GR-NC-09

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION

2009 SAMPLE COSTS TO ESTABLISH A VINEYARD AND PRODUCE

WINEGRAPES
Cabernet Sauvignon

NORTH COAST REGION
NAPA COUNTY

Karen M. Klonsky Richard L. De Moura

UC Cooperative Extension Specialist, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Davis Staff Research Associate, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Davis

SAMPLE COSTS TO ESTABLISH A VINEYARD AND PRODUCE WINEGRAPES
Cabernet Sauvignon

NORTH COAST REGION – Napa County 2009 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................2 ASSUMPTIONS ..............................................................................................................................................3 Establishment Cultural Practices and Material Inputs......................................................................................3 Production Cultural Practices and Material Inputs...........................................................................................6 Labor, Equipment and Interest Costs...............................................................................................................8 Cash Overhead ...............................................................................................................................................8 Non-Cash Overhead........................................................................................................................................9 REFERENCES...............................................................................................................................................11 Table 1. SAMPLE COSTS PER ACRE TO ESTABLISH A VINEYARD.....................................................12 Table 2. COSTS PER ACRE TO PRODUCE WINEGRAPES.......................................................................14 Table 3. COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE TO PRODUCE WINEGRAPES...........................................15 Table 4. MONTHLY PER ACRE CASH COSTS TO PRODUCE WINEGRAPES .......................................16 Table 5. RANGING ANALYSIS – INCOME AND YIELD..........................................................................17 Table 6. WHOLE FARM EQUIPMENT, INVESTMENT, AND BUSINESS OVERHEAD COSTS.............18 Table 7. HOURLY EQUIPMENT COSTS ....................................................................................................19 Table 8. OPERATIONS WITH EQUIPMENT ..............................................................................................20 Acknowledgment. Appreciation is expressed to the Napa Valley Grapegrowers members who provided time and input for this study. Thank you to Pete Richmond, Steve Smit, Garrett Buckland, Dave Michul, and Ron Wicker of the Napa Valley Grapegrowers and Jennifer Putman, Executive Director, for coordinating the data collection and providing facilities for the meetings. INTRODUCTION Sample costs to establish a vineyard and produce winegrapes under drip irrigation in the North Coast Region, Napa County are presented in this study. This study is intended as a guide only, and can be used to make production decisions, determine potential returns, prepare budgets and evaluate production loans. Practices described are based on production practices considered typical for the crop and area, but these same practices will not apply to every situation. The sample costs for labor, materials, equipment and custom services are based on current figures. A blank column, “Your Costs”, in Tables 2 and 3 is provided for entering your farming costs. The hypothetical farm operation, production practices, overhead, and calculations are described under the assumptions. For additional information or an explanation of the calculations used in the study call the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis, (530) 752-3589 or your local UC Cooperative Extension office. Sample Cost of Production Studies for many commodities are available and can be requested through the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Davis or downloaded from the department website at http://coststudies.ucdavis.edu or obtained from selected county UC Cooperative Extension offices.
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2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon)

North Coast (Napa County)

