Flake density of steam-processed sorghum grain alters performance and sites of digestibility by growing-finishing steers R. S.

Swingle, T. P. Eck, C. B. Theurer, M. De la Llata, M. H. Poore and J. A. Moore J Anim Sci 1999. 77:1055-1065.

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Decreasing FD reduced linearly ( P < . H. Calle Pequena Industria ˜ 2135-A. 1997). the optimal FD was 360 g/L (28 lb/bu).org by on October 21. and starch and protein digestibilities usually occurred when FD was decreased from 412 to 360 g/L (32 to 28 lb/bu). Sorghum. with the 360 g/L (28 lb/bu) flake being most efficient. and 257 g/L or 32. Townsend for feeding and care of animals and grain processing. Compared with dryimproves the feeding value of sorghum grain by 12 to 15%. and site and extent of nutrient digestibilities by steers fed growing and finishing diets was determined. 7th Street. With the growing diet only. B. 28. In conclusion. 2209 W. Each FD treatment (412. All rights reserved. The effectiveness of common laboratory methods of starch availability (enzymatic hydrolysis or gelatinization) to provide target specifications for quality control of steam-flaked grains was also measured.05) linearly in response to decreased FD. A.05) total CP digestibility.93 vs . followed by 119 d with a finishing diet (78% grain). M. feedlot performance was determined for 112 d with a growing diet (50% grain). Huntington. In vitro starch availability of the processed grains increased ( P < . 3Present address: Nutrition Service Associates. Based on these measures and processing costs. Department of Animal Sciences. 1999.87 to . M. 1986). Key Words: Steam-Flaking. Ciudad Obregon.Flake Density of Steam-Processed Sorghum Grain Alters Performance and Sites of Digestibility by Growing-Finishing Steers1 R. 309.2 to 99. 77:1055–1065 Introduction Steam-flaking has method for processing for feedlot cattle since rolling. Starch Digestion ©1999 American Society of Animal Science. TX 79106. Eck3. T. but did not consistently alter fiber digestibility or DE content of the diets. Electrical energy requirements for processing increased linearly ( P < . Ghenniwa for help in laboratory analyses. Mexico. 1973. steam-flaking been the most widely used sorghum grain for use in diets the 1960s. ´ Sonora. temperature.36). and J.05) as FD decreased.05) ADG in the finishing phase and for the entire 231-d trial. Sci. Anim. Tucson 85721-0038 ABSTRACT: The effect of several flake densities ( F D ) of steam-processed sorghum grain on performance. 1Appreciation is expressed to J. estimated diet NE. Parque Industrial Apdo. J. and 20 lb/bu) was randomly assigned to five pens of seven steers each. KS 67846. Received March 31. NC 27695-7621. Decreasing FD increased ( P < . Intake of DM by steers decreased linearly ( P < . . Raleigh. address: Alimentos de Sonora. principally by improving digestibility of starch in the rumen and total tract (Hale. 24. Flake density was more highly correlated with enzymatic measures than with percentage gelatinization ( R 2 = . 2Present address: Cactus Feeders Inc. 6Present address: North Carolina State University. University of Arizona.2%) as FD decreased. Cattle.. Moisture.fass. and L. enzymatic laboratory methods to evaluate starch availability in processed grains can be used satisfactorily to establish FD criteria for quality control of the steam-flaking process. 1992.05) in the rumen (82 to 91%) and total tract (98.05) as FD decreased ( 7 and 13%. Postal 699. C.. 1998. respectively. 5Present 4To 1055 Downloaded from jas. Amarillo. Moore5 Department of Animal Sciences. for growing and finishing diets). Sanders and M. 1998. Swingle2. S.05). Using 140 crossbred beef steers (181 kg initial weight). feed efficiency and estimated diet NEm and NEg responses to decreasing FD were curvilinear ( P < . Box 7621. The greatest improvements in efficiency. De la Llata5. Theurer4. 1002 N. Accepted October 5. and pressure are important variables affecting the degree of improvement in starch availability (Theurer. 360. Digestibilities within the small (74%) and large intestines (62%) were not altered by FD. Garden City. Poore6. whom correspondence should be addressed. Theurer et al. L. Woo and G. starch digestibility increased linearly ( P < . Using four multicannulated crossbred steers (275 kg). 4th. 1996. Swingle. George-Smith for aid in manuscript preparation. Performance. P. 2009.

