13

vd\
k / tu,fí om;OD;a,musmf ;udk &&Syd gvQif oifanmifapmifeh wfrif;tm; CemEdYk jzifh
ylaZmfrIudk jyKygtHh}}[k qkawmif;cJhav\/ xdkqkawmif;rItwdkif; okZmwmolaX;orD;
onf ],o} [laom olaX;om;wpfa,mufESifh tdrfaxmifusNyD; om;wpfa,mufudk
yxrqkH;arG;zGm;cJhav\/ xdkom;\trnfudkvnf; cifyGef;onf\trnfuJhodkYyif
],o owdo
Yk m;}[líyif rSnfhac:cJhMuav\/ xdkYaMumifh okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf
ESpfpOfESpfwdkif; uqkefvjynfhaeYü anmifapmifhewfrif;tm; CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh
AvdewfpmauR;í ylaZmfyocJhonfrSm ,cktBudrftygt0if tBudrfESpfq,fcefY wdkifcJh
ayNyD/
CemEdq
Yk rG ;f uyfvLS rIEiS phf yfí rSwzf ,
G f
okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf bk&m;tavmif;awmf\ bk&m;jzpfrnfh uqkef
vjynfhaeYüom yxrqkH;tBudrf qkawmif;jynfhí anmifyifapmifhewftm; CemEdkY
qGrf;jzifh ylaZmfyojcif;um; r[kwfay/ pifppfaomfum; xdkESpf xdktBudrfrS a&S;vGef
cJhaom ESpfaygif;ESpfq,fcefYavmufuyif qkawmif;jynfhí anmifyifapmifhewftm;
CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh ylaZmfyocJhjcif; jzpf\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf okZmwmolaX;uawmf
\om;onf ,oolaX;om;jzpfaomaMumifyh if/ ,oolaX;om;onf bk&m;tavmif;
bk&m;jzpfrnfh xdkESpfxdktcsdefüyif tdrfaxmifusí olaX;pnf;pdrfudkyif tjynfht0
cHpm;aeayNyD/ ,if;taMumif;udkaxmufqaomf okZmwmolaX;uawmfonf om;
qkawmif;rI jynfh0ojzifh vGefcJhaomESpfaygif;ESpfq,fcefYu tpjyKí xdkanmifyifapmifh
ewftm; ESpfpOfESpfwdkif; uqkefvjynfhaeYü CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh AvdewfpmauR;í ylaZmf
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14

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 15

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16

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 17

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18

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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uka#aygif; ESpfoef;av;odef; ta&twGuf&Sdaom t&[wår*f\taMumif;jzpfaom
ormywfwdkYudk 0ifpm;awmfrl\/ y&dedAÁmefpHawmfrlrnfhaeYüvnf; xdkYtwlyif jrwfAk'¨