UC Cooperative Extension

2

Within the Napa Valley Appellation are 13 subappellations. and practices shown in this study will not be applicable to all situations. Establishment Cultural Practices and Material Inputs The following practices refer to table 1. Cabernet Sauvignon variety. and five acres occupied by roads. vetch mix) is planted. The hypothetical farm. A hand crew separates out the wood and steel components prior to vine removal. The new vineyard is being planted on land that had an existing vineyard. diagonally. In this study we incorporated information from both farmer and management company operations to present a farm managed by the owner. Field-grown dormant benchgraft vines. mark/stake vine sites and irrigation lines. and Planning Department administer regulations for planting and replanting vineyard sites that have a 5% or greater slope. but farms operated by management companies will not have an equipment inventory as shown in Table 6. crush and remove the old steel trellis components. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 3 .com. but is not accounted for in this study. The grapevines are assumed to begin yielding fruit in three years and to produce for an additional 22 years. oat. stacked and burned.line of planting. crossways. materials. The field is ripped four to five feet deep in three passes .napavintners. contact the Napa office for further information. The study is intended as a guide only. In the row middles. Development. A hand crew cleans and hauls miscellaneous debris left in the field using the grower’s tractor and trailer. The Napa County Conservation.555 vines per acre. A commercial company is hired to layout the field.ASSUMPTIONS The assumptions refer to Tables 1 to 8 and pertain to sample costs to establish a vineyard and produce winegrapes in the North Coast – Napa County or Napa Valley Appellation. irrigation systems. A custom operator then disks the land in two directions and landplanes the site. Soil amendments (lime or gypsum and compost) are commercially applied. The 35 contiguous acre farm consists of 30 acres on which winegrapes are being replanted. The old grapevines are removed. All operations that prepare the vineyard for planting are done in the fall. The field is again hand cleaned using the grower’s tractor and trailer to remove debris pulled up from the ripping. Landplaning is assumed to be necessary on the site. The costs. Farm. a cover crop (Bell bean. For district location and other related information see the websites www. Vines. Cordons are the horizontal branches. Environmental Preparation.napagrowers. The trellis system endposts and stakes are installed. beginning in the year prior to planting. The trade names and cultural practices shown in this report do not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by the University of California nor is any criticism implied by omission of similar products or practices. and spurs are the bearing units on the cordon. fencing. Management companies farm approximately 40% of the farms in the area (NVG). but costs are shown in the first year. are planted on 7 X 4-foot spacing at 1. Management companies will charge a fee for their services. The cultural practices shown represent operations and materials considered typical in a well-managed vineyard in the region. Rock removal may be required on some new plantings. and farmstead.org and www. If planting on slopes. Vineyard Conversion and Site Preparation. Vines will be trained to a bilateral cordon and spur pruned. located on land with less than a 5% slope. A company is hired to collect. Establishment and cultural practices vary by grower and the differences can be significant. is owned and operated by the grower.

two passes are made to top the vines. Second Year. In July and August. year three is the last year that the vines are trained in this study. shoot positioning in June and July. Planting in this study occurs in mid-April and is done by hand. cordons are pruned back to the appropriate length as determined by girth. Mainlines are laid out in the fall prior to trellis installation. The hole is filled with soil. No additional anchors are required. These canes are then tied trimly to the fruiting wire. Seven permanent wires are secured to the end posts – 12-gauge fruit wire and 14 gauge drip wire.83 hours per acre but uses a total of 2. Second Year. The grower lays out the stakes and end-posts. the vines are suckered to one shoot. Later in the season this shoot is topped at or slightly below the cordon wire. After planting the drip line is attached to the drip wire on the trellis system and emitters are punched. Drip System (Irrigation). end-posts and stakes are laid out by the grower and installed by a trellis company. The trellis is considered as part of the vineyard since it will be removed when the vines are removed.Planting. Twenty hours of hand labor (miscellaneous labor) are allocated to the budget for topping throughout the year. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 4 . The prunings are placed in between the vine rows and are incorporated during the first discing. The trellis is a vertical shoot positioning system (VSP). The system in this study utilizes 3inch X 8-foot notched steel line posts spaced 16-feet apart (every 4th vine). Two pairs of canopy wires. a single canopy wire at the top and the fruit wire are installed. In the following year an average of 2% or 31 vines per acre will be replanted. The vines are allowed to grow freely the first year with minimal pruning and training. After the vines are trained. remove extra shoots (suckering) and tie the canes loosely on the wire. Suckering is done in May. In this study training includes pruning. Slower growing vines continue to be trained. Trellis System. End posts are 3-7/8 inch X 10foot steel tube (well casing) with a spade. and the vine is protected with a milk carton. The drip wire is installed after planting. 2 pairs of 13 gauge canopy wires and a single canopy wire at the top.5 man-hours per acre. The system is considered part of the vineyard since it will be removed when the vines are removed. In June. Vines are trained by tying one shoot to the post to become the main trunk. Holes are dug and the dormant vines are planted to the appropriate depth. In February the vines are pruned back to two buds. shoot positioning. Two lateral shoots are selected from the trunk as the bilateral cordons. canopy management begins and includes suckering trunks and cordons. Therefore it is included in the establishment cost. Gripples are put on all wires except the cordon wire and drip wires. Training and pruning establish the vine framework and these techniques will vary with variety and trellis system. using a tractor and trailer. The trellis system cost (materials and labor) are shown in the first year and is installed during the first 2 years as follows: First Year. tying. Any remaining lower laterals are removed. with three training stakes (1/2-inch rebar rod X 4-feet) at the vine locations in between. Training/Pruning. suckering. Third Year. Drip system labor is included in the total drip system costs. First Year. Two clips for each rebar. Training vines in the third year includes extending the cordons along the permanent cordon wire and selecting spur positions. Crop thinning is done in June and August to remove about 50% of the crop from these young vines. Hauling the posts takes 2 men and 1 tractor driver approximately 0. In the fall of the year prior to planting. A good root system should develop this year to support vine training in the second year. therefore it is included in the establishment costs. however. In February. and shoot positioning and thinning. and thinning.

