A Study on "Performance and Motivation in E-Serve International Ltd.

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A dissertation submitted to the UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Social Work By DIVYA.R

MADRAS SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK (Affiliated to the University of Madras) No.32, Casa Major Road, Egmore, Chennai - 8. March 2004

Certificate of Approval It is hereby certified that this dissertation was designed and executed by Ms. Divya. R in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Master of Social Work, University of Madras. This dissertation is the original work of the said Candidate carried out exclusively for the abovementioned purpose.

Dr. D.Varadharajan, Principal

Ms. J. S. Gunavathy, Research Guide

Place: Chennai Date:

TABLE OF CONTENTS Sl. No Contents Page No. 1. Acknowledgement I 2. List of Tables II 3. List of Diagrams IV 4. Chapter - I: Introduction & Research Methodology 1 5. Chapter - II: Review of Literature 14 6. Chapter - III: Data analysis and interpretation 39 7. Chapter - IV: Summary, Findings & Conclusions, Suggestions 85

Section 1: Summary Section 2: Findings & Conclusions Section 3: Suggestions 8. Bibliography 95 9.

Appendices: Appendix I Appendix II Appendix II

: Questionnaire : Compilation of responses to motivation scale I-"D.Steers and R.Braunstein" : Compilation of responses to Motivation scale II-"R.N.Lussier"

A1-A9 A10-A11 A12-A13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This Project draws inspiration and support of many individuals. I am especially indebted to thank Dr. D. Varadharajan, Principal, Madras School of Social Work for having provided his assistance in completing this Project. It is indeed my profound privilege to express my gratitude to Ms. Radhika, Citiphone Manager-South, E-Serve International Ltd. for having given me an opportunity to undertake this study in the organisation. I extend my sincere thanks to Ms. Archana Shivmani, Phone Services Division Manager, in helping me to complete my research. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Ms. J.S. Gunavathy, Research Guide, Madras School of Social Work for her continuous and valuable guidance in presenting my project. I am also grateful to the respondents who have kindly co-operated in completing the project. Researcher I LIST OF TABLES Table No. Particulars Page No. 3.1

Distribution of Respondents by gender 3.2 Distribution of Respondents by Age. 3.3 Distribution of Respondents by Educational qualification. 3.4 Distribution of Respondents by their years of Experience in E-Serve International Ltd. 3.5 Distribution of Respondents by the reasons for joining the industry. 3.6 Distribution of Respondents by their response to the statement-"My expectations from this industry have been met". 3.7 Distribution of Respondents by the their opinion on the advantages of the industry. 3.8 Distribution of Respondents by the their opinion on the disadvantages of the industry. 3.9 Distribution of Respondents by their intention to make a long career in the industry. 3.10 Distribution of Respondents by the opinion on their level of performance. 3.11 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on the effects of working under pressure. 3.12 Distribution of Respondents by the opinion on their satisfaction level of the performance evaluation system in the organization. 3.13 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on the objectivity of the performance evaluation system. 3.14 Distribution of Respondents by their response to the statement; "Motivation is an integral part of my organization culture" 3.15 Distribution of Respondents by their response to the question: "Are you excited about going to work on Monday?" II

3. "Do you think your seniors are genuinely interested in your professional growth?" 3.17 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on whether they have been given any specific job responsibility in the organization 3.21 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on whether they are involved /told about management's decisions 3.Table No.20 Distribution of Respondents by their response to the statement.16 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on the work environment at E-serve 3.29 .25 Distribution of Respondents by their Source of motivation and Age-group 3.24 Distribution of Respondents by their prime motivator 3.23 Distribution of respondents by their most prominent need 3.19 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on whether their training matches with the requirements of their job 3.27 Distribution of respondents by their educational qualification and the intention to make a long career in the call center industry. "Are you happy with the training given to you?" 3. Particulars Page No.22 Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on which of the factors boosts their motivation level to the maximum 3.18 Distribution of Respondents by their response to the statement. 3.28 Distribution of respondents by their reasons for joining the industry and the intention to make a long career in the call center industry. 3.26 Distribution of Respondents by their Source of motivation and Gender 3.

Distribution of Respondents by Age.Distribution of Respondents by their age and prime motivator. 1. Distribution of Respondents by their prime motivator . Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on which of the factors boosts their motivation level to the maximum 9. Particulars Page No. 4. Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on the effects of working under pressure. 7. Distribution of Respondents by their years of Experience in E-Serve International Ltd. 6. Diagrammatic representation of the motivation process 2. 5. 3. Distribution of respondents by their most prominent need 10. Distribution of Respondents by the reasons for joining the industry. III LIST OF DIAGRAMS Diagram No. Distribution of Respondents by the opinion on their satisfaction level and objectivity of the performance evaluation system in the organization. Distribution of Respondents by their opinion on the work environment at E-serve 8.

In simple words the Call center is the place where one's telephone call is answered. they move on to the next customer that is waiting in line. employees in a Call center (called customer service representatives or customer service agents) may take more than 100 phone calls]. small. with about one minute of "after call wrap-up" to complete any unfinished work related to the call.An Overview A Call center is a generic term that covers everything from highly trained operators responding to telephone calls. Depending on how many phone calls are received. who have realized the importance of improving customer interface and maintaining personal rapport with customers. The number of calls that a customer service agent takes depends on the length of each call and their work schedule. ability of Indians to pick up any accent. The major users of the call center services are the IT enabled services (ITES) sector and the service sector. [On a busy day. In such a dynamic scenario. the number of call center jobs has increased by 220% between 1997 and 2000. etc Call centers . India is being seen as the "hub" for call center business activities. fax and text chat. India has been fast becoming a potential source of operations. The first call center operation in India was that in Delhi. Some companies need thousands of employees to handle the large volume of calls they receive from customers. foreigners. started by G. to outsourcing of back office work. Call centers are attracting a variety of players . In this environment. the serious. The key difference is that in a Call center the employees' primary job is to take calls and help customers.big business houses. call centers may be very small or extremely large. A Call center is like any other office environment where one would find many people talking on the phone and working with computers. This is why some .IV INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC In recent times. due to various factors such as availability of skilled manpower at low costs. On an average call times last from three to four minutes. When they finish with one customer. the non-serious.E. According to the figures provided by the Office for National Statistics. In the process. a customer service agent may answer an email one moment and be on the phone for the next customer contact. the Call center management team has the choice to blend email with phone calls and other customer contact work such as mail. hole-in-the-wall operations. In state-of-the-art centers. India has been declared as the "CAPITAL" of the call center business. the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry has started dotting the Indian business landscape. Since then. such as confirmation of airline tickets and processing of insurance and credit card claims. the genuine and the flyby-night frauds. The Call center industry has also been witnessing maximum growth in the recent past. According to the Jupiter Media Metrix Report (2002).

In an effort to make the Call center industry more standardized. hospitality help desks and telecom service are some of the business segments where Call centers have been identified as effective. inclusive international and domestic. SIGIFICANCE OF THE STUDY India is all set to register the highest growth rate in call center services industry in Asia Pacific region. regulatory environment.5 lakh English-speaking Indians in coming seven years. mail order shopping. This cannot be achieved if it does not adhere to the global standards of motivation. The Call center business already generates 5. predicts. in this dynamic scenario. Availability of a technical talent pool and ample space. ahead of China's 40 percent plus growth rates.5 million rupees in revenues and employs 14. The total size of the call center services market in Asia Pacific will grow to over $4 billion by 2005 from $1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The Call centers in India could be categorized into two: Domestic Call centers: which basically deal with Indian clients. the industry is growing at the rate of 30 per cent annually and will employ over 2. Nasscom has launched a special forum. predicts the report. Nasscom. Currently. adds Nasscom." says Pheroze Vandrevala. International Call centers: which handles customers of clients who are based outside India. employee-transport needs and good quality of telecommunications infrastructure and time-zone advantages are the key factors in favor of India.2 billion in 2000.Call centers use the term "Contact center" instead of Call center because it is more than just phone calls. banking. online services in India are estimated to generate 1. chairman. "The Call center business is becoming one of the fastest growing sectors within the IT software and service industry. According to the National Association of Software and Service Companies (Nasscom).1 million jobs by 2008 and nearly $19 billion in revenue. India is poised to register the highest growth rate in the Call center services market in the Asia-Pacific region during 2000-05. according to IDC. Thus the researcher aims to understand performance and motivation in a call center. presence of a substantial English-speaking manpower available at low cost. the premier trade body of the Indian IT industry. According to a recent research report prepared by the International Data Corporation (IDC). debt collection. India needs to constantly strive to meet global standards of performance in order to retain and improve it current position in the world market. It adds that significant investment in and development of Call center capabilities are occurring in India. The attractiveness of India as a preferred location for offshore Call centers has also increased following the recent drop in the cost of international leased lines.000 people in India. Thus. there are currently more than 150 call centers operating in the country. The country will clock over 50 percent of compound annual growth rates (CAGR) until 2005. telemarketing. The growth . Recently conducted survey on Information Technology Enabled Services (ITES). stability of the government. Credit cards.

Turnover In the past. the higher the turnover.entry-level. If you want a motivated work force. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: . reflects the booming interest in Call centers. how often. The organization must function in a way that allows people to learn and contribute. the result is agents who may not meet the needs of the customer. and vice versa. Call center operations today are facing a number of common challenges. In a poorly run center. This year. this study would add some meaning in understanding what motivates employees in a call center and what is the extent of relationship between performance and various forms of motivation. it was even higher . In a booming industry like the call center. it is absolutely essential to keep the employees motivated and high-spirited in order to make them perform at their optimum level and also in to reduce the turnover rate. annual turnover among entry-level representatives was 73%. intermediate-level. Call centers must measure turnover from the customer perspective not the enterprise perspective. Mercer's leading expert on Call center compensation. and how much). * Determining the most effective use of merit pay increases (when. according to Kim Witt. But. 2003. turnover at Call centers was inversely related to job level . and team/group manager. Thus. team/group supervisor. With US and European companies looking at countries like India The 2001 Call center Compensation Survey. That no longer holds true. this means losing access to the knowledge that resided in the heads of your departing agents. Incorporated. as well as team leader. The Indian call center companies are expected to invest over $325 million in setting up operations in the financial year ending March 31. Once people are learning more. For customers.78%. attempting to improve morale with games and parties will often fuel a cynical response . Mercer's survey studied six levels of Call center jobs . and senior-level representatives. predicts the National Association of Software and Service Companies (Nasscom). it enhances their ability to contribute. These activities are most effective in the best-run operations. but among team/group managers. including: * Finding the optimum balance between base pay and variable pay. Mercer. In the customer-focused world. you must look beyond the parties and prizes. Turnover and Performance Turnover also hinders the overall level of performance of all the employees and the call center as a whole It is also dangerous for the customer because if a call center can't retain staff. It is not the job of management to motivate people.in this sector is phenomenal in India.not a positive one. "Turnover has become an issue at all levels." says Ms. Witt. * Reducing employee turnover. The upcoming generations will require that jobs offer learning opportunities. Morale Good morale is a result of a well-run center. poor morale is the result of a poorly run center.the lower the job level. conducted by human resource consultants William M. It is the job of management to create an environment in which people can be motivated.

