In the Name of Allah (God), the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Learning Finite Element Analysis (FEA) from The Qur’an
Dr. Zaid Kasim Mohammad Ghazzawi :E-mailzaidquran@gmail.com Website: www.quran-miracle.com

What is the Finite Element Method (FEM) ?
The answer can be known fully from the Noble Qur’an

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

Allah (God) created everything in a discrete fashion
The Qur’an (54: 49)

Allah (God) Almighty states that He created everything in a discrete manner

Thus everything in creation is discrete

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

And in your own self will you not then see
The Qur’an (51: 21)

Allah (God) Almighty encourages people to study their bodies

The human body is the best textbook of optimal design and analysis

Thus the best designs and analysis procedures can be learnt from the human body

The Design of The Human Skeletal System Bone

Focus on this region

Tortora and Grabowski, 1996

‫الهيكل العظمي في جسم النسان‬

Focus on this region

Bone strain

Muscle force

http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/bisci004a/bone/lacuna.jpg

Cells that can sense the displacement at every location within bone
http://bodymap.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/doc/images/fg3.jpg

Displacement, temperature, magnetic field, and every property can be obtained at every location within the structure

How is it ?possible

Osteocytes

Internal Design of Human Bone

Hydroxy apatite crystal (bone element)

Element

Bone Elements Defining the shape and material properties for them

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

In whatever form Allah (God) willed He assembled you
The Qur’an (82: 8)

Allah Almighty states that He created you in a process of assembly

Thus everything in the creation of Allah Almighty is composed of basic units

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

Who perfected everything He created and started the creation of human from mud
The Qur’an (82: 32)

Since Allah (God) Almighty perfected everything He has created

Then discretization is the optimal method to design and analyze a system

A complex structure is made simple by:

Discretizing it into simple to analyze basic units

The assembly of these basic units compose the complex structure

These units have the following fundamental properties :

Every physical property is easy to be calculated for these basic units

Simple geometrical shape

Clear geometrical associations between these units

This is the basis of the finite element method (FEM)

The optimal method to analyze any system as derived from the Noble Qur’an and the human body
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To discretize the system into basic units and to analyze the design and function (Energy transmission) of these units These units (elements) are easy to deal with and it is easy to calculate any required parameter for these elements The elements the system is composed of are connected together with no discontinuities (Element connectivity) The optimal organization of the elements is a hexagonal pattern (covering maximum volume with the least amount of elements) The dimensions of these elements should be small compared to the dimensions of the system Elements should be stable and exhibit no excessive (i.e. large) displacements

The Creation of a Structure

Allah Almighty teaches us that the best way to do that is to assemble the basic structural units together to create the structure. Advantages of this method:
1. 2. 3.

Optimal control over the structure Ensuring connectivity between the elements Knowledge of the internal details of the structure

Bottom – Up Approach

The Finite Element Method ((FEM
A method to analyze systems by discretizing them into finite elements which are easy to analyze and to obtain results from

Performing FEM using ANSYS software

Steps to perform FEA
Can be completely derived from the Noble Qur’an

)َ‫(وَفِي أَن ُسِ ُمْ أَفلَا ُبْصِ ُون‬ ‫ف ك َ ت ر‬
Since that the human body is built on discretization (Finite Elements ) Then studying the stages of its creation would yield the following :

The best procedure to design structures based on finite element technique

The optimal methodology to understand finite element technique

In the Name of Allah (God) Almighty The Most Gracious The Most Merciful Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh , then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh , and then We brought it forth as another creation . So blessed be Allâh, the Best of creators The Noble Qur’an (23: 14) Reflection upon the verse Conclusion

Then Allah (God ) Almighty created the Alaqa (object that clings) into a modgha (chewed like substance)

Modgha is comprised of the basic elements from which the human body is to be composed of Thus the first step in designing a structure is to determine the basic elements

Step 1

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the modgha (chewed like substance) into bones

Bone is the assembled state of the basic units mentioned earlier

The next step is to determine the assembly of the finite elements

Step 2

Then Allah (God) Almighty covers the bones with flesh (muscles, ligaments, cartilage, etc.)

