2006 Poultry Science Association, Inc.

The Effect of Levels of α-Galactosidase Enzyme on Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Based on Corn and Soybean Meal1
P. W. Waldroup,2 C. A. Keen, F. Yan, and K. Zhang Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

Primary Audience: Nutritionists, Production Managers, Researchers SUMMARY
A study was conducted with male chicks of a commercial broiler strain to evaluate the effects of different dosage levels of a commercial α-galactosidase enzyme. Diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal to meet the nutrient standards of top poultry companies. The positive control diet was formulated with no adjustment in the ME content of the soybean meal associated with enzyme supplementation. The negative control diet was formulated assuming a 10% improvement in the ME of the soybean meal. The negative control diet was supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, or 6.0 g of enzyme per kilogram of soybean meal to provide for 0, 45, 90, 135, or 180 galactosidase units (GALU)/kg of soybean meal. Each of the test diets was fed in mash form to 8 replicate pens of 30 birds. Body weight, feed efficiency, mortality, and calorie conversion were determined at 14, 35, and 42 d of age. Body weight, feed efficiency, and mortality were not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Birds fed the negative control with no enzyme supplement were numerically reduced in body weight or feed efficiency as compared with the control diet; however, addition of the enzyme was without benefit. When unadjusted energy values were analyzed, birds fed the negative control diet were more efficient in calorie conversion, but this finding was unrelated to enzyme addition, suggesting that diet composition was responsible for the differences in calorie utilization. When adjusted energy values were compared, birds fed the negative control tended to have higher (less efficient) calorie conversion than those fed the positive control with little or no indication of improvement from the addition of the α-galactosidase enzyme. Results of this study show no benefit from the addition of the enzyme used in this trial. Key words: broiler, soybean meal, α-galactosidase, oligosaccharide 2006 J. Appl. Poult. Res. 15:48–57

DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM
Soybean meal (SBM) is widely recognized as a high-quality protein source and is the leading protein supplement for poultry diets in the United States, Brazil, and many other major poultry-producing countries. Approximately
1

one-third of SBM is carbohydrate, and the digestibility of this fraction by poultry is considered very poor. Honig and Rackis [1] noted that the carbohydrate fraction is made up almost equally of various oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. The polysaccharides make up approximately 15 to 18% of SBM. The starch

Published with approval of the Director, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Fayetteville AR 72701. Mention of a trade name, proprietary product, or specific equipment does not constitute a guarantee or warranty by the University of Arkansas and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may be suitable. 2 Corresponding author: waldroup@uark.edu