The pesticides and rates mentioned in this cost study as well as other materials are listed in UC Integrated Pest Management Guidelines. Leafhoppers and mites are the most common insect pests in the North Coast. May) at five hours per night. Average yields in the third year are assumed to be one ton per acre. but is not included as a cost in this study.74 acre inches). (2 irrigations per week at 2. and then disked in May. an annual cover crop is planted in the vine middles. A total of five gallons or 51 pounds of material per acre is applied. wettable sulfur is applied in March and mid-April. a total of 20 weeks. See Harvest in production section for operation explanations. During the first and second year. July. prior to planting. In the third year five gallons per week per vine at one irrigation per week are applied over a 20-week period (155. Pumping costs from grower input approximated $16. Harvesting starts in the third year. In Napa County. Pesticides mentioned in the study are commonly used. Glyfos is sprayed around the vines. and Pristine (pyraclostrobin/boscalid) in July. Rally (myclobutanil) in June. In April the cover crop (middles) is mowed and then disked in early May and August. No assumption is made about effective rainfall. It is assumed that the wind machine will run 50 hours per season (March. August and October (for cover crop seedbed). mowed in March/April of the following year. Many pathogens attack grapevines.ucdavis. 8-8-8. Rally in June. Diseases. In October of the third year a permanent cover crop is planted and allowed to reseed thereafter in the spring. available at www. Three propane powered wind machines are installed in the summer of the second year for frost protection. Cover Crop.5 gallons per vine per irrigation). populations are usually below treatment thresholds. but the major disease assumed is powdery mildew (Uncinula necator). A fungicide application may be made to pruning wounds in February for control of Eutypa.edu. In late January/early February of the first year. irrigation is from late May to late September/early October.50 per acre inch ($0. Yield. and September.ipm.0006 per gallon). Fertilization. Powdery mildew control begins in May of the second year with Stylet Oil (paraffinic oil). but may not be university recommendations.Irrigation. In the third year. an NPK fertilizer. Glyfos (glyphosate) is applied to the vine row (24-inch band) with an ATV and sprayer. In the fall of the first and second year. Labor is calculated at 0. All are applied by ground with the grower’s equipment.865 gallons per acre or 5. vetch) is planted in October and disked in May of the second year. Pest Management. After land preparation in the fall of the year prior to planting. we assume that no insecticides are needed. In this study. In July or August. Grapes. In the second year and third year. an annual cover crop (bell bean. April. Insects. Frost Protection. Beginning in the first year. Harvesting. the fertilizer is applied in May and in September after harvest. In this study the crop is hand harvested. Stylet Oil in May. Labor costs are estimated at $250 per ton for young vineyards. The machine begins operation in the third year. is applied in equal amounts through the drip line in June.33 hours per acre per irrigation. Weeds. Glyfos is applied as a strip spray in February prior to pruning: the middles (cover crop) are mowed in April. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 5 . oat. In the third year. disked in May. and Flint (trifloxystrobin) in July.