. Steam was from a natural gas-fired steam generator. were used to calculate dressing percentage.. Inc. 1990). Final shrunk live weight was calculated from hot carcass weight using a mean dressing percentage (64.× 76-cm roller mill fitted with a 3-m stainless steel steam chest. Fecal samples were composited for each pen. IA) on d 85 and 169. The DM was determined on the grains at each stage of processing (whole unprocessed. AZ) and loss of birefringence (High Plains Laboratory. SF24. SF24. Steers were implanted with Ralgro (Mallinckrodt Veterinary Inc. In a 231-d feeding trial. 181 kg) and on single days at 28-d intervals. considerable effort is expended to regulate these variables to achieve the desired degree of processing. steamed entering the rollers. Samples were also submitted to commercial laboratories for evaluation of relative starch availability by enzymatic (Nutrition-Laboratory Services.e. and on flaked as it exited the rollers and as it was weighed into the diets). Electrical load on the roller mill during production of each FD was measured using an ammeter. Steers were weighed (pencil shrunk 4%) individually on two consecutive days to start the experiment (mean initial weight. . susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis or degree of gelatinization) are commonly used as target specifications for quality control in the feedmill. Des Moines.. IL) at the beginning of the experiment and reimplanted with Synovex®-S (Syntex. Performance data were calculated from DMI and shrunk ( 4 % ) live weights. 140 crossbred steer calves (about ° to Ô Brahman. Flake density ( FD) and measures of starch availability (i. SF28. Group weights (shrunk 4%) on each pen.. Given the emphasis on quality control in steamflaking of grains. These studies report conflicting effects of varying FD on ADG and efficiency by growing-finishing steers.45 Mcal NEg/kg DM. 2009.fass. and the time. 1991). Samples of each FD were composited over 28-d periods and analyzed for starch availability by quantifying glucose released and percentage of starch hydrolyzed during 30-min incubations with amyloglucosidase (Poore et al. effort. Tolleson. 1984). 33% roughage) for the first 112 d and a finishing diet (1. and 257 g/L (referred to respectively as SF32. Diet samples from each pen were dried at 55°C in a forced-air oven. typical of field studies) using a 46. Performance and Nutrient Digestibility by Feedlot Steers Trials 1 and 2 were conducted with approval and under the supervision of the University of Arizona Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Animals were given ad libitum access to feed. Each flake treatment (SF32. 10% roughage) for the last 119 d (Table 1). Roughage in both diets was a mixture (equal NDF basis) of wheat straw and alfalfa hay. . and expense spent to “optimally” process grains.05% of DM. CP.. and energy. 2. Desired FD were achieved by progressively increasing tension on the rollers. 1999). In the feedlot industry.. 1989. and SF20. Trial 1. 1991. Hereford. SF28. Each time grain was prepared. Rollers were preheated by processing about 454 kg of grain prior to preparing experimental flakes.1% of DM. with the remainder a mixture of English and Continental breeds) were fed a growing diet (1. Zinn (1990) reported that decreasing FD of steamprocessed corn from 360 to 257 g/L (28 to 20 lb/bu) increased total digestibilities of starch. and fecal samples were lyophilized Materials and Methods Grain Processing and Starch Availability Sorghum grain was steam-processed to FD of 412.5 cm screen). This study was conducted to determine 1 ) the effect of steam-flaking sorghum grain over a range of flake densities (starch availabilities) on performance and nutrient digestibility responses by growing-finishing steers and 2 ) whether different laboratory methods for evaluating starch availability in processed grains can be used satisfactorily to establish FD criteria for quality control of the steam-flaking process. or SF20) was randomly assigned to five pens (weight replicates) of seven steers each. bulk density was measured on whole dry grain and on flaked grain as it exited the rollers. 50% flaked grain. there is surprisingly little published data relating the performance of cattle in the feedlot to the extent of steam-processing of corn (Zinn. Flow of grain into the rollers was maintained at a constant rate to allow a steaming time of approximately 40 min. Theurer et al..17 Mcal NEg/kg DM. 15 cm screen. 309. Estimated diet NE concentrations were calculated from performance data using established energy relationships (NRC. which was added to bunks at 0700 and 1400 daily. TX) methods. Reinhardt et al. Fecal grab samples were taken from at least four steers in each pen on d 42 of the 112-d growing phase and on d 88 of the 95-d finishing phase. and sorghum grain (Xiong et al. The roughages were chopped using a rotor-type mill (alfalfa. Mundelein.1056 SWINGLE ET AL. 360. wheat straw. There are no published data on the effect of flaking steam-processed sorghum grain to a range of densities on site and extent of nutrient digestion. 1997. Grain was flaked at least twice a week and used immediately for preparation of diets. taken on the day of shipment. growing phase. reflecting bushel weight in pounds. Chromic oxide (. Downloaded from jas.7%) across treatments. 78% flaked grain. processing was always in order from the most dense to least dense in order to maintain the desired intervals in degree of processing.org by on October 21. finishing phase) was added to diets at least 5 d prior to fecal sampling as a digestibility marker.

100 mg I.2 50. prior to laboratory measurements. Mcal/kg 20. Samples of duodenal ( ∼300 mL) and ileal digesta ( ∼150 mL) and feces ( ∼250 g wet basis) were collected four times daily over 3 d. dicalcium phosphate Chromic oxide (Trial 1 ) Nutrient analyses Trial 1 DM. Sweden). The NDF was analyzed according to Robertson and Van Soest (1981).FLAKE DENSITY OF STEAM-PROCESSED SORGHUM 1057 Table 1. (1987).9 .9 14. Mcal/kg Trial 2 DM. 28.0 1. and ileum (flange approximately 60 cm from the ileocecal junction) were used in a Latin square design.4 14. Tarrytown.05 6. % Composition of DM.9 15.. SF28 vs SF24 and SF20. DMI averaged 6. using heat stable a-amylase ( Bacillus licheniforms Type XII-A..0 4.15 84. finishing diet fed d 113 through 231. respectively. Data were analyzed using a randomized complete block design.500 mg Zn. 2009. Moline.5 78. ort. Inc.5 . Chromic oxide (. Growing and finishing diets were the same as in Trial 1 (Table 1)..45 Mcal/kg DM. Collection times were moved forward 2 h each day. Nutrient Digestibilities in the Rumen and Intestines Four crossbred steers (275 kg) fitted with cannulae in the rumen. 1980). This collection system provides a total of 12 samples.5 .5 59. cProvided 3. Final DM was determined by drying at 100°C under vacuum.5 × 5. Total starch was determined indirectly as glucose (YSI Model 27. Chromium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after wet ashing (Poore et al.8 12.0 m ) with concrete floors and partial shade.6 . and 60 mg Co per kg of block). and cubic components) were used to characterize response curves.8 16. Calculated NEg for growing and finishing diets were 1. Feed offered. quadratic. 1984). and SF20. Cubic components are not given in the results because linear and quadratic components almost always had lower probability values. bSteam-flaked to densities of 412. 