# Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College

Laboratory Manual

FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM

For

T.E(ECT/IE) Students

Ó Author JNEC, Aurangabad

PREFACE
It is my great pleasure to present this laboratory manual for third year engineering  students for the subject of feedback Control Systems to understand and visualize the  basic concepts of control systems. The study of control systems engineering is essential  for students pursuing degrees in electrical mechanical, aerospace or chemical  engineering.  Good Luck for your Enjoyable Laboratory Sessions.

Prof. V.B.MALODE Prof. A.P.RATHOD Author

SUBJECT INDEX

1.Program to build transfer function objects in polynomials, zpk and plot there responses. 1.1 create a TF object for the transfer function in
polynomial form G(s)=4s^2+36s+32/s3+10s2+30s2+40s+24

1.2 . Given the zero(s),pole(s),and gain K of B(s)/A(s), Obtain the
function B(s)/A(s) using MATLAB,for the following case  There is no zero. Poles are at ­1+2j and ­1­2j.  K=10

1.3. Given the zero(s),pole(s),and gain K of B(s)/A(s), Obtain the
function B(s)/A(s) using MATLAB,for the following case  A zero is at ­1. poles are at ­2,­4 and ­8. K=12

2. Building and analyzing multiblock systems. 2.1 Series connection of two blocks. 2.2 Parallel connection of two blocks. 2.3 Feedback connection of two blocks. 3. To plot root locus for a system with real poles. 4. To plot BODE & NYQUIST plot. 5. Programs to build MATLAB state space models and plot their responses. 5.1 Program to enter a state space model. 5.2 Program to interconnect in state space form. 5.3 Program to plot impulse, step responses. 6. To study a.c. position control system 7. To study d.c. position control system 8. Study of synchro characteristics.
a) Study of synchro transmitter characteristics. b) Study of synchro transmitter / receiver characteristics.

3. The promptness of submission should be encouraged by way of marking and evaluation patterns that will benefit the sincere students. Students should be instructed to switch on the power supply after getting the connections checked by the lab assistant/teacher. Do not handle any equipment before reading the instructions/Instruction manuals 2. For Indian equipment‛s. the power ratings are normally 230V/50Hz.DOs and DON‛T DOs in Laboratory: 1. Read carefully the power ratings of the equipment before it is switched on whether ratings 230 V/50 Hz or 115V/60 Hz.CRO probe to the lab assistant/teacher . If you have equipment with 115/60 Hz ratings. Observe type of sockets of equipment power to avoid mechanical damage 4. Do not forcefully place connectors to avoid the damage 5. do not insert power plug. 4  . Submission related to whatever lab work has been completed should be done during the next lab session. 2. After the experiment is over the students must hand over the circuit board. which will damage the equipment. as our normal supply is 230V/50 Hz. wires . Strictly observe the instructions given by the teacher/Lab Instructor Instruction for Laboratory Teachers:: 1. 3.

dd]=tfdata(G.1.LAB EXERCISE:  Exercised no 1(2 hours)­1 practical  1 .1:  AIM:create a TF object for the transfer function in  polynomial form G(s)=4s^2+36s+32/s3+10s2+30s2+40s+24  PROGREAM:  Create G(s)as a TF object  numG=[4 36 32];        %specify the numerator coe.  G=tf(numG.  DenG=[1 10 30 40 24];  %specify the denomerator coe.  get(G);  [nn. program to build transfer function object in polynomial  zpk and plot their responses.  EXERCISE NO 1.denG);       %create G(s)as a TF object.'V');  pzmap(G);          %extract poles & zero and display it 5  .

6 .

for the following case  There is no zero.k);  printsys(num. Obtain the  function B(s)/A(s) using MATLAB.den)  Program output:  10  num/den =  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­  s^2 + 2 s + 5 7  .and gain K of B(s)/A(s).pole(s).p.2 Given the zero(s).1. Poles are at ­1+2j and ­1­2j.  K=10  Program:  z=[];  p=[­1+2*j;­1­2*j];  k=10;  [num.den]=zp2tf(z.

