KALDERASH LANGUAGE IN BULGARIA 1 First of all I would like to thank my friend and colleague LEV CHERENKOV for his

personal communications, and particularly ZLATKO MLADENOV and his family, BAY MARIO, BAY VASKO (POPOSH), my friend and colleague HRISTO KYUCHUKOV for his interest in this paper, and all the BULGARIAN KALDERASH RROM who live in Bulgaria and abroad. The objective of the present paper is to present some particular features belonging to one of the more picturesque variants of the Kalderash dialects spoken in Bulgaria, with its two internal varieties, which differ mainly due to the region to which the speaker belongs and to the external influences, e.g.: other Romani dialects and the Turkish and Bulgarian languages. The “Kalderasha” in Bulgaria mostly call themselves “Kardarasha” (in singular “Kardarashi”) and also Rrom Tsigêniyake (Rrom who preserve and are part of the Tsigeniya-Rromaniya: the Romani law and traditions). Many subgroups of this community had left Romania during the so-called ‘Kalderash migration’ which started in the second half of the 19th century, after the ending of the enslavement in Romania in 1864, some of them, first went to Russia2 and later, at the beginning of the 20th c., to Bulgaria. But a great number of the “Kalderasha”, those called Nyámtsuria and Sýrburia entered first the Austro-Hungarian Empire and then reached Bulgaria via Serbia, after living sometime in that area. The “Kalderasha” were forced to become sedentary in 1958 by a special decree of the Bulgarian Council of Ministers. Nowadays they live, in most cases, in villages and small towns and less often in the big cities, in small family groups scattered among the surrounding Bulgarian population3. The Bulgarian Kalderash community is also divided into several internal subgroups (nátsiyi, kumpónyi and vítsi) some of them are the following: Zlatária, Grastária, Nitsulésh, Duduláya, Tasmanária, Zhwplésh, Laynésh, Sérbski and Nyámtsuria. Their traditional occupations are trade for men (mostly in horses in the past which is no longer the case, nowadays are businessmen in many areas of the industry and trade), and as for the women has been the practice of the fortune-telling. The “Lovaria” were the second group which entered Bulgaria, alongside with the Kalderasha and have been intermarrying them until now. Because of that many authors give the name “Lovari-Kalderash” as one of the community’s self-denominations in Bulgaria, that doesn’t happen abroad where these are two differentiated groups. All "Kalderasha" Roma differ greatly from the rest of the Romani community in Bulgaria and are practically endogamous within their own community. The “Kalderasha” are mostly Orthodox Christians, they consider themselves Dasikané Rrom/á (denomination taken from the Erliyi), but evangelism is also growing up within their community, due to the missions and the regular trips of the French and German Kalderash pastors and missioners, who started to visit the area before the collapse of the communist system (these contacts also impacts on the language). The Romani language is well preserved within the community as well as a great part of the Romani traditions.
1 2

This paper is an extract of the Grammar and Dictionary of the Kalderash language, in preparation. It seems to be that they didn’t stayed so much in those lands. 3 Marushiakova-Popov


