# Discrete Fracture Network (DFN

)
Modeling in the Marcellus and other
Shale Formations
Bruce R. Meyer
Meyer & Associates, Inc.
SPE APPLIED
TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP
Horizontal Well Stimulation
17-18 November 2009
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Outline
 Natural Fracture Out Crops
 Micro-seismic Fracture Mapping
 Discrete Fracture Network Concepts
 DFN Model
o Governing Equations
o Features
o Numerical Results
o History Matching
 Production DFN
 Conclusions/Discussion?
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Orthogonal Fractures in Sandstone (Jon Olsen)
An example of saturated fracture spacing comes from the Oil Mountain area in Wyoming. This is an
unfolded outcrop near Oil Mountain, which is a thrust-cored anticline. Here, the fractures running up and
down in the diagram, which parallel the fold axis of the nearby anticline, have very regular spacing that is
about equal to bed thickness for the formation (the Frontier Sandstone).
Saturated Strike Joints
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Joint Spacing – Proportional to Bed Thickness
Sandstone (Jon Olsen)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Photo -Jon Olsen
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Complex Fracture Scenarios
(SPE 115769)
(SPE 114173)
(SPE 119890)
(SPE 115769)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Proppant Transport Scenarios
(SPE 115769)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Discrete Fracture Network Model
Major Axis
Vertical
Fractures
(x-z plane)
Minor Axis
Vertical
Fractures
(y-z plane)
Vertical Axis
Horizontal
Fractures
(x-y plane)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Discrete Fracture Network Model
Major Assumptions
Dominant or primary fracture
Secondary fractures
• initiate when
• principle planes (propagate perpendicular to
minimum stress)
• discrete (saturated or unsaturated)
Ignore interfacial joint dilatancy
Include fracture interaction
Stimulated Reservoir Volume - Ellipsoidal
min f
p o >
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Governing Equations – Principle Axes
Mass Conservation
2 0
L
w
q q
t
c
V + + =
c
( ) ( ) ( )
0
( ) 0
t
f l sp
q d V t V t V t t t ÷ ÷ ÷ =
}
Momentum Conservation
2 3
1
/
2
p f q w µ V = ÷
Continuity Equation
( )
f
W
p H
w
E
ç
o ÷
= I
'
Width-Opening Pressure
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Mass Conservation Equations
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Momentum Equations – Principle Axes
Laminar Flow
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Momentum Equations – Principle Axes
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Interaction Factors – DFN
1 1
/
N N
E ij
i j
N
= =
I = u
¿¿
3/ 2
2
1 1/ 1
2
ij
ij
h
d
(
| |
(
u = ÷ +
|
|
(
\ .
¸ ¸
1
N
f i ji
i
i
j
V V
V
q
t t t
=
c cA
c
= + +
c c c
¿
Flow Rate
Stiffness
Fluid Loss
1 1
N N
f i
i
t
i i
V
V
q
t t
= =
c
c
= +
c c
¿ ¿
1 1
2 2
i i
N N
i p i
i i
t A A
= =
= u + u
¿ ¿
} } }
1
E E
+ = I +
0 i Ei
E E = +
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Elastic Interaction Factor
3/ 2
2
1 1/ 1
2
E
h
d
(
| |
u = ÷ +
(
|
\ .
(
¸ ¸
h
d
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Net Pressure Ratio for Multiple Fractures
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Proppant Distribution
Primary Fracture
p f t f DFN
m m m m _ = =
Secondary Fractures
(1 )
s t f t p
m m m m _ = ÷ = ÷
1
p f t
m m _ = =
Dominant
p f DFN f DFN
m m V V _ = ~
Uniform
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Discrete Fracture Types
Multiple
• x-z plane
• self-similar
• saturated
• interaction
DFN
• principle planes
• spacing; dx,dy,dz
• saturated
• unsaturated