3 Given the zero(s). poles are at ­2. Obtain the  function B(s)/A(s) using MATLAB. K=12  Program:  z=[­1];  p=[­2;­4;­8];  k=12;  [num.k);  printsys(num.pole(s).p.and gain K of B(s)/A(s).­4 and ­8.den)  Program output:  num/den =  12 s + 12  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­  s^3 + 14 s^2 + 56 s + 64 8  .for the following case  A zero is at ­1.1.den]=zp2tf(z.

GIVE  BOTH THE TF & ZPK FORMS OF THE SERIES CONNECTION AND PLOT THE UNIT STEP  RESPONSE.zpkdata(Tzpk.pT.LAB EXERCISES:  Exercise No.'v');%Zeros.DETERMINE THE STABILITY OF THE SERIES CONNECTION.hold on;%step responce of T(s) from ZPK form  [zT.2.5;­8].  PROGRAM:  %SERIES CONNECTION OF TWO BLOCKS  G1=tf([2 3].1:  AIM: CREATE THE SERIES CONNECTION DENOTED BY THE TF T(s) OF THE TWO  SYSTEMS WHOSE TF ARE G1(s) & G2(s) WHERE G1(s)=(2*s+3)/5*s^2+2*s+2 AND  G2(s) HAS A ZERO AT s=2 AND POLES AT s=­0.2.kT].5);%G2(s)in ZPK form  Tzpk=G2*G1;%series combination in ZPK form  Tft=tf(Tzpk);%series combination of TF form  step(Tzpk).poles & gain from ZPK form 9  .1: (2 Hours)­1 Practical  Study of transients response of second order system  Exercise No.5 & ­8 AND A GAIN OF 5.[5 2 2]);%G1(S) in Tf form  G2=zpk(­2.[­0.

Program output: 10  .

[1 1 8]);%H1(S).  H2=tf([1 4].  PH2=pole(H2);%Poles of H2(s). POLES AND GAIN  OF T(S) AND COMPARE THEM WITH THE CORRESPONDING PARAMETER OF H1(S) AND  H2(S).  T=H1+H2;%T(s)in TF form.  denH2=conv([1 1].kT]=zpkdata(T. ALSO DETERMINE STABILITY OF T(S) AND PLOT THE STEP RESPONSE.  PH1=pole(H1);%Poles of H1(s).pT.[1 4 1]);%Denominator of H2(s).denH2);%H2 in TF form.Exercise No. DETERMINE THE ZEROS.2  AIM: FORM THE PARALLEL CONNECTIONS OF THE TWO TF H1(S)=(2*S+6)/S^2+S+8  AND H2(S)=(S+4)/(S+1)(S^2+4*S+1).  PROGRAM:­  %PARALLEL CONNECTION OF BLOCKS  H1=tf([2 6]. 11  .'v');%Zeros.& gain of T(s).  step(T);%Step response of T(s).2.  [zT. poles.

OUTPUT:­ 12  .

GIVE THE CLOSED  LOOP TF AS A RATIO OF POLINOMIALS AND DETERMINE ITS ZEROS.pT.kT]=zpkdata(T.POLES&GAIN OF T(S)  step(T);%STEP RESPONSE OF CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM 13  .2.[1 4 11]);% H(S) IN TF FORM  pH=pole(H);% POLES OF H(S)  T=feedback(G.'v');%ZEROS.Exercise No.[5 3 2]);%G(S)IN TF FORM  pG=pole(G);% POLES OF G(S)  H=tf([1 6].3  AIM: CREAT THE NEGATIVE SYSTEM WHERE  G(S)=(4*S+1)/(5*S^2+3*S+2)AND H(S)=(S+6)/(S^2+4*S+11).POLES AND  GAIN  G=tf([4 1].H);% FEEDBACK CONNECTION IN TF FORM  [zT.

14 .

clroots]=rlocfind(G); 15  .  PROGRAM  %Root locus for a system with real poles  zol = ­5;  pol=[­1;­3;­12];  G=zpk(zol.­15. Find the value of K for which  the to branches live the real axis and determine all the closed loop  poles for this value of K.3  AIM:­ Use matlab to draw the root locus for the feedback system whose  open loop TF is GH(S)=K(S+5)/(S+3)(S+5).pol.15);  [kk.10.Exercise No.1);  rlocus(G);  axis equal;  axis(­20.