It is an indicative fact that the “Kalderasha” are the only Romani group which has preserved the specific forms of the Romani Kris (Romani court), which they call in Bulgaria “mesheré” or better “mesheriáva”. That maintains the social structure of the “Kalderasha” Roma all over the world, and the Bulgarian “Kalderasha” are not an exception. They also share with other Kalderash groups abroad a self-awareness of belonging to a global specific group, and also preserve much alive the traditional values and concepts of the Tsigêníya-Rromaníya (the Romani Law and traditions). Some impressions of a Kalderash Dialect in Bulgaria Kalderashko/Kardarashko shib Characteristics: The "Kalderasha" use their own distinctive Romani dialect with its own internal variants, which belongs to the so called Vlach dialects of the second level or New Vlach dialects. In Bulgaria there are four variants of the Kalderash dialects. The first two ones are really picturesque and very similar between them, (that of the Nitsulésh(ti) and that of the Zwplésh(ti)), and the motive of these remarks, they are also close to the variant spoken in Rumania, but with a strong Lovari influence in this case, mainly at a phonological level and partly in the vocabulary (the first impression at interacting with the group, is that they speak a Lovari dialect). In these variants can also be found a strong Rumanian influence at a lexical level, and similarities in many of their characteristics with the dialect of the Greek Kalderash of USA, Argentina and Uruguay (South-America). This makes these variants a little bit different from the western Kalderash variants and perhaps unique because of their characteristics. The Serbian and German variants also spoken in Bulgaria by the so called Nyámtsuria and Sýrburia are closer to the occidental forms of the Kalderash dialects spoken in Russia, Western Europe and the Americas. However, all of these have mutual interference and are also lexically affected by other Romani dialects as well as by the Bulgarian and Turkish languages. Phonology of the dialect: The Kalderash dialects have been widely described. The most important phonological feature which differentiates this variant is that the phoneme represented by Rr in the words Rrom, Rromanés, etc. is pronounced like the Spanish multiple vibrant r/rr of robar, ratón, roto, perro etc., this sound also occurs in some variants of the Lovari dialect in Hungary, Austria, etc., but it is also widely spread out among many Rromani dialects in Romania, this contrasts with the ”r” (like the Spanish “r” in “pero”) of rat (blood), ryat (night), etc.. There is not affrication of k and g as it happens in some Serbian and Latin-American Kalderash dialects, like that of the Grékuria (Greek Kalderasha), e.g.: kináv (to buy), gilabáv (to sing), etc. The variants spoken by the Nyámtsuria and most of the Syrburia, phonologically, they represent mostly the Western Kalderash dialects where the phoneme which represents Rr is “grasseyé” like in French, plus the Nyámtsuria have affrication of k and g and say: chináv (to buy), and djilabáv (to sing). Another feature to take into account occurs in what we call the second variant of this dialect, where can be observed the loss of the intervocalic -s- and the insertion of –y- to avoid hiatus, e.g.: rovéyas (you cried) instead of rovésas, izdráyas (you trembled) instead of izdrásas, e/le Rroméya (instrumental: with the Rrom) instead of e/le Rromésa,


etc. This is typical of the Northwestern Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian dialects of Rromanes (Vlach and non-Vlach), the Kalderash groups who are or were in touch with speakers of other Romani dialects in that area adopted this feature which doesn´t appear in the speech of other Kalderasha of this variant, plus some particular terms of their own, e.g: zapréga instead of físta/fistáno (skirt). Characteristics of the vocabulary: Romanian loanwords unknown in other Kalderash dialects: steáva/stiáva (star), zhudekatóri (judge), zhudekáta (judgement), ursutára (destine), pl. suffix. – le of the nouns ending with the suffix - va, exclusively for borrowings ending in –e, -a, e.g.: sarmáva/sarmále, steáva/steále, etc., ynchét (slowly), lumína (light), ynapóy (backwards), márfa (business, Rum. treasure), tsigáno (non-Kalderash Rrom), furkulítsa (fork), godfather (násho), príma data (first time), ardeá/ardeyá (green pepers, red peppers), din (like in the expression pápo din pápo , from grandfather to grandfather). Words coming from the Lovari dialect: vorbív (to speak, Lov. “vorbíy”), chorál/choralés (in secret, Lov. “chorál/choralés”, in Kalderash everywhere “choryál”), trants (clothes, Lov. “trámtsi”), skirív/iskirív (to write, Lov. “skiríy”), aráuli (belt, also in Kalderásh but mostly in Lovari “harávli” with that sense), shungaráv (to spit). Some particular terms not found in other Kalderash dialects: khayshí/fíteso (something, other Bulgarian and Western Kaldarasha use váreso), fítekay (somewhere), hérsavo/sáko (each, every), ni (verbal negative particle, don’t/doesn’t, others chi), fáya (narrow carpet), mesheriáva (tribunal, Romani court, verdict), mesherésho (judge), pepeliári (ashtray Blg. Plus suffix -ári. Rrom.), afrómish (jokingly), shwants (ribbons for the plaits), xer (donkey, maybe from the Erliyi?) kazóm (how many, others use sóde), Rroméya, keréya, keráya (also typical of some Serbian and Bulgarian Romani dialects) alongside with Rromésa, kerésa, kerása. Words from other Bulgarian Romani dialects: Dasikanés (in Bulgarian, the Bulgarian / christian way, the more common term is Gazhikanés), e Dasá (the Bulgarians, normally e/le Gazhé), po lokí (more easy, instead of may vushóro, also common), pers/pérsi (last year), saáto (hour), and’o yeftá o saáto (at seven o’clock), paré (money, alongside with lové), sabále (in the morning alongside with dediminiáts(i)), Sofiáte (to Sofia, the Erliyi also say Sofiáte), peínda/penínda (fifty, others pínda or pánzhvardesh), miníe (shoes), kúna (cradle), the future particle ka-, e.g.: kaazhukeráv (I will wait), where other Kalderash dialects use kam-, the negation for the future (nay te used also by the Erliyi instead of ni ka-). Bulgarian and Turkish loanwords: perdeáva (courtain Blg. perde from Turkish), kilím (rug, Blg. From Turkish), hich (at all, Blg. localism from Turkish), néshto (something Blg.), obrazuvanyáva, obrazuványe (education, Blg.), poluchív (to receive Blg.), chekmedjáva (drawer Blg. and Turkish), voináva (war Blg.), rúdi (relatives from Blg. Rodá or Rum.), íli (or, Blg.), móshte/mózhe (maybe, Blg.), particle li in questions, e.g.: si li tut? (do you have?), na li san? (you are not), (not common), hem (and), búzo/lédo (ice, Turkish and Bulgarian)..