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 19

onf pkEv
´ LS aomqGr;f udk bkO;f ay;awmfrí
l uka#aygif;ESpo
f ef;av;ode;f ta&twGu&f Sd
aom xdkormywfudkyif 0ifpm;awmfrlEdkif\/ þodkY ormywf0ifpm;Edkifjcif;\
taMumif;tjzpf wlrQjcif;aMumifh qGrf;ESpfyg;wdkYonf tusdK;ay;ykHjcif; wlrQMujcif;jzpf
\/
(3) aemuftcsed 0f ,f atmufarhyw
Hk Ykd wlrQjcif;
bk&m;jzpfNyD;onfhaemuftcsdefüum; okZmwmola|;uawmfonf ]]ig Cem
EdYk qrG ;f vSLcJah om yk*K¾d vfonf yanmifyifapmif½h u
k p© ;kd ewfrif; r[kwb
f ;l wJ/h xdyk *k K¾d vfol
jrwfum; bk&m;tavmif;wJh/ xdkbk&m;tavmif;onf igvSLaomCemEdkYqGrf;udk bkOf;
ay;okH;aqmifawmfrlí bk&m;tjzpfodkY a&mufawmfrlNyDwJh/ xdkjrwfAk'¨tzdkY&m owåXme
pHaeawmfrlpOf igvSLaom CemEdkYqGrf;jzifh rQwawmfrljcif;jzpfowJh}}[laom owif;
pum;udk Mum;od&av\/ xdo
k Ykd owif;aumif;udk Mum;od&í ]]ightzdYk &m t&awmfav
pG}}[k tzefzefatmufarhaom okZmwm\oEÅmef0,f yDwad omreów&m;rsm; txyf
xyf jzpfyGm;av\/
pkE´oEÅmefüvnf; jrwfAk'¨ y&dedAÁmefpHawmfrlNyD; aemuftcsdefü ]]igonf
aemufq;Hk qGr;f udk jrwfA'k t
¨ m; uyfvLS tyfNyDw/hJ ig\ qGr;f ESiyhf wfoufí jrwfA'k o
¨ nf
w&m;taygif;wdkY\ OD;xdyfozG,fjzpfaom edAÁmefudk,ltyfNyDwJh/ ighqGrf;udk bkOf;ay;
awmfrí
l jrwfA'k o
¨ nf tEkyg'daooedAmÁ e "mwfjzifh y&deAd mÁ efp0H ifawmfro
l wJ}h }[laom
owif;pum;ukd Mum;od&av\/ xdkodkY owif;pum;udk Mum;od&í ]]ightzdkY t&awmf
avpG}}[k tzefzefatmufarhaom pkE´\oEÅmef0,f yDwdaomreów&m;rsm; txyf
xyf jzpfyGm;av\/
þodYk tvSL&SiEf pS Of ;D wdYk \ atmufarhyw
Hk Ykdwrl Qjcif;aMumifh qGr;f ESpyf g;wdYk onf
tusKd;ay;ykHjcif; wlrQMuav\/ tjcm;tjcm;aom qGrf;wkdYxuf tusdK;tmedoif ykdrkd
BuD;rm;Muav\/
olaX;uawmf okZmwm\om;awmf armif,o
jrwfAk'¨onf owåowåm[vGefNyD;aomtcgü rd*'g0kefawmodkY<uawmfrlNyD;
yÍö0*D¾ nDaemifwdkYtm; "r®puúy0wåeokwfawmfESifh tewåvu©PokwfawmfwdkYudk
a[mMum;cJh\/ jrwfAk'¨onf ola|;uawmf okZmwm\om;,o\ r*fzdkvf&vwHh
aom taMumif;udk jrifawmfrlí wpfckaom opfyif&if;ü oDwif;okH;awmfrlav\/
,oola|;om;onf ola|;om;jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm tqif;vnf;vS\/
Opömvnf; &Sd\/ ,if;ola|;om;udk tysdKunm tacsmtvSrsm;uom tqdktu?
twD;trIwf? tacsmhtjrL? tauR;tarG;? t,kt,wdkYjzifh jyKpkay;aeav\/
ola|;om;onf a,mufsm;[lí tem;tuyfrcHay/ wpfaeYaomtcg ,oola|;om;
onf oef;acgif,mrftcsdefwGif wa&;Edk;vmí Munfhvdkuf&m vSunmrsm;rSm olao