360. and 20 lb/bu).3 95.7 4. Louis.2 . and SF24 vs SF20. % DM composition.1 92. respectively. of ad libitum intakes by feedlot steers fed these same diets in Trial 1.2 19. Orthogonal polynomials (linear.6 4. Trial 2.8 38... St.0 8.org by on October 21.4 kg/d for the growing and finishing diets. and 257 g/L (32.5 — . Feed and ort samples were taken daily for 4 d.9 95.0 2. regardless of treatment.800 mg Mn.2 4.0 2. % OM Starch Protein NDF ADF Gross energy. In these digestibility studies. NY) after Kjeldahl digestion (AOAC. Periods of the Latin square consisted of 10 d of adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Hoganas.300 IU vitamin A and 33 mg monensin/kg of diet DM. Diet and fecal samples were ground to pass through a 2-mm screen in a Wiley Mill (Arthur H.1 92.6 61. representing each 2 h of a 24-h period. Philadelphia. Sigma Chemical Co.18 88. Steers were fed twice daily at 0550 and 1750. The objective was to evaluate the effects of flaking sorghum grain to the same densities as for the performance trial (SF32. 24. respectively. These samples were immediately placed on ice.0 4. Ingredient composition and nutrient analyses of growing and finishing diets (Trials 1 and 2) Dieta Item Growing Finishing % of DM Composition (Trials 1 and 2 ) Alfalfa hay Wheat straw Steam-flaked sorghum grainb Cottonseed meal Molasses Animal fat Supplementc Limestone Urea NaCl Mono-.17 and 1.0 . 1. 309. and orthogonal contrasts were used to compare treatments. IL).6 28. never exceeded the maximum intake established for each steer prior to initiation of each study.7 . duodenum (flange approximately 5 cm from the pyloric sphincter).14 88.1% of DM) was included in the diets throughout each study as a digestibility marker.3 3. Yellow Springs Instrument Co. MO). Thomas Co. Nitrogen was determined by automated procedures (Technicon. SF24. Orthogonal comparisons were SF32 vs SF28.7 40. and had free access to water and trace-mineralized salt blocks (provided 3. These samples were pooled by steer within periods and then dried at 55°C in a 86. and was 91 and 86%.11 aTrial 1: Growing diet fed d 1 through 112.3 27.3 3. Elk- Downloaded from jas.0 1.0 14. Yellow Springs. 2. with pen as the experimental unit (Steel and Torrie.8 and 6. 1991). Digestibilities of the growing diet (first study) and of the finishing diet (second study) were conducted with the same steers. with four treatments in five blocks (weight replicates). Steers were kept in individual pens (2. digesta. . % OM Starch Protein NDF Gross energy. IN) according to the method described by Karr et al. Miles Inc.8 12.5 12. 350 mg Cu. Gross energy was determined by adiabatic bomb calorimetry (Parr Model 1241.1 hart. OH) following hydrolysis of samples using amyloglucosidase (Diazyme L-200. and fecal samples were kept frozen at −4°C until composited..000 mg Fe. Feed. SF24. SF28.0 .4 4. and SF20) on site and extent of digestion. PA) and then re-ground through a 1-mm screen in a cyclone mill (Tecator Cyclotec Model 1093.fass.

. and condition of the rollers. 168 ± 12.9 84.5 83. AZ: incubation with Taka-Diastase (contains a-amylase and other amylolytic.90 to . and the enzymatic methods were highly correlated with each other ( R 2 = .9 . Hereford. increased linearly or quadratically ( P < .6 614 75.8 ± . DM. mg/g grain DMyz Percentage starch hydrolysisyz Enzyme method 2d Glucose release. and SF20 = steam-flaked at densities of 412.8 3. and lipolytic enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae) . Zinn. 1999). eHigh Plains Laboratory. 28.org by on October 21. The largest and most consistent response to increased extent of Table 2. method 2. (1990a) also found that enzymatic methods are more sensitive than gelatinization. Xiong et al.2 376 54. level of moisture addition. forced-air oven for 48 h. steaming time. Inc. We emphasize that the data from the present study were determined from grain flaked to different densities in a single mill.1 .1 531 67.9 83.05) in response to increased extent of processing (decreased FD).05). with SF32 always being the lowest value and SF20 the highest value. yLinear effect of flake density ( P < .3 ± 1. Arizona.3 gelatinization.3 7. N.6 283 52. as measured by each of the laboratory methods. under controlled conditions. SF28. Theurer et al. .3 SEM . cDept.b.2 mg glucose/g DM.. Grain DM prior to processing and prior to entering the rollers (mean ± SD) was 88. Performance and Nutrient Digestibility by Feedlot Steers Performance data for growing ( d 1 to 112) and finishing ( d 113 to 231) phases and for the entire feeding period ( d 1 to 231) are in Table 4. and over relatively short periods of time. Sample processing and analytical methods for starch availability.4 321 54. respectively. TX: loss of microscopic birefringence (percentage of starch granules gelatinized). 309. Tucson: incubation with amyloglucosidase for 30 min. and 257 g/L (32. starch. The range of responses was much greater for enzymatic methods than for gelatinization based on loss of birefringence. GE.36. and chromium are described in Trial 1. 360. zQuadratic effect of flake density ( P < . Data for each study (growing and finishing) were separately analyzed as a 4 × 4 Latin square using SAS (1985). The ADF was analyzed using the methodology of Goering and Van Soest (1970). Univ. 1990a. Orthogonal polynomials and orthogonal comparisons are described in Trial 1.. Other studies have demonstrated that decreasing FD linearly increases in vitro rate of starch hydrolysis in grains by amylolytic enzymes (Theurer. bSF32. mg/g grain DMy Birefringencee Percentage gelatinizationyz aEach SF32 82.87 to . dNutrition-Laboratory Services. Other factors. % Exiting rollers Entering diets Starch availability Enzyme method 1c Glucose release. respectively. Flake density was more highly correlated with enzymatic measures of starch availability than with percentage gelatinization determined as loss of birefringence ( R 2 = .39 and 81. Table 3 shows correlations among laboratory measures of starch availability.92 vs . Xiong et al.fass.4 value is the mean of eight samples (each sample pooled over 28-d periods). We conclude that the enzymatic laboratory methods commonly used to evaluate starch availability in processed grains can be used satisfactorily to establish FD criteria for quality control of the steam-flaking process. Downloaded from jas. Results and Discussion Starch Availability Characteristics of grain flaked to different densities are presented in Table 2. Tolleson.6 684 83. proteolytic. including initial density and moisture content of the grain. SF24.3 mg glucose/g DM and 25. affect laboratory measures of starch availability at a given FD (Karr. respectively). 1991. Trial 1. 1986.8 .50%. 1990.93). Starch availability measures for unprocessed grain (mean ± SD) were: method 1.0 ± . Anim. 1984).9 SF28 82. birefringence method. NDF. 202 ± 6.9 730 88. OM. Moisture content of the grain was increased from 12% to approximately 17% during exposure to steam.6 82. 10 ± 2.3 SF24 83.05). Dry matter content and starch availability measurements for sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densitiesa Flake densityb Item Grain DM.1058 SWINGLE ET AL.2% starch hydrolysis.. Sci. 24. Inc. and 20 lb/bu).1 413 55..9 SF20 83. Starch availability. 2009.

