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1007/s•••••-•••-••••-•

**Shock Waves in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
**

Dongsu Ryu

•

Hyesung Kang

c Springer-Verlag ••••

draft of June 12, 2008 Abstract Cosmological shock waves are induced during hierarchical formation of large-scale structure in the universe. Like most astrophysical shocks, they are collisionless, since they form in the tenuous intergalactic medium through electromagnetic viscosities. The gravitational energy released during structure formation is transferred by these shocks to the intergalactic gas as heat, cosmic-rays, turbulence, and magnetic ﬁelds. Here we brieﬂy describe the properties and consequences of the shock waves in the context of the large-scale structure of the universe. Keywords Cosmic-rays · Large-scale structure of universe · Magnetic ﬁelds · Shock waves · Turbulence 1 Introduction Shock waves are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments; from solar winds to the largest scale of the universe (Ryu et al. 2003). In the current paradigm of the cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology, the largescale structure of the universe forms through hierarchical clustering of matter. Deepening of gravitational potential wells causes gas to move supersonically. Cosmological shocks form when the gas accretes onto clusters, ﬁlaments, and sheets, or as a consequence of the chaotic

Dongsu Ryu Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea email: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr Hyesung Kang Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Korea email: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr

ﬂow motions of the gas inside the nonlinear structures. The gravitational energy released during the formation of large-scale structure in the universe is transferred by these shocks to the intergalactic medium (IGM). Cosmological shocks are collisionless shocks which form in a tenuous plasma via collective electromagnetic interactions between baryonic particles and electromagnetic ﬁelds (Quest 1988). They play key roles in governing the nature of the IGM through the following processes: in addition to the entropy generation, cosmicrays (CRs) are produced via diﬀusive shock acceleration (DSA) (Bell 1978; Blandford and Ostriker 1978), magnetic ﬁelds are generated via the Biermann battery mechanism (Kulsrud et al. 1997) and Weibel instability (Medvedev et al. 2006) and also ampliﬁed by streaming CRs (Bell 2004), and vorticity is generated at curved shocks (Binney 1974). Cosmological shocks in the intergalactic space have been studied in details using various hydrodynamic simulations for the cold dark matter cosmology with cosmological constant (ΛCDM) (Ryu et al. 2003; Pfrommer et al. 2006; Kang et al. 2008). In this contribution, we describe the properties of cosmological shocks and their implications for the intergalactic plasma from a simulation using a PM/Eulerian hydrodynamic cosmology code (Ryu et al. 1993) with the following parameters: ΩBM = 0.043, ΩDM = 0.227, and ΩΛ = 0.73, h ≡ H0 /(100 km/s/Mpc) = 0.7, and σ8 = 0.8. A cubic region of comoving size 100 h−1 Mpc was simulated with 10243 grid zones for gas and gravity and 5123 particles for dark matter, allowing a uniform spatial resolution of ∆l = 97.7h−1 kpc. The simulation is adiabatic in the sense that it does not include radiative cooling, galaxy/star formation, feedbacks from galaxies/stars, and reionization of the IGM. A temperature ﬂoor was set to be the temperature of cosmic background radiation.

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Fig. 1 Two-dimensional images showing x-ray emissivity (top left), locations of shocks with color-coded shock speed V s (top right), perpendicular component of vorticity (bottom left), and magnitude of vorticity (bottom right) in the region of (25 h−1 Mpc)2 around a galaxy cluster at present (z = 0). Color codes Vs from 15 (green) to 1,800 km s−1 (red).