Then external forces and fixation are applied to the model

Step 3
The next step is to apply boundary conditions (BCs) to the structure

Then Allah (God) Almighty brings forth the structure plus the BCs with another mechanism of creation

Then the applied BCs are activated

The next step is to investigate the interaction between the applied BCs and the structure

Step 4

Steps to perform FEA as found in the Noble Qur’an
1. Humans are made of clay (water + soil) ‫خلق النسان من طين‬ 2. Humans are made into a nutfah (information regarding the creation of components of the human body) ‫نطفة في قرار مكين‬ 3. The creation of Alaqa from Notfah 3. The creation of Modgha (chewed like substance) from Alaqa - Element creation (defining material properties and shape) 4. The creation of bones from the Modgha - Creation of geometry, direct generation (use of elements and their assembly in building the geometry) 5. The covering of bones with flesh (muscles, skin, etc.) - Defining the Boundary conditions (BCs) applied to the structure 6. Bringing the created human forth as another creation - Initializing the solution, solving, and seeing the results

In the Name of Allah (God) Almighty The Most Gracious The Most Merciful Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh , then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh , and then We brought it forth as another creation . So blessed be Allâh, the Best of creators The Noble Qur’an (23: 14) Reflection upon the verse Conclusion

Then Allah (God ) Almighty created the Alaqa (object that clings) into a modgha (chewed like substance)

Modgha is comprised of the basic elements from which the human body is to be composed of Thus the first step in designing a structure is to determine the basic elements

Step 1

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the modgha (chewed like substance) into bones

Bone is the assembled state of the basic units mentioned earlier

The next step is to determine the assembly of the finite elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty covers the bones with flesh (muscles, ligaments, cartilage, etc.)

Then external forces and fixation are applied to the model

The next step is to apply boundary conditions (BCs) to the structure

Then Allah (God) Almighty brings forth the structure plus the BCs with another mechanism of creation

Then the applied BCs are activated

The next step is to investigate the interaction between the applied BCs and the structure

The ModghaStage in the Creation of the Human Body
Creation of the elements comprising the human body Defining the shape and material properties for the elements

Hydroxy apatite crystal (bone element)

Element

Bone Elements Defining the shape and material properties for them

Step (1) In Finite Element Analysis
Preprocessor Stage Defining element shape and material properties

(In finite element method (FEM
  

Nodes describe the geometrical shape of the element The domain is composed of elements and the elements have nodes Elements are described by their shape. For example:
  

Brick elements Triangular elements Shell elements

Steps to perform FEA using ANSYS
1.

Preprocessing stage
1. 2. 3.
• •

Select the desired element (ANSYS element library) Define real constants (if needed) Define material properties
Isentropic material (similar properties is all dimensions) Orthotropic material (similar properties in two dimensions and different in the third) Anisotropic material (different properties in all dimensions)

Elements in the finite element method

1D elements

Bar element (1D) 2 nodes 1 DOF (UX) Rectangular element (2D) 4 nodes 2 DOF (UX, UY)

2D elements

Triangular element (2D) 3 nodes 2 DOF (UX, UY)

Elements in finite element method

3D elements

Brick element (3D) 8 nodes 3 DOF (UX, UY, UZ) Pyramidal element (3D) 6 nodes 3 DOF (UX, UY, UZ)

In the Name of Allah (God) Almighty The Most Gracious The Most Merciful Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh , then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh , and then We brought it forth as another creation . So blessed be Allâh, the Best of creators The Noble Qur’an (23: 14) Reflection upon the verse Conclusion

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the Alaqa (object that clings) into a modgha (chewed like substance)

Modgha is comprised of the basic elements from which the human body is to be composed of Thus the first step in designing a structure is to determine the basic elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the modgha (chewed like substance) into bones

Bone is the assembled state of the basic units mentioned earlier

The next step is to determine the assembly of the finite elements

Step 2

Then Allah (God) Almighty covers the bones with flesh (muscles, ligaments, cartilage, etc.)

