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2) Quick-Sort

7 4 9 6 2 → 2 4 6 7 9 4 2 → 2 4 2→2 7 9 → 7 9 9→9

**Quick sort is a randomized sorting algorithm based on the divide- a - c nquer nd o paradigm:
**

Divide: pick a random element x (called pivot) and partition S into

L elements less than x E elements equal x G elements greater than x

x

x L E G

**Recur: sort L and G Conquer: join L, E and G
**

1 © 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Quick-Sort

x

2

© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

Quick-Sort

Partition

We partition an input sequence as follows:

We remove, in turn, each element y from S and We insert y into L, E or G, depending on the result of the comparison with the pivot x Algorithm partition(S, p) Input sequence S, position p of pivot Output subsequences L, E, G of the elements of S less than, equal to, or greater than the pivot, resp. L, E, G ← empty sequences x ← S.remove(p) while ¬S.isEmpty() y ← S.remove(S.first()) if y < x L.insertLast(y) else if y = x E.insertLast(y) else { y > x } G.insertLast(y) return L, E, G

3

**Quick-Sort Tree
**

An execution of quick s rt is depicted by a binary tree - o

Each node represents a recursive call of quick-sort and stores

Unsorted sequence before the execution and its pivot Sorted sequence at the end of the execution

The root is the initial call The leaves are calls on subsequences of size 0 or 1

Each insertion and removal is at the beginning or at the end of a sequence, and hence takes O(1) time Thus, the partition step of quick-sort takes O(n) time

© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

7 4 9 6 2 → 2 4 6 7 9 4 2 → 2 4 2→2

© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Quick-Sort

7 9 → 7 9 9→9

4

Quick-Sort

base case. Tamassia 9→9 4→4 Quick-Sort 8 . …. pivot selection 7 2 9 4 3 7 6 1→ 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 7 2 9 4 → 2 4 7 9 3 8 6 1 → 1 3 8 6 2 4 3 1→ 2 4 7 9 3 8 6 1 → 1 3 8 6 2→2 9 4 → 4 9 3→3 8→8 2→2 9 4 → 4 9 3→3 8→8 9→9 © 2004 Goodrich. base case 7 2 9 43 7 6 1→→ 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 Execution Example (cont. Tamassia 4→4 Quick-Sort 7 © 2004 Goodrich.) Partition. join 7 2 9 43 7 6 1→ 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 2 4 3 1 →→ 2 4 7 3 8 6 1 → 1 3 8 6 2 4 3 1 → 1 2 3 4 3 8 6 1 → 1 3 8 6 1→1 9 4 → 4 9 3→3 8→8 1→1 4 3 → 3 4 3→3 8→8 9→9 © 2004 Goodrich.) Recursive call. recursive call.Execution Example Pivot selection 7 2 9 43 7 6 1 → 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 Execution Example (cont. recursive call. Tamassia 4→4 Quick-Sort 5 © 2004 Goodrich. Tamassia 9→9 4→4 Quick-Sort 6 Execution Example (cont.) Partition.

) Recursive call.) Join. the worst-case running time of quick-sort is O(n2) depth time 0 n n−1 2 4 3 1 → 1 2 3 4 7 9 7 → 17 7 9 1→1 4 3 → 3 4 8→8 9→9 1 … … … 1 Quick-Sort 12 9→9 © 2004 Goodrich. join 7 2 9 4 3 7 6 1 →1 2 3 4 6 7 7 9 Worst-case Running Time The worst case for quick-sort occurs when the pivot is the unique minimum or maximum element One of L and G has size n − 1 and the other has size 0 The running time is proportional to the sum n + (n − 1) + … + 2 + 1 Thus. Tamassia 9→9 4→4 Quick-Sort 10 Execution Example (cont. …. base case 7 2 9 43 7 6 1→ 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 2 4 3 1 → 1 2 3 4 7 9 7 1 → 1 3 8 6 2 4 3 1 → 1 2 3 4 7 9 7 1 → 1 3 8 6 1→1 4 3 → 3 4 8→8 9→9 1→1 4 3 → 3 4 8→8 9→9 9→9 © 2004 Goodrich.Execution Example (cont. recursive call. Tamassia 4→4 n−1 Quick-Sort 11 © 2004 Goodrich. Tamassia 4→4 Quick-Sort 9 © 2004 Goodrich.) Partition. pivot selection 7 2 9 43 7 6 1→ 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 Execution Example (cont. Tamassia .

