HT LT SWGR

SWITCH
• A switch is simply a means of opening or closing the current path in an electric circuit. • There is no special opening condition for short circuit or other fault. It is operated manually.

FUSE

• A fuse is used for over current and short circuit protection. • Fuse has the major drawback of ‘replacement’ after every use.

CIRCUIT BREAKER The circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which can do any one of the following tasks: • Makes or breaks a circuit either manually or by remote control under normal conditions • Breaks a circuit automatically under fault conditions • Makes a circuit either manually or by remote control under fault conditions .

.e.CIRCUIT BREAKER • A circuit breaker is a switching i. current interrupting or making device in switchgear.

SWITCHGEAR • It is the generic term including the entire range of switching devices and their combination with associated control. protecting. . measuring. and regulating equipment.

and various relays are employed) . PT.FUNCTIONS OF SWITCHGEAR • Carrying the normal load current • Making or breaking the normal load current • Clearing the fault current (for which sensing devices like CT.

COMPONENTS OF SWITCHGEAR • Circuit Breaker • Current Transformer (CT) • Potential Transformer (PT) • Protective Relays • Measuring Instruments .

COMPONENTS OF SWITCHGEAR • • • • • Switches Fuses Surge Arresters Isolators Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB) .

Hence switchgear requirements may vary depending upon following factors: • Location • Ratings • Local Needs .SWITCHGEAR REQUIREMENTS There are several voltage levels and fault situations between the generating stations to the final load points.

.LOW VOLTAGE SWITCHGEARS • Switchgears for low voltage applications are rated up t0 1500 V.

LV Switchgears • • • • Oil Circuit Breakers (OCB) Air-Circuit Breakers (ACB) Switch-Fuse Units (SFU) Off-Load Isolators .

LV Switchgears • HRC Fuses • Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers(ELCB) • Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB) • Moulded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCB) .

MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWITCHGEARS • Switchgears for medium voltage applications are rated in between 3. .3 kV to 33 kV.

connected to various electrical networks. .MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWITCHGEARS • This type of switchgears is mainly used for the distribution of electrical energy.

.HIGH VOLTAGE SWITCHGEARS • The high voltage switchgears range from 66 kV to 800 kV.

.SWITCHGEARS CONSIDERATIONS • While using switchgears in a power system certain considerations must be kept in mind.

Location of the equipment • • Indoor Outdoor .SWITCHGEARS CONSIDERATIONS 1.

System Parameters • System Earthing • Frequency • Insulation Level • Ambient Conditions • Ratings (both normal and short circuit ratings) .SWITCHGEARS CONSIDERATIONS 2.

ERECTION OF SWITCHGEARS It includes: Placing the equipment on foundation Assembly of loose supplied parts Mechanical and electrical interconnections Connections of control and power circuits • • • • .

• Testing is necessary to ensure that the installation work meets the specified requirements and safety norms. .SWITCHGEAR COMMISSIONING • Commissioning is done to carry out predefined checks and tests.

000 volts AC) • By insulating medium: – – – – Air Gas (SF6 or mixtures) Oil Vacuum . • By voltage class: – Low voltage (less than 1.000–33. or the load current is very small.000 volts AC) – High voltage (more than 66.Switchgear classification • • By the current rating.000 volts AC) – Medium voltage (1. By interrupting rating (maximum short circuit current that the device can safely interrupt) – Circuit breakers can open and close on fault currents – Load-break/Load-make switches can switch normal system load currents – Isolators may only be operated while the circuit is dead.

Switchgear classification • By construction type: – Indoor (further classified by IP (Ingress Protection) class or NEMA enclosure type) – Outdoor – Industrial – Utility – Marine – Draw-out elements (removable without many tools) – Fixed elements (bolted fasteners) – Live-front – Dead-front – Open – Metal-enclosed – Metal-clad – Metal enclose & Metal clad – Arc-resistant .

.Switchgear classification • By operating method: – Manually-operated – Motor-operated – Solenoid/stored energy operated • By type of current: – Alternating current – Direct current • By application: – Transmission system – Distribution.

Main functions of switchgear • Electrical protection • Electrical isolation of sections of an installation • Local or remote switching .

Electrical protection against • Isolation Control Overload currents •Isolation clearly indicated by an •Short-circuit authorized failcurrents proof mechanical •Insulation failure indicator •A gap or interposed insulating barrier between the open contacts. clearly visible Functional switching •Emergency switching •Emergency stopping •Switching off for mechanical maintenance • .

Electrical protection • The protection of circuits – Against overload. • The protection of electric motors – Against overheating . – Against short-circuit currents • The protection of persons – Against insulation failures.

Isolation • To separate a circuit or apparatus from the remainder of a system which is energized. including the neutral – must be provided with a locking system in open position – must comply with a recognized national or international standard . • An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements: – All poles of a circuit.

• An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements: – All poles of a circuit.Isolation • To separate a circuit or apparatus from the remainder of a system which is energized. including the neutral – must be provided with a locking system in open position – must comply with a recognized national or international standard .

Switchgear control Functional control • This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation. item of plant etc. . or an individual piece of equipment.

. or could become.Switchgear control Emergency switching • An emergency switching is intended to deenergize a live circuit which is. dangerous (electric shock or fire).

Switchgear control Maintenance operations on the power system • This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery. .

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Basic relay circuit scheme Equipment CT RELAY CB Trip Coil of Breaker Battery Supply from source .

 Main Parts of a Circuit Breaker : * Fixed Contact * Movable Contact * Operating Mechanism * Arc extinguishing medium .

* Arc will be initiated between the contacts and it is extinguished by suitable methods. . so fault current will increase and relay senses this increase in current. * Fault impedance will be low. * Operating mechanism of the circuit breaker will operate and separate the contacts. Fault clearing process : During any Fault….. * Relay contacts closes and sends trip signal to circuit breaker and the trip coil of the circuit breaker will get energized.

