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Non–relativistic case

Luigi Foschini

Institute TeSRE – CNR, Via Gobetti 101, I–40129, Bologna (Italy) email: foschini@tesre.bo.cnr.it

December 18, 2000

Abstract Despite of a lot of eﬀorts and interesting results, accretion disk theory is still under development and there are several unknowns: speciﬁcally, all available models are in the steady state approximation. In this letter, we investigate unsteady motion, beginning with shock wave–turbulence interaction. Indeed, unsteady ﬂow allows this type of interaction, which in turn results in substantial changes in the accretion disk structure, enlarging the region where it is possible that the plasma reaches the thermal temperature. Shock wave–turbulence interaction can also explain the supersonic motion in the boundary layer, without violating causality and introducing particular assumptions on the viscosity. keywords: accretion, accretion disks – shock waves – turbulence – novae, cataclysmic variables

1

Introduction

Accretion power is a primary subject in astrophysics, because it concerns several phenomena in the universe: protostellar and protoplanetary disks, X–ray binaries, active galactic nuclei. Accretion disks present an ensemble of phenomena, embedded each others, which require an interdisciplinary knowledge (for a review see Pringle 1981, Frank et al. 1992, Papaloizou & 1

Lin 1995, Lin & Papaloizou 1996). Although modern numerical models have thrown a bit of light on these arguments, the main problem remains what to put in the model. The commonly accepted model is that of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973), but it presents a problem of causality if there is supersonic motion in the boudary layer (Pringle 1977). Untill now, the proposed solutions to this paradox are based on imposing subsonic motion or small values of Shakura & Sunyaev’s α value, even though observations suggest that it is not true (e.g. Smak 2000, Warner 2000). It is worth noting that all these models are in the steady state approximation, but it is reasonable that unsteady motion would be more physically sound and that could play an important role in the physics of several phenomena. The purpose of this letter is to settle some basic concepts about the interaction of shock waves and turbulence in accretion disks, in order to grasp the physics. For the moment, we will deal with non–relativistic case (i.e. an accretion disk in cataclysmic variables), while the relativistic corrections wil be the subject of another paper.

2

Accretion disks in cataclysmic variables

In order to make an example of how this type of interaction works in accretion disks, we will deal with cataclysmic variables, i.e. an accreting white dwarf with a low mass companion star. This is potentially the “simplest” case, but, at least in principle, it is possible to use the same physical concepts also in other cases, like black holes and neutron stars. Obviously, it is necessary to take into account for diﬀerences, speciﬁcally for relativistic eﬀects and for the fact that the boundary layer is dominated by radiation. These cases will be the subject of another paper. Several authors have set up models of accretion disks onto white dwarf in a binary system (e.g. Patterson & Raymond 1985a,b, Narayan & Popham 1993, Popham & Narayan 1995, Collins et al. 2000), but all of them have dealt with steady state approximation. However, in cataclysmic variables, the accretion rate can change very much and is linked to the X–ray luminosity. As showed ˙ by Patterson & Raymond (1985a,b), at high accretion rate (M > 1016 g/s) there is scarce hard X–ray emission, while the contrary occurs for low accretion rate. The explanation is that, at low accretion rate, the boundary layer of the 2

disk has low density and low optical depth. For this reason, it cools itself ineﬃciently, reaching high temperatures, up to 108 K, necessary to radiate hard X–rays (Pringle 1977, Pringle & Savonije 1979). The contrary occurs for high accretion rate, when eﬃcient cooling (produced by the incoming of fresh matter) allows to reach temperatures in up to about 5 · 105 K. It is worth noting that the complete X–ray ﬂux increases with high accretion rate and decreases with low accretion rate; the presence or not of fresh matter inﬂuences the energy band of the main X–ray emission. Narayan & Popham (1993, Popham & Narayan 1995) set up a numerical model to provide quantitative evaluation of the above theories. Their results were recently conﬁrmed by Collins et al. (2000). All models are based on the so–called α–viscosity prescription by Shakura & Sunyaev (1973), which require that the viscosity had to be proportional to the pressure. There is, however, a problem: Pringle (1977) showed that it is not possible that a supersonic region exists, because, in that case informations cannot cross the shock wave and the star would be isolated from the disk. Indeed, in this case, the supersonic turbulent motion will be slowed quickly by shocks. Several authors tried to overcome this conundrum by using particular assumptions on α or by imposing that the radial speed was subsonic all over the boundary layer (e.g. Narayan 1992, Popham & Narayan 1992, Obach & Glatzel 1999, and references therein). Observations suggest that small α values or boundary layers dimensions too narrow are not physically sound (see Smak 2000, Warner 2000). Moreover, it is very diﬃcult to produce X–rays in the boundary layer without shocks. This problem shows the main limit of steady state models. As we will see below, while steady state supersonic motion suppresses turbulence, unsteady motion increases it, so that we can continue to use the Shakura–Sunyaev model without any ad hoc assumption on viscosity.