. To study the demographic characteristics of the employees in Citicorp. designing the methods of data collection and analysis of the data. There is no relationship between the respondents' age and their source of motivation b. 2. SELECTION OF SAMPLE: Sample Size: The sample size consisted of 90 respondents in the executive cadre of E-Serve. 4. There is no relationship between the respondents' age and their prime motivator RESEARCH DESIGN: Meaning of Research design . defining the population and selecting the sample. There is no relationship between educational qualification and the respondents' intention to make a long career in this industry. for the purpose of this study is * All customer service executives of E-Serve International. from which sources and by what procedures. The universe.Specific Objective: To understand Performance and Motivation at E-Serve International General Objectives: 1. It involves various steps like formulating the objectives of the study. To understand the level of motivation among the employees in the organization and identify which of the motivational factors induce highest levels of performance.A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the overall operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected. To understand the employees' perception of their own performance in the organization. 3. UNIVERSE: A universe or population is the aggregate of all units possessing certain specified characteristics on which the sample seeks to draw inferences. measurement and analysis of data. There is no relationship between reasons for joining the industry and the respondents' intention to make a long career in this industry e. The Research Design constitutes the blueprint for the collection. The Research Design being employed in this study is the Descriptive Design. To give a list of employee suggestions/recommendations for introduction of newer methods of motivation HYPOTHESES IN THE STUDY: The following null hypotheses have been framed for the purpose of research study. a. There is no relationship between gender of the respondents and source of motivation c. d. A Descriptive Design aims at portraying accurately the characteristics of a particular group or situation.

with employee strength of around 170 employees.Steers and D."What motivates you" (Q.13 .e Achievement need.27) is a scale developed by R. Criteria for sample selection: * The sample population would consist of both male and female respondents * The respondents would be across various departments of E-Serve. * Demographic details * Industry related details * Performance * Motivation The researcher has also made use of two scales in the questionnaire. which have been created by the researcher. The data collected through this manner are called primary data because the respondents personally answer the questionnaire. Since the researcher is studying a small homogenous population. which relate to motivation. COMPONENTS OF THE TOOL: The questionnaire consists of 38 questions. of which 22 questions were created by the researcher. The questions. which is given to them directly by the researcher. i. The questionnaire mainly consists of closed ended questions. have been broadly divided into the following sub-divisions. The first scale . which is based on McClelland's theory of Motivation. Power need and Affiliation need. The researcher has also used 2 scales in the questionnaire.No. to understand the various facets of motivation. TOOL OF DATA COLLECTION: The main tool of data collection used was the Questionnaire. as Citicorp Credit Services Ltd. which was earlier known. .Sampling technique: The sampling technique which to be used in this study will be Simple random sampling.No. A few open-ended questions are also used in order to elicit better and more elaborate answers and suggestions.Braunstein in "A Behaviourally Based Measure of Manifest Needs in Work Settings".Q. SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION: Primary Source-data were collected through distribution of questionnaires to the customer service executives of E-Serve. * The respondents would be in the designation of customer service executives FIELD OF STUDY: E-Serve International: The research was carried out among Customer service Executives of E-Serve International. E-serve is the call-center division of the various products and services of Citibank. Simple random sampling refers to the sampling technique in which each and every item or each possible sample combination in the whole population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. The scale consists of a set of 15 questions which relates to 3 types of needs in an individual. this method of sampling is most suitable.

Individuals with a high achievement need always strive to excel in whatever task they undertake. which throw light on the two types of motivational factors.6. Individuals who have power need as their most prominent need are those who always love being in the limelight in whatever field they are.28 -1-12) is based on Herzberg's Theory of Motivation.12 and 15 relate to Affiliation need. The points for each of these responses are as follows: Strongly agree .7. consists of 15 questions.1 * Questions 1. .8. * Questions 3.2 Not at all important .9. The scoring for the continuum is as follows: Very important . 6.No.10. * Questions 2. SCORING: Scale 1 The first scale. the response to which range from Strongly agree to Strongly disagree. 9 and 12.4 Somewhat important Not so important .Hygiene factors and Motivators.3 Disagree . Individuals with a high affiliation need find themselves most comfortable in the company of people.5.Lussier in "Human Relations in organizations: A Skill Building Approach".2 Strongly disagree .13 and 15 are those relating to Achievement need. developed by R.1 The questions relating to "Hygiene factors" are Q.11 and 14 are those relating to Power need.5 Important . which an individual would want from his job. They are go-getters and enjoy taking up difficult challenges and completing them. which ranges from "Very important" to "Not at all important". The second scale-"What do you want from your job"? used in the research (Q.3 .Nos.4.5 Agree . The scale consists of a set of 12 questions. They crave to be accepted and liked by others and enjoy being affiliated to groups or organizations. 5. The most prominent need for an individual was calculated by totaling up the score under each category of need and determining which of them was the highest score.4 Undecided .2. They also like to be in control of whatever situation in which they are. Scale 2 The second scale consists of a list of 12 factors. 8.N. which is based on McClelland's Theory of motivation. The scale aims to understand the most prominent or powerful need operative in an individual. The individual would have to rate each factor based on the continuum.

conclusions and Suggestions . Summary. Analysis and Interpretation 4. the researcher faced a few difficulties such as * The respondents' unwillingness to reveal certain sensitive information * Difficulty in data collection due to the shift timings of employees * Paucity of time ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION: SPSS package is used for analysis and interpretation of the data. findings. Motivation: Motivation refers to the inner "drive" or the "urge" that exists within the individual to perform a particular task. 4. Chi-square has been applied to test the hypotheses. Hence. PRETESTING: Pre-testing of the questionnaire was carried out in the month of September on 10 percent of the sample size in order to ensure effectiveness of the tool. The questionnaire was slightly modified based on the feedback received during the pre-test. Certain significant data have been highlighted through the help of diagrams. Performance is determined by the individual's ability to perform coupled with the motivation to perform. 7. CHAPTERISATION: The Research study consists of the following broad chapters: 1. services and other aspects of the organization.Nos. regarding the products. This "drive" or "motive" is usually called a "motive" LIMITATIONS: * Since the study was undertaken in E-Serve. Review of literature 3. 10 and 11. During the process of data collection. * The personal bias and prejudice of the respondents can also be another limitation of the study.1. only the views of the employees in that organization could be obtained. ACTUAL COLLECTION OF DATA: Actual collection of data was carried out during the month of November 2003. Performance: Performance refers to quantity and quality of output delivered by an individual. the views expressed may not be representative of all the people in the call center industry. 3. The highest total score under each sub-division determined an individual's most powerful motivating factor. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS AND CLARIFICATION OF TERMS: Call Center: A call center is a central place where customer calls are answered on the phone. Introduction and Research Methodology 2.While the questions relating to "Motivators" are Q.

. and to log calls. such as confirmation of airline tickets and processing of insurance and credit card claims. and any large organization that uses the telephone to sell or service products and services. to screen calls and forward them to someone qualified to handle them. to outsourcing of back office work. A Call center is a generic term that covers everything from highly trained operators responding to telephone calls. call centers may be very small or extremely large. a call center has the ability to handle a considerable volume of calls at the same time. Call centers are used by mail-order catalog organizations. In simple words the Call center is the place where one's telephone call is answered. according to various authors. computer product help desks. Some companies need thousands of employees to handle the large volume of calls they receive from customers. This chapter has been organized in the following manner: * * * * * * * * * Meaning of a call center What is performance? Concept of performance management Meaning of performance in a call center What is motivation? Guidelines for a motivating work environment Meaning of motivation in a call center Relationship between performance and motivation Relationship between performance and motivation in a call center MEANING OF A CALL CENTRE A call center is a central place where customer and other telephone calls are handled by an organization. REVIEW OF LITERATURE In this chapter. Depending on how many phone calls are received. usually with some amount of computer automation.This is followed by the Bibliography and Appendices. the researcher has presented different views of the research problem. telemarketing companies. Typically.

debt collection. Gallup research indicates.such as competency-based selection. * Design effective compensation and recognition systems that reward people for their contributions. his inherent capacity. "And ironically. It ends when an employee leaves your organization. "70% of U. employees are not engaged at work. Gallup's 12-question survey of employee engagement. mail order shopping. The willingness to work is that factor which is variable and dependent on the motivation that drives him to work. The applicants and candidates form opinions of the organization . A performance management system includes the following actions.for better and for worse . The ability to work depends on his skills. This public relations experience can color the interaction the ignored applicant has with many other people about your organization Clarity about goals and direction. in an organizational context refers to an individual's ability to work along with his willingness to work.all through the application and interview process. the performance of the employees is determined by various factors such as * * * * * * * Clarity of job description Selection process Orientation. * Provide effective orientation. who apply to the company and never receive a response. In an organization. competency-based performance . * Assist with exit interviews to understand WHY valued employees leave the organization. and training. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE? The term "Performance". * Select appropriate people with an appropriate selection process. hospitality help desks and telecom service are some of the business segments where Call centers have been identified as effective.Credit cards. People. education. * Provide on-going coaching and feedback. frequent feedback. * Negotiate requirements and accomplishment-based performance standards. Managing employee performance starts before a new person walks into the company. telemarketing. * Provide promotional/career development opportunities for staff. and the "engaged" employee is hard to find in organizations these days. education and training Coaching and feedback provided Work environment Compensation and recognition systems Career development opportunities CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance management is the process of creating a work environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities.S. the chance to grow and develop skills create what the Gallup organization calls an "engaged" employee. banking. Performance management is a whole work system that begins when a job is defined as needed. as measured by the Q12. * Develop clear job descriptions. knowledge and to an extent. * Conduct quarterly performance development discussions. outcomes. It is this variable factor that the organization needs to focus upon and exploit in order to enable the individual to deliver his maximum output. form an opinion about the employer. and measures. the solutions currently being installed within many organizations .

For example. etc. deploy. abandon rates. etc. the Gallup organization suggests there are four disciplines necessary for effective performance management. agent performance statistics (e.. * 95 per cent first call resolution at first contact. (Source: Gartner Group. ASA. the less engaged they become.appraisal.1997). e-mail response times. and that a person will improve the most in his areas of greatest talent. absentee rates. quality statistics. * Hold all employees accountable for their local performance outcomes. * Percentage of calls answered within X seconds. * Call abandonment rate of less than five per cent * 99 per cent overall CSO availability. It is important that comparisons are made with Call Centres of a similar nature.). skills.g. So. behavioral characteristics and drive that you need because "a person's talents do not change much after he is hired. cost per call. and develop their strengths. * Average call wait time is 20 seconds or less." Gallup suggests these two criteria "serve as the blueprint for a new kind of organization.. operational performance statistics (e. technology performance statistics (e. . * Teach all employees to identify. etc. * Design and build each role to create world-class performers in each role. turnover rates. customer satisfaction statistics Two groups of measurements are usually considered in analyzing the relative efficiency and effectiveness of a Call Center.g.000 people.g. However. * Average speed of answer. all feeding into an integrated performance management IT platform only seem to be making matters worse. IVR performance results.. calls/FTE.They are listed in the following table." In surveys of 700. sales-orientated Call Centres often have different performance standards than service-related Call Centres. and gap-driven training needs analysis." Based on their research. and developing employee strengths. Gallup found that the longer people stay with an organization. Comparing a Call Centre's Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to the industry standard will indicate areas in need of improvement..). deploying. Industry standards for call metrics within Call Centres are as follows: * 80 per cent of calls answered within 20 seconds. including benchmarking results: Call Center performance statistics (e. and uproots the Peter Principle by offering people a way to build their careers by building on their greatest talents. occupancy.g. holds people accountable for performance outcomes. competency-based manager development. Standard Productivity Measures: * First-call completion rates. These measurements are call metrics and customer satisfaction levels.). etc.). MEANING OF PERFORMANCE IN A CALL CENTER Any information related to measuring a call center's performance. what's an organization to do to manage performance and keep employees engaged? Gallup's research suggests that you need to hire people who have the talents. service level. It will be an organization that selects for talent. text chat service results. * Align all performance appraisal and review systems around identifying. there are some generic KPIs that are accepted as key productivity measures in all Call Centres (Gartner Group. challenges people to reach these outcomes by capitalizing on their greatest talents. 1997).