33. One of the most obvious is the loss of potential energy.81 and 1. Numerous studies indicate that the protein fraction of SBM is highly digested. In contrast to these results.1% raffinose. The poor digestibility of the oligosaccharide fraction leads to covert losses to the poultry industry. 5.: BROILER PERFORMANCE content is very low (<0. 36]. 25. and cellulosic material. Numerous studies have evaluated different approaches to overcoming the adverse effects of oligosaccharides in SBM. 18. Few studies have directly determined the digestibility of the carbohydrate fraction of SBM. 15. and galactinol levels had average TMEn values that were 9. In addition to loss of potential energy to the chick. breeding varieties with lower oligosaccharide content. Irish et al. Early studies to determine the metabolizable energy of common poultry feedstuffs indicate that SBM and dehulled SBM contain about 5 to 6% more gross energy than corn but 54 and 42% less metabolizable energy. The α-galactosides of sucrose (raffinose. 8]. most of the polysaccharides are acidic polysaccharides.5% in the TMEn of SBM [24. In these studies the αgalactosidase enzyme was added at the rate suggested by the supplier and was estimated to provide 45 α-galactosidase units (GALU) [38]/ kg of SBM. the presence of these sugars in the gastrointestinal tract may cause additional problems related to fluid retention and increased flow rate that could adversely affect the overall nutrient use [23].9% sucrose. 10. which are essentially nondigestible.5%). Knap et al. However.WALDROUP ET AL. Pierson et al. In a previous report from our laboratory [37] we were unable to detect an improvement in the energy value of SBM as a result of addition of α-galactosidase enzyme. [34] observed a dose response relationship to their specific product to elicit an 8% improvement in the metabolizable energy of SBM. 3.8% higher than their respective genetic controls. Removal of the α-galactosides using ethanol extraction resulted in an improvement in digestion of nonstarch polysaccharide and an increase of up to 20. [28] used ethanol extraction and incubation of SBM with α-galactosidase to decrease the concentrations of α-galactosides in SBM from 6. including extraction by various means. 34. [28] concluded that removal of up to approximately 90% of the α-galactosides of sucrose has no beneficial effect on the nutritional value of SBM for chickens. after adjusting for the uric acid and other N-containing metabolic end products the N-free extract of the SBM was calculated to be about 61% digested [20]. alone or in the presence of Avizyme 1502. 1. 11. 35. stachyose. respectively.43%. but the others are considered poorly digestible. stachyose.7 to 4. This finding indicates that some component of the 2 SBM are poorly digested and metabolized. However. [29] evaluated several genetic lines of soybeans selected for low levels of raffinose and stachyose compared with those found in conventional soybeans. and application of exogenous enzymes with considerable controversy regarding the nutritional significance 49 of the oligosaccharides. 32. Addition of exogenous α-galactosidase enzymes to soybean-based diets for chicks has led to variable results [31. the removal of oligosaccharides using endogenous soybean αgalactosidase failed to produce any beneficial effects on the apparent nutritional value of soy flakes. 19]. 6. as measured by growth rate and feed conversion and by AMEn studies with young broilers and TMEn studies with adult roosters [30]. 16. Sucrose is highly digestible by poultry. 27]. there were no improvements in TMEn when those meals were precision fed to adult cockerels. 26. the objective of the present study was to evaluate usage levels . 17. Therefore.6)galactosidase [22]. Parsons et al. The oligosaccharide fraction makes up approximately 15% of the meal and contains 7. 4. Irish et al.0 to 1. 4. it has been pointed out that interpretation of these data is confounded by the simultaneous extraction of other meal components [28]. in the range of 87 to 99% [13. 14. Carbohydrates in SBM are reported to be 40% available in chicks [21]. 7.8% stachyose. and traces of verbascose [2. respectively [9. however.50 to 0. The 2 soybean lines with the lowest total raffinose. thus. and verbascose) cannot be broken down in the small intestine of monogastric animals due to the absence of endogenous α-(1. 12]. arabinogalactan.4 to 9. [18] reported that male turkeys digested only 4% of the carbohydrate in dehulled SBM.