20

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

aumifrsm;yrm wkH;vkH;yufvuf? rzkH;rzd? yg;pyfa[mif;avmif;? oGm;ykyf&nf pD;aMumif;
rsm;? w½SL;½SL; w*J*aJ [muforH sm;jzifh owdvufvw
G f tdyaf rmusaeonfukd pufqyk ½f HG
&SmzG,&f m awGUjrif&av\/ ,oola|;om;onf xdo
k Ykdpufqyk ½f &HG mS zG,rf sm;udk awGUjrif
&aomaMumifh oHa0*jzpfum ]]tcsif;wdkY.. ESdyfpufavpGwum;? n§if;qJavpGwum;}}[k
NiD;wGm;av\/ xdkYaemuf ,oola|;om;onf bkHeef;tqifhqifhtHhrcef;onfh rdrd\
jyom'fpHtdrfawmfBuD;udk okómef wpfpjyifyrm rSwfxifoGm;í aetdrfudkpGefYcGmNyD;
awmxGufoGm;av&m rd*'g0kefawm&Sd jrwfAk'¨\teD;odkY nwGif;csif; a&mufav\/
jrwfAk'¨\teD;okdY a&muf&müvnf; ,oola|;om;onf ,cif oHa0*udk usL;&ifhjyef
av\/ xdktcg jrwfAk'¨o1nf ,oola|;om;tm; uxmajcmufyg;w&m;awmfudk
tpOftwdkif;a[mawmfrl\/ ,if;uxmajcmufyg;wkdYrSm (1) 'geuxm?
(2) oDvuxm?
(3) o*¾uxm?
(4) r*¾uxm?
(5) umrmeH tm'De0uxmESihf
(6) aeu©ar®tmedoHouxmwkdYyifjzpf\/ ,if;uxmajcmufyg;w&m;awmfukd tenf;i,f &Sif;jyvkdygao;onf/
'geuxm
jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ,oowdYk om;tm; uxmajcmufyg;udt
k us,w
f 0ifah [mcJ\
h /
,if;wdkYwGif'geuxm = 'geESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;[lonfrmS
aumif;rI'geonf rsufarSmufb0wGifcsrf;om&ef? wrvGefb0wGifcsrf;om
&eftaMumif;jzpf\/ aemufqkH;edAÁmefa&mufzdkY&ef taMumif;jzpf\/ vlUpnf;pdrfç ewf
pnf;pdrf[laom pnf;pdrftrsdK;rsdK;\ taMumif;&if;vnf; jzpf\/ tokH;taqmif tm½kH
0w¬Krsm;? ,if;0w¬Krsm;udk okH;aqmifíjzpfaom csrf;omrIrsm;\ wnf&mvnf; jzpf\/
ab;a&m*gzdpD;cH&aomowå0grsm; tzdkYvnf; tapmifhta&Smufaumif;vnf; jzpf\/
ykef;atmif;&m ae&mvnf; jzpf\/ vm;a&muf&mvnf; jzpf\/ vJavsmif;&mvnf;
jzpf\/ þypöKyÜefavmu? wrvGefavmuwdkYü aumif;rI'geESifhwlaom rSD&m? wnf&m?
tapmifhta&Smufaumif;&m? ykef;atmif;&m? vm;&m? vJavsmif;&m[líum; r&Sdygacs/
aumif;rI'geonf rSD&mjzpfaomaMumifh oD[moeyv’ifESifh wl\/ axmuf
wnf&m jzpfaomaMumifh r[myx0DajrBuD;ESifh wl\/ þ'geaumif;rIonf tyg,f
qif;&JrS ul;ajrmufaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh avSoabFmESifh wl\/ avmb? rpä&d,
[laom &efoal b;r u
S if;apwwfaomaMumifh ol&aJ umif;ozG,v
f nf; jzpf\/ £óm?