An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates a drive within that individual. which ultimately contributes to excellence in service delivery. Too often. on hold. it is very important that an individual's needs are compatible and consistent with organizational goals. To relieve this tension. organizations fail . Too often Call Centres focus on productivity measures without considering the qualitative aspects of service delivery. aspirations. The main focus of these productivity measures is to ensure that call transactions are handled efficiently. conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need. if attained. in a call center is measured by the following factors: * Time taken to answer a call * Quality/Accuracy of response given (in order to reduce future call backs) * Average amount of time the customers are put on hold. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Motivation refers to the way in which urges. or explain the behaviour of human beings Motivation can also be defined as individual's willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals.The three key elements in this definition are * Effort * Organisational goals * Needs DIAGRAM NO. in a timely manner. Every person is motivated. The challenge at work is to create an environment in which people are motivated about work priorities. year. needs direct control. so that effort is directed in the right direction. the performance of an individual. wrap time. month. Thus.1 Diagrammatic representation of the Motivation Process Unsatisfied Need Tension Drives Behaviour Satisfied Need Reduction of tension A need refers to some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. week. will satisfy the need and lead to the reduction of tension. Number and percentage of calls abandoned. But. it can be said that motivated individuals are in a state of tension. Total number of calls handled for the day. desires.* * * * * CSO talk time. Percentage of time CSO is on calls. strivings. These drives generate search behaviour to find particular goals. they exert effort. Number of calls transferred. Simply speaking. drives. * Call courtesy * Attempts by the CSO to sell other products/new features of the same company * Follow-up work done by the CSO to handle customer grievances. on idle. and available.

lies outside the purview of the individual Why is employee motivation important? For well over 50 years. the basic assumption is that individuals and organizations constitute an exchange relationship. Employers walk a fine line between meeting the needs of the organization and its customers and meeting the needs of its internal staff. it is generally accepted that there are two basic types of motivators * Intrinsic motivators * Extrinsic motivators 1. Common Points To Motivation Theories * Motivation is determined by a combination of forces in the environment and the individual. Since they are relatively indifferent to task and social feedback. Expectancy and equity theories are currently accepted models of motivation based on exchange relationships.000 people interviewed "actively disengaged" at work. communication.It is necessary to identify and take the actions that will motivate people. Intrinsic Motivation. these individuals will be motivated to continue working effectively in the context of the team. * People try to achieve rewards and avoid punishments. the locus of control . They don't know what is expected of them. Furthermore. * Different people will see different connections between performance and the rewards . recognition.Instrumental rewards are a motivating source when individuals believe that the behaviors they engage in will lead to certain outcomes such as pay. a sense of accomplishment and achieving something meaningful. The first step in creating a motivating work environment is to stop taking actions that are guaranteed to demotivate people. * Rewards are not always to do with promotion. In other words. Rooted exchange theory. Thus. as long as team tasks are enjoyable. pay and status symbols (external) but can be internal. such feedback will not serve to motivate continued performance on the part of the intrinsically motivated person. be respected and listened to. These workers complain that they don't have the tools they need to do their jobs. such as self esteem. Gallup says actively disengaged workers cost employers $292 billion to $355 billion a year. Types of Motivators Though different theorists have classified motivators under various types. and involvement issues that are most important to people. There is a fundamental set of common points that are characteristic of all motivation theories. be well led. Gallup found 19 percent of 1. Based on these interviews and survey data from its consulting practice.to pay attention to the employee relations. praise. academics from a wide range of disciplines have applied themselves to finding what makes workers work harder. Gallup concluded that disengaged workers miss more days of work and are less loyal to employers. These individuals are often diverted from tasks that are relevant to goal attainment in order to pursue tasks which are intrinsically more enjoyable. It's a balancing act. be developed and given opportunities for learning and personal growth. etc.Individuals primarily motivated by intrinsic process will only engage in activities which they consider fun. In other words. the locus of control. Instrumental/Extrinsic Motivation.with respect to motivation lies within the individual 2. Do both well and thrive! An attention-getting Gallup Poll about disengaged employees was highlighted in a recent Wall Street Journal. It has been argued that employees expect to go to work to do a good job. Their bosses don't listen to them. * A clear connection exists between outcomes which people value and the type of behaviour that reinforces those behaviours.

is largely ignored. Assuming his response is reasonable. step back and ask yourself. tell him his approach sounds fine and that he doesn't need to consult with you about this type of decision in the future. It is not so much what you say as what you do that communicates your wishes and intentions to them. and low motivation in your workplace. * If you are not open to feedback. ask him what he thinks he should do in the situation. Never allow a person to fail to "teach her a lesson. You can coach and counsel and provide training and information following the decision. You will reinforce his belief in his own decision making ability. given by Ms. intervene as a coach. You also reinforce his belief that you are telling the truth about trusting his competency. that an organization need to follow in order to keep their workforce motivated. Ask good questions that help the individual find a better approach. unhappiness. * Make certain employees know and understand your organization's mission. Don't undermine the employee's confidence that you are truly supportive of her involvement. When an employee comes to you. yet "motivation. The majority of people do not get up in the morning and come to work with the intention of causing problems. "Why?" Almost any decision is improved with feedback and input. ask yourself the Dr." as a business subject. Even when not ignored. measurement feedback and coaching keep involvement from becoming a free-for-all. don't solicit ideas and feedback. If you are genuinely open to ideas and feedback. vision. and guarantee unrest. When you experience a problem at work. If you can assist the employee to find a better answer. your employees will know. if any. W.GUIDELINES FOR A MOTIVATING WORK ENVIRONMENT These are the following guidelines. * If you see an employee embark on a course of action you know will fail or cause a problem for a customer. How many people do you know who want to go home at the end of a work day feeling as if they failed all day? Not many. Edwards Deming-attributed question.Susan. "What about the work system caused this person to fail?" You'll be happy you took this approach when employees problem solve rather than pointing fingers and placing blame. . This ownership creates motivation and channels energy in the directions that will help your organization succeed." * If you already know what you will do in a particular situation. it certainly is not a focal point for strategic thinking.in her website. Examine your beliefs about people. act as a consultant without taking the monkey onto your own shoulders. Education. values. You insult your employees.M. the people who have to live with or implement the decision will own the decision. create an atmosphere of distrust. ask yourself this question. * Express the expectation that people make decisions that will improve their work. communication. What am I doing that makes people believe they must come to me for each decision or permission? You are probably communicating a mixed message which confuses people about your real intentions. and guidelines so they can funnel their involvement in appropriate directions. * If you are a supervisor and people come to you continually to ask permission and receive instructions about their work. * Never punish a thoughtful decision. Even more importantly. * Reward and recognize as heroes the people who make decisions about and improvements in their work.Heathfield. Motivation Strategy for Achieving a High Performance Organization Motivation is an organization's life-blood. goals.

leadership training. Like a pop-up fly ball which drops to the ground between a couple of confused fielders. cash incentive plans continue to grow in popularity. perseverance. as a subject. Motivation is hidden beneath a slew of disconnected plans and initiatives One department may buy or invent a passel of programs or special initiatives -such as bonus plans. It is the energy source. if any. management becomes enamored with an idea that is trumpeted by consultants. flash-in-the-pan initiatives. creativity. Four reasons explain this fact of life: 1. and overall approach taken to the challenge of motivating people. is a strategy-driven conceptual process. Consideration of ALL factors influencing employee motivation. Economic Rewards Money is a primary motivator. Motivation is intangible. these programs and initiatives are implemented as the need is felt or the impulse strikes. 4. But in most companies. The idea usually has merit. In contrast to limited. 2. goal-oriented performance and achievement. Disillusionment sets in. considers coherent. Our approach. and cash-equivalent rewards all 10 . As the "new idea" (often old wine in new bottles) captures attention. Everyone has an interest in motivation. FOREMOST[tm] evaluates the total organization and. Motivation is lost in a twilight zone. expectations far outdistance anything the "idea" can deliver. we can intuit our own motivation and monitor its shifting nature and intensity. know who is responsible for mapping the overall game plan. Most commonly. created to motivate the total organization. applying strategic thinking. 3. 2. and motivation wanes. participative management and employee ownership that are meant to improve employee motivation. With a bit of work. FOREMOST. While base salary remains the largest share of the total cash pie.Seldom is a clear. FOREMOST[tm] is guided by two principles: 1. is lost in the hoopla of fads du jour From time to time. global and creative options for aligning individual motivation with the business strategy and goals. In time. FOREMOST[tm] encompasses everything an organization to do to influence the individual and team effort.Pain gets people's attention. coherent. motivation can fall into cracks. First and FOREMOST We need a dramatically different approach to motivation. spot bonuses. fragmented. there are areas that powerfully impact motivation. Most organizations don't give it much thought until something starts going wrong. but is never the 'silver bullet' that people expect it to be: a one-size-fits all solution to every management woe. But we can only observe and measure the motivation of others indirectly. Special achievement incentive rewards. the hype ignites enthusiasm. Motivation drives all human action. Those seeking to shape the behavior ultimately wrestle with motivation. the fad fades fast. Consideration of the needs and resources of the whole organization. but few. Motivation. Employee motivation is enhanced most when organizations creatively and appropriately employ a multitude of motivators.

stock-based incentive plans. Goals Goals are powerful motivators. peers. The company creates and maintains a talented workforce to use as a competitive weapon. They spotlight individual or team achievement and outstanding contribution. once limited to top executives. the work itself proves every bit as important a motivator as economic rewards. They can energize and inspire exceptional effort. In many companies. Opportunity to Grow The chance to improve one's self is an enormously important source of motivation. roles and challenges is their dream job. for many. Autonomy . leaders have the power to imbue people with hope. fast-paced work with changing goals. enthusiasm and determination. they are also an incentive that people seek to feel appreciated for what we do and who we are -. Formal. for others. although not all approaches motivate people. Psychic Rewards These rewards have symbolic significance. giving people high-visibility recognition that tends to be warmly remembered years after the event. and the employees sharpen their own competitive edge as they self-actualize. offering challenge and opportunity. We are seeing an explosion of creative ideas in the realm of economic rewards. and providing encouragement. Organizations that offer this advantage are in a win-win partnership with their employees. skills and knowledge.our unique abilities.play a role in the economic reward package. subordinates and others has a profound impact on motivation. Goals give people a clear sense of what is expected of them. Such informal psychic rewards are more than after-the-fact reinforcement. are offered to all employees. Talk about synergy! Leadership Leaders inspire people through their words and actions. promotions also carry crucial social and psychological meaning (recognition and sense of accomplishment) that. detailed work involving technical tasks can be a turn-on. Promotions and Transfers While having economic value. Informal Psychic Rewards Positive feedback from a person's manager. For some. By presenting a clear sense of purpose. Challenging and stimulating work The nature of work as a source of motivation varies with personality. offering a vision worth striving toward. far outweigh additional money or perquisites. But whatever the person-job match.

yet a bit of humor goes a long way toward brightening the day and infusing spirit into the culture. Team leaders and the Call Centre manager should also be included in the program as they are ultimately responsible for driving the overall performance of the CSOs (Call Center Officers). and perseverance. Staff recognition and motivation strategies are the focus of this particular design. Eventually. to work independently. a rewards and recognition program should not only encourage individual performance. FOREMOST[tm] becomes part of business planning. Audit findings are compared with the organization1s needs. constant innovation. Problem areas are identified and a plan of action is developed. the number of calls handled. Human resources plays a key role by facilitating the process and providing technical guidance. FOREMOST[tm] is a process that involves continual learning. Most Call Centres focus on designing some kind of rewards and recognition program to encourage consistently high levels of performance and team morale. expectations and goals. In addition. It also demands clarity of purpose. The plan presents a strategic approach to motivating the total organization and draws upon the options that can be mobilized. Nothing is more critical to this goal than human energy . perspective. accuracy of information. Autonomy strongly influences the decision of individuals to join and stay with an organization. MEANING OF MOTIVATION IN A CALL CENTER Along with appropriate remuneration levels for call center executives.it is also important to recognize excellence in performance. without compromising team harmony and the overall quality of service delivery. The program can include incentive awards for examples of outstanding customer service. to make decisions. Implementing FOREMOST[tm] requires a top management team to outline the motivation strategy. Autonomy is crucial to achieving a sense of selfworth.Freedom to take action. The process of implementation begins with an audit of all programs that have a direct bearing on motivation.a strategic approach to motivating the total organization. The design of a rewards and recognition program for a Call Centre needs to include an assessment of call quality evaluations. the most number of calls taken in a week. sales-related targets (if appropriate). Fun Many work places are woefully devoid of smiles and laughter. and agile adaptation to ever-changing business realities. and bonuses for the achievement of targets or quality assessments. and team member of the month as judged by other Call Centre staff or the manager. As this strategic approach to motivation takes root. a new synergystic management mind-set emerges. Organizations are seeking ways to beat the competition and be profitable. Fun plays a vital role in motivation. but should also promote team performance. . It is essential to achieve a balance between individual and team performance. is one of the factors most valued by people.