kcal/kg (adjusted)7 ME. Corn and SBM of known moisture and crude protein content were used as intact sources of crude protein with nutrient values adjusted accordingly. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental Diets Test diets were formulated for 1 to 14. thiamin.64 1. 1.84 0. 39 mg.05 346.066 mg.44 0.22 0.00 2.22 0.00 1.32 0.00 24. Se. pyridoxine. In formulating the test diets.38 42.90 5. 7 Energy value from assumed increase in ME from enzyme treatment of SBM.21 0. of α-galactosidase enzyme in corn-SBM-based broiler diets.30 0. and 35 to 42 d of age. % Thr. I from Ca(IO3)2 H2O).21 0. NJ. 4 Alpharma.85 0.06 5.36 0.00 4.74 0.00 0.00 0.195.00 2.81 0.00 1.75 0. IN.25 653. 3 Elanco Animal Health division of Eli Lilly & Co.70 20..09 5.30 0.30 2.39 12.140. 2 Provides per kilogram of diet: Mn (from MnSO4 H2O).000.00 4.57 3. 2.00 4.51 1.50 JAPR: Research Report Table 1.714 IU.67 260. based on an assumed increase of 10% in energy content of the SBM.20 0.28 42. cholecalciferol.000.040 mg.16 262.00 3. New York.60 1. % 1 Grower Yes 582.195. 2.00 2.00 2.25 No Finisher Yes 665. 100 mg.50 0.63 1.31 2.98 0.63 344. amino acids (Lys.5 mg..54 mg.085. Fe (from FeSO4 7H2O).25 0.48 312.140.085.40 0.03 0.81 0.. % TSAA.000.75 0.94 0.00 2.23 10.32 2.085.88 1.000.74 0.25 0. % Met.56 1. % Ca.02 0.57 1.14 12.81 18.94 0.204 IU.81 3.57 22. 125 mg. Trp. D-biotin. pantothenic acid.21 0.62 20. No animal protein was used so as to allow for maximum usage of SBM.51 1. 1.82 0. 100 mg.20 10.76 13.51 1.140. NY. 6 Quantity of enzyme supplementation or washed builders sand. 0. niacin. 0.42 5.00 3. Composition (g/kg) and calculated nutrient content of broiler diets with and without a 10% assumed increase in metabolizable energy from soybean meal (SBM) as a result of enzyme supplementation Enzyme added to diet Starter Ingredient Yellow corn Dehulled SBM Poultry oil Dicalcium phosphate Ground limestone Vitamin premix1 Iodized salt Sodium bicarbonate DL-Methionine L-Lysine HCl Trace minerals2 L-Threonine Coban-603 BMD-504 Lincomycin5 Enzyme or sand6 Total ME.36 0. % Nonphytate P.08 15.14 1.00 1.07 17. % Lys.000.82 0.6 mg.84 0. 6.81 3. 8 Energy value based on standard SBM and assuming no improvement from enzyme.53 IU. 0.00 2. Zn (from ZnSO4 7H2O).56 1.75 0. 1 mg. % Trp. 10 mg.45 5. ethoxyquin.32 2.02 30.84 0.195.55 0. Indianapolis.06 22. 14 to 35.55 0. 10 mg.00 1.34 15.57 1.08 1.43 315.76 mg.50 0.70 3.25 Yes 613.36 12.92 0.31 0.44 0.75 0. 5 Pfizer Inc.57 3. Inc.133.00 4.00 0.40 0.11 1. % Na. vitamin B12.75 17.70 1. Cu (from CuSO4 5H2O).00 1.33 0.065.98 0.00 0.00 0.77 0.00 4.64 3.003. kcal/kg (unadjusted)8 CP.59 1.30 0.43 18.00 1.26 0.00 0.00 0.91 13. 0.50 0.00 0. The positive control diets were formulated to meet nutrient standards for crude protein. 50 mg. 16. and TSAA) and minerals of the top 5 broiler producers in a leading agricultural survey [39].87 5. vitamin E.9 mg. SBM was assigned different energy values based on the premise .06 1. Thr. choline.31 2. 7.88 0.49 0.00 3. 1.1 mg.50 0.00 3.92 0.25 No 566. folic acid.99 39.10 12. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric within each age period.00 0.88 0.05 1.31 2.00 0. riboflavin.25 Provided per kilogram of diet: vitamin A.50 0.03 0.00 3.00 0.013 mg.68 1.27 0. Lee.00 3.000.66 28.00 2.02 0. menadione.00 4.77 0. Ft.00 1.25 No 598.

