European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) Aircraft Maintenance Licence Programme

Module 11A Licence Category B1
Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems
11.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21)

Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter

Module 11.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21)

4.1
Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010

• The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using detailed procedures. No part of this publication may be reproduced. LEVEL 2 • A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. LEVEL 3 A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. electronic. • The applicant should be able to interpret results from various sources and measurements and apply corrective action where appropriate. • • 4.2 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11. • The applicant should understand and be able to use mathematical formulae related to the subject. • The applicant should be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using manufacturer's instructions. using common words and examples. All worldwide rights reserved. photocopy. mechanical recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of Your Company Ltd. • The applicant should be able to give a simple description of the whole subject. Objectives: The applicant should know the theory of the subject and interrelationships with other subjects. B2 and C Aircraft Maintenance Licence Basic knowledge for categories A. • The applicant should be able to read and understand sketches. Objectives: The applicant should be familiar with the basic elements of the subject.Copyright Notice © Copyright. • The applicant should be able to use mathematical formulae in conjunction with physical laws describing the subject.e. • The applicant should be able to give a detailed description of the subject using theoretical fundamentals and specific examples. as appropriate. The knowledge level indicators are defined as follows: LEVEL 1 • A familiarisation with the principal elements of the subject. B1.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter . simple drawings and schematics describing the subject. 2 or 3) against each applicable subject. Category C applicants must meet either the category B1 or the category B2 basic knowledge levels. • The applicant should be able to use typical terms. B1 and B2 are indicated by the allocation of knowledge levels indicators (1. typical examples. A capacity to combine and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a logical and comprehensive manner. Knowledge Levels — Category A. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any other means whatsoever: i. • An ability to apply that knowledge. understand and prepare sketches. Objectives: The applicant should be able to understand the theoretical fundamentals of the subject. • The applicant should be able to give a general description of the subject using. • The applicant should be able to read. drawings and schematics describing the subject.

.....................................................................................2 LEVEL 1.............................................................................................6 Conditioned Air Ground Sources (Low Pressure Supply)..............................................................................................................................................4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21)........................................................................................................4 Enabling Objectives...................................................................................................................................................................................3 Module 11................................4 Module 11....................................................................................................3 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 .........................................................................................11 Engine and APU Bleed Systems............................................................................................................................................................6 11........................................................................4..6 Air Supply Sources......................................................................................................................................4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4.....................................................................................................................................................15 Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11.................................................................................................................................................................................9 Ram Air Systems............................................................................................................2 LEVEL 3.......2 Table of Contents..............................................................................................2 LEVEL 2........2 Knowledge Levels — Category A...........................................................................12 Ground Service Connection...............................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Copyright Notice........................................................................1 Air Supply...............................................................................................................................................................14 Flow Control System.............................................10 Compressor or Blower Systems................ B1............................................6 EASA Regulations...................................... B2 and C Aircraft Maintenance Licence....................................................................

1 11.4. APU and ground cart Air Conditioning Air conditioning systems Air cycle and vapour cycle machines Distribution systems Flow.4 3 4.2 Level 2 3 11.4.4. temperature and humidity control system Pressurisation Pressurisation systems Control and indication including control and safety valves Cabin pressure controllers Safety and warning devices Protection and warning devices EASA 66 Reference 11.4 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11.4.Module 11.4 Enabling Objectives Objective Air Supply Sources of air-supply including bleed.3 3 11.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter .

4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4.5 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 .Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11.