000 people in organisations that spanned seven industries and 29 countries. the motivators are usually the ones that are externally generated. recently published research into the most important elements governing employee performance. Experts say this helps develop the managerial relationship and targets the individual motivation of each employee to achieve improved performance and productivity at little or no cost. the CLC had remarkably consistent findings across the range of geographic regions. This sense of drive or tension could be either self-generated (intrinsic motivators) or generated by the organization(extrinsic motivators). a growing trend among organisations is to focus HR programs away from remuneration matters. A specific budget should also be allocated to the Call Centre manager. It is important that staff have some input on appropriate incentives. Good employee performance was found to have four important characteristics: good relations between employee and manager. "If you're telling employees.4% (0.Motivated individuals. Examining data from 19.For most individuals. rather than in performing well once the job has been won. was notably absent. The Corporate Leadership Council (CLC). In 2002. the big lesson is 'you don't value me'. wages grew only 3. wages are predicted to increase 4% (1. the performance of the employees is determined by various factors that motivate the employees. according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A growing trend among companies is to use programs that provide nonfinancial rewards. Remuneration. levels of responsibility. types of jobs and demographics. according to a survey of global compensation trends by Mercer Human Resource Consulting. in an organizational context are those who are in a state of tension that drive them towards accomplishment of organization goals. As a result of the tough economic climate. the rewards and recognition program should be used to encourage desirable behaviours and the attainment of specific results. HR experts argue that the most crucial tool is the relationship between the manager and the employee. bonuses are shrinking and base pay is treading water. HR experts generally agree that a pay increase is not the best way to get more from employees.4% above inflation). The . the Call Centre should have a planned and structured approach to recognising desired performance both on an individual and team level. Martin-Wells and fellow principal Marsha Sussman say that smart organisations are concentrating on two areas to get the best results from their employees. Ultimately. Despite the attention directed at levels of remuneration. clear communication. Getting a better performance out of an employee means improving motivation. and then one year you can't do that or don't do that. Overall. companies. in the form of base salary or bonuses." Mercer consultants say that in response to a softer economy. according to Mercer principal Siobhan Martin-Wells. meaningful and achievable opportunities and rewards. An emphasis on money also has dangers for the culture of an organisation. Nowhere is the current pressure on costs more apparent than in recent wage movements. Because motivational factors vary from one person to the next.5% above projected inflation).Rewards offered for performance may include both non-cash bonuses and monetary incentives. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATION In an organization. each year. a Washington-based HR consultancy. or create an urge within the employee to excel in their job. Research reveals that remuneration is a motivating factor in taking a job. and strong leadership. This year. the most important way we recognise you is by changing your salary. Companies should concentrate on improving this aspect of the workplace by developing their managers and helping them to support and reward their employees.

"So if you are going to invest somewhere." says Martin-Wells. throw that money into developing your managers. It is through this process of customisation to the needs and desires of the individual that a real understanding of each employee's motivation is achieved. Ford Australia." she says. Popular material rewards include vouchers." A common mistake companies make is to rely on HR departments to manage people rather than relying on supervisors and managers. such as study leave and extra paid or unpaid leave are also gaining popularity. Sussman says: "When that reward really hits the person where he or she lives. and retention. This can be done through feedback mechanisms such as surveys and so-called "360-degree" performance appraisals. Personal or public praise. The second thing companies are doing to make better use of their employees is to offer a range of non-financial rewards through recognition schemes. Non-financial benefits can range from vouchers to training courses to organisational opportunities." Improving the performance of the manager can include providing training or coaching. I recognise you as a person as well as an employee'. and making sure that the supervisor's performance as a manager of people is among the criteria on his or her own performance scorecard. that's the one thing that you've got to get right. Sussman says. Non-financial rewards are obviously cheaper than bonuses. "A manager's real job is managing through people to get results. Time-oriented rewards. meeting goals. practice guidelines." Mercer research published in September 2002 reveals that about 55% of organisations in Australia offer non-financial rewards. film or sport tickets. and popular career rewards range from training opportunities to higher duties. is among the most common. hiring and training. commitment. in the form of an on-the-spot "thank you" or recognition in company publications." Sussman says. HR departments can provide programs. but these are just the tools that permit line managers to do a better job of managing their people. Some organizations are offering rewards that recognise the importance of a balance between work and the employee's private life. or any other achievement by an individual or team. they leave managers. These companies use a wide range of non-financial rewards. and should be delivered by the line manager as a reward for outstanding performance. morale. which first introduced .first is the development and support of line managers through better programs and practices. "They're not necessarily the right people to manage other people. and they become another tool to improve the relationship between manager and employee because they require the manager's detailed knowledge of the employee's performance. information and services. Organisational behavior theory shows that recognising achievement has a good influence on employee performance. "It's not HR's job to do anything but provide the infrastructure to allow that to happen better. as well as what makes him or her tick. in which junior as well as senior staff are asked to evaluate performance. thus boosting productivity and reducing costs associated with staff attrition. Mercer research has found that the relationship between manager and employee can provide one of the biggest sources of staff attrition. Managers are often appointed because of their technical expertise. the manager is saying: 'I recognise you as more than just a cog in the wheel." Getting it wrong can be expensive. "And fundamentally. "People don't leave companies. Among these. 76% found that non-financial rewards were an effective way of thanking employees for achieving a specific goal. and 71% found them an effective way of motivating employees.

Marie Crozier-Durham. possibly as part of the performance or salary review process. have helped improve staff motivation and retention.30am and 3pm. Most rewards can also be offered to teams . providing a benefit to the employee and his or her family. but they should ensure that any reward chosen is practicable. The director of Work Life Resources consultancy. "A culture of long hours is one of the systemic issues in organisations that mitigate against people being able to balance their work and personal life. Martin-Wells says." The consequences for employee motivation can be disastrous if this happens. so that the rewarding of high performers does not undermine the building of teams and the development of the organisation as a whole. also lose their power as a form of individual recognition. and the establishment of core meeting times between 9.those that are negotiated as part of enterprise bargaining or workplace agreements. Home laptop computers with internet access and the provision of concierge services are good. says companies genuinely interested in improving employee motivation need to make sure they are offering employee benefits not simply business benefits. Sussman comments: "This can also be a recognition of the intense stress that work can put on the family and is a way of thanking not only the employee. Rewards programs may be high-value and low-cost. supporting employees who cannot do these tasks themselves because they work unusual hours. Crozier-Durham says that where non-financial benefits have been negotiated. Entitlements. PricewaterhouseCoopers has introduced a service that provides help with "concierge" chores such as dropping off and picking up dry cleaning. Martin-Wells recommends that companies should draw attention regularly to their reward schemes. Martin-Wells says: "Equity is extremely important. ANZ bank offers home computers and internet connections at minimal cost. . they are not so much a reward as a trade-off between managers and employees. Organisations do not need to offer a large suite of rewards. but they are not without certain risks.a pilot work/life balance program in 1998. "But some of these supposed work/life benefits are really ways of ensuring that long hours are able to be worked. for example. but those others who are affected. by being common to all employees. while the business gains through improved productivity. because they have instant appeal to employees.group events such as a dinner that involves employees' partners can recognise the achievements of the group as well as acknowledging the significance of their personal relationships. rewards should be distinguished from genuine entitlements . according to recruitment experts and HR managers. Promising a reward such as flexible working arrangements when such arrangements do not suit the business will mean the supposed reward becomes a frustrating and demotivating experience. However. has found non-financial benefits such as flexible start and finish times. people quickly sniff out where there's an inequitable arrangement." A third risk is that non-financial rewards can gradually come to be seen as entitlements." she says." It is important that organisations have a balance between individual and team reward programs. Companies should also ensure their offerings are perceived by employees to be rewards in spirit and in kind. The weight that a rewards program gives to recognition of the individual raises another potential risk: does it motivate the individual at the expense of the team? Not necessarily. It is a matter of balancing competition and equity.

the methods include staff surveys. If all employees are given access to the skills and tools to perform their particular duties at the highest level. attendance levels. He says that in the past five years.500 employees worldwide. The key to balancing the two requirements is to ensure there is an equality of opportunity for anyone to become a high achiever. only 15% of organisations in Mercer's survey measure the effectiveness of their schemes. the rewards system should find equilibrium between the equity and competition needed to obtain the highest degree of employee motivation. Sussman says the reason for the low rate is that measuring effectiveness is so much more difficult than measuring efficiency. attrition rates. Surprisingly. which oversees the management of 22. Martin-Wells says surveying employees about the effectiveness of motivation and reward programs is particularly important because it reinforces the principle that managers are interested in what employees think and want.But rewarding high performers is also essential. otherwise the advantage of making the rewards is lost. productivity and profit. . Shane Freeman is general manager of ANZ Banking Group's People Capital. Popular items for giving to employees as non-financial rewards: * * * * * * * * * * * * * Goods Lunch Gift vouchers Sport or movie tickets Weekends away Time off for special occasions Opportunities to attend training or conventions Study leave Extra paid leave Opportunities to work on special projects Opportunities to present ideas to the executive Participation in senior management forums Higher duties Ways to motivate employees by giving them non-financial rewards: * Have a range of rewards available * Make the rewards appropriate to the recipient * Make sure that the rewards can be supplied * Administer the rewards through the human resources department * Present the rewards through a line manager * Measure the scheme's success by means such as feedback and staff retention rates * Remind employees of the rewards regularly. Of those organisations that attempt measurements." she says. perhaps at performance review time SOURCE: MERCER / BRW The power of involvement Some Australian companies have improved their employee motivation by improving that most basic of workplace currencies: good communication. The best way to minimise the risks of a reward program is to measure its effectiveness and adjust it accordingly. "The process is as important as the data. as the bank calls its group human resources division. ANZ has introduced a range of programs to improve communication between managers and employees as well as between staff in the business units.

that's pretty motivating. storing it up and giving you a bonus at the end of 12 months. The Smith Family has a rewards program that recognises periods between five and 30 years of service to the organisation. Elaine Henry. She says not-for-profit organisations have an advantage that their staff is motivated by the organisation's social mission.One example is the bank's program. monotony. The Smith Family keeps information flowing with a weekly e-mail newsletter. absenteeism. benevolence does have some limits as a motivator. known as Breakout. Henry says. The Smith Family found those who volunteer for altruistic reasons have a lower commitment than those who volunteer to improve their career prospects. As well as clearing up potential disputes. Freeman credits the rise to improved communication programs such as Breakout and the better marketing of internal job opportunities. erratic timings of work. keeping the feeling that what they are doing is making a difference". the informal recognition of real achievement in the weekly newsletter is more important than a medal for long service. the program assists employee motivation through positive feedback and continuous recognition. in a call center. Friday Facts. . job-stress. assumes greater significance.is more powerful than just saying nothing. Thus. etc. it becames an additional responsibility on the part of the organization to determine * what motivates the employees and * how much of performance is related to motivation. "keeping the staff engaged in what you are doing. However. whether we have just met our targets for the Christmas Appeal . non-financial benefits such as improved parental leave. the biggest issue is always the communication element. And we share that around. Freeman says: "To say 'that was a great job you did the other day' . who oversees 650 staff and 32. The chief executive of The Smith Family. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATION IN A CALL CENTER In a Call center environment where the employees face other pressures like monotony of work. which is sent to all paid and voluntary staff. Its staff satisfaction rate has risen from 48% four years ago to 78% in the most recent survey. according to research on volunteers released in 2002. that encourages continuous feedback. but they do get a greater sense of purpose. heavily discounted computer-leasing arrangements and training opportunities for high-performing staff.000 volunteers." She says that although the organisation's pay scale has now reached a reasonable level. believes motivating unpaid employees is no different to motivating paid employees. "I invite everybody to contribute the steps forward we have taken during the week. etc.that sort of recognition . whether one of our students [in the Learning for Life program] has just done tremendously well at sport or in an academic field. the understanding of this key relationship. But in many ways. staff who join from the private sector may drop half their salary." ANZ surveys staff every six months to measure motivation. in order to tap the maximum potential of the employees and also to reduce other factors such as turnover.