OUTPUT 16  .

24 16];  G=tf(numG.Exercise No.H);  poles_T=pole(T); 17  .3.100);  bode(G.2*S^3+1604.w);  axis([­270 0 ­40 40]);  grid;  nyquist(G);  axis equal;  H=1;  GH=G*H;  margin(GH);  T=feedback(G.4  BODE AND NYQUIST PLOT  AIM:­Draw the bode and nyquist plot for the TF and find the gain .2 1604.81*S^2+320.denG);  w=logspace(­2.phase  margin and cross over frequencies  G(S)=(1280*S+640)/(S^4+24.81 320.24*S+16) H(S)=1  PROGRAM  numG=[1280 640];  denG=[1 24.

OUTPUT 18  .

gtf=tf(gss);%convert to TF form.C=[1 0 0].D);%set up model in ss form.  PROGRAM OUTPUT.  B=[0;0;20].5.  gss1=ss(gtf);%convert to SS form.1  AIM:­ ENTER IN MATLAB THE MATRICES  A=[0 1 0;­4 ­1 1;0 0 ­20].  B =  0  0  20  C =  1     0     0 19  .THEN CONVERT THE ORIGINAL  SS FORM TO ZPK FORM AND BACK TO SS FORM.B=[0 0 20].  A=[0 1 0;­4 ­1 1;0 0 ­20];%enter modd data.C=[1 0 0].B.STATE SPACE MODEL  Exercise No.C.  PROGRAM  ENTERING A STATE SPACE MODEL.D=[0]AND CREATE THE  MODEL AS AN STATE SPACE(SS)OBJECT.  gss2=ss(gzpk);%convert back to SS form.THEN CONVERT THE MODEL TO TF FORM AND  THEN BACK TO SS FORM USING A DIFFERENT NAME.D=0;  gss=ss(A.  gzpk=zpk(gss);%convert to ZPK form.

b1=[0;1].D1=[0]  A2=[­3 1;0 ­4].c1=[1 2].b2.B2=[0;4].d1=[0]%enter g1 state space matrices  g1=ss (a1.2  Aim: FOR HE SYSTEMS WIH TF’S G1(S) AND G2(S)GIVEN BY THE STATE SPACE  MODELS A1=[0 1;­3 ­5].c2.g2)% feedback connection tf(s) 20  .C2=[3 0]. c1.  A) SERIES Ts(S)=G1(S)*G2(S)  B) PARALLEL Tp(S)=G1(S)+G2(S)  C) FEEDBACK If(S)=G1(S)/(1+G1(S)*G2(S))  PROGRAM  INTERCONNECTIONS IN SATE SPACE FORM  a1=[0 1; ­3 ­5].D2=[2]FIND THE STATE SPACE MODELS FOR  THE FOLLOWING INTERCONNECTIONS. d2=[2]% enter g2 state space  matrices  g2=ss(a2.B1=[0 ;1].C1=[1 2]. b1.c2=[3 0].b2=[0; 4] . 5. d1) % built g1(s) as ss object  a2=[­3 1; 0 ­4].d2)%built g2(s)as ss object  %ts=g1*g2 %series connection ts(s)  tp=g1+g2% parallel connection tp(s)  %tf=feedback(g1.Exercise No.

PROGRAM OUTPUT  a1 =  0     1  ­3  ­5  b1 =  0  1  c1 =  1     2  d1 =  0  a =  x1  x2  x1   0   1  x2  ­3  ­5  b =  u1  x1   0  x2   1  c =  x1  x2  y1   1   2  d =  u1  y1  0  Continuous­time model.  a2 =  ­3     1 21  .

0  ­4  b2 =  0  4  c2 =  3     0  d2 =  2  a =  x1  x2  x1  ­3   1  x2   0  ­4  b =  u1  x1   0  x2   4  c =  x1  x2  y1   3   0  d =  u1  y1   2  Continuous­time model.  a =  x1  x2  x3  x4  x1   0   1   0   0  x2  ­3  ­5   0   0  x3   0   0  ­3   1  x4   0   0   0  ­4 22  .

b =  u1  x1   0  x2   1  x3   0  x4   4  c =  x1  x2  x3  x4  y1   1   2  3   0  d =  u1  y1   2 23  .