From these data. and for the improved SBM the assigned ME value was 2.72% at 14.639 kcal/kg. 45. 90. This resulted in 6 dietary treatments (positive control and negative control with 5 levels of enzyme).39. Ghazi et al. Inert filler (washed builders sand) was added as needed to adjust for differences in quantity of added enzyme. and 63 of kcal/kg lower than the positive control diet for starter. Although addition of the enzyme improved body weight numerically at all ages. 14. All statements of statistical significance were based on P < 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Based on the unadjusted values.399 kcal/kg. For normal SBM. compared with the positive control group. and Graham et al. Measurements 51 Birds were group weighed by pen at 1.WALDROUP ET AL. 35.32.05. 3. [32].: BROILER PERFORMANCE that the addition of the enzyme would improve the energy value of the SBM by 0 or 10%.0 g enzyme/kg of SBM used in the diet to provide approximately 0. respectively. and 1. the assigned ME value in this study was 2.95% reduction in ME for the 3 periods compared with the positive control. They were randomly assigned to litter-floor pens in a house of commercial design. The diet with normal ME values for SBM (positive control) was formulated at an energy level consistent with the addition of approximately 4% poultry oil. or 180 GALU/kg of SBM by assigning constant ingredient ratios in a commercial feed formulation program [42]. Portions of the negative control diet were supplemented with the α-galactosidase enzyme product [41] at the rate of 0. [33]. To avoid the possibility that the enzyme might be heat labile. 4. 14. Eight pens of 30 birds were assigned to each of the test diets and fed the test diets from 1 to 42 d of age with feed changes at 14 and 35 d. calorie consumption was estimated and calorie conversion ratios were calculated (kcal of ME/kg of gain). Likewise. 35. 2. A similar approach was used by Mendonca and Jensen [40] for evaluating the metabolizable energy content of poultry by-product meal in broiler diets. The calorie conversion was calculated 2 ways: one using the ME value of the diet assuming the energy of the SBM was improved by 10% from enzyme supplementation and one using the ME value of the diet assuming that the energy of the SBM was not improved by enzyme supplementation. grower. based on the reports of Knap et al. New softwood shavings over concrete floors served as litter. respectively (Table 1). and feed consumption was measured. Birds and Housing Male chicks of a commercial broiler strain [43] were obtained from a local hatchery where they had been vaccinated in ovo for Marek’s disease and had received vaccinations for Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis posthatch via a coarse spray. the BW of birds fed the negative control diet remained numerically lower . feed efficiency was determined from 1 to 14. From the calculated ME content of the diets.0. A large batch of the negative control diet was prepared and divided into aliquots for blending with the enzyme. and 42 d were determined. The supplier of the enzyme recommends a usage level of 1. diets were fed in mash form. [34]. 135.5. and 42 d. Significant differences among means were separated by repeated t-tests using the least square means option of SAS. 35. Body weight at any age was not significantly affected by dietary treatment (Table 2). 1 to 35. 1. and 42 d of age. or 6. mean body weights at 1. Any bird that died or was culled to remove possible suffering was weighed to adjust feed efficiency (g of gain/g of feed consumed). The body weight of birds fed the negative control diet with no supplementation with α-galactosidase was reduced by 0.92. and 1. and finisher periods. This was an average of 2. Composition of the diets is shown in Table 1. and 1 to 42 d. diets formulated based on the assumption that the ME of SBM would be improved 10% by the addition of the α-galactosidase enzyme were approximately 82. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed as a one-way ANOVA using the GLM option of SAS [45]. 2. Care and management of the birds followed recommended guidelines [44]. 75.5 g enzyme/kg of SBM.5.67.

841 2.5.0 4.004 1.651 0.09 0.006 2.595 0.12 35 d 2.42 Treatment Positive control +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in Probability > F SEM CV 1 One galactosidase unit (GALU) is the amount of enzyme that hydrolyzes 1 mmol of p-nitropheny-α-D-galactopyranoside/ min under standard conditions (pH 5.005 3.167 2.639 0.0 4.770 0.5 3. than the positive control with the exception of 42 d BW of birds fed the negative control diet with 45 GALU/kg of the α-galactosidase enzyme.606 0. respectively.99 0. the calories needed to produce a unit of gain.820 2.637 0.177 2.640 0.84.5 6. 15 min.021 2.601 0. compared with the positive control group.028 2. . 37°C.52 JAPR: Research Report Table 2. Addition of the enzyme had no consistent effect on feed efficiency at any age period.157 2. Effects of 10% assumed increase in metabolizable energy from soybean meal (SBM) as the result of supplementation with α-galactosidase enzyme on body weight of male broilers (means of 8 pens of 30 birds/pen) Enzyme addition (g/kg of SBM) soy soy soy soy soy ME2 ME ME ME ME 0 0 1.435 0. using the unadjusted energy values presented in Table 1.811 2. Effects of 10% assumed increase in metabolizable energy from soybean meal (SBM) as the result of supplementation with α-galactosidase enzyme on feed efficiency by male broilers (means of 8 pens of 30 birds per pen) Enzyme addition (g/kg of SBM) soy soy soy soy soy ME2 ME ME ME ME 0 0 1. optical density of 405 nm).0 Body weight (kg) GALU1 (U/kg of SBM) 0 0 45 90 135 180 14 d 0. 35. Feed efficiency was not significantly affected by dietary treatment (Table 3).16 1–35 d 0. 1. 2 This diet is the negative control.73 0.792 2.147 2. optical density of 405 nm).436 0.5 3.635 0.835 2. Feed efficiency by birds fed the negative control diet with no supplementation with α-galactosidase was reduced by 0. 37°C.435 0. With the unadjusted energy values.774 0.82% at 14. 2 This diet is the negative control. even at levels that were 4 times in excess of the recommended level of 45 GALU/kg.432 0.85 0. The first assumption was that there was no increase in the ME of the SBM as a result of supplementation with the α-galactosidase enzyme.18 0.75 42 d 2.760 0.79 Treatment Positive control +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in Probability > F SEM CV 1 One galactosidase unit (GALU) is the amount of enzyme that hydrolyzes 1 mmol of p-nitropheny-α-D-galactopyranoside/ min under standard conditions (pH 5. However.766 0.0 Gain:feed ratio GALU1 (U/kg of SBM) 0 0 45 90 135 180 1–14 d 0.62 0. 15 min.601 0. and 1. and 42 d.76 1–42 d 0.768 0. This value was calculated using 2 assumptions.434 0. there was a significant improvement in caloric efficiency at 14 d of age of birds fed the negative control diets as compared with those fed the positive control group (Table 4).5 6.766 0. The poultry industry evaluates diets on the basis of caloric efficiency. the addition of the α-galactosidase enzyme had no apparent beneficial effect on further improvement in ca- Table 3.003 1.435 0.597 0.599 0.818 0.168 0.26.640 0. that is.5.198 2.