22) * Motivation scale I .3.3.3.10 . Section 1 .3. age.3.3.23) * Motivation scale II .13) * Motivation (Table nos. etc.4 -3 .24) Certain data have been highlighted using diagrams and graphs. The various tables pertain to: * General profile of employees (Table nos. educational qualification. TABLE NO 3.1 Distribution of respondents by gender . Chi-square has also been used to prove statistical significance.1 to 3. in terms of gender.9) * Performance (Table nos.3.1 .3. Cross tables have been included to define relationships between dependent and independent variables.14 . A complete understanding of the composition of the sample that is going to be studied.ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The data collected have been analyzed and interpreted in this chapter.3. will go a long way in making certain important assumptions and adding overall value to the study. it is very important to have a bird's eye-view of the demographic characteristics of the employees in the organization."What motivates you?" (Table no.3 describe the demographic characteristics of the respondents.3) * Industry related details (Table nos.Demographic details: Introduction to this section: Before studying about any aspect in an organization. Tables 3."What do you want from your job?" (Table no.

Gender Frequency Per cent Male 37 41. TABLE NO 3.9 per cent) are females.0 The above table shows the distribution of respondents by gender. From the above table it can be observed that about two-third of the respondents (58.0 29-32 5 5.4 25-28 27 30.2 Distribution of respondents by age Age Frequency Per cent 21-24 58 64.1per cent). whereas males account for only about one-third of the respondents (41. This might be an indicator of the fact that women are preferred in the field of customerrelationship management.9 Total 90 100. Thus we understand that most of the respondents are females.6 Total .1 Female 53 58.

3 Distribution of respondents by their educational qualification Educational qualification Frequency Per cent Graduate 64 71.2).3.4 per cent) belong to the age group of 21-24 years. it can be observed that more than three-fifths of the respondents (64. especially those who are fresh out from college The above data has been represented in the form of a pie-diagram. while only a handful of the respondents (5. The above data supports the fact that call centers are providing enormous career opportunities to young people.2 Pie-diagram showing distribution of respondents by age TABLE NO. DIAGRAM NO.0 Mean Age = 27 years The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their age. From the table. (Refer Diagram no.1 .6 per cent) belong to the age group of 29-32 years.90 100.

1 per cent) are graduates. From the table it can be observed that a little less than three-fourth of the respondents (71. while about one-fourth of the respondents (28. Section II . reasons for joining the industry. Since the job in a call center requires only basic qualification apart from good communication skills.0 The above table shows the distribution of respondents according to their educational qualification.9 per cent) are post-graduates. TABLE NO 3. it is essential to gather various industry related details about the respondents. expectations from the industry and their perception of the advantages and disadvantages of the industry. most of the employees in call centers are fresh graduates. The following tables (tables 3.Post-graduate 26 28.9) attempt to understand the above-mentioned details of the respondents. such as their experience in the industry.4 to 3.4 Distribution of respondents by their years of service in this industry Years of service in this industry Frequency Per cent .Industry related details Introduction to this section: Since this study is focused entirely on a call center.9 Total 90 100.

3 Bar-diagram showing respondents by years of service in the call center industry TABLE NO 3.0 3-6 years 10 11.5 Respondents by their opinion on reasons for joining the call-center industry . It can also be understood that many fresh graduates join the industry and put in a few months of experience.0 This table reflects the distribution of respondents according to the number of years of service in the call-center industry.1 per cent) have three to six years of service in the industry. A bar-diagram has been used to highlight the above data. (Refer diagram no. whereas only about onetenth of the respondents (11.9 1-3 years 36 40.< 1 year 44 48.1 Total 90 100. These figures clearly reveal the high rate of attrition that prevails in the call center industry. DIAGRAM NO. but not many people stay on in the industry for more than a couple of years. The above table shows that almost one-half of the respondents (48.3).9 per cent) have put in less than a year's service in this industry.

0 The above table shows the reasons given by the respondents for joining the industry.3 Growth prospects 32 35.6 Interest in the field 33 36.Response Frequency Per cent Monetary reasons 21 23. From the table.4) DIAGRAM NO.7 per cent) join the industry due to their interest in the field.4 Bar Diagram showing respondents by their opinion on reasons for joining the call-center industry .6 per cent) join the industry due to the growth prospects that they perceive in the industry. Thus. In an industry like the call center industry. where there is a lot of emphasis on targets and achieving targets. it can be understood that about one-third of the respondents (36.7 Temporary arrangement 4 4. A bar diagram has been used to represent the above figures. career growth is quick and based purely on merit. a lot of people perceive this aspect of career growth as a major cause for joining this industry.4 Total 90 100. apart from the basic interest in the field. while another one-third of the respondents (35. (Refer Diagram no.

3 Disagree 7 7.TABLE NO 3. . whereas only about one-ninth (7.0 The above table represents the respondents' response to the statement . it should be noted that a major part of the population answering this questionnaire are those who are fresh entrants or those who have put in less than a year of service. "My expectations from this industry have been met" Response Frequency Per cent Agree 71 78.8 Total 90 100.6 Respondents by their response to the statement.8 per cent) of the population disagreed to the statement. it can be understood that a little more than two-third of the respondents (78.9 Undecided 12 13."My expectations from this industry have been met" From the table. Though the above results seem a contradiction to the existing call center high attrition rate.9 per cent) have opined that their expectations from the industry have been met.

. as perceived by the respondents. It can be seen.7 Respondents by their opinion on the advantages of the industry Response Frequency Per cent Good monetary benefits 38 42. that a little more than two-fifth of the respondents (42. from the table. by offering excellent pay packets and quick growth.2 Quick growth 34 37.0 Total 90 100.0 The above table shows the advantages of the industry.TABLE NO 3.8 Minimum qualifications needed 18 20. These results support the general belief that the call center industry has been attracting the attention of the youth. while an equal number of respondents felt that the biggest advantage was the quick growth prospects. especially fresh graduates.2 per cent) felt that the biggest advantage of the call-center industry is the monetary benefits it offers. based purely on merit.

0 The above table shows the respondents' opinion of their perceived disadvantages of the industry.8 Job monotony 29 32. beyond a certain point of time.8 per cent) attributed job-stress to be a major disadvantage.9 .2 per cent) felt that job-monotony is a major cause of concern.2 Stress in the job 34 37.2 Total 90 100. while about onethird (32. It can be understood that a little less than two-fifth of the respondents (37. TABLE NO 3. It is a well-established fact that the major reasons for high attrition in the call-center industry are the extreme stress that the job involves and the repetitiveness in the job.8 Any others 2 2.8 Respondents by their opinion on the disadvantages of the industry Response Frequency Per cent Work timings 25 27.TABLE NO 3.

8 Strongly Disagree 1 1. while only one-ninth (1.0 Agree 46 51.0 Disagree 7 7. it is surprising to note that the respondents have expressed that they would like to have long career in this industry.Performance Introduction to this section: Performance has been defined as the ability to complete a task coupled with the willingness to do the same. Section III . While understanding performance. "I plan to make a long career (more than 10 years) in this industry" Response Frequency Per cent Strongly agree 18 20. The effectiveness of the .1 per cent) agree that they are going to make a long career in this industry. Given the attrition rate of the call center industry.Respondents on their response to the statement. it is first of all important to know an individual's self-perception of his performance and factors that are hindering or promoting his performance levels.1 Undecided 18 20. The above table shows that one-half of the respondents (51.0 The above table shows the respondents' response to the statement .1 per cent) of them strongly disagreed to the fact that they are planning to make a long career in the industry."I plan to make a long career in this industry".1 Total 90 100.

9 Agree 61 67. etc could be attributed to this.6 Disagree 7 7. Such details are depicted in the following tables (tables 3. it can be observed that about two-third of the respondents (67.8 per cent) disagreed that they were currently performing at their highest potential.13) TABLE NO 3.3.8 Strongly Disagree 0 0 Total 90 100.8 Undecided 5 5.0 The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their response to the statement: "I think I am currently performing at my highest potential". From the above table.8 per cent) agreed that they were currently performing at their highest potential. "I think I am currently performing at my highest potential" Response Frequency Per cent Strongly Agree 17 18.performance appraisal system is also vital information. A little less than one-tenth of the respondents (7. job challenge.10 . A majority of the population felt that they were currently performing at their highest potential.10 Respondents by their response to the statement. Many reasons such as work environment. . recognition. monetary incentives.

0 This table shows the respondents by their opinion on the effects of working under pressure.8 Pressure hinders my performance greatly 18 20.11 Respondents by their opinion on the effects of working under pressure Response Frequency Per cent I am able to perform to my maximum only when I am under pressure 20 22.2 I do not get unduly affected by pressure 52 57. .0 Total 90 100.TABLE NO 3.

5).It can be seen that a little less than three-fifth of the respondents (57.5 Pie-diagram showing distribution of respondents by their opinion on the effects of working under pressure TABLE NO 3. "I am satisfied with the current method of performance evaluation being carried out in my organization" Response . The above data has been represented in the form of a pie-diagram (Refer Diagram no. while one-fifth of the respondents (20 per cent) felt that pressure hinders their performance greatly. it can be observed that a majority of the respondents felt that they are unaffected by work-pressure. DIAGRAM NO. Thus.12 Respondents by their response to the statement.8 per cent) feel that their performance remains the same and that pressure does not unduly affect them. while an almost equal number felt that pressure enhances their performance on one hand and also hinders their performance.

1 per cent) were strongly dissatisfied with the current method performance evaluation in the organization.3 Agree 56 62.6 Disagree 16 17.1 Total 90 100. It can be seen that a little more than three-fifth (62.2 Undecided 5 5.13 Respondents by their response to the statement. TABLE NO 3.8 Strongly Disagree 1 1. while only one-ninth of the respondents (1.0 The above table shows the respondents by their response to the statement. "I am satisfied with the current method of performance evaluation being carried out in the organization".2 per cent) agreed that they were satisfied with the current method of performance evaluation being carried out in the organization.Frequency Per cent Strongly agree 12 13. There was a consensus among the majority of the respondents that performance evaluation methods used were just and fair and satisfactorily depicted their performance. "Performance evaluation is being carried out objectively in my organization" Response Frequency Per cent Strongly Agree 22 .

0 The above table shows the respondents' by their response to the statement. "Performance evaluation is being carried out objectively in my organization". From these results it can at E-Serve.6 Bar-diagram showing distribution of respondents by their opinion on their satisfaction and the objectivity of the performance evaluation process . Responses relating to satisfaction level and objectivity of performance evaluation system have been highlighted with the help of a bar diagram (Refer Diagram no.24.9 Total 90 100. Thus. to a large extent is free from that performance evaluation was done and was therefore a close reflection be said that performance evaluation bias and subjectivity.6).7 Undecided 9 10. The table shows that a little less than three-fifth of the respondents (56.9 per cent) disagreed on the aspect of the objectivity in the performance evaluation process in the organization. Only a small minority of about one-tenth of the respondents (8.7 per cent) felt that performance evaluation was being carried out objectively in the organization. DIAGRAM NO. a majority of the respondents agreed with maximum possible objective parameters of their output.4 Agree 51 56.0 Disagree 8 8.

The various facets of motivation have been depicted in the tables given below (tables 3.0 . job content.Motivation Introduction to this section: Motivation is the inner "drive" or urge to accomplish a particular task. Motivation can be extrinsic in the form of bonuses.4 Agree 51 56. motivation is a pre-requisite to achieve effective performance. "Motivation is an integral part of my organization culture" Response Frequency Per cent Strongly agree 31 34. incentives.2 Disagree 6 6. paid-holidays.14 Respondents by their response to the statement. etc or intrinsic in terms of work culture.7 Undecided 2 2. authority and responsibility.14 .7 Total 90 100. gifts.22) TABLE NO 3. In any organization. etc.3.Section III .

Only a small minority of less than one-tenth of the respondents (6.7 per cent) disagreed to the above statement. TABLE NO 3. There was a consensus among the majority of the respondents that the organization attaches the utmost importance to motivation and sees it playing a major role in an employees' performance chart. It can be observed that about three-fifth of the respondents (56.The table shows the respondents by their response to the statement.15 Respondents by their response to the question: "Are you excited about going to work on Monday?" Response Frequency . "Motivation is an integral part of my organization's culture".7 per cent) agreed that motivation was an integral part of their organization culture.