2 Properties of Cosmological Shocks As a post-processing step, shocks in the simulated volume are identiﬁed by a set of criteria based on the shock jump conditions. Then the locations and properties of the shocks such as shock speed (Vs ), Mach number (M ), and kinetic energy ﬂux (fkin ) are calculated. In the top panels of Figure 1, we compare the locations of cosmological shocks with the x-ray emissivity in the region around a cluster of galaxies, both of which are calculated from the simulation data at redshift z = 0. External shocks encompass this complex nonlinear structure and deﬁne the outermost boundaries up to ∼ 10 h−1 Mpc from the cluster core, far beyond the region observable with x-ray of size ∼ 1 h−1 Mpc. In-

ternal shocks are found within the region bounded by external shocks. External shocks have high Mach numbers of up to M ∼ 103 due to the low temperature of the accreting gas in the void region. Internal shocks, on the other hand, have mainly low Mach numbers of M 3, because the gas inside nonlinear structures has been previously heated by shocks and so has high temperature. The frequency of cosmological shocks in the simulated volume is represented by the quantity S, the area of shock surfaces per unit comoving volume, in other words, the reciprocal of the mean comoving distance between shock surfaces. In the top left panel of Figure 2, we show S(Vs ) per unit logarithmic shock speed interval at z = 0. We note that the frequency of low speed

Shock Waves in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

3

Fig. 3 Gas thermalization eﬃciency, δ(M ), and CR acceleration eﬃciency, η(M ), as a function of Mach number. Symbols are the values estimated from numerical simulations based on a DSA model and dotted and dashed lines are the ﬁts. Solid line is for the gas thermalization eﬃciency for shocks without CRs.

Fig. 2 (Top left) Reciprocal of the mean comoving distance between shock surfaces at z = 0 in units of 1/(h−1 Mpc). (Top right) Kinetic energy ﬂux passing through shock surfaces per unit comoving volume at z = 0 in units of 1040 ergs s−1 (h−1 Mpc)−3 . (Bottom left) Thermal energy dissipated (dotted line) and CR energy generated (solid line) at shock surfaces, integrated from z = 5 to 0. (Bottom right) Cumulative energy distributions. The energies in the bottom panels are normalized to the total thermal energy at z = 0. All quantities are plotted as a function of shock speed Vs .

shocks typically form in accretion ﬂows with the lowdensity gas in voids, so the amount of the kinetic energy passed through the external shocks is rather small.

3 Energy Dissipation at Cosmological Shocks In addition to the gas entropy generation, the acceleration of CRs is an integral part of collisionless shocks, in which electromagnetic interactions between plasma and magnetic ﬁelds provide the necessary viscosities. Suprathermal particles are extracted from the shock-heated thermal particle distribution (Malkov and Drury 2001). With 10−4 − 10−3 of the particle ﬂux passing through the shocks injected into the CR population, up to ∼60% of the kinetic energy of strong quasi-parallel shocks can be converted into CR ions and the nonlinear feedback to the underlying ﬂow can be substantial (Kang and Jones 2005). At perpendicular shocks, however, the CR injection and acceleration are expected to be much less eﬃcient, compared to parallel shocks, since the transport of low energy particles normal to the average ﬁeld direction is suppressed. So the CR acceleration depends sensitively on the mean magnetic ﬁeld orientation. Time-dependent simulations of DSA at quasi-parallel shocks with a thermal leakage injection model and a Bohm-type diﬀusion coeﬃcient have shown that the evolution of CR modiﬁed shocks becomes self-similar, after the particles are accelerated to relativistic energies and the precursor compression reaches a timeasymptotic state (Kang and Jones 2005, 2007). The self-similar evolution of CR modiﬁed shocks depends somewhat weakly on the details of various particle-wave interactions, but it is mainly determined by the shock Mach number. Based on this self-similar evolution, we can estimate the gas thermalization eﬃciency, δ(M ), and the CR acceleration eﬃciency, η(M ), as a function

shocks with Vs < 15 km s−1 is overestimated here, since the temperature of the intergalactic medium is unrealistically low in the adiabatic simulation without the cosmological reionization process. Although shocks with Vs ∼ a few × 10 km s−1 are most common, those with speed up to several ×103 km s−1 are present at z = 0. The mean comoving distance between shock surfaces is 1/S ∼ 3 h−1 Mpc when averaged over the entire universe, while it is ∼ 1 h−1 Mpc inside the nonlinear structures of clusters, ﬁlaments, and sheets. In order to evaluate the energetics of cosmological shocks, the incident shock kinetic energy ﬂux, fkin = (1/2)ρ1 Vs3 , is calculated. Here ρ1 is the preshock gas density. Then the average kinetic energy ﬂux through shock surfaces per unit comoving volume, F , is calculated. The top right panel of Figure 2 shows F (Vs ) per unit logarithmic shock speed interval. Energetically the shocks with Vs > 103 km s−1 , which form in the deepest gravitation potential wells in and around clusters of galaxies, are most important. Those responsible for most of shock energetics are the internal shocks with relatively low Mach number of M ∼ 2 − 4 in the hot IGM, because they form in the high-density gas inside nonlinear structures. On the other hand, external