05) only for the growing diet.88 . The efficiency responses in the finishing phase and overall trial followed a similar pattern ( P > . (1991) reported that lowering FD (SF34 to SF22) resulted in a linear increase in efficiency by feedlot steers. The percentage of carcasses grading low choice or better (data not shown) was highest (53%) from steers fed SF32. the largest changes in estimated NE concentrations for both diets were between SF32 and SF28. Xiong et al. (1991) was between SF34 and SF28. and SF24..87 . In the growing phase.93 .0.00 .36 Enzyme method 1a. (1999) also reported linear decreases in DMI by feedlot steers as FD of steam-flaked sorghum decreased. this could have been related to differences in carcass weight.05) decrease in DMI. and SF20.36 . Arizona. proteolytic. The major change in gain/DMI in the study by Xiong et al. Estimated NEm and NEg values for the growing and finishing diets (Table 4 ) also showed a tendency for a curvilinear response to FD. bDept.968). and lipolytic enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae) . Reinhardt et al. 2009.87 . (1997) also found the same dressing percentage response. In the finishing phase and for the entire trial. Percentage of pelvic. and lowest (31%) for steers fed SF20 ( P = .00 . Reinhardt et al.10). TX: loss of microscopic birefringence (percentage of starch granules gelatinized). Univ. Hereford. 5. which was linear. but no change in ADG.2.org by on October 21. cNutrition-Laboratory Services. g/L Enzyme method 1ab.1 Mcal/d. Estimated NE intakes were highest for SF28 and lowest for SF20.36 . In contrast. % . Tolleson. Depression in DMI was almost twice as great when steers were fed finishing diets (13%) than when steers were fed growing diets (7%). and SF20 were very similar.045).00 . Xiong et al.93 .FLAKE DENSITY OF STEAM-PROCESSED SORGHUM 1059 Table 3. NEg intakes seemed to decrease in a more curvilinear manner than DMI..8.4 Mcal/d and for the finishing diet were 5.fass. Anim. 6. respectively. mg/g .88 1. 5. SF28. estimated/calculated NE ratios for finishing diets were less than 1:1 for all FD (average = .05) in response to increased extent of processing. Sci. It seems likely that the feedlot performance responses to increased degree of grain processing are influenced by level of roughage in the diet.10) with decreasing FD. The NEm and NEg concentrations for the growing diet were highest for SF28. and Theurer et al.0. expressed either as kilograms per day or as a percentage of BW. efficiencies for SF28.90 . (1999) reported that dressing percentage and carcass fat thickness decreased linearly as FD decreased from SF30 to SF20. but reported no differences in carcass merit due to varying sorghum FD. 5. Mean NEg values for SF32. (1997). with the highest values for SF28 and SF24 (Table 4). Theurer et al. NEm and NEg content was lowest for SF32. As with DMI/gain. Inc. aNumber of observations per measurement = 32 (four flake densities × eight sampling periods). kidney. Reinhardt et al.8. (1997) reported linear decreases in daily gain. 10).93 1.46 1. Ratios of diet NE values estimated from performance to NE values calculated from the NRC (1984) for the growing diet were greater than 1:1 for all FD (average = 1. Tucson: incubation with amyloglucosidase for 30 min.39 .00 . SF28. ADG decreased linearly ( P < . The response pattern of ADG and efficiency in other FD studies is not consistent. With the exception of carcass weight. dHigh Plains Laboratory. SF24. Thus.93 . for the finishing diet. Downloaded from jas. Theurer et al. (1999) noted a numerical decrease in ADG ( −4%) and improvement in efficiency (+4%) by steers as density of steam-flaked sorghum decreased from SF30 to SF20. mg glucose/g grain DM Enzyme method 1bb. Correlations (R ) among starch availability measurements for sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densitiesa Measurement Flake density.90 1. although the quadratic component was statistically significant ( P < .46 Percent gelatinization . Inc. but Xiong et al. when steers were fed the growing and finishing diets (data not shown). and heart fat tended to decrease ( P < . AZ: incubation with Taka-Diastase (contains a-amylase processing (decreasing FD from SF32 to SF20) was a linear ( P < . percentage starch hydrolysis Enzyme method 2c. carcass characteristics were not influenced by FD (Table 5). 6. (1991) also observed a tendency for improved choice percentage when steam-flaked sorghum grain with a heavier FD (SF34 vs SF28 or SF22) was fed. The major change in efficiencies in the growing and finishing phases and the 231-d trial occurred between SF32 and SF28.90 . In the present study. P < . mg/g . SF24. which decreased linearly ( P < . with the lowest value (most efficient) for SF28 and the highest value (least efficient) for SF32. mg glucose/g grain DM Birefringence methodd percentage gelatinization and other amylolytic. but no changes in efficiency. . 5.. g/L 1. with decreasing sorghum FD (SF28 to SF22).05) as FD decreased.36 Enzyme method 1b. the efficiency (DMI/gain) response to decreasing FD was a curvilinear decrease (quadratic. (1991).90 .05) in final live weights. which resulted in a linear decrease ( P < . with decreasing FD.05). for the growing diet were 6.7.39 Enzyme method 2. with the lowest values for SF32.00 2 Measurement Flake density.