4 Frequently 40 44.4 Sometimes 24 26.morning blues TABLE NO 3.3 I get help from others sometimes 29 32.4 Total 90 100. while only very few of the respondents (4. Thus. "Are you excited about going to work on Monday".0 This table reflects the distribution of respondents by their response to the question. Less than one-half of the respondents (44. it can be observed that a significant number of respondents considered work as stimulating and exciting and were free from Monday.16 Respondents by their opinion on the work environment at E-serve Response Frequency Per cent People are always keen to help sort out each others problems 57 63.7 Never 4 4.4 per cent) said that they were never excited about going to work on Monday.2 I get very hostile responses .4 per cent) felt that they are mostly excited about going to work on the first day of the week.Per cent Yes always 22 24.

3 per the work environment at E-Serve was very amicable. a majority felt that there was a strong sense of camaraderie and employees attached a lot of importance to mutual accomplishment apart from individual success.4 per cent) felt that the work atmosphere was hostile. About one-twentieth of (4. A bar-diagram has been used to represent the above data (Refer Diagram no.4 Total 90 100.7 Pie-diagram showing respondents by their opinion on the work-environment at E-Serve TABLE NO 3. DIAGRAM NO.17 Respondents by their opinion on whether they have been given any specific job responsibility in the organization Response Frequency Per cent .4 4.7).0 The table shows the respondents by their opinion on the work environment at EServe. Thus. The table shows cent) felt that are always keen the respondents that a little more than three-fifth of the respondents (63. it can be observed. where people to help sort out each other's problems.

0 .18 Respondents by their response to the statement.0 The table shows the respondents by their opinion on whether they have been given any specific job responsibility in the organization. it can be observed that while a significant number felt positively towards both their role clarity and importance.9 Total 90 100. About three-fifth of the respondents (58.8 No 11 12.2 Total 90 100. Thus.Yes my role is specific and important in this organization 53 58.9 My role is clearly defined but does not involve measurable contribution 29 32.9 per cent) felt that their role was specific and important in the organization while only about one-tenth of the respondents (8. some were unclear about milestones that may have to be achieved to make progress.2 My role has not been defined clearly in detail 8 8. "Are you happy with the training given to you?" Response Frequency Per cent Yes 79 87.9 per cent) were unclear and ambiguous about their role in the organization. TABLE NO 3.

9 Never 1 1. . "Are you happy with the training given to you?" While a great majority of the respondents (87. A miniscule fraction of 1.9 per cent) felt that the training given to them and their job perfectly match at all times.1 Total 90 100.9 Sometimes 28 31.The above table reflects the respondents by their response to the question. it can be observed that while a majority of the respondents felt that the training given to them was engaging and that they felt convinced about it making a difference in their workplace.1 per cent of the respondents felt that the training and the job never match. Less than three-fifth of the respondents (58.19 Respondents by their opinion on whether their training matches with the requirements of the job Response Frequency Per cent Always 53 58.2 per cent) were not happy with the training given to them.1 Frequently 8 8. TABLE NO 3. Thus.0 The table shows the respondents by their opinion on whether the training given to them matches with the requirements of their job. a little more than one-tenth of the respondents (12.8 per cent) were happy with the training given to them.

9 Mostly 28 31. This further underlined the organizations' importance to mutual accomplishment.9 Never 1 1. "Do you think your seniors are genuinely interested in your professional growth?" A little less than three-fifth of the respondents (58. "Do you think your seniors are genuinely interested in your professional growth?" Response Frequency Per cent Yes always 53 58.0 The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their response to the statement. More than three-tenth of the respondents (31.1 Sometimes 8 8. Thus.1 Total 90 100.Post training evaluation effectiveness showed that a significant number felt positively about that fact that the training imparted to them was relevant and that this was indeed making a positive contribution to their work. TABLE NO 3.9 per cent) said that their seniors always showed a genuine interest in their professional growth.1 per cent) felt that their seniors showed genuine interest in their professional growth most of the times.20 Respondents by their response to the statement. . if not always. it can be observed that a majority of the respondents felt that their seniors evinced a clear interest in their professional progress.

TABLE NO 3.2 Never 21 23.3 Total 90 100. one-fourth (24.22 . A little more than one-half of the respondents (52. A majority of the respondents felt that there was transparency and that they were also involved in decision-making processes though a small number were of the opinion that transparency was wanting.TABLE NO 3.21 Respondents by their opinion on whether they are involved /told about management's decisions Response Frequency Per cent Always 22 24.2 per cent) said that they were kept abreast of the management's decisions sometimes. Of the remaining half of the respondents.4 Sometimes 47 52.0 This table shows the distribution of respondents by their opinion on whether they are involved/kept informed about management's decisions.4 per cent) felt that they were always informed while one-fourth (23.3 per cent) felt that they were never told about management's decisions.

DIAGRAM NO.4 Additional responsibilities 14 15. The above figures have been highlighted using a pie-diagram (Refer Diagram no.4 per cent).Respondents by their opinion on which of the factors boosts their motivation level to the maximum Response Frequency Per cent Incentives 41 45. while awards were the next favorite.8 Awards 22 24. being preferred by one-fourth of the respondents (24. The factor that was preferred by the maximum number of respondents (45.8). As usual incentives in various forms were the major factors in motivating employees to strive harder and achieve more.6 per cent) was incentives.6 Gift vouchers 6 6.8 Pie-diagram showing respondents by their opinion on which boosts their motivational level to the maximum .0 The above table shows the various factors that boost the motivation level of employees in the organization.6 Total 90 100.7 Prizes 7 7.

which focuses on understanding the most prominent need in an individual. The responses have been accordingly scored and the source of motivation identified. with a defined scoring pattern. . please refer Appendix II. This scale is based on McClelland's theory of motivation. For the distribution of respondents by the responses to the 15 statements.23.23 Distribution of respondents by their most prominent need Source of motivation Frequency Per cent Achievement need 60 67 Power need 13 14 Affiliation need 17 19 Total 90 100 The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their most prominent or important need. TABLE NO 3.Steers and D. Achievement need and Affiliation need. The same has been presented as table 3.Section V: Motivation Scale-"What motivates you?" Introduction to the section: The following table is based on a scale developed by R. The scale has 15 statements. which classifies needs as Power need. Different individuals get motivated by different sets of needs at various points in their lives.Braunstein in " A Behaviourally Based Measure of Manifest Needs in Work Settings".

9).It can be understood from the above table that for two-thirds (67 per cent) of the respondents. TABLE NO 3. (Refer Diagram no."What do you want from your job?" Introduction to this section: The following table is based on a scale developed by R.9 Pie-diagram showing respondents by their most prominent source of motivation Section VI : Motivation Scale . This scale is based on Herzberg's theory of motivation. A pie-diagram has been used to show the distribution of respondents by their source of motivation. Since a majority of the employees in a call-center belong to the age group of 20-25 years. DIAGRAM NO. The scale has 12 statements with a prescribed scoring pattern. which classifies motivating factors into two types . The responses have been scored according to the scale and the prime motivator has been identified.Lussier in "Human Relations in Organisations: A Skill building Approach". achievement need is their most prominent need.24. which aims to understand the most prominent and influential motivator in an individual. Please refer Appendix II for the distribution of respondents by their responses to the 12 statements.N.24 Respondents by their prime motivator Prime Motivator Frequency Per cent Hygiene factors 34 38 Motivators 56 62 Total 90 100 ."hygiene factors" and "motivators". it is quite obvious that their energy levels are ever soaring and the will and urge to achieve something in life is very high. which has been presented in Table 3.

The above table shows the distribution of respondents by their most prominent motivating factor.10). between the respondents' source of motivation and their age. According to Herzbergs theory. It can be observed that more than three-fifths (62 per cent) of the respondents felt that motivators like encouragement. A pie diagram has been used to depict the distribution of respondents by their prime motivator. work culture and other such aspects more than mere tangible motivators.8) . salary. while 34 per cent of the respondents felt that hygiene factors such as company policy.3) 28 (41. Age group Source of Motivation Achievement need Power need Affiliation need Total 21-26 25 (37. etc played an important role in boosting their motivational levels. growth etc.10 Pie-diagram showing respondents by their prime motivator TABLE NO: 3. The purpose of understanding such a relationship is to identify whether an individual's source of motivation varies/changes according to his age or whether the two variables are independent of each other. job enrichment. DIAGRAM NO. (Refer Diagram no. This shows that most of the respondents value intrinsic factors like job content. supervision. absence of such "motivators" may not cause dissatisfaction among the employees. working conditions. if any. increased responsibility. (as in Herzbergs theory) helped in motivating them the most. but the presence of such factors would definitely go a long way in increasing the morale of employees.25 Respondents by their Age and Source of motivation Introduction to the table: The following table aims to understand the relationship.

This may be explained the urge to excel and very dominant. "There is no relationship between age and source of motivation". which has been selected by more than two-fifth (41. the need for self-achievement and may take importance.8%).05 level The above table reflects the distribution of respondents by their source of motivation.0) Chi-square value= 1. The need which least motivates respondents in this age group is the "Affiliation need". but as relationship building by the fact that during the youthful years of one's life.4) 90 (100. in the age-category of 21-26 years.9) 22 (24. .8) 23 (100.0) 27-32 8 (34. selected. by 37.9) 67 (100.4) 8 (34. "Achievement" and "Affiliation" need have been jointly voted as the most important source of motivation (34. For the category of respondents belonging to the age group of 27-32 years. However. the most prominent need is the "Power need". have full control of the situation around oneself may be years pass by. the distribution is not significant. we accept the Null hypothesis.8) 7 (30. The second most important need. according to their age category. voted by one-fifth (20.7) 35 (38.514 Degree of freedom=2 Not significant at 0.0) Total 33 (36. Based on the results of the Chi-square.8 per cent) of the respondents. The figures in the above table show that.3 per cent of the respondents is the "Achievement need".9 per cent) of the respondents.14 (20.

6) 37 (100. which may vary according to situational factors. The cross-tabulation given below tries to understand is there is any association existing between the respondents' gender and his/her motivational need.8) 15 (40.0) Female 19 (35.6) 8 (21.8) 14 (26.8) 20 (37.TABLE NO: 3.0) .26 Respondents by their Gender and Source of motivation Introduction to the table: Every individual is motivated by different sets of needs. or even according to constant factors like gender. etc.4) 53 (100. Gender Source of Motivation Achievement need Power need Affiliation need Total Male 14 (37.

The distribution is not significant. TABLE NO: 3.Total 33 (36. which has been chosen by about two-fifths (40. both "Achievement need" (35. the most and least important needs are the same.7) 35 (38. In the male category. there is no relationship between gender and source of motivation. in E-Serve International Ltd.8 per cent) and "Power need"(37. irrespective of their gender feel that the need for power is most predominant and the need for affiliation is least important. Since in the male and female category.305 level Degree of freedom = 2 Not significant at 0.4) 90 (100. followed by the "Achievement need" selected by 37. The results of the Chi-square conclude that the null hypothesis is accepted.9) 22 (24. the most powerful need is the "Power need".0) Chi-square value = 0.8 per cent of the respondents.8) have been chosen as the most prominent need by an almost equal number of respondents. Thus..27 Respondents by their educational qualification and intention to make a long career in the industry Introduction to the table: . it could probably mean that most employees.05 The above table depicts the distribution of respondents by their source of motivation according to the gender. Even in the female category.6 per cent) of the respondents.