T)GENERATES IMPULSE RESPONSE  PAUSE  STEP(G.5000  ­0.5 1]  D=[0]  G=ss(A.1:20]%LINE AS COLUMN VECTOR  IMPULSE(G.5  x2     1     0     0 24  .5000    1.5000  1.0000         0  B =  1  0  0  C =  0    1.Exercise no:5.B.0000  ­2.0000  D =  0  a =  x1    x2    x3  x1  ­2  ­2.T)%GENERATES STEP RESPONSE  PROGRAM OUTPUT:  A =  ­2.5  ­0.D)%BUILD SYSTEM AS SS OBJECT  T=[0:1.5 ­0.5 ­0.5;1 0 0;0 1 0]  B=[1;0;0]  C=[0 1.0000         0         0  0    1.5;1 0 0;0 1 0]%ENTER SS  B=[1;0;0]%MATRICES  C=[0 1.5 1]  D=[0]  PROGRAM:  A=[­2 ­2.3  AIM:­Use matlab to complete & plot the impulse & step responses of the  state space model  A=[­2 ­2.C.

T = Columns 1 through 9  0    1.6000   18.9000   11.5000   17.7000    8.2000   14.6000  7.3000    4.1000    2.3000   15.x3     0     1  b =  u1  x1   1  x2   0  x3   0  c =  0  x1   x2   x3  y1    0  1.0000   12.1000   13.5    1  d =  u1  y1   0  Continuous­time model.4000   16.4000    5.8000  Columns 10 through 18  9.2000    3.5000    6.7000  Column 19 25  .

8000 26  .19.

very near to the zero position. Sr.C. max.No. In/put angular Position 10 Degrees 30 Degrees 50 Degrees Out/put angular Position Remarks 10. 5) Take the input pot to the starting position i. 02. position control system set up. 27  . You may use the test point black TP1. 3) Observe that the input & output pots come in alignment. 2) sw1. position control system. 2) D. mains supply. position control system set up Operating instructions : 1) Switch on the a.c.Exercise No. the output pot will also follow the input pot till the null indicator indicates null position. 01.C. 4) Keep the gain pot almost in max. 03. gain position (almost fully clockwise position ).sw2 & sw3 should be in the position . TP2 & TP3 a) TP1 – Black – Excitation voltage for potentiometer system.6 Aim: To study A. 7.e.C.e. gain) you may note that output pot indicates sustained oscillations. 6) Enter the observations in the tabular column given below. 350 Degrees You may repeat observations with lower amplifier gain to observe that there is greater error with higher gain (i. Apparatus : 1) A.

8. sw1 & sw3 are in series with a. Vary the Input position pot and obscure the out put pot till meter shoes null deflection. preampere servo motor reference & control winding. c) TP3 – Black – Variable point potential for O/P pot. 10. Green terminal on the left hand side indicates main ground of the system. 9.C.C. Note that excitation point (TP1-Black) for O/P pot all flouting with repeat to the main ground.c. Please note that the switches sw2 . AMPLIFIER TWO PHASE A. MOTOR LOAD REFERENCE INPUT FIG-1 A. See the front panel of D.3 Pre amplifier  &  power amplifier _ A. position control. 11. 12. See the figure.C.c. POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM CONCLUSION: -  28  .Variable point potential for I/P pot. preampere out/put & servo ampere out put respectively. You may connect CRO across the TP4 & ground (Green terminal) TP5 & ground to observe the a.b) TP2 – Black .C.

position control system set up.No. 12) Enter the observations in the tabular column given below. very near to the zero position. mains supply. the output pot will also follow the input pot till the null indicator indicates null position. Sr.C.e. 9) Observe that the input & output pots come in alignment. max.Exercise No. position control system set up Operating instructions : 7) Switch on the a.7 Aim: To study D. 01. gain) you may note that output pot indicates sustained oscillations. 11) Take the input pot to the starting position i. gain position (almost fully clockwise position ).C. Position control system. 8) sw1. Apparatus : 1) A. In/put angular Position 10 Degrees 30 Degrees 50 Degrees Out/put angular Position Remarks 10. 02. 03. You may use the test point black TP1. 13. 350 Degrees You may repeat observations with lower amplifier gain to observe that there is greater error with higher gain (i.e. TP2 & TP3 29  . 2) D. 10) Keep the gain pot almost in max.sw2 & sw3 should be in the position .C.c.