Then external forces and fixation are applied to the model

The next step is to apply boundary conditions (BCs) to the structure

Then Allah (God) Almighty brings forth the structure plus the BCs with another mechanism of creation

Then the applied BCs are activated

The next step is to investigate the interaction between the applied BCs and the structure

The BoneStage in the Creation of the Human Body
Creation of the geometry Direct assembly of elements to create the structure Bottom – Up approach

Step (2) In Finite Element Analysis
Preprocessor Stage
Creation of geometry: -direct generation (use of elements and their assembly in building the geometry) -Creating the geometry and then discretizing it (meshing)

1 Example using ANSYS
st
Fixed at this end

 

Model the object shown on the right with the applied load Material: Bone Mechanical properties
   

Width = 1 cm

Isentropic material Young’s modulus (E) = 17 GPa Poisson’s ratio (ν) = 0.3 Density (ρ) = 1750 kg/m3

Height = 1 cm Depth = 2 cm

How to model irregular ? geometries in ANSYS
Keypoints and splines method

Meshing
Dividing the structure into elements (creating a (mesh of elements

Steps to perform FEA using ANSYS
1.
1. 2. 3.
• • •

Preprocessing stage
Select the desired element (ANSYS element library) Define real constants (if needed) Define material properties
Isentropic material (similar properties is all dimensions) Orthotropic material (similar properties in two dimensions and different in the third) Anisotropic material (different properties in all dimensions)

4.
• •

Create the geometry
Direct method (defining keypoints which are the nodes of the elements) Indirect method (using shapes such as rectangle, triangle, cylinder, sphere or defining key points and creating lines, areas, and volumes from them)

5.
• •

Meshing stage
Smart meshing (variable element size) Manual meshing (fixed element size)

Manual meshing

(Smart meshing (setting 5

2

 

nd

Example using ANSYS
Fixed at this end Width = 1 cm

Mesh the structure using
Manual meshing Automatic meshing (smart meshing)
Height = 1 cm Depth = 2 cm

Steps to perform FEA as found in the Noble Qur’an
1. Humans are made of clay (water + soil) ‫خلق النسان من طين‬ 2. Humans are made into a nutfah (information regarding the creation of components of the human body) ‫نطفة في قرار مكين‬ 3. The creation of Alaqa from Notfah 3. The creation of Modgha (chewed like substance) from Alaqa - Element creation (defining material properties and shape) 4. The creation of bones from the Modgha - Creation of geometry, direct generation (use of elements and their assembly in building the geometry) 5. The covering of bones with flesh (muscles, skin, etc.) - Defining the Boundary conditions (BCs) applied to the structure 6. Bringing the created human forth as another creation - Initializing the solution, solving, and seeing the results

‫6991 ,‪Tortora and Grabowski‬‬

‫الهيكل العظمي في جسم النسان‬

In the Name of Allah (God) Almighty The Most Gracious The Most Merciful Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh , then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh , and then We brought it forth as another creation . So blessed be Allâh, the Best of creators The Noble Qur’an (23: 14) Reflection upon the verse Conclusion

Then Allah (God ) Almighty created the Alaqa (object that clings) into a modgha (chewed like substance)

Modgha is comprised of the basic elements from which the human body is to be composed of Thus the first step in designing a structure is to determine the basic elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the modgha (chewed like substance) into bones

Bone is the assembled state of the basic units mentioned earlier

The next step is to determine the assembly of the finite elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty covers the bones with flesh (muscles, ligaments, cartilage, etc.)

Then external forces and fixation are applied to the model

Step 3
The next step is to apply boundary conditions (BCs) to the structure

Then Allah (God) Almighty brings forth the structure plus the BCs with another mechanism of creation

Then the applied BCs are activated

The next step is to investigate the interaction between the applied BCs and the structure

Covering the bones with flesh (.(muscles, tendon, skin, etc
Applying the boundary conditions on the discretized structure

Step (3) In Finite Element Analysis
Solution Stage
Applying the boundary conditions on the meshed structure

Steps to perform FEA using ANSYS
2. Solution phase 1. Select analysis (structural (linear, non-linear), magnetic, electrical, etc.) 2. Apply loads: 1. Displacements 2. Forces and moments 3. Temperature 4. Voltages 5. Magnetic field flux 3. Initialize the solution (Solve current load step (LS))

3 Example using ANSYS
rd
Fixed at this end

Apply the shown loads on the meshed structure

Width = 1 cm

Height = 1 cm Depth = 2 cm

1000 N

Steps to perform FEA as found in the Noble Qur’an
1. Humans are made of clay (water + soil) ‫خلق النسان من طين‬ 2. Humans are made into a nutfah (information regarding the creation of components of the human body) ‫نطفة في قرار مكين‬ 3. The creation of Alaqa from Notfah 3. The creation of Modgha (chewed like substance) from Alaqa - Element creation (defining material properties and shape) 4. The creation of bones from the Modgha - Creation of geometry, direct generation (use of elements and their assembly in building the geometry) 5. The covering of bones with flesh (muscles, skin, etc.) - Defining the Boundary conditions (BCs) applied to the structure 6. Bringing the created human forth as another creation - Initializing the solution, solving, and seeing the results