However. [35] reported reduced mortality during heat stress in birds fed an enzyme with αgalactosidase activity. the addition of the highest level of αgalactosidase increased N retention by 10.6%.799 0. [32] the au- . using the adjusted ME value from Table 1. In one study.8% and TMEn by 15.174 5. 29].04 32.955ab 0. as measured by growth rate and feed conversion and by AMEn studies with young broilers and TMEn studies with adult roosters [30]. In contrast to these results.776 4. [31] mixed SBM with a protease and α-galactosidase enzyme (no activity of either enzyme was given) in various combinations and precision fed to broilers to determine N retention and TMEn.899b 3. The addition of protease influenced the response to the α-galactosidase.135 5. Trials in which chicks have been fed diets using supplements with α-galactosidase activity in an attempt to improve the use of these oligosaccharides have demonstrated variable results. With these values.5 6. A second comparison of caloric efficiency was made with the assumption that the ME of the SBM was improved by 10% as a result of the addition of the α-galactosidase enzyme. 37°C. Mortality was not significantly affected by the dietary treatments (Table 6). no heat stress was encountered in the present trial without indication of improvement in chick livability.921b 3.0 ME:gain (kcal/kg) GALU1 (U/kg of SBM) 0 0 45 90 135 180 1–14 d 4. 15 min.923b 3.b 1 Means within columns with common superscripts do not differ significantly (P < 0. An evaluation of the composition of the diets in Table 1 indicated that the primary differences observed between positive and negative control diets was an increase in corn with a slight reduction of SBM coupled with a considerable reduction in the quantity of poultry oil in the negative control diets.122 0. was responsible for the difference in caloric use.020a 3.810 4. At 35 and 42 d of age.05). loric efficiency. Birds fed the negative control diet tended to have higher (less efficient) caloric efficiency than those fed the positive control diet. In the absence of protease.52 1. Therefore.92 30.120 5. Kidd et al.: BROILER PERFORMANCE 53 Table 4. indicating that chicks do not use these fractions well.5 3.WALDROUP ET AL.811 4. it is possible that the energy values assigned to these various ingredients [46] might not be indicative of their true values.777 4.68 2.196 5.155 5. and there was little or no indication of improvement with addition of the α-galactosidase enzyme. no significant differences in caloric efficiency were observed among treatments (Table 5).5. These results suggest that the composition of the diets. Ghazi et al. rather than an effect of the enzyme. In further studies by Ghazi et al.77 1–42 d 5.882b 3.26 27.0 4.41 Treatment Positive control +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in Probability > F SEM CV a. One galactosidase unit (GALU) is the amount of enzyme that hydrolyzes 1 mmol of p-nitropheny-ga-D-galactopyranoside/ min under standard conditions (pH 5. 2 This diet is the negative control. optical density of 405 nm).03 1. the removal of oligosaccharides using endogenous soybean α-galactosidase failed to produce any beneficial effects on the apparent nutritional value of soy flakes. the caloric efficiency of the birds fed the negative control diet was numerically less than that of birds fed the positive control diet with little if any indication of improvement by addition of the α-galactosidase enzyme. Energy efficiency by male broilers assuming no increase in metabolizable energy from soybean meal (SBM) as the result of supplementation with α-galactosidase enzyme (means of 8 pens of 30 birds/pen) Enzyme addition (g/kg of SBM) soy soy soy soy soy ME2 ME ME ME ME 0 0 1.20 1–35 d 4.785 4. Studies in which TME determinations were made of soybeans varying in oligosaccharide content due to ethanol extraction or from genetic selection generally show improved digestibility of energy and protein [24.