In addition the PCA will monitor the field for pests and nutrition. is done in March.8 Pruning. Growers may hire private PCAs or receive the service as part of a service agreement with an agricultural chemical and fertilizer company. Canopy management varies among growers. A PCA or PCAs are hired in this study to monitor the field for irrigation. Irrigation. Pest Control Adviser. Pest Management. No assumption is made about effective rainfall. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 6 . and opens the canopy to allow greater air movement through the vines and around the clusters. although much of the pruning in the region may be done by piecework. Canopy management begins with trunk and cordon suckering in April. Pesticides mentioned in the study are not recommendations. and wire lifting. The Vine Mealybug and the Light Brown Apple Moth are both growing concerns in Napa Valley vineyards. at 51 pounds per acre is applied through the irrigation system equally in May and in September after harvest. water at five gallons per vine is applied from late May to September/early October. Pruning costs in this study are based on an hourly rate. For additional information and pesticide use permits. The pesticides and rates mentioned in this cost study are listed in UC Integrated Pest Management Guidelines. Canopy Management. pest identification.33 hours per acre per irrigation. Leafhoppers and mites are the most common insect pests in the North Coast. Crop thinning is done in two passes. Fertilization. are removed.ucdavis. once in July for color thin and once in August for crop thin. Prepruning is done during the winter months (January) and final pruned in early March. In this study. Irrigation labor is calculated at 0. Grapes.ipm. The prunings are placed in the vine centers and chopped during the first mowing. contact the local county Agricultural Commissioner's office.Production Cultural Practices and Material Inputs Refers to tables 2 . some basal leaves are removed in and around the fruit zone to allow for exposure and better air movement. Frost Protection. nutrition and pests for $100 per acre Insects. Winter tying.866 gallons per acre) are applied and water is calculated to cost $16. Passes in June and July are made for leaf removal. Shoot removal is the operation whereby weak shoots. and management visit the UC IPM website at www. April and May. lateral removal. Management companies may have their own PCA. Written recommendations are required for many pesticides commercially applied and are made by licensed pest control advisers (PCAs). In early June/July after fruit set. For information on other pesticides available. Once per week over 20 weeks.74 acre-inches (155. where cordons are tied to the cordon wire with twine at the trunk and at each end of the cordons.50 per acre-inch. The PCA hangs one trap per 10 acres for mealybug monitoring. Positioning and thinning shoots allows vines space to develop good fruit clusters.edu. monitoring. 5 hours per night during March. we assume that no insecticides are needed. which lack vigor and do not originate from the fruiting spur buds. An NPK fertilizer. 8-8-8. It is assumed that the wind machines will run 50 hours per season. In this study 5. A second suckering pass in May also includes shoot thinning and positioning. but those commonly used in the region.

It is recommended that applicators use fungicides with different modes of action in order to avoid fungicide resistance in powdery mildew populations. which are classes of fungicides with different modes of action. Flint (trifloxystrobin) in July and Pristine (pyraclostrobin/boscalid) in August. Additionally.000 miles per year for the ranch. Napa growers are assessed $10 per acre by the Napa County Housing Commission for operation of the Napa County farmworker housing facilities. A permanent cover crop is planted in the row middles and is described under cover crop. Powdery mildew treatments begin in mid-March with two wettable sulfur applications one during March and one in April. Yields. and the Napa County Pest and Disease Control District Board annual assessment which is $5. All applications are made with the grower’s equipment. labor costs of $150 per ton are assumed. Net returns at different yields and prices are shown in Table 5 in this study.000 of crop returns. bearing and non-bearing. and ground terrain. In October of the third year a permanent cover crop is planted and allowed to reseed in the spring. quinolins. The crop is mowed once in March and again in May after seed formation.5 tons per acre. The price is an average of the 2004 to 2008 weighted average grower returns as reported each year in Table 10 of the Final Grape Crush Report. In addition to spot spraying for weed control. vine row weeds are controlled with Glyfos (glyphosate) applied as a strip spray (28.Diseases. Harvest. assuming an eight-hour day. The grower uses the pickup for business and personal use. Membership in the organization is not included as a cost in this study. In addition. an industry assumption is one-ton per day per picker. An assumed yield of 5 tons per acre is used to calculate returns in the production years. Bin handling includes use of the grower owned tractor and three bin trailers with one-half ton bins. Assessments/Membership. Pickup/ATV. two tractors rented and a forklift rented each for two-weeks.6% of the acreage) in January and again in July. loaded on the grower owned flatbed truck and delivered to the winery. Yield maturity is reached in the fifth or sixth year. The crop is hand picked by a labor contractor.5 to 6.50 per net acre planted. Weeds. strobilurins. The Napa Valley Grapegrowers. The truck holds 16 bins and takes one hour per roundtrip delivery. sterol inhibitors (SI). Charges may be lower or higher due to yield. See the UC IPM website for further information. Stylet Oil (paraffinic oil) is applied in May. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 7 . charges membership dues of $12. Growers have the option of using contacts. The cover crop is dried down by late spring/early summer. the All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is used on the ranch for checking the vineyard and irrigating. A price of $4. To determine number of pickers for harvest. The organization’s mission is to “to promote and preserve Napa Valley’s world-class vineyards”. Returns. Permanent Cover Crop. trellis system. Rally (myclobutanil) in June.082 per ton for Cabernet Sauvignon winegrapes is used to show a range of yields over a series of returns. The assumed business use for the pickup is 10. with a minimum annual fee of $250 per member per year.59 per acre for 2009. Typical yield range for Cabernet Sauvignon in Napa County is 3. The grapes are handpicked into the bins. In normal producing vineyards (4-5 tons). or sulfur. In this vineyard. Other grower assessments not included are the Pierce’s Disease/Glassy Winged Sharpshooter assessment in which growers are assessed $1 per $1. a voluntary organization.