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 21

rpä&d,paom tukodkvftrdIufwkdYudk avmifuRrf;apwwfaomaMumifh rD;ozG,fvnf;
jzpf\/
þaumif;rI'geonf jrwfAk'¨wdkYoGm;cJhaom vrf;aumif;vrf;rSefvnf; jzpf
\/ bk&m;&Siw
f Ykd\tEG,t
f qufvnf; jzpf\/ igbk&m;onf yg&rDjznfu
h siphf Ofumvü
a0vmrtvSLBuD;? r[ma*g0dE´tvSLBuD;? r[mok'óetvSLBuD;? a0óEÅ&m tvSL
BuD;tp&Sdaom tvSLBuD;aygif;rsm;pGmwdkYudk vSL'gef;cJh\/ ,kefowå0g jzpfpOfüyif
igbk&m;onf rD;ykHwGif;odkY ckefqif;um rdrdudk,fudk tvSLcHyk*dK¾ vftm; pGefYvSLcJhzl;\/
þaumif;rI'ge[lonf avmuDa&;&mbufüvnf; odMum;rif;? rm&fewfrif;? jA[®m
rif;? pMumrif;[laom pnf;pdrftrsdK;rsdK;udkay;Edkif\/ aemufqkH; avmukwå&m bufü
vnf; om0uaAm"dÓPf? yapöuaAm"dÓPf? or®moarÁm"dÓPfwdkYudk ay;pGrf;Edkif
\.. ponf ponfjzifh jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ,o owdYk om;tm; 'geESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;udk
a[mMum;awmfrlcJh\/
oDvuxm
'geaumif;rIudkjyKrSom oDvudkapmifhxdef;EdkifaomaMumifh 'geuxmtNyD;ü
oDv uxmudka[m\/
oDvuxm = oDvESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;[lonfrmS þaumif;rIoDvonf owå0gwdkYtwGuf axmufwnf&m? vJavsmif;&m?
ykef;atmif; rSDcdk&mjzpf\/ þoDvonf jrwfAk'¨\tEG,fvnf;jzpf\/ igbk&m;onf
ocFygve*g;rif;? bl&d'wf e*g;rif;? parÜ,se*g;rif;? oDv0rif;? rmwkaygou
qifrif;? q'´efqifrif;jzpfpOftcg tp&Sdaom tqkH;r&Sdaom b0aygif;rsm;pGmwdkYü
oDvudk rusdK;rayguf rajymufrusm;atmif apmifhxdef;cJhzl;NyD/ ypöKyÜef? wrvGefb0
pnf;pdrftwGuf oDvESifhwlaomaqmufwnf&m rSDcdkp&m[lír&Sday/ oDvESifhwlaom
tqifwefqm[lí r&Sday/ þodkYtp&Sdonfjzifh oDvESifhpyfaom w&m;pum;udk
a[mMum;cJh\/
o*¾uxm
jrwfAk'¨onf oDvaumif;rIudkjyKí þrnfaomewf½Gmpnf;pdrfudk&&Sd\[k
jyqdkvdk aomaMumifh oDvuxmtNyD;ü o*¾uxmudk a[mawmfrljyef\/
o*¾uxm = ewf½mG ESiphf yfaomw&m;pum;[lonfrmS ewf½Gmok*wdudk vlwdkif;ESpfouf\/ awmifhw\/ ewf½Gmok*wdonf
vlwdkif;vlwdkif;\ pdwfudk wdk;yGm;pdkajyap\/ ,if;ewf½Gmü tNrJaysmf½TifrIudk&\/
pnf;pdrfcsrf;omudkvnf;&\/ pwkr[m&mZf ewfjynfonf vlUoufwrf;tm;jzifh
ESpfaygif;udk;oef;Mum ewfpnf;pdrfudk cHpm;&\/ wm0wðom ewfjynfonfum;