The enzyme treatment degraded raffinose and stachyose in SBM by 69 and 54%. In a subsequent feeding trial with broilers.54 JAPR: Research Report Table 5. [34] reported an 8% increase in the TMEn of SBM by supplementation with α-galactosidase enzyme. No diet composition was given so it was impossible to estimate potential improvement in energy use. was significantly improved at 21 d and numerically improved at 42 d.296 5.73% at 42 d.205 109. This product was added “over the top” postpelleting to nutritionally complete corn SBM diets in a study in which birds were grown to 49 d in hot Table 6.41 1–35 d 0.006 4.0 4.0 4.70 33.83 1.617 179. optical density of 405 nm). [34] noted that body weight. .5 3.0 Mortality (%) GALU1 (U/kg of SBM) 0 0 45 90 135 180 1–14 d 0.83% at 21 d and 1.50 2.988 4. xylanase. Kidd et al.12 1.18 28. Feed conversion was improved by 2.10 30. respectively.242 0.00 1.030 3.931 4.58 3. 37°C.020 4.67 2.50 2. and cellulase activity. or gain:feed ratio when the meals were incorporated into diets in the same amounts.58 4. Energy efficiency by male broilers assuming a 10% increase in metabolizable energy from soybean meal (SBM) as the result of supplementation with α-galactosidase enzyme (means of 8 pens of 30 birds/pen) Enzyme addition (g/kg of SBM) soy soy soy soy soy ME2 ME ME ME ME 0 0 1.9%.02 Treatment Positive control +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in Probability > F SEM CV 1 One galactosidase unit (GALU) is the amount of enzyme that hydrolyzes 1 mmol of p-nitropheny-α-D-galactopyranoside/ min under standard conditions (pH 5.064 0. daily feed intake. Effects of 10% assumed increase in metabolizable energy from soybean meal (SBM) as the result of supplementation with α-galactosidase enzyme on mortality by male broilers (means of 8 pens of 30 birds/pen) Enzyme addition (g/kg of SBM) soy soy soy soy soy ME2 ME ME ME ME 0 0 1.5.255 5. 37°C.08 4.25 1.14 0. corrected for differences in feed intake.895 4.277 5.5.41 2.029 4.0 ME:gain (kcal/kg) GALU1 (U/kg of SBM) 0 0 45 90 135 180 1–14 d 4. however there were no significant differences in body weight.196 5.67 2.5 3.75 0. Knap et al.50 3.42 0.35 0. 15 min.42 Treatment Positive control +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in +10% increase in Probability > F SEM CV 1 One galactosidase unit (GALU) is the amount of enzyme which hydrolyzes 1 mmol of p-nitropheny-α-D-galactopyranoside/ min under standard conditions (pH 5. and increased the TMEn of the meal by 11.983 133.77 1–42 d 5. [33] treated SBM with α-galactosidase and incorporated it into diets for broilers.896 4.25 2. β-glucanase. 2 This diet is the negative control.240 5. When fed to broilers in 3 experiments.27 1.810 4.61 1. thors concluded that interactions between αgalactosidase and other enzymes need careful consideration. [35] used an enzyme that consisted primarily of α-galactosidase but which also contained α-amylase. optical density of 405 nm).52 1–42 d 1.25 1. 2 This diet is the negative control.20 1–35 d 4. raffinose and stachyose were totally absent in the feces of chicks fed the treated SBM.08 0. 15 min. Knap et al.919 0. protease. Graham et al.905 4.42 0.5 6.5 6.75 0.