j k 3 2 5 1 0 7 3 5 9 2 7 9 8 9 7 6 9 (pivot = 6) The recursive calls consider elements with rank less than h elements with rank greater than k © 2004 Goodrich. l. we use Input sequence S. we have For a node of depth 2log4/3n. we expect i/2 ancestors are good calls The size of the input sequence for the current call is at most (3/4)i/2n Therefore. Tamassia Quick-Sort rearranged in increasing order if l ≥ r return i ← a random integer between l and r x ← S. Tamassia Quick-Sort 14 In-Place Quick-Sort Quick-sort can be implemented to run in-place Algorithm inPlaceQuickSort(S. the expected input size is one The expected height of the quick-sort tree is O(log n) expected height s(r) time per level O(n) Good call Bad call A call is good with probability 1/2 1/2 of the possible pivots cause good calls: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Bad pivots © 2004 Goodrich. ranks l and r replace operations to rearrange Output sequence S with the the elements of the input elements of rank between l and r sequence such that the elements less than the pivot have rank less than h the elements equal to the pivot have rank between h and k the elements greater than the pivot have rank greater than k In-Place Partitioning Perform the partition using two indices to split S into L and E U G (a similar method can split E U G into E and G). r) Repeat until j and k cross: Scan j to the right until finding an element > x. the expected running time of quick-sort is O(n log n) s(f) O(n) total expected time: O(n log n) © 2004 Goodrich.elemAtRank(i) (h. k + 1. h − 1) inPlaceQuickSort(S. r) In the partition step. Scan k to the left until finding an element < x. Part 2 Probabilistic Fact: The expected number of coin tosses required in order to get k heads is 2k For a node of depth i. k) ← inPlacePartition(x) inPlaceQuickSort(S. Tamassia Quick-Sort 16 . Swap elements at indices j and k j k 3 2 5 1 0 7 3 5 9 2 7 9 8 9 7 6 9 15 © 2004 Goodrich. Tamassia s(a) O(log n) s(c) s(d) s(e) s(b) O(n) Good pivots Quick-Sort Bad pivots 13 The amount or work done at the nodes of the same depth is O(n) Thus.Expected Running Time Consider a recursive call of quick-sort on a sequence of size s Good call: the sizes of L and G are each less than 3s/4 Bad call: one of L and G has size greater than 3s/4 7 2 9 43 7 6 19 2 4 3 1 7 9 7 1 → 1 1 7 2 9 43 7 6 1 7294376 Expected Running Time. l.

Comparator c) { if (S. randomized fastest (good for large inputs) in-place fast (good for large inputs) sequential data access fast (good for huge inputs) 17 © 2004 Goodrich.Summary of Sorting Algorithms Algorithm selection s . Tamassia Java Implementation public static void quickSort (Object[] S. // swap these elements S[leftIndex] = temp. } Time O(n2) O(n2) O(n log n) expected O(n log n) O(n log n) Quick-Sort Notes in-place slow (good for small inputs) in-place slow (good for small inputs) in-place. // the pivot is now at leftIndex.. if (leftIndex < rightIndex) { // both elements were found temp = S[rightIndex]. c. // the indices have crossed Object temp. leftBound. S[leftIndex] = temp. // scan leftward to find an element smaller than the pivot while ( (rightIndex >= leftIndex) && (c. int leftBound. S[rightIndex] = S[leftIndex].).length 1 // recursive sort method . c.length < 2) return. } private static void quickSortStep (Object[] S. pivot)<=0) ) leftIndex++.).ort quick sort heap sort merge.ort insertion s . so recurse quickSortStep(S. leftIndex+1. while (leftIndex <= rightIndex) { // scan right until larger than the pivot while ( (leftIndex <= rightIndex) && (c. leftIndex 1 . rightBound). // swap pivot with the element at leftIndex S[rightBound] = S[leftIndex]. c. 0. // the array is already sorted in this case quickSortStep(S.compare(S[rightIndex]. int rightBound ) { if (leftBound >= rightBound) return.compare(S[leftIndex]. Comparator c.s ort © 2004 Goodrich. // temp object used for swapping Object pivot = S[rightBound]. int leftIndex = leftBound. quickSortStep(S. // will scan rightward int rightIndex = rightBound 1 // will scan leftward . S. Tamassia only works for distinct elements Quick-Sort 18 . } } // the loop continues until the indices cross temp = S[rightBound].. pivot)>=0)) rightIndex .

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