22

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

vlUoufwrf;tm;jzifh ESpfaygif;okH;uka#ajcmufoef;Mum ewfpnf;pdrf udk cHpm;&\..
ponfponfjzihf o*¾uxmukd a[mMum;awmfrlchJ\/
r*¾uxm
jrwfAk'¨onf ewf½Gmcsrf;omtaMumif;udk a[mawmfrlNyD;aemuf ]]xdkewf½Gm
csrf;omonf &m*paom udavomwdkY tNrJwapn§if;yef;ESdyfpufcHae&\/ t&d,mr*f
um; udavomrS vGwfajrmufNyD;aomaMumifh udavomwdkY\ n§if;yef;ESdyfpufrI rcH&
ay/}} [lí jyqdk&eftwGuf o*¾uxm\ tjcm;rJhü r*¾uxm= t&d,mr*fESifhpyfaom
w&m;pum;udk a[mMum;awmfr\
l / ,if;r*¾uxmonf rsm;jym;vGe;f aomaMumifh þü
a&;om;jcif;rjyKawmhyg/
umrmeH tm'De0uxmESihf aeu©ar® tmedoo
H uxm
jrwfAk'¨onf ewf½Gmcsrf;omESifhpyfaomw&m;pum;jzifh ,oowdkYom;\
pdwfudk jzm;a,mif;qGJaqmifNyD;vQif þewf½Gmcsrf;omonfvnf; rNrJaom tedpö
oabmomjzpf\/ rcdkifcHhaom oabmw&m;omjzpf\/ xdkewfcsrf;omü om,m
wyfrufrI rjzpfoihfay/ 0w¬Ktm½kH umr*kPfwdkYrnfonf om,mzG,fenf;yg;í qif;&J
yifyef;rIuomrsm;ay\/ þ0w¬Ktm½kH umr*kPf trsm;pkü om,mrIonf wpfa½G;
avmufom&Sd\/ tjypfwdkYonfum; jrif;rdk&fawmifavmuf rsm;jym;\}} tp&Sdonfjzifh
umr*kPf\tjypfrsm;? ,kwfnHhjcif;rsm;? ,if;umr*kPfw&m;wdkYonf owå0gwdkYtm;
n§if;qJESdyfpufjcif;rsm;udk tus,fw0ifha[mMum;\/
xdu
k mrw&m;wdYk ü tjypfa'gorsm;vSonfEiS t
hf rQ &[ef;tjzpfro
S nf edAmÁ ef
wdik af tmifaom aeu©rw
® &m;tpkü tjypfa'gouif;jcif;? qif;&J'u
k e© nf;yg;jcif;paom
umr*kPfrS xGufajrmufjcif;ü tusdK;tmedoifwdkYudk tus,fw0ifha[mMum;awmfrl\/
þodkY jrwfAk'¨onf 'geuxmtp&Sdaom uxmajcmufyg;jzifh a[mMum;
awmfrlNyD; opömav;yg;udk jyawmfrlaomtcgü jzLpifaomt0wfudk qdk;&nfjzifhqdk;
ouJhodkY ,oowdkYom;onf 'd|d? 0dpdudpämuif;vsuf ½kwfjcnf;yif aomwmywdåzdkvfü
wnfcJhav\/
tazaomwmyef? om;&[EÅm
xdktcg ,o\tdrfüvnf; ,o\rdcif okZmwmola|;uawmfonf eHeuf
apmapmxí om;,opH&m jyom'fxufodkYwufí Munfhavaomf om;,oudk rawGU
jrif&ojzifh idkauR;jrnfwrf;um vifawmfarmif,oola|;tm; om;aysmufaMumif;udk
taMumif;Mum;av\/ ,o\ zcifola|;vnf; t&yfav;rsufESmwdkYoYdk jrif;onf
wrefawmfwdkYudk apvTwfí om;aysmuf &Smcdkif;av\/ rdrdudk,fwdkifvnf; om;,o\