O. In a second report. Performance of chicks fed the diets formulated on the basis of improved ME in the SBM was not significantly different from that of chicks fed the diets formulated with original ME values but was not improved by enzyme supplementation. and feed efficiency responses were improved in a linear manner as diet ME increased. J. 57].. . Lee. Other than the study by Knap et al. 52. 1972. Food Chem. 4. or breast yield. For a number of years it was assumed that young chicks tended to eat to meet their energy needs. [36] evaluated an enzyme that consisted primarily of α-galactosidase activity but which also contained activities of α-amylase. 56.. assuming that the diet was adequate in essential nutrients [47]. In recent work from our laboratory [58] the productive response of the broiler to diets with increasing nutrient density was characterized. protein. more recent research has consistently shown that if essential dietary nutrients are maintained in relation to dietary energy. This finding suggests that if the ME of SBM is improved by addition of enzymes it should be reflected in improved performance. Results from various trials are not consistent in demonstrating such an improvement. Delente. 51. β-glucanase. and cellulase. D. Rackis. 3. Food Sci. J. and W. 2. 37:372–374. Diets were formulated in which the ME of SBM was increased by 10% in anticipation of improvements from the addition of the enzyme. In a second study in which birds were maintained in battery brooders and fed the test diets to 18 d. Many of the products tested also contained side activities of other enzymes that may have influenced the response to the α-galactosidase. The enzyme was added to diets of broilers reared in thermoneutral and warm weather conditions. and C. and stachyose in legume seeds. I. Landenburg. It is important to determine how precisely the chick can adjust to differences in ME content of the diet. 64:613–616. Kidd et al. REFERENCES AND NOTES 1. 53.WALDROUP ET AL. Determination of the total pepsin-pancreatin indigestible content (dietary fiber) of soybean products. J. Walker. Panczner. Thananunkul. 49. Quantitative determination of the oligosaccharides in defatted soybean meal by gasliquid chromatography. feed conversion. 40:1087–1088. no significant differences in BW. Chichester. A simplified method for the quantitative determination of sucrose. M. protease. carcass yield. raffinose. and K. 1979. J. an increased growth rate and improved feed efficiency are observed with increasing levels of dietary energy [48. T. J. Birds fed the enzymesupplemented diets had significantly improved feed conversion and lower mortality than the birds fed the unsupplemented control diets with no significant difference in live weight. xylanase. J. F. or mortality were noted. These data suggest that changes in dietary ingredient composition rather than beneficial activity of the enzyme itself was responsible for the performance differences noted. C. [34] few of these studies specifically note the activity of the enzyme used. feed intake. no differences in calorie conversion were noted. CONCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS 1.: BROILER PERFORMANCE summer temperatures. oddly enough. Agric. Agron. Collins.. and J. wheat bran. However. The enzyme treatment significantly improved feed conversion in warm and thermoneutral conditions. This improvement in growth rate is attributed to the fact that the modern broiler has been primarily selected to consume feed at almost full capacity regardless of the dietary energy level [55. 54]. In a previous report from our laboratory [37] the addition of Avizyme 1502 to diets supplemented with α-galactosidase had no apparent beneficial effect. 2. 50. and it was noted that addition of up to 6% supplemental poultry oil. J. H.. 1972. 1975. Relationship between the content of oil. Food Sci. Hymowitz. An α-galactosidase enzyme was added to corn-SBM diets at levels up to 8 times the manufacturer’s recommendations. It would appear that a response to α-galactosidase enzyme 55 might require the concomitant addition of other enzymes to be beneficial. M. Honig. body weight. however. 27:1262–1266. 3. 4. Tanaka. and sugar in soybean seed. T. D. and corn bran.

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