See the figure.a) TP1 – Black – Excitation voltage for potentiometer system. 16. 14. position control. Vary the Input position pot and obscure the out put pot till meter shoes null deflection. c) TP3 – Black – Variable point potential for O/P pot. Please note that the switches sw2 .C.Variable point potential for I/P pot. preampere servo motor reference & control winding. You may connect CRO across the TP4 & ground (Green terminal) TP5 & ground to observe the a. 18. See the front panel of D. AMPLIFIER TWO PHASE A. Green terminal on the left hand side indicates main ground of the system.C.3 Pre amplifier  &  power amplifier _ A. Note that excitation point (TP1-Black) for O/P pot all flouting with repeat to the main ground. POSITION CONTROL SYSTEM CONCLUSION: -  30  .c.C. 17. MOTOR LOAD REFERENCE INPUT FIG-1 A. 15. preampere out/put & servo ampere out put respectively. sw1 & sw3 are in series with a.c.C. b) TP2 – Black .

d) Study of synchro transmitter / receiver characteristics.-a Stator Rotor Coil ~ Stator Stator Winding  31  .c. An a. Constructional features of synchro transmitter: fig.Exercise No. Its construction is similar to that of a three. The rotor is of dumb-bell construction and is wound with a concentric coil. The basic synchro unit is usually called a synchro transmitter.8 AIM: Study of synchro characteristics. THEORY: Principals: A synchro is an electromagnetic transducer commonly used to convert an angular position of a shaft into an electric signal. The stator is of laminated silicon steel and is slotted to accommodate a balanced three phase winding which is usually of concentric coil type and is Y-connected. APPARATUS: Synchro transmitter / receiver set-up. voltage is applied to the rotor winding through slip rings. multimeter connecting wires etc. c) Study of synchro transmitter characteristics.phase alternator.

Vs2s3 = Vs2n – Vs3n = / 3KVr sin ( 0+120 ) sin wct.S2 and S3 with respect to the neutral. Vs1s2 = Vs1n – Vs2n = / 3KVr sin ( 0+ 240) sin wct. Vs2n and Vs3n. Vs3s1 = Vs3n – Vs1n = / 3KVr sin 0 sin wct. Vs1n = KVr sin wct cos ( 0-120) Vs2n = = KVr sin wct cos 0 Vs3n = KVr sin wct cos / ( 0+240) The three terminal voltages of the stator are.Operation : Let an a. voltage Vr (t) = Vr sin wct fig-b Be applied to the rotor coil which produces a sinusoidally time varying flux directed along its axis and distributed nearly sinusoidally in the air gap along the stator periphery. Be the voltage induced in the stator coil S1. 32  .c. Let Vs1n. As the air gap flux is sinusoidally distributed. the flux linking any stator coil is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the rotor and stator coil axes and so is the voltage induced in each stator coil.

(II) 1. Switch on SW1 and SW2. Move the graph of angular displacement of transmitter to angular displacement in receiver. Make connections between corresponding terminals of transmitter and receiver i. 2. Connect the system to the main supply .Vs1s3 and Vs2s3 in a sequential position. Plot the graph of angular position Vs voltage of three winging i.Procedure: (I) 1. 2. Connect the system in main supply.e. Starting from zero position note down the voltage between stator terminal i. 3.e. terminal voltage. S2 – S2 and S3 – S3 of transmitter and receiver.e. 3. Nature of charactiristcs : a) Vs1s2 Vs3s1 Vs2s3 RMS Voltage 0 Angular Displacement (in degrees) 0 33  . connect S1 – S1. Vs2s1. 4.

part­b Diagram. 34  .

Observation tables: - Conclusion: - 35  .