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 23

a½Tajceif;&mudk tpOfvdkuf&m rd*'g0kefawmodkY a&mufav\/
jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; ola|;BuD;vmonfudkjrifvQif ,oowdkYom;tm;
ola|;BuD; rjrif&atmif wefc;kd jzifh 0Sux
f m;awmfr\
l / ola|;BuD;onf bk&m;ocifxo
H Ykd
csOf;uyfNyD;aomf ]]ola|;om; ,oudkawGUrdovm;}}[k ar;\/ jrwfAk'¨onf ]]toif
ola|;.. xdkifygOD;/ þt&yfüyif oif\ om;i,fudk awGU&vwHh}} [k rdefYawmfrlNyD;
'geuxmtp&Sdaom uxmajcmufyg;w&m; tpOfudk a[mMum;\/ w&m;\tqkH;ü
ola|;BuD;onf aomwmywdåzdkvfüwnfav\/
ola|;BuD;onfum; jrwfAk'¨\omoemawmfwGif yxrqkH; aw0g"du
o&P*kH wnfolvnf;jzpfonf/ ,oowdkYom;onfvnf; zcifola|;tm; a[mMum;
aom w&m;awmfudk em,l&í vl0wfESifhyif &[EÅmjzpfav\/
om;,oESiw
hf uG jrwfA'k t
¨ m; tdro
f Ykd qGr;f pm;yifjh cif;
xdt
k cg jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ]],oowdYk om;onfum; &[EÅmjzpfavNyD/ xdYk aMumifh
umr*kPf csrf;omudk rcHpm;awmhacs/ zcifolaX;BuD;onfvnf; omoemawmfudk
rzsufqD;&mNyD/ wefcdk;awmfudk Nidrf;apaomf oihf\}}[k BuHawmfrlí om;tzESpfOD;wdkYudk
jrifapav\/ ola|;BuD;onf om;awmf,oudk jrifaomtcgü vGefpGm0rf;ajrmufí
]]cspfom;,o.. oihftarokZmwmonf oihfudkrjrif&onfhtwGuf pdk;&drfylaqG; idka<u;
jcif;odkY a&mufae&Sm\/ oihfrdciftm; toufudkay;ygavmh}} [k ajymMum;av\/
xdktcgü ,oonf jrwfAk'¨tm;armfíMunfh\/ jrwfAk'¨onfvnf; ola|;BuD;tm;
]]ol<u,f.. oiftodYk xifoenf;/ oifjrifouJo
h Ykd ,oowdYk om;onf opömav;yg;udk
jrifí &[EÅm jzpfaeayNyD? &[EÅmjzpfolonf umr*kPfudk rcHpm;awmhay}}[k ajymMum;
av\/
xdpk um;udk ola|;BuD;Mum;aomtcgü 0rf;omtm;&jzpfí om;,oESiw
hf uG
jrwfAk'¨tm; eufjzeftvdkYiSg qGrf;zdwfí tdrfjyefav\/ ola|;oGm;írMumjrifhrDyif
,oonf jrwfAk'¨txHawmfwGif &[ef;tjzpfudk awmif;yefí ]]{[d bdu©K}}ac:awmfrl
ojzifh qH? rkwq
f w
d ?f vl0wfvpl m; wdYk onf uG,yf í &[ef;\tjzpfonf jynfph aHk v\/
t&Si,
f o\ ]{[dbu
d K© }jzpfjcif;ESiphf yfírSwzf ,
G f
ola|;om;,o\ {[dbdu©K jzpfcsdefESifhpyfí 0denf;r[m0gygVdawmfwGif
]t"d0gaowk ar baEÅ b*0g tZÆwem, bwH.å ...] {[d bduL© } wd b*0g {w'a0gp} [lí
jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ola|;BuD;qGr;f pm;yifNh yD;jyefomG ;rSomvQif ,otm; ]{[d bduK© }ac:awmf
rlaMumif; jyqdkxm;\/ xdkYtwl r[mAk'¨0if? Zdew¬yumoeDusrf;? rmvmvuFm&
0w¬KawmfBuD;? ok"r®0wDA'k 0¨ if paom usrf;wdYk üvnf; jrwfA'k o
¨ nf ola|;BuD; qGr;f pm;
yifhNyD; jyefoGm;rSomvQif ]{[dbdu©K}ac:aMumif; a&;om;xm;csufudk awGU&\/