28 4.82 2. SF32 may not be adequately processed to appreciably improve starch digestibility over that of dry-rolled sorghum (90 and 87% for Theurer. 1986.78 1. Digestibilities of DM. and SF20.98 1.02 .84 6.21 1.15 5. 26. Decreasing FD decreased linearly ( P < .91 2. SF28.89 2.91 7.03 7.03 .03 .09 . Mcal/kg 1−112 dz 113−231 d NE estimated/calculatedd NEm 1−112 d 113−231 d NEg 1−112 d 113−231 d SF32 5 182 354 486 7. yLinear effect of flake density ( P < .98 — — — — aSF32. respectively).54 2.02 .75 1. The greatest changes in nutrient digestibilities by steers in the feedlot occurred as FD was decreased from SF32 to SF28.71 2. Downloaded from jas.91 5.05).08 .98 1. SF28.05).57 1.88 1. Mcal/kg 1−112 dz 113−231 d Diet NEg.91 7.19 . zQuadratic effect of flake density ( P < .06 .75 1.36 7.34 SF28 5 181 357 488 7.99 1.89 2. cFinal live weight (231-d) calculated as hot carcass weight/.05).72 7.95 5.05).06 .12 .71 1.92 6. Feedlot performance of crossbred steers fed diets containing sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densities (Trial 1) Flake densitya Item Pen replicates.02 . The DE (Mcal/kg) increased linearly with decreasing FD for the growing diet. 28. kg Initialb 112-db Finalcy DMI. but decreased linearly with the finishing diet ( P < .11 1.19 1.04 . With high roughage diets.05) the NDF digestibilities in the finishing diet only. respectively.52 1. CP.80 2.05) with decreased FD in the growing diet.2.08 . with both diets (Table 6).28 1.647. n Live weight. and Huntington.13 .59 7.org by on October 21.02 .54 1.26 1.95 1.1060 SWINGLE ET AL.93 1.76 1. 24.18 6.0.70 1. but not the finishing diet.22 4. 360.03 .10 1. and 20 lb/bu).05 1. 2009.03 .91 1.43 SF24 5 182 353 477 7.99 1. The latter was due to the lowest GE digestibility for SF20 and the very low digestibilities of NDF for SF24 and(or) SF20.50 7. and 257 g/L (32.00 1.06 . and GE increased linearly ( P < . % BW 1−112 dy 113−231 dy 1−231 dy Daily gain.25 1.4. .43 SEM — 1 4 6 .05) as FD decreased (20.03 . and SF20 = steam-flaked at densities of 412.31 5. and 30. Characteristically. kg 1−112 d 113−231 dy 1−231 dy DMI/gain 1−112 dz 113−231 d 1−231 d Diet NEm. kg/d 1−112 dy 113−231 dy 1−231 dy DMI.05 1. Electrical energy requirements for processing SF20 vs Table 4.fass.11 .04 2.09 1.92 5. 22.98 1. Fecal starch concentrations decreased linearly and apparent digestibilities of starch increased linearly in response to increased degree of grain processing in the growing and finishing periods ( P < .85 2. SF24.98 1.03 . respectively). SF24. respectively. Fecal starch was twice as high for SF32 when steers were fed the growing compared to the finishing diet. 1997.83 1. bLive weights reduced 4% to account for gastrointestinal fill.46 1. resulting in starch digestibilities of 92 and 98%.21 1.32 2.32 4.18 1.03 .11 1.34 1.78 6.27 7.6 amps for SF32.75 2. dRatio of NE estimated from performance to NE calculated from NRC (1984).45 SF20 5 180 344 463 7. 309.11 1.01 . electrical energy requirements (data not shown) for processing increased linearly ( P < .