3

Shock waves–turbulence interaction

Despite of its importance in several application in science and engineering, the interaction of shock waves with turbulence is still largely unknown. The ﬁrst problem is to obtain reliable experimental data at high Mach numbers (Mach > 5, hypersonic ﬂow), but also experiments at moderate Mach numbers suﬀer with a strong dependence on the measurement instruments and therefore cannot describe with reasonable reliability the complex interaction 3

of shock waves with turbulence. In addition, it is necessary to remind that the turbulence is surely one of the oldest unsolved problems in science. During recent years, the availability of computer power made it easier to set up numerical models. However problems remain, because, when dealing with turbulence, it is necessary to introduce closure conditions, which in turn are dependent on experimental data (we are back to the above point). For a review, see Andreopulos et al. (2000), Lele (1994), Adamson & Messiter (1980), and references therein. The most important feature of shock waves–turbulence interaction is the ampliﬁcation of speed ﬂuctuations (and hence of pressure and energy) and a strong change in the length scales (Andreopulos et al. 2000). The ampliﬁcation depends on the shock strength, the state of the turbulence, and its level of compressibility. Let C the ratio of densities across the shock; the ampliﬁcation factor for the longitudinal velocity is κlon = C 2 , while the factor for lateral vorticity ﬂuctuations is κvor = (1 + 2C 2 )/3 (Andreopulos et al. 2000). For monatomic gas or metal vapors, the speciﬁc heats ratio γ = 1.7, and hence C → 4. From these values we obtain that κlon = 16 and κvor = 11. With respect to the ampliﬁcation of kinetic energy, Rotman (1991) reports κ ≈ 2 − 2.15, while for Jacquin et al. (1993) κ depends on the density ratio and the factor can be up to 6 for monatomic gases and plasmas. We assume that, for kinetic energy, 2 ≤ κ ≤ 6 and that this ampliﬁcation value is valid also for pressure. It is worth reminding, that at high Mach number and steady state motion, the eﬀect of compressibility suppress the turbulence and therefore we have no ampliﬁcation. Changes in the Mach number (unsteady motion) generate distortions in shock waves, allowing the interaction with turbulence. The key point is therefore that the Mach number must not be constant.

4

Boundary layers in cataclysmic variables

It is now clear from the above section, that the condition creating the paradox, i.e. that turbulent supersonic motion would be slowed by shocks, does not hold under unsteady conditions. It is much more physically sound that an accretion disk had strong changes, mainly due to variability in accretion rate, and the steady state is only a useful approximation to get a ﬁrst look at the problem. Therefore, in unsteady motion, the Shakura & Sunyaev’s theory continues to be valid, at least for viscosity prescription. Let us to do 4

some calculation of order of magnitude to investigate the eﬀects of ampliﬁcation (cf. Foschini 2001 for investigation of these eﬀects in hypersonic ﬂow during asteroid impacts). For a plasma in an accretion disk of a cataclysmic variable, under unsteady conditions, we cannot apply isothermal or adiabatic approximations. However, we can use Rankine–Hugoniot relations in the limit of a strong shock (for the sake of the simplicity we will use the same notation as Frank et al. 1992): 3 P2 = κ(1 + β)ρ1 V12 (1) 4 where P2 is the post shock pressure, β is the coeﬃcient of ionization (β = 1 is 100% ionization), ρ1 is the plasma density, and V1 is the radial speed of the plasma. The term ρ1 V12 is known as the ram pressure. The multiplicative factor due to ionization is related to the commonly used µ (cf. Frank et al. 1992), by µ = (1+β)−1 . With respect to the traditional equation valid for a neutral gas under steady conditions, we have added the term of ionization, and the ampliﬁcative factor κ, to take into account of ampliﬁcation under unsteady shocks. Therefore, with reference of the value of κ analysed in the previous section, the turbulence can leads to ampliﬁcation of the ram pressure, under distortion of the shock wave, up to 12 times the nominal value for a neutral gas. Indeed, we have taken into account also the multiplicative factor (1+β), that, for fully ionized hydrogen is equal to 2. It is worth noting that, if we have a fully ionized plasma composed by atoms with more than one electron, we can have (1 + β) > 2. Now, to calculate the order of magnitude of the temperature T2 in the post shock plasma, we use the perfect gas law (cf. Frank et al. 1992): T2 = mH P2 (1 + β)k ρ2 (2)