4 lb/min) and this must be maintained even in the event of the failure of one system.6 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11. The possible sources are: • • • • • Ram air Compressors or blowers The engines The APU The ground pneumatic sources ATA Chapter 36 (Pneumatic Systems) deals with bleed air systems and is dealt with further in Section 16 of these EASA Part-66 Study Notes.1 Air Supply EASA Regulations Certification Specification (CS) 25.25 parts per million by volume above FL 320. to enable crew members to perform their duties without undue discomfort or fatigue. The air supply is often called ‘charge air’.1 parts per million by volume (time-weighted average) during any 3-hour interval above FL270.28 m3/min (10 cubic feet per minute) per crew member.000 parts per million of carbon monoxide. In the event of a single system failure the ventilation to the cabin should not be less than 0. 4.18 kg/min (0.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 11.Module 11. and 0. Air Supply Sources The air conditioning systems can be supplied with bleed air by different sources. The aeroplane cabin ozone concentration during flight must not exceed 0. The air must contain no more than 20.5% by volume of carbon dioxide during flight.4. and no more than 0.831 specifies that each passenger and crew compartment must be supplied with fresh air not less than 0.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter .

Figure 4.7 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 .4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4.1: Air Conditioning System and Aircraft Cabin Air Supply Sources Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11.

Figure 4.2: Pneumatic System (ATA 36) to Air Conditioning System (ATA 21) 4.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter .8 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11.

Conditioned Air Ground Sources (Low Pressure Supply) If no bleed air is available to operate the air conditioning packs on ground. installed at some airports. external air conditioning sources are more economical and ecological and are preferred. Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4. In general. the aircraft cabin can be supplied via a conditioned air/ground connector from a mobile air conditioning unit or from a fix installed air conditioning ground network. standard bayonet-type connectors with a diameter of 8 inches are normally used. Air conditioning packs and external air conditioning sources should not supply an aeroplane simultaneously to prevent excessive cabin airflow and possible air conditioning duct damages. For conditioned air ground connectors.9 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 .

Ram Air Systems This method is used in some small unpressurised aircraft to supply air to either a combustion heater or an exhaust heat exchanger. Figure 4. The air.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter .10 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11. is discharged back to atmosphere via a spill vent. after circulating through the cabin. Typical locations for a ram air intake are the nose of the aircraft or a dorsal fairing at the base of the vertical stabiliser.3: Typical Ram Air system (with combustion heater) 4.

gear box or bleed air.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4. silencers are incorporated in the main ducting. from the compressor or blower. The compressor or blower produces excessive air at low altitudes and high engine RPM.11 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 . Figure 4. turboprops and piston engined aircraft.Compressor or Blower Systems This method is used in some smaller turbo-jets. A filter unit may be provided to protect the blower rotors from ingested debris and to ensure a clean air supply. The compressors or blowers are driven by the engine via the accessory drive. engine nacelle fairing or wing leading edge. by spilling overboard any unwanted air. More air is spilled overboard at low altitude and high engine speeds than at high altitude and low engine speeds. In order to reduce the level of noise emanating from the blower. Air is drawn in through a ram air intake located in the aircraft nose.5: Blower system (with displacement type blower) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11. Therefore a spill valve and associated control system controls the air mass delivery to the air conditioning system.4: Ram air inlets in the nose of a DC8 Figure 4.

Bleed air source can also be supplied with use of the APU. See Figure 4. provides pneumatic signals to open. close. The pneumatic manifold system extends from the engine at one wing to the crossover duct in the air conditioning bay to the other engine at the opposite wing. The valve. There are two duct pressure transmitters installed in the crossover duct to monitor duct pressure on either side of the isolation valve. bleed air source is ducted primarily from the 5th-stage port where it passes through the 5th-stage non-return-valve before it is ducted together with the 9th-stage (high pressure) duct. 4. water tank pressurization and turbofans through their applicable control valves from pressure taps in the pneumatic duct. butterfly type valve. and ground air source to user systems through the pneumatic manifold system and their appropriate control valves. in conjunction with a remotely mounted bleed air regulator. The air is then ducted through the Pressure Regulator and Shutoff Valve (PRSOV) to regulate the pressure and the precooler heat exchanger to regulate the temperature before it is discharged into the strut duct. but requires considerable cooling before it can be fed to the cabin for passenger use.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter . The pneumatic manifold serves as the central reservoir for the supply of pressurized air for air conditioning. engines. spring loaded closed. The APU bleed air duct is connected to the crossover duct on the left side of the isolation valve and the pneumatic ground service connection is connected to the crossover duct on the right side of the isolation valve. Air for nose cowl thermal anti-ice (TAI) is tapped off downstream of the 5thstage non-return-valve. From the engine.Engine and APU Bleed Systems Air bled from an engine or APU is of the highest pressure of all the systems used. then inside the keel beam through the wheel well to the air conditioning bay where it joins the crossover duct on left side of the isolation valve. A typical pneumatic distribution system (twin engined aircraft) connects air supply sources from the APU. The APU bleed air duct runs under the passenger floor from the APU along the left side of the aft cargo compartment. An electrically actuated isolation valve in the crossover duct separates the left and right side system.6. and regulate pressure for downstream bleed air.12 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11. Bleed air from the 9th-stage ports are ducted through the 9th-stage manifold and high stage valve before it is joined together with the 5th-stage duct. hydraulic system pressurization. The pressure regulator and shutoff valve (PRSOV) is a pneumatically actuated.