Interest on operating capital is based on cash operating costs and is calculated monthly until harvest at a nominal rate of 5. and improvements. The interest cost of post harvest operations is discounted back to the last harvest month using a negative interest charge.69 for general labor includes payroll overhead of 45%. Equipment Operating Costs. it cannot fully represent financial.30 per hour for machine operators and $17. interest on operating capital. The risks associated with crop production should not be minimized. moving. While this study makes every effort to model a production system based on typical. liability and property insurance. The interest rate is the basic rate provided by a farm lending agency as of January 2009. Labor rates of $20. The overhead includes the employers’ share of federal and California state payroll taxes. For this study. and management. Property Taxes. Counties charge a base property tax rate of 1% on the assessed value of the property. In some counties special assessment districts exist and charge additional taxes on property including equipment.00 for machine operators and $12. respectively. Prices for on-farm delivery of red dye diesel and gasoline are $3. total hours of life. which affect profitability and economic viability. office expense.36 per gallon. and a percentage for other possible benefits.75% per year. and repair coefficients formulated by American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE). maintenance. Some federal excise tax can be refunded for on-farm use when filing your income tax. Tractor time is 10% higher than implement time for a given operation to account for setup. Interest on Operating Capital. buildings. workers' compensation insurance for vineyards (code 0040). and field repair. Workers’ compensation insurance costs will vary among growers. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 8 . equipment repairs. Risk. travel and down time. Cash Overhead Cash overhead consists of various cash expenses paid out during the year that are assigned to the whole farm and not to a particular operation.70 (excludes excise taxes) and $3. Equipment and Interest Costs Labor. Repair costs are based on purchase price.Labor. Insurance costs will depend on the type and level of coverage. Insurance policies vary and range from a basic catastrophic loss policy to one that insures losses for up to 75% of a crop. annual hours of use. county taxes are calculated as 1% of the average value of the property. real world practices. but does not include excise taxes. The fuel. The cost includes a 2% local sales tax on diesel fuel. and repair cost per acre for each operation in Table 2 is determined by multiplying the total hourly operating cost in Table 7 for each piece of equipment used for the selected operation by the hours per acre. work breaks.20 for general labor. Labor for operations involving machinery are 20% higher than the operation time given in Table 2 to account for the extra labor involved in equipment set up. agronomic and market risks. and fuel type. Fuel and lubrication costs are also determined by ASAE equations based on maximum power takeoff (PTO) horsepower. lube. Growers may purchase Federal crop insurance to reduce the production risk associated with specific natural hazards. sanitation services. The costs are based on 2008 (July thru December) American Automobile Association (AAA) and Department of Energy (DOE) monthly data. These costs include property taxes. but for this study the cost is based upon the participating growers’ recommendations. Average value equals new cost plus salvage value divided by 2 on a per acre basis. The basic hourly wages are $14. A nominal interest rate is the typical market cost of borrowed funds. Gasoline costs include an 8% sales tax plus federal and state excise tax.