The current flow depends upon the Arc resistance. heavy current flows through the contacts of the circuit breaker before they are opened by the protective system. the contact area decreases rapidly and current density (I/A) increases and hence rise in temperature.At the instant when the contacts begin to separate. -The heat produced is sufficient to ionise the medium between the contacts. . Arcing phenomenon : .When a fault occurs. This ionised medium acts as conductor and an arc is struck between the contacts. . . .The potential difference between the contacts is very small and is sufficient to maintain the arc.

. the voltage across the breaker terminals does not normalize instantaneously but it oscillates The transient voltage which appears across the breaker contacts at the instant of arc being extinguished. is capable Making Capacity Max current a CB can withstand if it closing on existing Short circuit. Few definitions : Breaking Capacity Max fault current at which a CB of breaking a circuit. Restriking Voltage –After the arc has been extinguished. Recovery Voltage –Power frequency voltage which appears across the breaker contacts after the arc is finally extinguished and transient oscillations die out.

 Events/Timings during fault clearing process : Fault clearing Time = Relay time + Circuit breaker Time Closure of Trip Circuit Final arc Extinction Relay time = Instant Of Fault Closure of Trip Circuit to Circuit breaker Time = to .

 Various types of CBs : (i) Miniature CB (ii) Air Break CB (iii) Air Blast CB (iv) Oil CB (v) SF6 CB (vi) Vacuum CB Bulk Oil CB Minimum Oil CB .

 Air Break CB :

 Air Blast CB :

ABCB- Principle of arc quenching

 Bulk Oil CB : .

 Minimum Oil CB : .

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Op mechanism 8. Filters . Puffer cylinder 2. Fixed contact 12. Terminals 9. Op rod 5. Fixed position 11. Linkage 6. Nozzle 10. Interrupter 3. SF6 CB : 1. Gas inlet 7. Support 4. Moving contact 13.

400kV Circuit Breaker .

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* SF6 is filled at a pressure of 12 ksc in the tank and maintained by means of an individual or a common compressor. * Colour less and odour less. * Gas pressure in the chamber is at 5 ksc. * Non-toxic and non. hence it removes the heat by axial convection and radial dissipation. * The decomposition products of arcing are not explosive hence no chance of fire.Advantage of SF6 * Inert gas with high dielectric strength. .inflammable. * Sf6 is blown axially to the arc. As result the arc dia reduces and comes to zero at current zero.

 Vacuum CB : .

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* At current zero the vapour emission will tends to zero and the density will becomes zero and dielectric strength will build up and restriking will be prevented. * Vacuum is highly dielectric. the density of vapour depends on the fault current. * Separation of contacts causes the release of metal vapour from the contacts. * Compact size. * Vacuum is of the range of 10ˉ6 to 10ˉ8 torr. hence pollution free.explosive and silent operation.Advantage of vacuum CB * Used up to 66 KV. * No emission to atmosphere. * Non. so arc can’t persists. .

* Surge suppressors (R or RC combination) are to be connected at load side for limiting switching over-voltage while switching low pf loads.Disadvantages * High initial cost. .

MOVING PORTION (Mechanism cover removed) .

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MECHANISM AND ITS OPERATION : GEAR BOX CLOSING COIL TRIPPING COIL MOTOR CLOSING SPRING LIMIT SWITCH MECHANISM SHAFT TRIPPING SPRING .

. Breaker is tripped . Plug & socket are engaged properly.SAFETY INTERLOCKS: The various interlocks provided on the breaker ensure that(A) i) ii) iii) (B) i) ii) • • VCB Truck cannot be racked in inside the panel unless: Door is closed . Door cannot be opened unless the breaker is in tripped condition . VCB Truck can not be racked out from panel unless: Door is closed. Breaker is in tripped condition. Breaker can be closed only in ‘SERVICE’ or in ‘ TEST’ position.

• Designed to carry out one or two fast closing operations followed by automatically locked open. .AUTO RECLOSURE • Over 80% of the faults are transient in nature.

AUTO RECLOSURE .

FEATURES OF ISOLATORS • OPERATES UNDER NO LOAD CONDITION • INTERLOCKED WITH BREAKERS AND EARTHSWITCHES • MOTOR DRIVEN AND HAND DRIVEN • LOCAL AS WELL AS REMOTE OPERATION POSSIBLE • ISOLATES SECTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE • USED TO SELECT BUS BARS • SELECT CT FOR BUS BAR PROTECTION .

400kV Isolator .

Isolator .

FEATURES OF EARTH SWITCHES • USED TO GROUND SECTIONS REQUIRED FOR MAINTENANCE • GROUND INDUCTION VOLTAGES • INTERLOCKED WITH BREAKERS AND ISOLATORS • CAN OPERATE FROM LOCAL ONLY • MOTOR DRIVEN AS WELL AS HAND DRIVEN • SAFETY DEVICE .

Source Isolator Isolator Load CB Earth S/W .

Lightning Arrestors .

 Apparatus to be protected : * Overhead lines………Earth/Ground wires * HV equipment………LAs * Substation………….Lightning Masts.. Earth wires . Purpose : .To discharge the high voltage surges in the power system due to lightning to the ground..

 Types : Rod gap LA : * Gap length is such that the break-down occurs at 80% of the spark voltage Insulator * After the surge. Rod gap Equipment body . the arc in the gap is maintained by the normal supply voltage.

400kV Surge Arrester .

Metal Oxide surge arrestor • The gapless arresters are based on metal oxide (MO) resistors. MO arresters for short. • They are known as metal oxide surge arresters. . which have an extremely non-linear V/I characteristic and a high energy-absorption capability.

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