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shock Mach number, which represent the fractions of the shock kinetic energy transferred into the thermal and CR energies, respectively. Figure 3 shows the results of such DSA simulations (Kang et al. 2008). From the ﬁgure, we expect that at weak shocks with M 3 the energy transfer to CRs should be 10 % of the shock kinetic energy at each shock passage, whereas at strong shocks with M 3 the transfer is very eﬃcient and the ﬂow should be signiﬁcantly modiﬁed by the CR pressure. Adopting the eﬃciencies shown in Figure 3, the thermal and CR energy ﬂuxes dissipated at each cosmological shock can be estimated as δ(M )fkin and η(M )fkin , respectively. Then the total energies dissipated through the surfaces of cosmological shocks during the largescale structure formation of the universe can be calculated (Ryu et al. 2003; Kang et al. 2008). The bottom panels of Figure 2 show the thermal and CR energies, integrated from from z = 5 to 0, normalized to the total gas thermal energy at z = 0, as a function of shock speed. Here we assume CRs are freshly injected at shocks without a pre-existing population. The shocks with Vs > 103 km s−1 are most responsible for the shock dissipation into heat and CRs. The ﬁgure shows that the shock dissipation can count most of the gas thermal energy in the IGM (Kang et al. 2005). The ratio of the total CR energy, YCR (> Vs,min ), to the total gas thermal energy, Yth (> Vs,min ), dissipated at cosmological shocks throughout the history of the universe is about 0.4 (where Vs,min is the minimum shock speed), giving a rough estimate for the energy density of CR protons relative to that of thermal gas in the IGM as εCRp ∼ 0.4εtherm. Because of uncertainties in the DSA model such as the ﬁeld obliquity and the injection eﬃciency, however, it is not meant to be an accurate estimate of the CR energy in the IGM. Yet the results imply that the IGM could contain a dynamically signiﬁcant CR population.

Fig. 4 Volume fraction with given temperature and vorticity magnitude (top left), with given gas density and vorticity magnitude (top right), with given temperature and magnetic ﬁeld strength (bottom left), and with given gas density and magnetic ﬁeld strength (bottom right) at present (z = 0). Here, tage is the present age of the universe.

4 Turbulence Induced by Cosmological Shocks Vorticity can be generated in the IGM either directly at curved cosmological shocks or by the baroclinity of ﬂow. The baroclinity is resulted mostly from the entropy variation induced at cosmological shocks. Therefore, the baroclinic vorticity generation also can be attributed to the presence of cosmological shocks. A quantitative estimation of the vorticity in the IGM was made using the data of the simulation described in §1 (Ryu et al. 2008). The bottom panels of Figure 1 show the distribution of the vorticity around a cluster complex. The distribution closely matches that of shocks, as expected.

The top panels of Figure 4 show the magnitude of the vorticity in the simulated volume as a function of gas temperature and density. Here the vorticity magnitude is given in units of the reciprocal of the age of the universe, 1/tage . There is a clear trend that the vorticity is larger in hotter and denser regions. At the present epoch, the rms vorticity is ωrms tage ∼ 10 to 30 in the regions associated with clusters/groups of galaxies (T > 107 K) and ﬁlaments (105 < T < 107 K), whereas it is on the order of unity in sheetlike structures with 104 < T < 105 K and even smaller in voids with T < 104 K. With teddy = 1/ω interpreted as the local eddy turnover time, ω × tage represents the number of eddy turnovers of vorticity in the age of the universe. It takes a few turnovers for vorticity to decay into smaller eddies and develop into turbulence. So with ωrms tage ∼ 10 − 30, the ﬂows in clusters/groups and ﬁlaments is likely to be in the state of turbulence. On the other hand, with ωrms tage 1 the ﬂow in sheetlike structures and voids is expected to be mostly non-turbulent. In order to estimate the energy associated with the turbulence in the IGM, the curl component of ﬂow motions, vcurl , which satisﬁes the relation × vcurl ≡ × v, is extracted from the velocity ﬁeld. As vorticity cascades and develops into turbulence, the energy 2 (1/2)ρvcurl is transferred to turbulent motions, so it