6: Engine Bleed Air system (B737) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11.Figure 4.13 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 .4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4.

Before air is supplied.Ground Service Connection A pneumatic ground service connection is provided to allow pressurization of the pneumatic manifold by ground service carts. respectively. the battery switch must be selected ON and the air conditioning pack valves selected OFF. The pressurized air supplied through this connection can also be used for engine start and other user systems. Ground source should have pressure regulating equipment. The connection also includes a non-return-valve to prevent excessive pneumatic system leakage or reverse flow into the ground air source. The connection is accessible through a hinged panel on the underside of the fuselage. AC power must be available for air conditioning use.14 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 Module 11. Figure 4.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter . The maximum pressure and temperature of the air supply provided to the ground service connection must not exceed 60 PSI and 450oF.7: Air Conditioning System Ground Connection 4.

The open pressure will be discharged to ambient by thermostats in case of pack overheat. to prevent excessive cabin airflow). that they regulate a specific volumetric airflow independent of the pneumatic supply pressure and the actual cabin pressure. There are two main types of flow control valves: Flow control valves to regulate a constant airflow and valves to regulate a variable airflow. These valves use a torque motor or stepper motor to adjust the open pressure for the valve. In case of electrical power loss the flow control valves will open with pneumatic pressure. to close the valve. Use and/or disclosure is governed by the statement on page 2 of this chapter Module 11.Flow Control System The flow control system regulates the total cabin air inflow by means of flow control valves. the pack flow will be reduced or shut-off to unload the engines). But common for all is the fact. Airflow measuring devices (venturi or electronic flow sensor) are mass flow-meters. For fuel saving and passenger comfort. The regulated airflow is inversely proportional to the torque motor current. the flow control valve is controlled fully open. the pack flow should be increased to provide a minimum of fresh air for passenger comfort). The type of pneumatic source for the air conditioning packs (during APU bleed air supply. The valves are pneumatically actuated and spring loaded closed without pressure.4 Air Conditioning and Pressurisation (ATA 21) 4. The take-off or landing mode (during take-off and landing. some flow control valves can regulate the flow according to a manually selected or computed flow demand. Therefore it needs a reference signal for the air density (cabin pressure) to regulate a specific volumetric airflow. The zone temperature cooling demand (if a high cooling demand exists. The computed flow demand may depend on: • • • • • • The number of packs actually in use (if not all packs are in use the remaining packs should provide more airflow). All valves have also an electrical shutoff function and a mechanical close locking device with a visual position indicator.15 Your Company Ltd © Copyright 2010 . The number of cabin recirculating fans actually in use (if cabin fans are in use. the pack flow should be increased to provide a faster cabin cool down). The pack flow regulation in this case is performed by varying the supply pressure from the APU). the pack flow should be reduced. The selected number of passengers or manual flow selection (with a higher number of passengers onboard. There are different types of flow control valves.