and SF20 ( P < .00 = choice 00.0 3.0 43.3 .1 15. dCoded: 4.9 2.7 1.12 SF24 5 308.08 .8 67.69 SEM .16 .3y 1. and 257 g/L (32.2 21.82 Finishing dieta SF24 7.8 58. Considering increased processing costs. 309.3b .7 2. Reinhardt et al.0 5.87 8. 360. 2009.1 −1.3 98.9by . respectively.9 98. 24. but electrical energy use for processing also increased linearly. fecal starch concentrations.2by 2.06 SEM — 3.8 64.FLAKE DENSITY OF STEAM-PROCESSED SORGHUM 1061 Table 5. pelvic.76 3. %h Marbling scored USDA Quality Gradee USDA Yield Grade SF32 5 314.1 21.8 46. SF24. and as evidenced by decreased fecal starch concentrations and higher digestibility of starch) increased linearly as FD of sorghum grain decreased. The DMI and ADG decreased linearly as degree of processing increased. and SF20 ( P < .6 1.10).5 2.9 1. Mcal/kg SF32 7. percentage of carcass weight.7 98. 360.6 96.6 2.77 SF20 6. cKidney. SF24.05). because the greatest improvements in feed conversion occurred when FD was reduced from SF32 to SF28.05).5 60. % DM Digestibility.24 3.04y aSF32.5 2. Downloaded from jas.2 2. 28. n Hot carcass weight.5 1. % DM Starch CP NDF GE DE.4bcyz .fass.5 2. and 20 lb/bu).81 SF28 7. Feed efficiency and estimated diet NE responses to increased grain processing tended to follow a curvilinear pattern.8 91.1 2. Xiong et al.7 7.7 5. and 257 g/L (32.3 . SF32 increased by 50%.54 SEM .94 8. is evidence that sorghum grain can be “over processed.2 67. .2 51.05).9by .07 9.6 45.3 2.4 66.08 aSF32. and heart fat. SF28.9 3. and 20 lb/bu).1 1.2 54.31 81.2 66. 1997).00 = slight 00. Carcass measurements of crossbred steers fed diets containing sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densities (Trial 1) Flake densitya Item Pens (steers).” Roughage source and level may be major factors that influence the performance response by feedlot cattle to differences in degree of steam-flaking of sorghum grain.5 3.6 55.1bcy .8 . cm2 KPHc.9 2.00 = small 00. SF24.6 49.3 60. yLinear effect of flake density ( P < . resulting in lighter final live weights.35 78. 1990a. but these requirements for processing SF28 vs SF32 increased by only 8%. cm Ribeye area.8bdy 2. 24. as compared with SF28 and SF24.3 98.08 SF28 5 315.org by on October 21.34 78. zQuadratic effect of flake density ( P < .29 .52 SF20 7.28 2.6 7. Table 6.4 2.05). kg/d Fecal starch.8 4.05). eCoded: 9.. 1984. fLinear effect of flake density ( P < . kgfg Dressing percentageb Fat thickness.3 97.14 9.0 2. SF28 would be the most efficient FD.7 2.88 SF20 5 299.8 67.2 .8 97.4 64. Other studies have demonstrated increased costs as FD is decreased (Karr. dSF24 vs SF20 ( P < .0 23. cSF28 vs SF24. daily gains were not decreased when steers were fed SF28 compared to SF32.6 59. Dry matter intake. b(Hot carcass weight/live weight) × 100.9 .. gQuadratic effect of flake density ( P < . at densities of 412. and nutrient digestibilities by steers fed diets containing sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densities (feedlot conditions) (Trial 1) Growing dieta Item DMI. hQuadratic effect of flake density ( P < .43 SF24 7.2 4. 28.8 64.05). respectively.5 22.5 46. 10. 5.3 2.00 = select 00. Reduced feed efficiency and lower estimated NE values for the growing diet with SF20.7 53. and SF20 = steam-flaked bSF32 vs SF28.05by SF32 8. In the present study. being improved most when FD was decreased from SF32 to SF28.60 3.07 1.9 2. In the present study.6 64. SF28.05).5 53.1 2.8 4.1 64.3yz .7 59. 309.1by . and SF20 = steam-flaked at densities of 412.5 65.1 59.24 SF28 7.27 78.1 67. starch availability (measured by laboratory methods.7 1.

however. Trial 1 ) and one other digestibility study (Theurer et al. and total starch digestibility (percentage of intake) from 91 to 98%. total tract starch digestibilities were not well correlated ( r 2 = . Theurer et al. Ruminal plus small intestinal and total tract digestibilities of CP increased linearly ( P < . 1999. Nutrient Digestibilities in the Rumen and Intestines Increasing the extent of steam-processing increased degradability of starch granules in the sorghum grain. P < . total digestibility was 59 vs 63% for the growing diet.4% and 97. Except for starch flows and digestibilities. Fiber digestibilities in the rumen and rumen plus small intestine were quite variable (and sometimes not possible). for steers fed a diet containing 75% steam-flaked sorghum (SF28). Total starch digestibilities were also very high (range = 98. 1997.. In the summary by Theurer et al.. but comparable to those reported by Husted et al. and values for SF28 were less ( P < . but starch digestibility within the rumen was positively correlated ( r 2 = . In another study (Theurer et al. 1970. The latter response is in contrast to performance trials (Xiong et al.. These results are consistent with Trial 1 (Table 2 ) and with other reports (Osman et al.5). 1999). Theurer et al. Ruminal starch digestion ranged from 82 to 92% (both diets) and seems somewhat greater than average published values of 80% (range = 71 to 89%) for steers fed diets containing 75 to 84% steam-flaked sorghum grain (Theurer. Huntington. Digestibilities of DM were not altered by extent of processing in the growing diet.54) with improved efficiency by feedlot steers.1062 SWINGLE ET AL.. (1966) and Mehen et al. Theurer et al. total CP digestibility followed a curvilinear pattern (SF25 was greater than SF30 or SF20) with decreasing FD when steers were fed a finishing diet similar to the present study. 1999).05) CP digestibilities compared with the mean of the other density treatments (i. Flow of starch to the duodenum ( P < .. (1996).05) in response to reduced FD. Reinhardt et al. The percentage starch hydrolyzed in 30 min for steamflaked grain was about three times that of the unprocessed grain (81 vs 28%). Thus. ruminal plus small intestinal. respectively.. Frederick et al.e. and SF20 (79. Enzymatic starch hydrolysis (as a percentage of total starch) in steam-processed sorghum grain (used in the growing and finishing diets) increased linearly ( P < . 