24

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

,if;usrf;wdYk \ a&;om;rIonf 0denf;r[m0gygVdawmfukd rlwnfNyD; a&;om;[efw\
l /
odkYaomf t*Fkwå&|uxmürl ],aom t&[wHå ygyP
k /d wH b*0g {[d bduL© }wd
tm[/ wm0a'0ó *d[dvd*ø tEÅ&"m,d? £'d¨r,ywåpD0&"a&m ta[mod/ ydwmydó
ow¬m&H edraEÅo}d [lí t&Sif,oonf {[dbdu©K a&S;OD;pGmjzpfNyD;rSom ola|;BuD;onf
qGrf;pm;yifhaMumif; jyqdkxm;csufudk awGU&ay\/
r,fawmfoZk mwm t&d,mjzpfjcif;
,oola|;om;udk {[dbu
d K© &[ef;jyKNyD;aomtcg jrwfA'k o
¨ nf eHeuftcgü
t&Sif,oudk aemufvdkuf&[ef;jyKum ola|;BuD;,oESifh ola|;uawmf okZmwm
wdYk \tdro
f Ykd qGr;f bkO;f ay; <uawmfrcl \
hJ / aetdro
f Ykd a&mufaomtcgü jrwfaomae&mü
xuf0,fzGJUacG xdkifaeawmfrl\/ xdktcg t&Sif,o\rdcif ola|;uawmfokZmwmESifh
t&Sif,o\r,m;a[mif;wdkYonf jrwfAk'¨xHodkYcsOf;uyfí ½dkaopGm&Sdcdk;NyD; oihfawmf
aomae&mü xdik Mf uav\/ xdo
k Ykd xdik af e NyD;aomtcg jrwfA'k o
¨ nf a&S;ü om;,oESihf
ola|;BuD;,owdYk ukd a[mMum;onfeh nf;twdik ;f yifvQif ola|;uawmfBuD;okZmwmESihf
r,m;a[mif;wdkYudk 'geuxmtp&Sdaom uxmajcmufyg;ukdyif a[mMum;awmfrlav
\/ w&m;awmf\tqk;H ü olaX;uawmfBuD;ESihf r,m;a[mif;wdYk onf aomwmywdzå v
kd f
ü wnfMuav\/ (,if;ESpfOD;wkdYonf trsdK;orD;rsm;wGif a&ShOD;pGm aomwmyefwnf
aom olrsm;um; r[kwfMuygay/ trsdK;orD;wkdYwGif a&S;OD;pGm aomwmyefwnfolum;
vmvwHhaom tcef;wkdYü jyrnfjzpfaom pHawmf0ifumVDtrsdK;orD;om jzpf\/)
xdktcg okZmwmESifh r,m;a[mif;wdkYonf jrwfAk'¨tm; ]]bkef;awmfBuD;jrwf
awmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;.. t&Sifjrwfbk&m;onf bk&m;wynfhawmfwdkYudk ,aeYupí
touf&SnforQ umvywfvkH; &wemokH;yg;udk tNrJrjywf qnf;uyfudk;uG,fol
(o&P*kHwnfol) Oygodum ('g,dumr) wdkY[lí rSwfawmfrlyg}} [k avQmufxm;um
avmukwå&mo&P*kH cH,lMuav\/ xdk,ordcifBuD; ola|;uawmfokZmwmESifh
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t&d,m Oygodum'g,dumrwdkY jzpfMuav\/ xdkYaemuf okZmwmZeD; armifESHwdkYonf
jrwfAk'¨ESifhom;awmf t&Sif,orax&ftm; qGrf;qufuyfvSL'gef;cJhMu\/
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yg;pyfo&P*kHom rsm;av\/ o&P *kHqdkonfrSm udk;uG,ftm;xm;p&mtjzpfjzifh
,kHMunfqnf;uyfjcif; jzpf\/ rdrd###BOT_TEXT###amp;ifwGif; ESvkH;om;twGif;rS ]]&wemokH;yg;om

jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 25

tm;xm;udk;uG,f&mtppf}}[k pGJNrJ,kHMunfrSom o&P*kHwnfav\/
,if;o&P*kHukd atmufygtwkdif; ESpfrsdK;cJGjcm;Ekdif\/
(u)avmukwå&mo&P*kH?
(c)avmuDo&P*kH?
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opömav;yg;udk odjrifNyD;olwdkY\ o&P*kHjzpf\/ þodkY opömav;yg;udk odjrifNyD;ol
wdkY\ o&P*kHonf edAÁmefudk tm½kHjyKNyD;í &wemokH;yg;ü aumif;pGmwnfav\/
(c) avmuDo&P*kq
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(aMumufr)I ? avmuDq&m jzpfrpI aom taMumif;wdYk aMumifh ud;k uG,Mf uav\/ odYk aomf

26

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

,if;udk;uG,frIonf o&P*kH rajrmufay/ ,kHMunfjrwfEdk;í udk;uG,frSom o&P*kH
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bmom0ifom jzpfEdkif\/
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 27

pGefYBuJay;urf;jcif; pm*? avmuDtodÓPfynm þw&m;ig;yg;&Sdyif &Sdjim;aomfvnf;
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28

t&Sift*¾ÓP (vSnf;ul;)

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oihfay\/ ,if;odkYjzpfap&efvnf; pHawmf0if{w'*fbGJUxl;&Sif okZmwm ola|;orD;udk
twk,loihfay\/
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jrwfAk'¨vufxuf awmf0ifpHxm; trsdK;orD;rsm; 29

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