Food Additive 1.

Natural or synthetic substance which is added to food to prevent spoilage or to improve its appearance, taste and texture. Type of food additive 1. To slow down or prevent the growth of the microorganism so that the food can kept longer. 2. Sodium nitrite – meat, Sodium Benzoate – soft drink, Salt and sugar (draws the water out of the cells of microorganism), Vinegar (acidic) – inhibit the growth of microorganism. Antioxidants 1. To prevent oxidation that causes rancid of fats / oil and brown fruit (rancid – oxidized to unpleasant smelling). 2. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluence (BHT), alfa tocopheral ( vit E), sodium citrate. Flavourings 1. Improve the taste of food and restore taste loss due to processing. 2. For example, sugar, salt and vinegar, Monosodium glutamate (MSG), Aspartame ( 1-methyl-Naspartilphenilamina) is non-sugar sweetener, ester ( ethyl butanoate – pineapple). Stabilisers 1. Prevent an emulsion from separating out ( for food containing oil and water). 2. For example: Lecithin, mono-glycerides, di-glycerides. Thickeners (thicken food) 1. Used to thicken the food. 2. Example: Gelatin- yogurt, Acacia gum – jelly, wine, chewing gum, Pectin – jam, Modified starch – instant soup. Dyes 1. To add or restore the colour in a food in order to enhance its visual appearance and to match consumers expectations (increase the quality). 2. Example: Azo compound – red, brown, yellow. Triphenyl compound – green, blue, purple, Tartrazine – orange, Brilliant blue (FCF), sunset yellow.

Disadvantages of food additive 1. Cancer – sodium nitrite 2. Allergic – sodium benzoate

Hyperactive – Tartrazine 4. reduce inflammation and improve blood circulation. Ginger – rhizomes are used to treat stomach wind. i. Difficulties in breathing. Ant – Treat Hepatities B. antibiotics. 2. roots maintain good health. 2. Modern Medicine 1. Sea cucumber – Treat hole in the heart. treat malaria. Derived from plants or animals that are obtained without the involvement of chemical reaction. Cancer. Centipede – To treat lockjaw and convulsions. Type of modern medicine: Analgesics. Quinine – Extracted from Cinchona plant. b. Tongkat Ali – lessen stomach pain. paracetamol. reduces infection and hypertension.3. . codeine. psychotherapeutic medicine. d. c. helps wound heal more quickly. A. g. Aloe Vera – to treat itchy skin. Example: Aspirin. f. Garlic – treats colds and asthma. Hibiscus – leaves relieve headache and hair loss. h. Ginseng – to strengthen body. Are medicines used to relieve pain without causing numbness (loss of feeling) or effecting consciousness. used to relieve pain from burns. Examples: a. Analgesics 1. j. 2. headache. Are made by scientists in laboratories and are based on substances found in nature. allergy – sunset yellow 5. increase the male libido (emotional energy). vomiting – MSG Medicine Traditional medicine 1. Reduces scarring. migraine. e.

super infection (ii) Streptomycin – Produced from soil bacteria (streptomycin griseous) Uses : To cure tuberculosis.(i) Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) Uses: Reduce fever. muscle and joint pain. Antibiotics 1. nausea. to treat pneumonia . To kill or slow down the growth of infection bacteria. Side effects: Overdose will cause liver and kidney failure. drowsiness. Side effects: Stomach bleeding. reduce inflammation – arthritis pain. B. kidney damage. dry mouth. to treat whooping cough. lessen aches and pains. (iii) Codeine Uses : Are used in headache tablets and in cough medicine. (i) Penicillin – Extracted from Penicillin notatum Uses Side effects : Cure tuberculosis. backache. hearing defects (ii) Paracetamol Uses : Reduces fever. cure pneumonia : diarrhea. Streptomycin. Side effects: itching. Example: Penicillin. nausea. reduces headache. urinary retention and constipation. rash. vomiting. 2.

Side effects (ii) Antidepressant Uses : To reduce tension and anxiety a. coma. Example: amphetamine. : anxiety. dizziness The side effects of modern medicine a. antidepressants. death (iii) Antipsychotic Uses Side effects : Drug to treat psychiatric illness : Drowsiness. Tranquilizers Side effects : Drowsiness. light headache. Uses : To reduce fatigue (very tired) and elevate mood. dextroamphetamine. Respiratory difficulties.Side effects : Headache. Barbiturates (sleeping pill) Side effects : addiction. allergic C. other mental and physical problems. antipsychotics (i) Stimulant: Substances that act on the brain to increase the reaction of nervous system. death b. Psychotherapeutic medicines Function: Control symptoms of mental illness To control abnormal thinking. rapid heartbeat. feeling or behaviors Example: stimulants. Stomach ulcers and bleeding – aspirin .

b. allergic – penicillin . Coma. Gain weight/ headache – antipsychotic c. Death – barbiturate e. Insomnia – amphetamine d.