Shock Waves in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

5

can be regarded as the turbulence energy, εturb . As shown in Ryu et al. (2008), εturb < εtherm in clusters/groups. In particular, the mass-averaged value is εturb /εtherm mass = 0.1 − 0.3 in the intracluster medium (ICM), which is in good agreement with the observationally inferred values in cluster core regions (Schuecker et al. 2004). In ﬁlaments and sheets, this ratio is estimated to be 0.5 εturb /εtherm 2 and it increases with decreasing temperature.

5 Intergalactic Magnetic Field How have the intergalactic magnetic ﬁelds (IGMFs) arisen? The general consensus is that there was no viable mechanism to produce strong, coherent magnetic ﬁelds in the IGM prior to the formation of large-scale structure and galaxies (Kulsrud and Zweibel 2008). However, it is reasonable to assume that weak seed ﬁelds were created in the early universe. A number of mechanisms, including the Biermann battery mechanism (Kulsrud et al. 1997) and Weibel instability (Medvedev et al. 2006) working at early cosmological shocks, have been suggested (Kulsrud and Zweibel 2008). The turbulence described in §4 then can amplify the seed ﬁelds in the IGM through the stretching of ﬁeld lines, a process known as the turbulence dynamo. In this scenario the evolution of the IGMFs should go through three stages: (i) the initial exponential growth stage, when the back-reaction of magnetic ﬁelds is negligible; (ii) the linear growth stage, when the back-reaction starts to operate; and (iii) the ﬁnal saturation stage (Cho and Vishniac 2000; Cho et al. 2008). In order to estimate the strength of the IGMFs resulted from the dynamo action of turbulence in the IGM, we model the growth and saturation of magnetic energy as: for t < 4, 0.04 × exp [(t − 4)/0.36] εB = (0.36/41) × (t − 4) + 0.04 for 4 < t < 45, εturb 0.4 for t > 45, based on a simulation of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (Ryu et al. 2008; Cho et al. 2008). Here t = t/teddy is the number of eddy turnovers. This provides a functional ﬁt for the fraction of the turbulence energy, εturb , transfered to the magnetic energy, εB , as a result of the turbulence dynamo. The above formula is convoluted to the data of the simulation described in §1, setting t ≡ ω ×tage, and the strength of the IGMFs is calculated as B = (8πεB )1/2 . The resulting magnetic ﬁeld strength is presented in the bottom panels of Figure 4. On average the IGMFs

are stronger in hotter and denser regions. The strength of the IGMFs is B 1µG inside clusters/groups (the mass-averaged value for T > 107 K), ∼ 0.1µG around clusters/groups (the volume-averaged value for T > 107 K), and ∼ 10 nG in ﬁlaments (with 105 < T < 107 K) at present. The IGMFs should be much weaker in sheetlike structures and voids. But as noted above, turbulence has not developed fully in such low density regions, so our model is not adequate to predict the ﬁeld strength there. We note that in addition to the turbulence dynamo, other processes such as galactic winds driven by supernova explosions and jets from active galactic nuclei can further strengthen the magnetic ﬁelds to the IGM (for references, see Ryu et al. 2008)