• continuum/discontinuous
• interaction
Cluster
• principle planes
• spacing; dx,dy,dz
• saturated
• unsaturated
• aperture ratio
• interaction
1 2 3
, , o o o
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Cluster Fractures
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
DFN - Unsaturated
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
DFN - Saturated
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
DFN - Volume to Create 1000 ft Fracture
DFN vs. Planar Bi-Wing Frac
) 2 ( L H w V = q
H
w
Planar Bi-Wing Frac
ft
H w
V
L 000 , 50
50 * 12 / 12 . 0 * 2
75 . 0 * 48 . 7 / 000 , 500
2
~ = =
q
75 . 0
50
. 12 . 0
000 , 500
=
=
=
=
q
ft H
in w
gal V
ft a
DFN
1300 ~
ft b
DFN
650 ~
L
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Microseismic - Woodford
Seismic MShale
Half-Length (ft) 700 770
Height (ft) 900 750
DFN Width 800 770
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Woodford – DFN Modeling 2D Contour
V =180,000 gal
M= 62,000 lbm
Perfs. 120 - 6 shots/ft 20ft
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Woodford – DFN 3D Contour (Stage 5)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Woodford – Top View (Stage 5)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus – Conventional Bi-Wing
V = 386,000 gal
M= 315,000 lbm
5 Clusters – 12 perfs 6/ft
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus – DFN (5 Cluster)
V = 386,000 gal
M= 315,000 lbm
5 Clusters – 12 perfs 6/ft
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus Payne – DFN (5 Cluster)
(Top View)
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus Shale (Ex. 1) – Microseismic
Map View
Side View
Edge View
Top View
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus Shale – Ex. 1 (Single Cluster)
ft y x 30 = A = A
Seismic MShale
Half-Length (ft) 1150 1157
Height (ft) 105 112
DFN Width 685 694
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus Shale – Ex. 1
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus Shale – Ex. 1
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Marcellus Shale – Ex. 1
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Production Model for DFN
ç µd
J
D
}
=
1
SPE 95941
Multiple Transverse Fracture Optimization
Conclusions
No.
Area = 200 acre
k = 0.0005 mD
CfD = 15, Ix = 1
Multiple Transverse Fractures – Interference
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model
Conclusions
• DFN may occur if Secondary Fractures Open
• DFN vs. a Conventional Bi-Wing Fracture
• DFN Fracture Length is Shorter
• Stimulated Reservoir Volume is Greater
• Proppant Distribution can be much different
• Micro-seismic mapping may verify DFN
• Production behavior may infer DFN

Outline
 

Natural Fracture Out Crops Micro-seismic Fracture Mapping Discrete Fracture Network Concepts DFN Model
o

o
o o

Governing Equations Features Numerical Results History Matching

Production DFN Conclusions/Discussion?
Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model

Orthogonal Fractures in Sandstone (Jon Olsen)

Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model

Saturated Strike Joints

An example of saturated fracture spacing comes from the Oil Mountain area in Wyoming. This is an unfolded outcrop near Oil Mountain, which is a thrust-cored anticline. Here, the fractures running up and down in the diagram, which parallel the fold axis of the nearby anticline, have very regular spacing that is about equal to bed thickness for the formation (the Frontier Sandstone).

Joint Spacing – Proportional to Bed Thickness Sandstone (Jon Olsen) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Photo -Jon Olsen .

Complex Fracture Scenarios (SPE 115769) (SPE 114173) (SPE 119890) (SPE 115769) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Proppant Transport Scenarios Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model (SPE 115769) .

Discrete Fracture Network Model Major Axis Minor Axis Vertical Axis Vertical Fractures (x-z plane) Vertical Fractures (y-z plane) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model Horizontal Fractures (x-y plane) .

Ellipsoidal Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .Discrete Fracture Network Model Major Assumptions Dominant or primary fracture Secondary fractures • • • initiate when p f   min principle planes (propagate perpendicular to minimum stress) discrete (saturated or unsaturated) Ignore interfacial joint dilatancy Include fracture interaction Stimulated Reservoir Volume .