Modern international loanwords through Bulgarian: fífti-fífti (fifty-fifty), párti (party), wíski (whiskey), xíto (hit), frishápo (freeshop), avióno (airplane maybe from Western Romani dialects instead of the normal samuléti/samoléti Blg.). As it was mentioned above these four dialects have mutual interference and a slight influence from abroad, due to the mutual contact of the Kalderash groups in Bulgaria a leveling of these variants could also be expected in the near future. However it is also my impression that for being the Kalderash dialects in Bulgaria a language of a minority, it suffers much more the pressure of other Romani dialects spoken by the majority of the Rrom there, like that of the Erliyi, even though nobody could assure it, it seems to be that in the future more characteristics of the Rromanes of the Erliyi are going to be absorbed into the Kalderash dialects (it also happens inversely among many Romani activists). A factor of a major influence upon them is undoubtedly the expansion of the recorded Romani music in the Balkans and in Bulgaria in particular, and the increasing number of Romani bands along the country which mainly sing in dialects similar to that of the Erliyi. It would be worthy to mention that the Kalderash in Bulgaria are not the dominant group as it happens with our group in the Americas. Examples of the Kalderash language in Bulgaria and abroad: Eastern version: And’e lúya sas amén khayshí/fíteso vázhno te kêrás, ke zhiálas abiáv fítekay and’e Sófia, hem trobúlas te nakhás pa o Slíveno, (h)ay vothár po-kasno, trobúlas te bóldas Sofiáte te vázdas o abiáv (e núnta) mashkár e Tsigêníya, telyardiám and’o Slíveno and’o yeftá o saáto, sabále/de diminiátsi, geliám ynchét, panzh kolále sas amén. Blagodárno sýmas sa e Rroméntsa. Western version: Luyiné sas amén váreso vázhno/importánto te kerás, ke zhiálas abiáv várekay and’e Sófia, ay trobúlas te nakhás pa o Slíveno, ay kothár may pózno, trobúlas te ambóldas and’e Sófia te vázdas o abiáv mashkár e Tsigeníya/e Rromaníya, telyardám and’o Slíveno ka’l yeftá la diminiatsáke, gelám lokorrés, panzh matóri sas amén. Nayisimé símas sa le Rroméntsa. Russian (=Western) version (sent by Lev Cerenkov): Luyiné sas amé(n) várêso vázhno te kêrás, kê zhiálas abiáv (núnta) várêkay and’e Sófia, (h)ay trobúlas te nakhás pa o Slíveno, (h)ay kothár (=kotsár) may pózno, trobúlas te ambóldyuvas (=[am]bóldas-amé) and’e Sófia te vázdas o abiáv (e núnta) mashkár e Tsigêníya / e Rromêníya, teliardiám and’o Slíveno ka’l yeftá de diminiátsê, gêliám lokorrês (líno), panzh matóri sas amé(n). Nayisîmásko sîmas sa le Rroméntsa. English:


On Monday we had something important to do, because we had to celebrate a wedding party somewhere in Sofia, and we had to get through Sliven, and from there, later on, we had to come back to Sofia to celebrate the party within our Romani group, we departed to Sliven at seven o’clock in the morning, we drove slowly, we had five cars. I was grateful to our people. Small Glossary and text of a Bulgarian Kalderash/Kardarashi Dialect This is a small glossary of some of the Kalderash voices used in Bulgaria and practically unknown by other Kalderash groups abroad, which, in fact, give the soul to this picturesque dialect, we just intend to show some examples of typical words which only belong to this Kalderash variant plus some Rumanian, Bulgarian, Turkish and other terms coming from other Bulgarian Romani dialects too. Abbreviations: Blg., Bulg.: Bulgarian Kald.: kalderash dialects Rom. Erl.: Erlíya Dialect Rom. : Romani Rom. Lov.: Lovari dialect Rum.: Rumanian Turk.: Turkish A Afrómish: jokingly Amál (Rom. and Rom. Lov.): friend, friends Anglunó (Rom. Lov.): first Ardé (Rum., pl.: ardeá): pepper B Bába: grandmother Borkóv (Bulg.): to make a mistake Boyáto (Rum.): baby Buketúra (Rum.): Mouthful Butílka (Rum., Bulg.): Bottle Búzo (Turk): ice C Chekmedjáva (Bulg., Turk.): drawer



Das (Rom. Erl.) : Bulgarian man Dasikanés (Rom. Erl.): Bulgarian Language Dasní (Rom. Erl.): Bulgarian woman Djámo (Bulg., Turk.): window’s glass, window by extension F Faydáva (Turk.): benefit Feliástra (Rum.): window Fítekay: somewhere Fítesave (compare Rum. Fiecare): some Frishápo (International from English): freeshop Ftóro (Bulg.): second Furkulítsa (Rum.): fork G Gára (Bulg.): station Gríma (Rum.): bracelet Grózno (Bulg.): ugly H Handíko/handýko (Rum.): profound Hatalítsa: cheating Hederlézi (Turk.): Saint George’s feast Hérsavo (Rom.): each one, each, every Hodinyála (Rum.): rest I Irí-ma (Rom. other dialects): to come back Iskirív (Rum., Rom. Lov.): to write Ízburi (Bulg. Izbur); election K Kadayá (Rom.): this (fem.) Kadavá (Rom.). this (masc.) Kazóm (Rom.): how much, how many Kêráv cháu (Bulg. and International): to say goodbye Kêráv zdrásti (Bulg..): to say hello Kilím (Turk.): small carpet, rug Kíno (Bulg. cinema): film Kíto (Bulg.): whale

Kláno (Bulg.): clan Kméto (Bulg.): mayor Kodoyá (Rom.): that (fem.) Kodová (Rom.): that (masc.) Koláva (Bulg.): car Komfórto (Bulg.): comfort Kostenúrka (Bulg.): turtle Kúna: cradle Kurbáno (Turk.): sacrifice Kh Khayshí (Rom.): something L Logódna (Rum.): engagement, betrothal Loshaló (Rom. Lov.): happy Lumína (Rum.): light M Magazíno (Bulg.): store Malaváv (Rom.): to start Márfa (Rum. Treasure): business Mása (Bulg.): table Menía (Rom. dialects): shoe Meráko (Bulg.): desire Mesherésho (Pl.: Mesheréshi): judge Mesheriáva: Gypsy trial Mobifóni, mobifóno (Bulg..): cellular phone Mózhe, móshte (Bulg.): maybe N Nachálniko (Bulg.): boss Násha (Rum.): grandmother Násho (Rum.): godfather Níkuga (Bulg.): never O Óbedo (Bulg.): lunch Obichéri (Rum.): custom, traditions P


Pála (Rom.) Nemiázo (Rum.): in the afternoon Paré (Rom. Erl.): money Pásha rakiáte (Rom.): in the evening Patáv (Rom. cloth for the feet in other dialects): carpet Perdeáva (Bulg., Turk.): Curtain Pers, Pérsi (Rom.): last year Pisíka (Rum.): cat Plódo (Bulg.): fruit Pochívka (Bulg.): rest Pólsha (Bulg.): Poland Poluchív (Bulg.): To receive Poshténo (Bulg. póchten): honorable Póska (Rom. other dialects): pocket Predí (Bulg.): before Pretúra (Rum.): town hall, prefecture R Radíka (Rum.): root Reshitóri (Bulg. Plus Kald.sufix – itóri from Rum. -itór): who takes decisions Rúdi (Rum): relatives S Sáko (Rum.): knapsack, suitcase Samuléti (Bulg.): airplane Sêrechía (Rum.): poverty Sgráda (Bulg.): building Shkáfo (Bulg.): wardrobe Spírto (Bulg.): Alcohol Stáya (Bulg.): room Stéklo (Bulg.): Bottle Stíkla (Rum.): Bottle Stólo (Bulg.), stolítsa: chair Stiáva (Rum): star Súgo (Rom.): soon T Tóshno (Bulg. tóchno): exactly Tréno (Rum.): train Tutúno (Rum.): tobacco Th Thagár (Rom.): king, kings Thagarní (Rom.): queen