1996.b.. in separate experiments. Data from the study by Zinn (1991) showed that digestibility of starch as a percentage of entry into the small and large intestines was 85 and 66%. 1999).05) for SF28 than for SF24 and SF20. however. these intakes were lower ( P < . Total tract starch digestibilities were very high in this current study (Table 7.05) with the finishing diet for SF32 compared to lighter FD (Table 7). Nutrient analyses of growing and finishing diets fed in the digestibility study are shown in Table 1.21) with feed efficiency. SF24. The SF32 treatment had the lowest ( P < . ranges = 98. Flows and digestibilities of starch were different ( P < . ruminal. 1991.05) between SF32 and the other FD.05). (1996) summarized 12 digestibility trials and concluded that increasing ruminal starch digestibility from 65 to 86% resulted in increased starch digestibility (percentage of entry) within the small intestine from 58 to 72%.05) for SF32 than for SF28. in which decreasing FD depressed DMI. (1999) reported that total tract digestibilities for NDF and ADF decreased as FD decreased (SF30 to SF20) when Downloaded from jas. 1991. (1966).6%) when steers were fed a finishing diet similar to the present study (Theurer et al.9% for growing and finishing diets. 1999). and 90%. For both diets.. with the greatest changes often occurring between SF32 and SF28. respectively. It is not known why ruminal NDF and ADF digestibilities by steers fed the finishing diet with the SF24 treatment were so low ( ≤ 10%).9 to 99. 1990a. Theurer et al. terminal ileum ( P < .05) as FD decreased in the growing and finishing diets (Table 7). Starch flow for steers fed SF32 was about double that of steers fed SF20.. 1973. Trial 2. fiber digestibilities in the rumen and rumen plus small intestine were often greater ( P < . Theurer et al. In addition.fass.05) decreased linearly as FD decreased in both diets (Table 7). perhaps because the forage passed through the tract differently than the chromium. however. respectively). and feces ( P < . 85. Xiong et al. 1997). and the highest FD had the greatest DMI.05) as FD decreased from SF32 to SF20 (data not shown).05) than for SF24 and SF20 (SEM = 1. digestibilities of NDF and ADF in the total tract were not affected by FD.. (1987a..7 to 99.. digestibilities of starch within the small intestine (77 and 71%) and large intestine (70 and 55%) of steers fed growing and finishing diets. respectively. .org by on October 21. Rates of hydrolysis were less (71%. most of the digestibility responses to FD were with the finishing diet (Table 7). When expressed as a percentage of starch entering into each segment. 1986.5 to 98. Daily intakes of DM and starch by steers were not altered by FD with the growing diets. only about one-half (or less) that of the other FD treatments. respectively). were not altered by FD (Table 7).b). Total tract CP digestibilities for steam-flaked sorghum diets in the present study were lower than reported by Rahnema et al. 2009.05) as FD was decreased in the finishing diet. and 53 vs 59% for the finishing diet). and total starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) for both diets increased linearly ( P < . ruminal plus small intestinal and total digestibilities (percentage of intake) were increased linearly ( P < . CP digestibility was increased linearly or not altered as FD decreased when steers were fed diets with cottonseed hulls or alfalfa hay.08).

9 27.1 69.2 1.0 2.6 98.069 988 979 20.086 987 946 15.2 2.1 65.001 466 140 74 87.062 988 15.4 15 40 11by 16 3.8 17.0 26.4 13ex 24z 9by 11by 3.368 1.5 59.1 1.5 4.1 798 960 309 325 −21. g/d Duodenum Ileum Feces Digestibility.8 98.2 56.7 66.771 466 115 30 83.039 942 936 613 7.3 51 113 51 61 5.9 73.9 61. g/d Duodenum Ileum Feces Digestibility.775 1.6 94.862 1.607 2.4 98.8 3.4 SF24 6.1d 5.368 3.440 49.383 1.298 27.7 67.7 1. g/d Duodenum Ileum Feces Digestibility.463 1.9 SEM 67b 121 58b 86 1.2by 1.9 2.1 Finishing dieta SF24 6.6 4.7 26.015 327 375 −28.995 1.410 1.2 67.8 620 496 491 393 19.167 384 371 −19.8 74.0 99.934 534 169 46 86.228 3.3x 66.1 32.3 15.7 78.4by 72.3 38.6 98.2 26.3 1.2 21.5 71.862 2.889 2.7 58.3 1.771 4.4 27.8 66.4 16.753 232 56 17 91.6 61.5 986 1. % of intake Rumen Rumen + SI Total tract ADF Intake.4 642 561 523 390 9.3 1.0 95.0 99.0 8.8d 4.8 3.672 290 52 17 89.0 60.0 70.006 1.4 30.172 2. % of intake Rumen Rumen + small intestine (SI) Total tract Starch Intake.8 62.3 58.1byz SF32 6.3 61.1 18.1 34.333 46.1 67.2by .5 5.975 1.167 1.9 79.1 3.4 2.2 95. 2009.351 21.0 963 775 818 590 18.5 2.2 984 1.800 1.0 70.433 1.9 845 1.0 3.6byz 1.686 2.218 37.2 55. g/d Flow.7 28. g/d Duodenum Ileum Feces Digestibility.4by 2.3 29.233 2.5 60. g/d Flow.4 70.1 46.0 6.473 3. % of intake Rumen Rumen + SI Total tract SF32 6.8 SF20 6.4 30.9 14.8 76.3 996 1.377 2.4 SEM 123 195 151 114 2.7 15.3byz .533 1.5 3.4 67.048 965 968 24.301 21.5 SF28 6.5 38.350 49.5 28.1 97.3 36.7 1.520 43.742 302 64 18 88.1 1.2d 3.6 97.130 383 381 −12.154 353 366 −16.2 77 66bx 8byz 2.5 63.7 7.org by on October 21.7 40.3 77.5 52.7 75.2by 1.215 1.6 30.8 20.3 SF20 6.706 4.1 70.814 4.4 2. % of intake Rumen Rumen + SI Total tract NDF Intake.477 1.4 1.2cx 41b 84by 38cx 15by 2.252 1.1 1.8 62. Nutrient intakes and digestibilities by steers fed diets containing sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densities (Trial 2) Growing dieta Item DM Intake.5 47.334 37.2 79.8 616 446 517 425 26.6 98.5 72.9 825 975 315 348 −20.530 1.4 35.207 410 400 −23. g/d Flow.222 35.984 371 94 44 90.0cx .006 775 854 662 21.0 62.7 78.223 1.472 1.5 796 1.6 22.5 4.6 1.2 1.5 98 98 79 5.413 3.299 1.7 68.900 1. % of intake Rumen Rumen + SI Total tract Digestibility.8 97.7 27.4 58.790 4.fass. g/d Flow.398 2.4 26.1 57.292 1.5by 21dez 56 51 64 4.4bx .9 96.6 99. .9 SF28 6.7 59. % of entry into intestine Small intestine Large intestine CP Intake.338 1. g/d Flow.4 1.2bey 1.8 1.829 694 221 95 81.357 21.5 38.8 60.3 98.2 661 478 454 423 26.898 1.6 (continued) Downloaded from jas.267 34.882 1.2 1.3 14.483 1.3 17 41 23 38 5.FLAKE DENSITY OF STEAM-PROCESSED SORGHUM 1063 Table 7.1 2.3 71. g/d Duodenum Ileum Feces Digestibility.3 64.074 749 767 649 28.036 279 320 −23.