6 Conclusion Shocks are inevitable consequences of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe. They heat gas, accelerate cosmic-ray particles, produce vorticity and turbulence, and generate and amplify magnetic ﬁelds in the IGM. By applying detailed models of the DSA and the turbulence dynamo to the data of a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a concordance ΛCDM universe, we have made the following quantitative estimates: εCRp /εtherm ∼ 0.4 in the IGM, εturb /εtherm mass = 0.1 − 0.3 in the ICM, εturb /εtherm ∼ 0.5 − 2 in ﬁlaments and sheets, B 1µG inside clusters/groups, B ∼ 0.1µG around clusters/groups, and B ∼ 10 nG in ﬁlaments at present. Our results suggest that the non-thermal components can be energetically signiﬁcant in the intergalactic plasma of large-scale structure, as in the interstellar plasma inside Our Galaxy. Acknowledgements The work of DR was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD) (KRF-2007-341C00020). The work of HK was supported for two years by Pusan National University Research Grant.

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References

Bell, A. R.: The acceleration of cosmic rays in shock fronts. I. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 182, 147-156 (1978) Bell, A. R.: Turbulent ampliﬁcation of magnetic ﬁeld and diﬀusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 353, 550-558 (2004) Binney, J.: Galaxy formation without primordial turbulence: mechanisms for generating cosmic vorticity. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 168, 73-92 (1974) Blandford, R. D., Ostriker, J. P.: Particle acceleration by astrophysical shocks. Astrophys. J. 221, L29-L32 (1978) Cho, J., Vishniac, E. T.: The generation of magnetic ﬁelds through driven turbulence. Astrophys. J. 538, 217-225 (2000) Cho, J., Vishniac, E. T., Beresnyak, A., Lazarian, A., Ryu, D.: Growth of magnetic ﬁelds induced by turbulent motions. Astrophys. J. submitted (2008) Kang, H., Jones, T. W.: Eﬃciency of nonlinear particle acceleration at cosmic structure shocks. Astrophys. J. 620, 44-58 (2005) Kang, H., Jones, T. W.: Self-similar evolution of cosmic-raymodiﬁed quasi-parallel plane shocks. Astropart. Phys. 28, 232-246 (2007) Kang, H., Ryu, D., Cen, R., Ostriker, J. P.: Propagation of ultra-high-energy protons through the magnetized cosmic web. Astrophys. J. 669, in press (2008) Kang, H., Ryu, D., Cen, R., Song, D.: Shock-heated gas in the large-scale structure of the universe. Astrophys. J. 620, 21-30 (2005) Kulsrud, R. M., Cen, R., Ostriker, J. P., Ryu, D.: The Protogalactic origin for cosmic magnetic ﬁelds. Astrophys. J. 480, 481-491 (1997) Kulsrud, R. M., Zweibel, E. G.; On the origin of cosmic magnetic ﬁelds. Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 046901, 1-33 (2008) Malkov M. A., Drury, L. O’ C.: Nonlinear theory of diﬀusive acceleration of particles by shock waves. Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 429-481 (2001) Medvedev, M. V., Silva, L. O., Kamionkowski, M.: Cluster magnetic ﬁelds from large-scale structure and galaxy cluster shocks. Astrophys. J. 642, L1-L4 (2006) Pfrommer, C., Springel, V., Enßlin, T. A., Jubelgas, M.: Detecting shock waves in cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 367, 113-131 (2006) Quest, K. B.: Theory and simulation of collisionless parallel shocks. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9649-9680 (1988) Ryu, D., Kang, H., Cho, J., Das, S.: Turbulence and magnetic ﬁelds in the large-scale structure of the universe. Science 320, 909-912 (2008) Ryu, D., Kang, H., Hallman, E., Jones, T. W.: Cosmological shock waves and their role in the large-scale structure of the universe. Astrophys. J. 593, 599-610 (2003) Ryu, D., Ostriker, J. P., Kang, H., Cen, R.: A cosmological hydrodynamic code based on the total variation diminishing scheme. Astrophys. J. 414, 1-19 (1993) Schuecker, P., Finoguenov, A., Miniati, F., B¨hringer, H., o Briel, U. G.: Probing turbulence in the Coma galaxy cluster. Astron. Astrophys. 426, 387-397 (2004)

A This manuscript was prepared with the AAS L TEX macros v5.2.

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