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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Setting This research used a classroom action research design (CAR). That was conducted at one senior high school in SMA Bawakaraeng Makassar. The subject of this research was first year students in 2011-2012 academic years. In the observation, the researcher used test to know the students prior knowledge in the class. In the fact, the researcher has been found the students pronunciation is very low. The researcher was divided into two cycle with each cycle consist of four phases that were planning, action, observation, and reflection. The phases were described as follows : Cycle I 1. Planning in this phase, the observer : a. Identifying problem and choose alternative solution to solve the problem. b. Making lesson plan based on the syllabus and designed meterial in lesson planning that should be based on the taching of pronunciation. c. Preparing check list to observed that condition of learning process. d. Making material to give test to the students. 2. Action in the first and second meeting the researcher did action as follows :

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a. The teacher explained lesson about vowel sounds, they are / /, /i:/, /u/, /u:/, /e/, / :/ , / :/, / /, //, / /, / :/, / /. Then the teacher explain about the vowel sounds divide into two, there are ; short vowels ( (/ /, /u/, /e/, / /, / /, / / and //) and long vowels

(/i:/, /u:/, / :/, / :/, and / :/). And then students re-explained the kinds of vowels sounds that had been explained by the teacher. b. Teacher give a dialouge to the students. c. The teacher give a chance to students read dialouge aloud. d. The teacher divide into several group consist of 4 students. e. The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue. f. The teacher read aloud and whole of class following the teacher saying. g. The teacher give chance to students looking for short and long vowels in the dialogue. h. The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue in front of in the class. i. Each students in group were given points are then summed to form team scores, and that meet certain criteria may earn rewards. Action of the third and the fourth meeting were same as action of the first and second meeting, except their teaching material, as follow: a. The teacher explained lesson about short vowels (/ /, /u/, /e/, / /, / /, and / /) and long vowels (/i:/, / :/, /u:/, and / :/). And then students

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re-explained the kinds of vowels sounds that had been explained by the teacher. b. Teacher give a dialouge to the students. c. The teacher give a chance to students read dialouge aloud. d. The teacher divide into several group consist of 4 students. e. The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue. f. The teacher read aloud and whole of class following the teacher saying. g. The teacher give chance to students looking for short and long vowels in the dialogue. h. The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue in front of in the class. i. Each students in group were given points are then summed to form team scores, and that meet certain criteria may earn rewards. 3. Observation In this phase, while teaching the lesson, the teacher observed: a. Students activeness during teaching nad learning process by using check list. b. The students pronunciation in short vowels. c. The students pronunciation in long vowels. 4. Reflection Reflection was done to see the whole first cycle action process. It consisted of analyzing understanding, making conclusion during the

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teaching and learning process. From analyzing the problem, some conditions got were as follow: a. During the teaching and learning process in the class, there were still many students who were less active during the teaching and learning process in the class. b. The result of the test showed that the students pronunciation in teaching and learning process was still low. c. There are few students got difficulty in understanding, shy to pronounce the words and following the step of choral reading used. It was due to the technique used was still a new thing for them. Next, the researcher made conclusion as follow : 1) In the second cycle, the researcher would change member of group, so that is able balanced. 2) The researcher would give more explanation to each member of each group especially those who were in poor member. 3) The teacher would clearly re-explain the steps of choral reading technique to get students understanding and activeness. Cycle II 1. Planning in this phase, the observer : a. Evaluating the result of reflection in cycle I. b. Continuing the activities that have been done in first cycle.

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c. Making planning again in the learning process from the result of the cycle I reflection. d. Preparing check list to observed that condition of learning process. e. Making material to give test to students. 2. Action The action this cycle was developed from action in cycle I, in the fifth and the sixth meeting the researcher did action as follows: 1) The teacher explained lesson about short vowels (/ /, /u/, /e/, / /, / /, and / /) and long vowels (/i:/, / :/, /u:/, and / :/). And then students re-explained the kinds of vowels sounds that had been explained by the teacher. 2) Teacher give a dialouge to the students. 3) The teacher give a chance to students read dialouge aloud. 4) The teacher divide into several group consist of 4 students. 5) The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue. 6) The teacher read aloud and whole of class following the teacher saying. 7) The teacher give chance to students looking for short and long vowels in the dialogue. 8) The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue in front of in the class. 9) Each students in group were given points are then summed to form team scores, and that meet certain criteria may earn rewards.