Contract labor providers may include this service for their work force and therefore sanitation fees would not be a direct cost to the grower. bookkeeping. The formula for the calculation of the annual capital recovery costs is ((Purchase Price – Salvage Value) x Capital Recovery Factor) + (Salvage Value x Interest Rate). Salvage Value. The life in years is estimated by dividing the wear out life. Non-Cash Overhead Non-Cash overhead is calculated as the capital recovery cost for equipment and other farm investments. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 9 . This is a more complex method of calculating ownership costs than straight-line depreciation and opportunity costs. Office and business expenses are estimated at $300 per acre. telephones. It is the amount of money required each year to recover the difference between the purchase price and salvage value (unrecovered capital). The purchase price and salvage value for equipment and investments are shown in Table 6. Liability insurance covers accidents on the farm and costs $621 for the entire farm. and single use towels. Annual repairs on investments or capital recovery items that require maintenance are calculated as 2% of the purchase price.Insurance. delivery and pickup. and five months of weekly servicing. The percent remaining value is calculated from equations developed by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) based on equipment type and years of life. Capital Recovery Factor. Returns above costs are considered a return to management Office Expense. buildings. Costs also include soap or other suitable cleansing agent. Salary is not included. Sanitation services provide portable toilets for the vineyard and cost the farm $3. but more accurately represents the annual costs of ownership because it takes the time value of money into account (Boehlje and Eidman). The amortization factor is a table value that corresponds to the interest rate used and the life of the machine. as given by ASAE by the annual hours of use in this operation. These expenses include office supplies. Management/Supervisor Wages. shop and office utilities.82% of the average value of the assets over their useful life. For farm machinery (tractors and implements) the remaining value is a percentage of the new cost of the investment (Boehlje and Eidman). Repairs are not calculated for land and establishment costs. The salvage value for land is the purchase price because land does not depreciate. Insurance for farm investments varies depending on the assets included and the amount of coverage. Sanitation Services. and miscellaneous equipment. accounting. Investment Repairs. Property insurance provides coverage for property loss and is charged at 0. and miscellaneous administrative charges. Salvage value is an estimate of the remaining value of an investment at the end of its useful life.150 annually. legal fees. the value at the end of its useful life is zero. Capital recovery factor is the amortization factor or annual payment whose present value at compound interest is 1. It is equivalent to the annual payment on a loan for the investment with the down payment equal to the discounted salvage value. Separate potable water and single-use drinking cups are also supplied. For other investments including irrigation systems. Capital recovery cost is the annual depreciation and interest costs for a capital investment. The cost includes one double toilet unit with washbasins. Capital Recovery Costs.

planting. depreciation. The University of California does not discriminate in any of its policies. and interest on investment for the production years.131 for the 30-acre vineyard. and miscellaneous field tools such as pruning tools. Both of the overhead factors have been discussed in previous sections. hand tools. For this study the cost is $39. Table Values. and lubrication and are discussed under operating costs. bare land available for vineyard establishment is valued at $150.000. vines. The operating costs consist of repairs. The establishment cost is spread over the remaining 22 years of the 25 years the vineyard is in production. Establishment Costs. Land planted with resistant rootstock vines is valued from $85. The previous vineyard is assumed to have a well. The Total Accumulated Net Cash Cost on Table 1. Building. cash overhead and production expenses for growing the vines through the first year that grapes are harvested minus any returns from production. Based on local realtor information. The interest rate of 4. The building complex is 400 square foot metal building or buildings on a cement slab. Equipment. fuel. cash overhead. Due to rounding. trellis system. The new purchase price is adjusted to 60% to indicate a mix of new and used equipment. pump. Irrigation System.75% used to calculate capital recovery cost is the effective long term interest rate effective January 1.000 per acre or $175.000 to $180. but the study shows the current purchase price for new equipment. in the third year represents the establishment cost. Establishment cost is the sum of the costs for land preparation. University of California and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 10 . Tools. Farm equipment is purchased new or used. drip system. Investment and Business Overhead Tables. and operating costs.173. Land. and filtration/injector stations that are included in the land cost.000 per net plantable (30) acre.104 per acre or $1. Equipment costs are composed of three parts: non-cash overhead. The university is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer. Annual ownership costs for equipment and other investments are in the Whole Farm Equipment. Costs to establish the vineyard are used to determine capital recovery expenses. The interest rate is provided by a local farm lending agency and will vary according to risk and amount of loan.Interest Rate. procedures or practices. This includes shop tools. 2009. the totals may be slightly different from the sum of the components.