In the Name of Allah (God) Almighty The Most Gracious The Most Merciful Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh , then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh , and then We brought it forth as another creation . So blessed be Allâh, the Best of creators The Noble Qur’an (23: 14) Reflection upon the verse Conclusion

Then Allah (God ) Almighty created the Alaqa (object that clings) into a modgha (chewed like substance)

Modgha is comprised of the basic elements from which the human body is to be composed of Thus the first step in designing a structure is to determine the basic elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the modgha (chewed like substance) into bones

Bone is the assembled state of the basic units mentioned earlier

The next step is to determine the assembly of the finite elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty covers the bones with flesh (muscles, ligaments, cartilage, etc.)

Then external forces and fixation are applied to the model

The next step is to apply boundary conditions (BCs) to the structure

Then Allah (God) Almighty brings forth the structure plus the BCs with another mechanism of creation

Then the applied BCs are activated

The next step is to investigate the interaction between the applied BCs and the structure

Step 4

Bringing the Human Body forth as another creation
Seeing the functionality of the system (i.e. The interaction between the boundary (conditions and the structure

Steps to perform FEA using ANSYS
3. Post-processing stage
1.
• • • • •

Plot results:
Displacements Stress (1st, 2nd, and 3rd principal stresses, von Mises) Strain Vector plot Path plot

2.

Animation: ramping the load from 0 to max value and seeing in real time the effect on the structure.
1.

Displacement, stress, strain, etc.

4 Example using ANSYS
th
Fixed at this end

Examine the following results from the model:
  

Displacements Von Mises Stress and Strain Height = 1 Vector plots
cm

Width = 1 cm

Depth = 2 cm

1000 N

Errors in Finite Element Analysis
• •

Modeling error: Error resulting from assumptions done when trying to represent the physical system in the computer. Discretization error: error resulting from the difference in the degrees of freedom between the meshed object and the real one. Numerical error: error resulting from rounding off numbers when solving the equations representing the model of the physical system. Software error: error resulting from errors in the code listing of the program.

1 Example using ANSYS
st
Fixed at this end

 

Model the object shown on the right with the applied load Material: Steel Mechanical properties
   

Width = 1 cm

Isentropic material Young’s modulus (E) = 207 GPa Poisson’s ratio (ν) = 0.3 Density (ρ) = 7500 kg/m3

Height = 1 cm Depth = 2 cm

2

 

nd

Example using ANSYS
Fixed at this end Width = 1 cm

Mesh the structure using
Manual meshing Automatic meshing (smart meshing)
Height = 1 cm Depth = 2 cm

3 Example using ANSYS
rd
Fixed at this end

Apply the shown loads on the meshed structure

Width = 1 cm

Height = 1 cm Depth = 2 cm

1000 N

4 Example using ANSYS
th
Fixed at this end

Examine the following results from the model:
  

Displacements Von Mises Stress and Strain Height = 1 Vector plots
cm

Width = 1 cm

Depth = 2 cm

1000 N

In the Name of Allah (God) Almighty The Most Gracious The Most Merciful Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood ), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh , then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh , and then We brought it forth as another creation . So blessed be Allâh , the Best of creators The Noble Qur’an (23: 14) Reflection upon the verse Conclusion

Then Allah (God ) Almighty created the Alaqa (object that clings) into a modgha (chewed like substance)

Modgha is comprised of the basic elements from which the human body is to be composed of Thus the first step in designing a structure is to determine the basic elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty created the modgha (chewed like substance) into bones

Bone is the assembled state of the basic units mentioned earlier

The next step is to determine the assembly of the finite elements

Then Allah (God) Almighty covers the bones with flesh (muscles, ligaments, cartilage, etc.)

Then external forces and fixation are applied to the model

The next step is to apply boundary conditions (BCs) to the structure

Then Allah (God) Almighty brings forth the structure plus the BCs with another mechanism of creation

Then the applied BCs are activated

The next step is to investigate the interaction between the applied BCs and the structure

Dr. Zaid Kasim Ghazzawi E-mail : zaidquran@gmail.com Website:www.quran-miracle.com

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