where k is the Boltzmann’s constant and mH is the mass of the hydrogen atom. By substituting Eq. (1) in Eq. (2), and taking into account that the density ratio across the shock for a fully ionized plasma is 4, we obtain: 3 mH 2 κV1 (3) 16 k that should be compared with the same equation in Frank et al. (1992): T2 =

5

T2,F =

3 mH V12 16 (1 + β)k

(4)

The post shock temperature calculated under unsteady conditions results to be roughly one order of magnitude greater that T2,F , and therefore, appears to be a best candidate for X–rays emission from boundary layer in accretion disks.

5

The eﬀect on the dimensions

In addition to the increase of temperature, another eﬀect of unsteady ﬂow is to enlarge the dimension of the boundary layer where we can have this high temperature (cf. Obach & Glatzel 1999). If the incoming matter at a distance R from the white dwarf has the velocity: V12 = therefore, Eq. (3) becomes: 3 κmH GM (6) 16 kR The temperature Tth that the matter would have if its gravitational potential energy is completely converted into thermal energy is (see Frank et al. 1992): T2 = Tth = mp GM 3kR∗ (7) GM R (5)

Equating Eq. (6) with Eq. (7), and noting that mH ≈ mp , we have that: 9 (8) κR∗ 16 that is, the radius R where the post shock temperature T2 reaches the value Tth is enlarged of about one order of magnitude. R=

6

6

Final remarks

In this letter, we have investigated one eﬀect of the unsteady motion in accretion disks, the interaction between shock–waves and turbulence. Although we have done calculation of order of magnitude, it is reasonable that the produced eﬀects (an increase of post shock temperature and an enlargement of the boudary layer) have physical ground. This can explain the presence of supersonic motion, without introducing ad hoc prescriptions on the viscosity, saving the Shakura & Sunyaev’s theory from an apparent causality paradox. This letter opens new direction of research: indeed, more details are required to better assess the dynamics of accretion disks under unsteady state. In addition, it is also necessary to investigate how relativistic corrections could be included in this scenario. Last, but not least, it is reasonable that unsteady motion introduces other eﬀects, in addition to shock wave– turbulence interaction. All these things will be the subject of further papers.

7

Acknowledgements

I wish to thank J. Frank for helpful suggestions in bibliographical search, and N. Masetti for useful discussions. This research has made use of NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Abstract Service.

References

[1] Adamson T.C., Messiter A.F., 1980, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 12, 103 [2] Andreopulos Y., Agui J.H., Briassulis G., 2000, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 32, 309 [3] Collins T.J.B., Helfer H.L., van Horn H.M., 2000, ApJ 534, 934 [4] Foschini L., 2001, A&A, accepted for the publication. [astro-ph/0012256] [5] Frank J., King A., Raine D., 1992. Accretion power in astrophysics. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [6] Jacquin L., Cambron C., Blin E., 1993, Phys. Fluids A 5, 2539 [7] Lele S.K., 1994, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 211 7

[8] Lin D.N.C., Papaloizou J.C.B., 1996, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 34, 703 [9] Narayan R., 1992, ApJ 394, 261 [10] Narayan R., Popham R., 1993, Nature 362, 820 [11] Obach C., Glatzel W., 1999, MNRAS 303, 603 [12] Papaloizou J.C.B., Lin D.N.C., 1995, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 33, 505 [13] Patterson J., Raymond J.C., 1985a, ApJ 292, 535 [14] Patterson J., Raymond J.C., 1985b, ApJ 292, 550 [15] Popham R., Narayan R., 1992, ApJ 394, 255 [16] Popham R., Narayan R., 1995, ApJ 442, 337 [17] Pringle J.E., 1977, MNRAS 178, 195 [18] Pringle J.E., 1981, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 19, 137 [19] Pringle J.E., Savonije G.J., 1979, MNRAS 187, 777 [20] Rotman D., 1991, Phys. Fluids A 3, 1792 [21] Shakura N.I., Sunyaev R.A., 1973, A&A 24, 337 [22] Smak J., 2000, New Astron. Rev. 44, 171 [23] Warner B., 2000, New Astron. Rev. 44, 3

8

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