Governing Equations – Principle Axes Continuity Equation w  q  2qL  0 t Mass Conservation  q  d  V t   V t   V t 0 f l sp (t )  0 Momentum Conservation Width-Opening Pressure 1 f  q 2 / w3 p   2 ( p f   ) H w  W E Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Mass Conservation Equations Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Momentum Equations – Principle Axes Laminar Flow Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Momentum Equations – Principle Axes Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Interaction Factors – DFN Fluid Loss V   2   v i dAdt   2  s p i dA i 1 t Ai i 1 Ai N N Stiffness Ei   Ei E0  E  E  1 Flow Rate V i qi    t t t j 1 N V f i N V ji  E    ij / N i 1 j 1 N N qt   i 1 V f i V i  t i 1 t N   h   ij  1  1/ 1      2d ij     2 3/ 2     Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Elastic Interaction Factor h d   h   E  1  1/ 1      2d   2 3/ 2     Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Net Pressure Ratio for Multiple Fractures Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Proppant Distribution Primary Fracture  p  m f mt  m f mDFN Secondary Fractures ms  mt  m f  mt (1   p ) Dominant Uniform  p  m f mt  1  p  m f mDFN  V f VDFN Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

dx. 3 continuum/discontinuous interaction Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model . 2 .dy. dx.Discrete Fracture Types Multiple • Cluster • DFN • • • • • • • x-z plane principle planes principle planes spacing.dz saturated unsaturated • • • self-similar saturated interaction • • • • • spacing.dz saturated unsaturated aperture ratio interaction 1.dy.

Cluster Fractures Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

DFN .Unsaturated Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

DFN .Saturated Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Volume to Create 1000 ft Fracture Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .DFN .

000 gal w  0. Planar Bi-Wing Frac bDFN  650 ft V  500.000 ft 2w H 2 * 0.DFN vs.000 / 7.12 / 12 * 50 . H  50 ft aDFN  1300 ft   0.75 L   50.48 * 0.75 V  w H (2 L) w Planar Bi-Wing Frac H L V 500.12in.

Microseismic .Woodford Seismic MShale Half-Length (ft) 700 Height (ft) DFN Width 900 800 770 750 770 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

000 lbm Perfs.000 gal M= 62. 120 .6 shots/ft 20ft Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .Woodford – DFN Modeling 2D Contour V =180.

Woodford – DFN 3D Contour (Stage 5) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Woodford – Top View (Stage 5) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

000 lbm 5 Clusters – 12 perfs 6/ft Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .000 gal M= 315.Marcellus – Conventional Bi-Wing V = 386.

000 gal M= 315.000 lbm 5 Clusters – 12 perfs 6/ft Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .Marcellus – DFN (5 Cluster) V = 386.

Marcellus Payne – DFN (5 Cluster) (Top View) Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Marcellus Shale (Ex. 1) – Microseismic Map View Side View Edge View Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model Top View .

Marcellus Shale – Ex. 1 (Single Cluster) Seismic MShale Half-Length (ft) Height (ft) 1150 105 1157 112 x  y  30 ft DFN Width 685 694 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Marcellus Shale – Ex. 1 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

1 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .Marcellus Shale – Ex.

1 Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .Marcellus Shale – Ex.

Production Model for DFN SPE 95941 1   d JD  Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .

Multiple Transverse Fracture Optimization .0005 mD CfD = 15.Conclusions Area = 200 acre k = 0. Ix = 1 Multiple Transverse Fractures – Interference No.

Conclusions • DFN may occur if Secondary Fractures Open • DFN vs. a Conventional Bi-Wing Fracture • DFN Fracture Length is Shorter • Stimulated Reservoir Volume is Greater • Proppant Distribution can be much different • Micro-seismic mapping may verify DFN • Production behavior may infer DFN Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Model .