DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

Main reference : Karl T. Ulrich & Steven D. Eppinger, Product Design and Development, McGraw Hill, 5th Edition, 2012. Teaching Module, BMFR 2113

JUST SOME THOUGHT
Think environment, think
Did you know …

GREEN.

…that using black display on computer screen is believed to cut down energy usage? . Maybe Studies shown that the result varies with different computer type (LCD vs. CRT)
Meanwhile, you just have to bear with me and my black slides  And please… don’t print this slides with black background though.
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

NOT

ABOUT DFE
• A method to minimise activities than can jeopardise the environment. • To create a more sustainable society. • Effective DFE can maintain or improve quality and cost. • But…. Why DFE? Why NOW?

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

OUR ENVIRONMENT TODAY

Sungai Juru, Penang (2007) Batu Feringghi, Penang (2010)

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

OUR ENVIRONMENT TODAY
Partial deglaciation of the Greenland ice sheet The coast of Philippines

Global warming

• Temperature increase • Accumulation of GHG in the upper atm. • Accelerate because of CO2, CH4, CFC. • From where? Industrial processes and products!

Resource depletion

• Limited supply • Nonrenewable natural resources (gas, oil, coal)

Solid waste

• Scrap , disposed in incinerators or landfills --- or RIVERS! • Incinerator : generate air pollution and toxic ash. • Landfills : release methane gas.

Land degradation

• Adverse effect of raw material extraction and production. • Reduced soil fertility, soil erosion, salinity of land and water, and deforestation.

OUR ENVIRONMENT TODAY
Oil spill at Gulf of Mexico Maryland powerplant Siberian tiger, in danger of extinction Antarctic ozone hole, 2000

Water pollution

• Source : discharge from industrial processes (includes heavy metals, solvents, oil, acids). • Affects ground water, drinking water and the ecosystem.

Air pollution

• Source : emission from factories, incinerators, power plants, residential area, vehicles. • CO2, NOX, SO2, O3, VOCs.

Biodiversity

• Variety of plant and animal species within an ecosystem – unbalanced! • Affected by land clearing due to urban development, mining, etc. • Causes mass extinction

Ozone depletion

• Ozone layer protects earth against the harmful effects of sun’s radiation. • Degradation : caused by nitric acids (burning fossil fuels) and chlorine compound (CFCs).

YET…
“Tak apalah. Somebody will pick it up.” “Tak apalah. It’s expensive to pay for waste management service. Let’s just dump it in the river.”
Ah… well… It’s time to care now, and it’s time to change.

When it comes to product development process, change should start at the early stage. • Why? Deliberate decisions on material use, energy efficiency and waste avoidance can minimise environmental impacts. • How can we change? By understanding the product’s life-cycle.
…. And be more responsible.

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

PRODUCT LIFE CYCLES
• It is the basis of DFE. • Should be closed-loop system of product life cycle + the natural life-cycle.
Non-Renewable Renewable

Resources

Raw Materials
NATURAL “BIOLOGICAL” LIFE CYCLE

A) Remanufacture

Production

Natural decay

PRODUCT “INDUSTRIAL” LIFE CYCLE

Distribution

(c) Deposit in landfill Organics

Recovery
Inorganics Toxics

B) Reuse

Use
Disposal Landfill Incineration

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
How to achieve environmental sustainability?

1 2 3

Eliminate use of nonrenewable resources (including non renewable sources of energy) Eliminate disposal of synthetic and inorganic materials that do not decay quickly. Eliminate creation of toxic wastes that are not part of natural life cycles.

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

DFE PROCESS
McDonough and Braungart (2002) introduced DFE method that focuses on 3 key areas of product design.

MATERIAL CHEMISTRY
What are the chemical composition of the materials? Are they safe for human and environment?
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

DISASSEMBLY
Can the product be taken apart at the end of their useful life in order to recycle their materials?

RECYCLABILITY
Are the materials readily separable for recycling categories? Can the materials be recycled at the end of the product’s useful life?

DFE PROCESS
Product Planning Concept Development
1) Set DFE Agenda 2) Identify Potential Environmental Impacts 3) Select DFE Guidelines

System-Level Design Detail Design

4) Apply DFE Guidelines to Initial Design (s) 5) Assess Environmental Impacts

Compare to DFE Goals

6) Refine Design

Process Improvement
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

7) Reflect on DFE Process and Results

(1) DFE AGENDA

INDENTIFY INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DRIVERS • Discussion on WHY organisation have to pursue DFE. • Internal drivers : within organisation Example : Product quality, public image, cost reduction, ethical responsibility. • External drivers : outside organisation but still affect the organisation. Example : environmental legislation, market demand, competitions, suppliers, social pressures.
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

SET DFE GOALS • Set long term environmental objective / vision. • Strategise! • Example : Zero defect Zero landfill All green electrical energy use Reduce use of raw material to 50% Eliminate emission and reduce energy consumption during use.

SET-UP DFE TEAMS • Must involve participation from cross-functional departments (engineering, design, materials, production, purchasing, marketing, etc.) • DFE team should be involved throughout the development stage as early to ensure DFE considerations are taken into account.

(2) IDENTIFY POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
• Consider environment impact at conceptual stage even if there is little or no specific data (qualitative assessment). • “What are the significant sources of potential environmental impact in each life cycle stage?” ** Refer Exhibit 12-7 in book.

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

(3) DFE GUIDELINES
• DFE guidelines is established based on the potential environmental impact identified earlier. • Allows project team to apply it throughout product development project. • Example :  Ensure that wastes are biodegradable.  Minimise number of components.  Allow easy repair and upgrading. ** Refer Exhibit 12-8 and Appendix in book.

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

(4) APPLY DFE GUIDELINES
• The DFE guidelines are applied to all stages of product life cycle.
Production • Cheaper product (reduced number of parts). • An environmentally friendly product (wise selection of materials and processes). • A happy customer. • A happy earth.

Raw Materials

OUTCOME Distribution Recovery Use
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

(5) ASSESS ENV. IMPACT
• ASSESSMENT : is a must! WHY? Continual improvement… • Requires detailed understanding of how the product is to be produced, distributed, used over lifetime, and disposal method. • HOW?  Detailed BOM.  Identify sources of energy  Recycling method  Life-cycle assessment (LCA) tools – requires training, time, and data. • SO? Compare the result (environmental impact) analysed to the DFE Goals (from STEP 1)
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

(6) REFINE PRODUCT DESIGN
• First time may not be the best – improve, improve, improve! • Further reduce or eliminate any significant environmental impacts through REDESIGN. • Team may identify room for improvement even after the project has started.
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

(7) REFLECTION
• Finally, REFLECT the DFE process and results. • Achieve? Or not?
How can our DFE process be improved? How well did we execute the DFE process? What DFE improvements can be made on derivative and future products?

Masni-Azian, A. 2012

YOUR ASSIGNMENT IS…

• Identify the life-cycle for a car. • In your opinion, what are the negative environmental impact faced by our country which is caused by automobile transportation. • Suggest the improvement that can be incorporated throughout the development of domestic transportation by considering the environmental aspect.
Masni-Azian, A. 2012

Masni-Azian, A. 2012