6) 26 (100. nearly three-fourth (73.4 per cent) of the respondents strongly agree to the same statement. the above data show that a sizeable percentage of employees.Though the call center industry is booming and providing a lot of job opportunities to the youngsters.0) Post-graduate 17 (65.6) 64 (100. Educational Qualification Intention to make a long career in the industry Yes No Total Graduate 47 (73.1) 26 (28.4) 9 (34.566 Degree of freedom = 1 Not significant at 0. Thus. plan to make a long career in the industry.05 level Distribution of respondents by their response to the statement "I plan to make a long career in this industry". . according to their educational qualification is depicted in the above table. a little more than three-fifths (65.4) 17 (26. Among the respondents who are graduates. A lot of fresh graduates join this industry for various reasons. The following table attempts to trace if there is any relationship between the educational qualification of the respondents and their opinion on whether they want to make a long career in the call center industry.0) Chi-square value = 0. there is also an equally serious concern about the high rate of attrition in this industry.0) Total 64 (71. Similarly among the post-graduates. irrespective of their educational qualification.9) 90 (100.4 per cent) of them strongly believe that they are going to make a long career in the callcenter industry.

there may be a possibility that an individual remains in that same industry for a long time. which will later on may turn out to become his expectations from the industry. TABLE NO: 3. If such expectations are met. Reasons for joining the industry Intention to make long career in the industry Yes .Based on the results of the Chi-square test it can be concluded that the distribution is not significant. is accepted.28 Respondents by the reasons for joining the industry and their intention to make a long career in the industry Introduction to the table: Any person joining the call center industry may have various reasons for doing so. Thus the null hypothesis-"There is no relationship between educational qualification and the intention to make a long career in the industry". The following table attempts to understand is there is any association between the respondents' reasons for joining the industry and their opinion on whether they plan to make a long career in the call center industry or not.

also strongly believe that they are going to stay in the call center industry for a long time.9) 32 (100.9) 90 (100.0) Growth prospects 25 (78.0) Total 64 (71.1 per cent) of the respondents who have joined the industry due to growth prospects. Thus there is no relationship between the respondents' reasons for joining the industry and their intention to make a long career in the industry. according to their reasons for joining the industry.9) 21 (100. from the above table that among those respondents who have quoted monetary reasons as the reason for joining the industry. Among the respondents who have chosen factors like interest in the field and others as the reason for joining the industry. Less than four-fifths (78.05 level This table shows the respondents by their response to the statement. "I plan to make a long career in this industry".016 Degree of freedom = 2 Not Significant at 0. Based on the results of the Chi-square we can accept that null hypothesis. . more than threefourths (76.2 per cent) of them have strongly agreed to the fact that they plan to make a long career in the industry.1) 5 (23. It can be seen. etc) 23 (62.No Total Monetary reasons 16 (76.8) 37 (100.0) Others (Interest in the field.1 per cent) of them strongly believe that they are planning to make a long career in the call-center industry. more than three-fifths (62.1) 26 (28.0) Chi.square value = 2. The distribution is not significant.2) 14 (37.1) 7 (21.

These factors could be extrinsic factors like good compensation. if any.0) 27-32 6 (17. awards. Different motivational factors turn on each individual. recognition.1) 55 (100. etc. The focus of the table is to analyze the association. incentives. Age group Prime motivator Hygiene factors Motivators Total 21-26 28 (50.29 Respondents by their age and prime motivator Introduction to the table: Every organization provides a host of motivational factors to keep their employees' spirits high.1) 29 (82. bonus and other perks or intrinsic factors like good work culture.TABLE NO: 3.9) . between the age of the respondents and the motivational factor that influences the most.9) 27 (49.

The data in the above table show that nearly one half (50. The final chapter gives an insight into the following aspects 1) Summary of the study . CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS INTRODUCTION: The researcher has summarized the research study in this chapter.1 per cent) have chosen "Motivators". job content. while only 17 per cent of them get motivated by "Hygiene factors".77 Degree of freedom = 1 The above table explains the distribution of respondents by their motivational factor according to the age group f the respondents. Significant at 0. The distribution has proved to be significant. Based on the results of the Chi-square. it can be concluded that the null hypothesis stands rejected. nearly fourfifths (82. This phenomenon could probably be due to the fact that employees who are fresh into the industry and their job may value external motivators like salary. Thus.01 level SUMMARY.35 (100.9 per cent) of the respondents felt that "Motivators" are the ones that are most powerful in motivating them. there is a relationship between age and the prime motivator. FINDINGS.7) 56 (62. while those who have put in a sizeable number of years in the industry may seek satisfaction in intrinsic motivators like work culture. etc.0) Chi square value = 9.9 per cent) of the respondents in the age group of 21-26 years have chosen "Hygiene factors" as their most powerful motivating factor.3) 90 (100. The researcher has also added her own comments and recommendations towards the research study. incentives etc. But in the age category of 27-32 years. while another one half (49.0) Total 34 (37.

The maximum benefits of the boom in the call center industry are being enjoyed by India. But correspondingly. it is important to study the aspects of performance and motivation. SECTION II: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS FINDINGS: . including the areas of performance and motivation. there is also another serious issue associated with this industry and that is the presence of a high attrition rate. While analyzing the problem of attrition in the call center industry. * To understand the employees' perception of their own performance in the organization. The primary source of data collection was used and the tool of data collection employed was the questionnaire. A sample size of 90 respondents was taken and the sampling technique used was "simple random sampling". The data collected has been analyzed and interpreted.2) Findings and conclusions 3) Suggestions and recommendations SECTION I: SUMMARY The call center industry has been witnessing the fastest growth than any other industry in the last few years. from various angles. This industry also holds the credit of providing employment opportunities to a large population of fresh graduates. Actual collection of data was done in the month of November 2003. * To understand the level of motivation among the employees in the organization and identify which of the motivational factors induce highest levels of performance. There have been various studies conducted on this issue. which has recently been named as the "Call-center capital" of the world. which have generated varied findings. The main aim of the study is to: * Understand performance and motivation in a call-center The secondary objectives are: * To study the demographic characteristics of the employees in E-Serve. * To give a list of employee suggestions/recommendations for introduction of newer methods of motivation. This was done to assess the effectiveness of the study. The present study has made an attempt to examine performance and motivation in Call-centers. In order to enhance the present status. Pre-testing was done on 10% of the samples as a part of the preliminary study. findings were drawn and certain findings have proved to be statistically significant. The research design used was the descriptive design. India needs to benchmark itself with global standards in all aspects.

7 per cent) as reasons for joining the industry. a majority of them (48. an almost equal percentage of them quoted "growth prospects" (35.6 per cent) and "interest in the field" (36. where it is believed that an employee usually does not continue for a long time. Thus a major section of call center employees are young people belonging to the age category of 21-24 years. which is a good advantage. Thirty-eight per cent of the respondents felt that the greatest advantage of the industry is the good monetary benefits that it offers. Very few of them (4 per cent) felt that they have joined the industry as a temporary stopgap arrangement. it is quite surprising to note that 71. Most of the respondents fall in the age category of 21-24 years (64.1 per cent have 36 years of experience in the industry. while 40 per cent of the respondents have an experience of 1-3 years.8 per cent).4 per cent). "Stress in the job" had been perceived as a great disadvantage by a majority of the respondents (37. only a minimum eligibility of graduation is required.1 per cent). with the mean age being 27 years. while 32. These figures may be supportive of the high rate of attrition that exists in the call center industry. While responding to the question on the reasons for joining the industry. This may be a matter of pride for E-Serve for having been able to satisfy the expectations of a majority of the employees.9 percent) is females.1 per cent of the respondents believed that they are planning to make a long career in the industry. Given the high rate of attrition in the industry.2 per cent of them perceived "Job monotony" as a major disadvantage. Only a meagre 11. It is a well-known fact that a call center job involves high levels of stress and this point is just being reinforced by the respondents. A majority of the respondents are graduates (71. while 18 per cent felt that the call center industry requires minimum educational qualification. This may be indicative of the fact that females are still the preferred category in the field of customer care and management. The call center industry provides good employment opportunities to fresh graduates. This may be due to the fact that this is an industry in which.9 per cent. PERFORMANCE: . INDUSTRY RELATED DETAILS: Of the total number of respondents. Nearly 79 per cent of the respondents agreed to the fact that their expectations from the industry have been met. while postgraduates account for 28.9 per cent) have put in less than one year of service in the industry. who enter the industry with expectations of quick money and good growth prospects.The findings of this research have been classified under the following broad categories: PERSONAL PROFILE: The composition of respondents reveals that a majority of them (58.

1 per cent felt that motivation was an integral part of their organization culture.2 per cent felt that they get help sometimes. These figures are quite indicative of the fact that E-Serve has an effective performance appraisal system in place. With respect to the respondents' satisfaction about the performance evaluation system that is carried out in the organization. MOTIVATION: The level of morale in the employees is very high since 81.While questioning the respondents on the self-perception of their performance. This may be attributable to the clarity of the information flow in the organization. CONCLUSIONS: . A majority of the respondents (87. More than one-half (52. When 63. 81. 86. while about 40 per cent felt that they were not very clear about their role.2 per cent) of the respondents felt that they are sometimes told about the management's decision. Among all the motivational factors in the organization. incentives proved to be the most effective.5 per cent believed that they are satisfied with the current system of evaluation. 75. Only 18. Thus it can be observed that a majority of employees believed that motivation was an essential part of the work culture at E-Serve. But a sizeable 32.9 percent were dissatisfied with the performance evaluation system. rather than "hygiene factor".9 per cent believed that their training matches with the job requirements always. with a little less than half of the respondents voting for the same. which was selected by more than three-fifth (67 per cent) of the employees. while gift vouchers were the least effective. Pressure affects people in different ways. MOTIVATION SCALE II. More than half the respondents felt that their role in the organization was specific and important in the organization. moreover in a call center.8 per cent) were happy with the training given to them and 58. percent said that the atmosphere is very conducive where people are always to help each other.7 per cent believed that they are satisfied with their current levels of performance. MOTIVATION SCALE I: "What motivates you" The need for achievement was highest among the employees.57.8 percent of the respondents believed that they remain unaffected by pressure."What do you want from your job" A little more than three-fifth of the employees believed that they were motivated by "motivators". Pressure is major issue of concern in any stressful job.3 keen only the respondents were asked their views on the work environment at E-Serve.1 per cent of the respondents also believed that performance evaluation is being implemented objectively in the organization.

do not intend to make a long career in the call center industry. The least powerful need is the affiliation need (20. which means that there is no relationship between gender and source of motivation. The relationship is statistically insignificant. the null hypothesis is accepted.9 per cent) of the respondents in the age group of 27-32 years.25). which is "There is no relationship between age and source of motivation" is accepted. feel that the quality of "hygiene factors" in an organization motivate them the most. Thus the null hypothesis stands rejected. who have quoted monetary reasons as the cause for joining the industry. which implies that the null hypothesis is accepted. while more than four-fifth (82. In the female category. while less than two-fifth of the respondents (34. In order to achieve global standards of performance. a little more than two-fifth (41.8 per cent) in the age category of 27-32 years.28) 5) A little more than one-half (50.9 per cent) in the first age group and the power need in the second age group (30. the . 3.4 per cent) of the graduate respondents strongly believe that they intend to make a long career in the industry. Among the respondents who have quoted growth prospects as the reason.4 per cent) of the respondents who are post-graduates also intend to make a long career in the industry. strongly believe that they would like to make a long career in the industry. it is important to get an understanding of performance and motivation in the organization.26). Thus the null hypothesis stands accepted which implies that there is no significant association between educational qualification of the respondents and their intention to make a long career in the industry (Refer table no.27) 4) A little more than three-fourth (76. More than three-fifth (65. Thus.1 per cent) of the respondents.1 per cent).3.4 per cent). (Refer table no. which is ridden by high levels of stress and pressure. have chosen both. There is no statistical relationship between the two variables.9 per cent) of the respondents in the age group of 21-26 years. which means that there is a relationship between age of the respondents and the prime motivator. The relationship is statistically insignificant.9 per cent) of them who have joined due to growth prospects. 37. Thus the null hypothesis.8 per cent) of the respondents. believe that they derive maximum satisfaction from the "motivators" in the organization. The relationship is statistically significant. the need for achievement and affiliation as their most powerful source of motivation. (Refer table no. A little less than one-fourth (23. are motivated most by the need for power. while only about one-fifth of them have chosen "Affiliation need". Thus there is no relationship between the respondents' reasons for joining the industry and their intention to make a long career in the industry".1) In the age group of 21-26 years. 2) Two-fifth of the respondents in the male category have chosen "Power need" as their most prominent need. strongly intend to make a long career in the industry.3.The relationship is not statistically significant. 3) A little less than three-fourth (73. DISCUSSION: In a call center industry.9 per cent) of the respondents who have quoted monetary benefits as the reason and a little more than one-fifth (21.8 per cent have chosen the need for power while a little more than one-fourth have chosen the need for affiliation. (Refer table no.3. a little less than four-fifth (78.