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Action of the seventh and the eighth meeting were same as action of the first and second meeting, except their teaching material, as follow: a. The teacher explained lesson about short vowels (/ /, /u/, /e/, / /, / /, and / /) and long vowels (/i:/, / :/, /u:/, and / :/). And then students re-explained the kinds of vowels sounds that had been explained by the teacher. b. Teacher give a dialouge to the students. c. The teacher give a chance to students read dialouge aloud. d. The teacher divide into several group consist of 4 students. e. The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue. f. The teacher read aloud and whole of class following the teacher saying. g. The teacher give chance to students looking for short and long vowels in the dialogue. h. The teacher point out to each group to read aloud the dialogue in front of in the class. i. Each students in group were given points are then summed to form team scores, and that meet certain criteria may earn rewards. 3. Observation In the case the observation done at the cycle II is almost same with the done observation at cycle I.

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4. Reflection Reflection was done to see the whole cycle action process. The researcher analyzed the second cycle as consideration matter whether cycle reached success criteria based on test result and observation. In second cycle the researcher made the conclusion about implementation choral reading technique can improve students pronunciation at SMA Bawakaraeng Makassar.

B. Research Variables and Indicators 1) Variables a. Independent variable Independent variable is the application of choral reading teachnique b. Dependent variable Dependent variable consist of short vowel and long vowel. 2) Indicators Indicator of this research is to measure the students pronunciation in short vowel (/I/, /e/, / /, / /, /u/, and / .) and long vowel ((/i:/, / :/, /u:/, and / :/).

C. Research Subject The research subject of this classroom action research (CAR) is the first years students in class X in 2011 2012 academic years. The class consist of 24 students.

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The researcher chooses this place to do an action research because the researcher sees it necessary to develop the students pronunciation in senior high school. In teaching English at the first year students at SMA Bawakaraeng Makassar, especially improving students pronunciation through Choral Reading Technique.

D. Research Instrument In this research, the researcher will use two instruments for collecting data: 1) Observation List Observation list aimed to finding out the students activeness during the teaching and learning process. 2) Test The test aimed to finding out the students achievement in pronunciation of the English short vowel and English long vowel.

E. Technique Data Collection The technique of data collection do in this research is as follows: 1) Observation list; the researcher will observe the students activity in following teaching and learning process in the class. 2) Test; the researcher will give pronunciation test to the students in order to know their improvement. In this case, the researcher will give some words, sentences, the researcher interview the students.

F. Data Analysis

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The data will get from cycle I and cycle II will be analyzed through following steps: 1. The data obtained from result of the right and wrong sound that suitable of RP which produced by students.
    

 
(Depdikbud in Hartini, 2011:38)

2. Calculating the mean score of the students pronunciation test by using the following formula:

X !

X
N

Where :

= Mean Score = Total Score = The number of students (Arikunto 1997:68)

3. Classifying the studdents score used based on the following classification: y y y y y y y y Score 9.6- 10 : Score 8.6-9.5 : Score 7.6-8.5 : Score 6.6-7.5 : Score 5.6-6.5 : Score 4.6-5.5 : Score 3.6-4.5 : Score 0 -3.5 : Excellent Very good Good Fairly good Fair Fairly poor Poor Very Poor (Kanwil Dikbud in Hartini, 2011:39)

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4. To Calculate the percentage of the students score, the formula which used as follows:

 

Where :

P F N

: Rate Percentage : Frequency of the correct answer : The total number of students (Sudjana, 1999)

5. Scoring participation To interpret the students participation, the observer uses following classification above : Score of Participation 4 3 2 1 Criteria of participation Very Active Active Less Active No Active

The observer analyzes the research by applying percentage technique through the following formula: P = F Nx4 x 100

Where:

P F N

= the students of participation = the frequency of items = total students (Gay, 1981:130)

6. To know improvement of the students pronunciation, the research will use percentage technique below :

P = X2- X1 x 100 X1

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Where:

P X X
1 2

: Percentage of the students : The First mean score : The second mean score (Sudjana 1999)