Ts Tsenáva (Bulg.): price Tsigáno (Rum.): non-Kalderash Rrom U Ucheníko (Bulg.): pupil V Vádji/vázhi (phonological Bulg. Influence): still Véko (Bulg.): century Vertív (Rum.): excuse Víta (Rum.): animal Vorbív (Rum., Rom. Lov.): to speak Vostróv (Bulg.): to sharpen Vothé (Rom.): there Vurdón (Rom.): bus X Xarnó (Rom.): short Ximikálo (Bulg.): pen Y (î) Ynapóy (Rum.): back Ynchét (Rum.). slowly Z Zéstra (Bulg.): dowry Zh Zhudekáta (Rum.): trial Zhudekatóri (Rum.): judge Despite the above mentioned the text which follows this glossary will show the Unity between these Kalderash dialects and the Western Kalderash dialects. Western Kalderash version (Russian Kalderash Argentina):


Sar kerdá o Del le Manushén4 Zhanés sar kerdá o Del le Manushén?, phenáva les tuke me, o Del pýrvo/anglunés kerdá la lumiá sa le djeléntsa/buchántsa kay sy/si pe láte, le kash, e char, le zhigéni, no, sósagodi/ku sa. Núma o Del acharélas pe kórkorro, ay atúnchi gyndisardá ke trobúlas varekás pásha péste, ay kerdá le manushén, pýrvo la chik a frymentisardá la, ay lása kerdá ek manúsh pala pésko patréto ay thodá les ande‘k bov chikáko, kay kerdá te pekél les, núma gelótar ay bystérdjilo pa péski buchí, ay kána amboldá pálpale o manúsh sas sa phabardó, kodó si o dad le Kaléngo ánda sa e lúmia, núma, amaró Ray nas véselo/loshaló péska buchása, ke kamélas te kerél avré manushén, ay atúnchi kerdá may ek figúra (Spanish), ay de-nevés thodá la and’o bov, ay te na bystérdjol, ankaladá la fúga/sígo, achárdjol ke kachá dáta sas desiá parní, kadó si o dad le Parnéngo, le Gazhéngo; ay pále na véselo sósa kerdásas, Rromále, shavále, zumadá te kerél may eg dáta sa kodiá buchí, a thodá e figúra and’o bov, ay sokotisardá (Rum.) e vriámia priá mishtó, ay kodó sas o manúsh o may shukár savorréndar, nas chi parnó chi kaló, mákar ke melaxnorró sas, kalichóso, phabardó kátar o kham, kodó si o dad sa le Rroméngo, ay lésa o Del akaná ashiló priá raduimé pe sagdá/de véchi. Kadiá sas murrí paramíchi/paramícha. Figurative Northwestern Bulgarian Kalderash Version (Also spoken in Sofia): Sar kêrdiá o Del le Manushén Zhianés sar kêrdiá o Del e Manushén?, ka-phenáv les tukê me, o Del anglunés/pérvo (Bulg.) kêrdiá e svyatós (Bulg.)/lumiá sa e bukiántsa kay sy pe léste, e kash, e char, e víte (Rum.), sar avéla, ku (Rum.) sa. No o Del akhiarélas pe kórkorro, hem (Bulg. Turk.) atúnchi gyndisardiá kê trobúlas varekás pásha péste, hay kêrdiá e manushén, anglunés liá chik hem mesisardiá (Bulg.) la, ay láya kêrdiá yek manúsh pe pésko kípo (Rum.) hay thodiá les ande‘k péchka (Bulg.) chikáki, kay kêrdiá te pêkél les, no gêlótar ay bystérdilo pa péski bukí, hay kána boldiá ynapóy (Rum.)/pálpale o manúsh sas sa phabardó, kodová sy o dad e Kaléngo ánda sa e lúmia, no, amaró Góspod (Bulg..)/Ray nay sas/nas loshaló/véselo péska bukiása, kê kamélas te kêrél avré manushén, hay atúnchi kêrdiá may yek kípo, ay pále thodiá les ánd’o bov/péchka, hay te na bystérdyol, ankaladiá la súgo, akhiárdyol kê kadavá drom/dáta sas but parnó, kadavá sy o dad e Parnéngo, e Gazhéngo/e Daséngo; hay pále na loshaló sóya kêrdiáyas, Rromále, shiavále, zumadiá te kêrél may yek drom sêshto (Bulg.) bukí, hem thodiá e fígura (Bulg.) ánd’o bov, ay smetisardiá (Bulg.) o vréme (Bulg.) tóchno (Bulg.)/but lashés/mishtó, hay kodová sas o manúsh nay (Bulg.) shukár savorréndar, nay sas nítu (Bulg.) parnó nítu kaló, mákar kê múrgavo (Búlg.) sas, xancý kaló, phabardó káta o kham, kodová sy o dad sa e Rroméngo, ay léya o Del akaná ashiló but loshaló de-véchi (Rum., Kald.). Kadayá sas munrrí paramícha. English:


Traditional Romani folktale 10

How God created the human beings Do you know how God created the human beings?, I’m going to tell it to you, God first made the world with all the things that exist on it, the trees, the grass, the animals, well, with everything. But God felt alone, and then thought that he needed company and created the human beings, first took some mud and kneaded it, and with it made the figure of a man at his own image and put it into an oven that he made to roast it, but he went away and forgot it, and when he came back the man was all burnt up, that’s the ancestor of the black people from all over the world, but our Lord wasn’t happy with his creation, because he also wanted to make other people, and then he made one more figure and put it into the oven, and to not forget it, he took it away at once, of course, this time it was even very white, this is the ancestor of the White People, the Gadje, and once again not so happy with his creation, he proved once again the same task, and put the figure into the oven, and calculated the time very well this time, and this was the more beautiful man of all of them, he was nor white neither black, even though brown, tanned, and this is the ancestor of all the Rrom, and with him now he felt really happy for ever. This was my tale. Key to the pronunciation: Ch: as in English church Dj: as in English jeans Ê (ê): sound in between a and e, also represented by a (tukê/tuka), Bulgarian (ъ) H: as in English home Kh: Sound K + H aspirated Ph: Sound P + H aspirated R: soft as in Spanish pero Rr: in the dialects of Bulgaria as Spanish Rr (perro), in the others as in French r grasseyè Sh: as in English show Shi and sh became sh in Argentina like in other countries as in English show Th: Sound T + H aspirated W: as in English w X: as in German ich Y (consonant): as in English yard Ý,Y (vocal): as in French u or german ü Z: as in French or English z Zh: as in English pleasure Zhi and zh became zh in Argentina like in other countries as in French Jean

Jorge M. F. Bernal (o Lolya le Yonósko) Bibliography:


Bari, Karoly, Gypsy Folklore, Hungary-Romania, 10 CD’s with fairytales, songs, legends, etc., Private publishing, Hungary 1999. Kalderasha and Lovari from Hungary and Romania Barthelemy, André, Dictionnaire du Tsigane Kalderash, France 1984. Calvet, Georges, Dictionnaire Tsigane-Francais, (Dialecte Kalderash), L’Asiatheque, 1993. Demeter, R. S., Demeter, P. S., Gypsy – Russian and Russian Gypsy Dictionary (Kalderash Dialect) Moscow 1990. E Lashi Viastia – E vorba le Devleski le Rromenge, I.G.P., Inc. 1984, Distributed by the Rom, anonimous. F. Bernal, Jorge M., Rromane Paramicha, in Lacio Drom, Centro Studi Zingari, 1981 – 1999. F. Bernal, Jorge M., Rromane Paramicha, in Romano Dzaniben, Czech Republic, 1994 – 2004. F. Bernal, Jorge M., Gramática y Diccionario de la Lengua Kalderash, unpublished, manuscript. Gjerde, Lars, The Orange of Love and other stories, Norway, 1994. Hancock, Ian, Patterns of English lexical adoption in an American dialect of Rromanes, Orbis, 25 (1):83-104 (1976). Kyuchukov, Hristo, Amari Romani Lumja, Tilia Ltd., Sofia, 2000. Kyuchukov, Hristo and Mladenov Zlatko, Kratka Gramatika na Kalderashkiya Romski dialekt, Bulgaria, 2004. Maximoff, Matéo, E Nevi Viastia, Kalderash, Paris, 1995. Magazine Romano Centro, from Romano Centro, Viena, Austria, 1999-2004. Marushiakova, Elena, Popov, Veselin Studii Romani, Vol I, II, III-IV, V-VI, Bulgaria, 1994 –1998. Tomova, Ilona The gypsies in the transition period. Sofia, 1995


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