suggested by the researcher. * A sizeable percentage of employees feel that there can be a better match between their job responsibilities and the training imparted to them. (For eg. This study aims to understand the various aspects of performance and motivation at E-Serve. the employee can also be given incentives for group performance and unit targets. * The tables also reveal that the employees are motivated by "motivators" (as in Herzberg's theory) more than they are by the "hygiene factors". Apart from being rewarded for individual targets. The management can also think on bringing about more creativity in the existing job and job rotation. with respect to communication of management's decision needs to be in place.) * It can be observed. that most of respondents felt that the need to achieve is the driving force that motivates them. * As monetary incentives are the biggest drivers in motivation employees. more creative ways of rewarding through incentives need to be introduced. from the data. * Since work pressure affects different people in different ways. SECTION III: SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The following are the areas of change/improvement. For the organization: * The youth form a major percentage of employees in the call center. * Though a majority of the respondents felt that their colleagues at work place are helpful and supportive. more stress relief programmes need to be introduced.employees need to be constantly motivated and their morale kept high. On this front. * More transparency. pressure needs to be used as an important tool in channelising the efforts of the employees in the right direction. Since the achievement need is very high among the employees. there is still some scope for improvement on teamwork. keeping in mind the specific needs of employees and the job responsibilities. who get attracted to the industry primarily due to two reasons: a) Growth prospects b) Monetary benefits Call centers need to capitalize on the above two factors in order to help restrain the attrition rate in the industry. more care can be taken to see that training programmes are designed. holding regular feedback sessions and enriching the job content. * The two major issues of concern in a call center are job stress and job monotony. the organization can stimulate this need by giving such employees difficult challenges. the . * Special focus can be given on helping the employees gain more clarity in their role and making them feel that their role is important to the organization. Thus. To combat these.

Pearson Education : Human Behaviour at Work Singapore.D : A Behaviourally based measure of 1976 Manifest needs in Work Settings Homewood Publications Lussier. Braunstein. responsibility and growth. there is still further scope for doing a comparative analysis on performance and motivation between various call centers. recognition. * This research focuses mainly on the opinions of the call center executives on the various aspects of performance and motivation.organization needs to intrinsically reward people by emphasizing on achievement. when the employees were asked whether the organization needs to introduce any other additional motivating factors.W 1989 Websites: : Human Relations in Organizations-A Skill Homewood Publications : Organizational Behaviour. CONCLUDING REMARKS: Though an attempt has been made to understand the various aspects of performance and motivation in E-Serve International.Keith. Delhi.John.N 1993 building Approach Robbins.R. the following suggestions came up: * Appreciation mails and messages from top management * More off site camps and informal gatherings * Presence of a library * More frequent job rotation For further research: * Since this research has been undertaken only for one organization.R.Newstrom. A study on similar lines could be undertaken. the work itself. * Finally. Stephen 2002 Davis. McGraw-Hill . there is still scope for more research in this area of study BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: Steers. taking into views. the perceptions of the top management also. which is a call center.

(If you have multiple answers for some questions please mark the one that is most appropriate.thecallcenterschool.contactcenterworld. I request you to take your time and answer all the questions carefully and truthfully.com www.com www. 6.Undecided D Disagree SD .cconvergence. To understand the employees' perception of their own performance in the organization.workforce.com www.com www. As far as possible please avoid choosing option " UD (Undecided)" Objectives of the study: Specific Objective: To understand Performance and Motivation at E-Serve International General Objectives: 5.com www. I assure you that the answers will be kept strictly confidential. To study the demographic characteristics of the employees in Citicorp. To understand the level of motivation among the employees in the organization and identify which of the motivational factors induce highest levels of performance. To give a list of employee suggestions/recommendations for introduction of newer methods of motivation Abbreviations of terms used in this questionnaire: SA Strongly agree A Agree UD .callcentre-expo.uk Appendix I: Questionnaire This study is being carried out purely for the purpose of research. 7.customerservicegroup.com www.co.Strongly Disagree A-1 (1) DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS * * * * * Age Gender Department Educational Qualification Years of service in this industry .commweb.com www. 8.www.the-resource-center.

so far * * * * * SA A UD D SD (4) What do you perceive as the advantages of this industry? Advantages * Good monetary benefits * Quick growth * Minimum qualifications needed * Any others (pls specify) (5) What do you perceive as the disadvantages of this industry? Disadvantages * Work timings * Job monotony * Stress in the job * Any others (pls specify) A-2 (6) I plan to make a long career in this industry * * * * * SA A UD D SD PERFORMANCE (7) I think that I am currently performing at my highest potential * SA * A * UD .(2) Reasons for joining this industry * * * * * Monetary reasons Growth prospects Interest in the field Temporary arrangement Any other (3) My expectations from this industry have been met.

What motivates you? (pls answer as SA. then pls answer this: Factors contributing to my utilizing my maximum potential are * Good work environment * Recognition * Monetary incentives * Job challenge * Any others (pls specify) (9) If D or SD are answers to ques (6).D OR SD) (13) I try very hard to improve on my past performance at work . then pls answer this Factors hindering my achieving my maximum level of performance are * Job monotony * Stress * Lack of recognition * Work politics * Any others (pls specify) (10) How do you handle pressure? * I am able to perform to my maximum only when I am under pressure * I do not get unduly affected by pressure-my performance remains the same * Pressure hinders my performance greatly A-3 (11) I am satisfied with the current method of performance evaluation.A. being carried out in the organization * * * * * SA A UD D SD (12) Performance evaluation is being carried out objectively in my organization * * * * * SA A UD D SD MOTIVATION General questions .* D * SD (8) If SA or A are answers to ques (6).UD.

* * * * * SA A UD D SD (14) I enjoy competition and winning * * * * * SA A UD D SD A-4 (15) I often find myself talking to those around me about non-work matter * * * * * SA A UD D SD (16) I enjoy a difficult challenge * * * * * SA A UD D SD (17) I enjoy being in charge * * * * * SA A UD D SD (18) I want to be liked by others * * * * * SA A UD D SD (19) I want to know how I am progressing as I complete tasks .

* * * * * SA A UD D SD (20) I confront people who do things I disagree with * SA * A * UD * D * SD A-5 (21) I tend to build close relationships with co-workers * * * * * SA A UD D SD (22) I enjoy setting and achieving realistic goals * * * * * SA A UD D SD (23) I enjoy influencing other people to get my way * * * * * SA A UD D SD (24) I enjoy belonging to groups and organizations * * * * * SA A UD D SD (25) I enjoy the satisfaction of completing a difficult task * * * * * SA S UD D SD (26) I often work to gain more control over the events around me * SA .

Very imp all imp (5) (1) Imp (4) Somewhat imp (3) Not so imp (2) Not at (1) An interesting job (2) A good boss (3) Recognition and appreciation for the work I do (4) Opportunity for advancement (5) Satisfying personal life (6) A prestigious or status job (7) Job responsibility (8) Good working conditions (9) Sensible company rules.* A * UD * D * SD A-6 (27) I enjoy working with others more than working alone * * * * * SA A UD D SD (28) What do you want from your job? Rate the 12 job factors listed below according to how important each is to you. regulations. Place a number on a scale of 1 to 5 on the number before each factor. policies & procedures (10) The opportunity to grow through learning new things (11) A job I can do well and succeed at (12) Job security A-7 .

none is available (32) Have you been given any specific job responsibility in your organization? * Yes my role is specific and important in this organization * My role is clearly defined but does not involve measurable contribution * My role has not been defined clearly in detail (33) Are you happy with the training given to you? * Yes * No (34) Does your training match with the requirements of your job? * * * * Yes.MOTIVATION-QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE ORGANISATION (29) Motivation is an integral part of my organizational culture * * * * * SA A UD D SD (30) Are you excited about going to work on Monday? * * * * Always Frequently Sometimes Never (31) What do you think about the work environment at Citicorp? * * * * People are always very keen to help sort out each others problems I get help from others sometimes I get very hostile responses when I ask for help When I need some help. always Mostly Sometimes Never . always Sometimes Frequently Never A-8 (35) Do you think your seniors are genuinely interested in your professional growth? * * * * Yes.

Statement Response Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 1 . Thank you for your kind co-operation A-9 Achievement Need S.No. 2. boosts your motivational level to the maximum? * * * * * Incentives (in salary) Gift vouchers Prizes (product-wise) Awards Additional responsibilities (38) Please suggest a few additional factors that you think. 3. among the following. 4. will help in motivating you to perform better 1. always * Sometimes * Never (37) What.(36) Are you involved/told about management's decisions? * Yes.

9) 2 (2.0) 53 (58.8) 36 (40.8) 35 (38.0) 1 (1.9) 3 (3.4) 0 3 I want to know how I am progressing as I complete tasks 52 (57.1) 0 Power Need 6 I enjoy competition and winning 36 .0) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.4) 53 (58.2) 1 (1.1) 0 0 2 I enjoy a difficult challenge 27 (30.9) 54 (60.I try very hard to improve on my past performance at work 35 (38.) 0 4 I enjoy setting and achieving realistic goals 31 (34.3) 3 (3.7) 4 (4.9) 6 (6.3) 0 5 I enjoy the satisfaction of completing a difficult task 52 (57.

0) 47 (52.7) 3 (3.6) 4 (4.7) 0 8 I confront people who do things I disagree with 13 (14.(40.3) 24 (26.2) 12 (13. "What motivates you?" .2) 2 (2.4) 6 (6.3) 50 (55.2) 10 I often work to gain more control over the events around me 18 (20.3) 9 I enjoy influencing other people to get my way 6 (6.2) 2 (2.7) 29 (32.4) 38 (42.6) 2 (2.2) 0 7 I enjoy being in charge 30 (33.2) 15 (16.7) 38 (42.4) 0 Appendix II: Compilation of respondents' responses to the motivational scale.0) 50 (55.3) 13 (14.2) 12 (13.

1) 0 13 I tend to build close relationships with co-workers .2) 40 (44.Contd..4) 2 (2.9) 6 (6..4) 0 12 I want to be liked by others 47 (52.7) 4 (4.2) 1 (1. Affiliation Need 11 I enjoy a difficult challenge 27 (30.0) 53 (58.

1) 6 (6. "What do you want from your job?" Hygiene factors S.8) 0 15 I enjoy working with others more than working alone 37 (41.7) 7 (7.0) 6 (6.21 (23. Statement Response Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 1 A good boss 0 0 .1) 38 (36.4) 46 (51.6) 6 (6.4) 5 (5.6) 9 (10.No.7) Appendix III: Compilation of respondents' responses to the motivational scale.7) 5 (5.7) 0 14 I enjoy belonging to groups and organizations 31 (34.3) 58 (64.

7) 19 (21.1) 6 (6.0) 35 (38.3) 53 (58.3) 6 (6.5 (5.7) 30 (33.4) 21 (23.1) 4 (4.1) 27 (30.9) 5 .3) 2 Satisfying personal life 3 (3.6) 28 (31.1) 27 (30.1) 57 (63.9) 3 Prestigious or status job 1 (1.0) 4 Good working conditions 0 1 (1.3) 37 (41.

Sensible company rules, regulations and policies 0 3 (3.3) 9 (10.0) 31 (34.4) 47 (52.2) 6 Job security 5 (5.6) 7 (7.8) 4 (4.4) 24 (26.7) 50 (55.6)

Contd... Motivators 7 An interesting job 0 1 (1.1) 3 (3.3) 31 (34.4) 55 (61.1) 8 Recognition and appreciation

0 0 3 (3.3) 24 (26.7) 63 (70.0) 9 Opportunity for advancement 0 0 4 (4.4) 38 (42.2) 48 (53.3) 10 Job responsibility 0 1 (1.1) 4 (4.4) 47 (52.2) 38 (42.2) 11 Opportunity to grow through learning new things 0 1 (1.1)

0 33 (36.7) 56 (62.2) 12 A job that I can do well and succeed at 0 1 (1.1) 6 (6.7) 36 (40.0) 47 (52.2)