Nutrient intakes and digestibilities by steers fed diets containing sorghum grain steam-flaked to different densities (Trial 2) GE Intake.09 and P < .4 63. 2009.68 and 3. and GE were considerably lower than digestibilities determined with cannulated steers (Trial 2). which agrees with the estimated diet NE in the performance trial. Twelve fecal samples were obtained in Trial 2 at various hours over a 3-d period. Implications The optimal flake (bulk) density for steamprocessed sorghum grain appears to be 360 g/L (28 lb/ bu). 1996.fass.70 27.2cz 1. Huntington.5 75.8 2.10 Mcal/kg DM for the growing and finishing diets.03 26. The effect of FD on NDF and ADF digestibilities may differ with sources of dietary roughages. Flake density is more closely related to enzymatic methods than to percentage gelatinization. steers were fed diets containing alfalfa hay.cSF32 28. . respectively. This pattern was reversed when steers were fed the diet containing cottonseed hulls.e.7 2. 257 g/L or 20 lb/bu) may result in “over processed” grain when compared to flake densities of 360 and 309 g/L (28 and 24 lb/bu). based on performance by feedlot steers.65 . for steers fed both diets. Rahnema et al.. vs SF28. Total tract digestibilities by intact feedlot steers (Trial 1 ) for DM. values were increased linearly for starch digestibilities in the rumen by 10%.b. respectively..71 27.8 65. SF32 was lowest) with decreasing FD when finishing diets were fed. and diet digestibilities of protein and starch. eSF24 vs SF20 ( P < . Because greatest improvements in starch and CP digestibilities occurred when density was lowered from SF32 to SF28. respectively). These differences may reflect the 9 to 16% higher DMI for the intact steers compared to the cannulated steers.6 1.05). dSF28 vs SF24 and SF20 ( P < .03 25.67 28.05. The simultaneous increase in digestibilities of starch and CP at various sites within the digestive tract when sorghum grain is extensively processed is probably due to the disruption of the protein matrix associated with the starch granules within the kernel (Rooney and Pflugfelder.1064 SWINGLE ET AL.4 77. 1996). Downloaded from jas. but obtaining fecal samples for only one day under feedlot conditions (Trial 1 ) may not provide accurate digestion coefficients for DM. grain processing costs. b. Flaking to very light densities (i. CP.9 3.11 . and intestinal enzymes. 28. The effect of FD on fecal starch concentrations and total starch digestibilities were the only measurements that were consistent for both diets in Trials 1 and 2. and total tract by 1%. 360..0 75. and 20 lb/bu).05). SF24. Enzymatic laboratory methods commonly used to evaluate starch availability (hydrolysis) are effective in establishing flake density criteria for quality control of the steam-flaking process. 1986. NDF. Further decreases in flake density will not appreciably increase net energy value of the grain or improve feed conversions. and SF20 ( P < .19 26. Greater ruminal starch digestion can result in improved feed conversions and net absorption of energy (Theurer et al.3c . Decreasing flake density will consistently increase ruminal and total starch digestibilities by steers.06 SF28. In conclusion. resulting in inferior feedlot performance.08 26. and the sampling techniques. optimal sorghum grain FD was SF28. rumen plus small intestine by 3%.1 .2 2. 1997) than do digestibility values obtained under feedlot conditions (Trial 1). The most consistent responses were for starch digestibilities.05.9 72. and SF24. 24.0 65. DE was lowest for SF32 and greatest for SF24.8 2.yLinear effect of flake density ( P < . 309. Nutrient digestibilities of starch and protein in the total tract of steers in the more controlled conditions of Trial 2 agree more closely with previous values for steamflaked sorghum grain (Theurer. respectively). and energy. but were increased quadratically ( P < . or wheat straw and alfalfa (same diet as current study). This disorganization of protein matrix and starch granules allows increased susceptibility of the protein and starch to rumen microbial. Mcal/kg diet aSF32. and 257 g/L (32. respectively). 1986). With the finishing diet.9 64. x. zQuadratic effect of flake density ( P <. pancreatic. Digestibilities of GE did not differ with FD when steers were fed the growing diet.09. Dietary concentrations of DE were not affected by FD (2. 1987a.1 3. Mcal/d Total tract digestibility.. fiber.org by on October 21. CP. decreasing FD of steam-processed grain in the present digestion studies had the greatest effects on starch and protein digestibilities by steers fed the growing and finishing diet. Theurer et al. % DE. Digestibilities of CP in the rumen plus small intestine and total tract were linearly increased by 8 and 15%.9 3. and SF20 = steam-flaked at densities of 412.5 3.05 and P < .05). As density of the grain was reduced from SF32 to SF20. Table 7 (continued).

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