Russell H. Weaver.gov/ca/bul/crush/ California State Automobile Association. Sample Costs to Establish a Vineyard and Produce Wine Grapes. CA. MO. Internet accessed January 2009. 2008. 2008.ipm. Woodbridge. 2004-2008. De Moura.ca. Fuel Tax Division Tax Rates.gov/oog/info/wohdp University of California Statewide IPM Project. CA. San Francisco. NY. Klonsky and Richard L. 1976. 1994. John Wiley and Sons.usda.. Michael D. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 11 . Inc. Davis. North Coast Region . New York. NY. Farm Management. California State Department of Food and Agriculture.nass.csaa. Grape Growing. Table 10 of Final Grape Crush Report. Edward A. Energy Information Administration. 2009. 2009 http://www. Weekly Retail on Highway Diesel Prices July 2008 – December 2008. Rosentreter (ed.doe. University of California Cooperative Extension. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Standards Yearbook. New York. Sacramento. Trends in Agricultural Land and Lease Values. Eidman. http://www.com/portal/site/CSAA California State Board of Equalization.gov/sptaxprog/spftdrates. Robert J. 2008.edu Weber. Gas Price Averages July – December 2008. ----------------------------------------------------------------For information concerning the above or other University of California publications. Internet accessed March 30.boe.REFERENCES American Society of Agricultural Engineers.) St.ucop. http://www. contact UC DANR Communications Services at 1-800-994-8849. Karen M.ucdavis.eix. http://www.Napa. CA. Joseph. John Wiley and Sons.. AAA Press Room. http://tonto. Grapes. online at www. or your local county UC Cooperative Extension office. Boehlje. 41st edition. CA. Internet accessed January 2009. 1984. California Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. California Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers.edu. CA. 2003.htm Internet accessed January 2009. and Vernon R. UC Pest Management Guidelines. Hahn and Evelyn E. University of California. California Department of Food and Agriculture. Davis.

343 3.647 29.Napa County 2009 Cost Per Acre 1st 2nd Year: Tons Per Acre: Land Preparation Costs: Site Prep: Vineyard Removal Site Prep: Clean Field by Hand 2X (separate wood & metal.542 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 12 . Stake Vineyard Trellis: Install Trellis (includes labor & materials) Cover Crop: Plant TOTAL PRIOR YEAR LAND PREP COSTS Planting Costs: Weed: Spray Strip (Glyfos) Weed: Mow Middles Vines: 1.75% TOTAL OPERATING COSTS/ACRE 3rd 1 600 848 525 375 620 778 11.555 Per Acre (2% Replant In 2nd Year) Plant: Dig. Layout.278 87 74 566 142 142 269 26 2.091 269 26 3.443 3.070 1.820 29 43 5. pickup debris) Site Prep: Rip 3X Site Prep: Disk 2X/Landplane 1X Site Prep: Apply Soil Amendments Gypsum or Lime and Compost Site Prep: Mark .058 61 328 283 18 29 75 88 67 155 91 328 18 63 40 230 43 63 54 920 70 1. Plant.000 75 14.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 1.520 250 240 4 494 57 3.200 12. Place Carton around vine Irrigate: Install Irrigation System (Drip) TOTAL PLANTING COSTS Cultural Costs: Weed: Disk Middles Irrigate: (water & labor) Miscellaneous Labor: (various hand operations) Fertilize: Through drip (8-8-8) Weed: Spray Around Vines (Glyfos) Cover Crop: Plant Weed: Spray Vine Row (Glyfos) Train: Prune to 2 buds Weed: Mow Middles Disease: Mildew (Oil) Disease: Mildew (Rally) Train: Sucker/Train/Tie Disease: Mildew (Pristine) Train: Sucker/Train/Wrap on wire 2X Disease: Mildew (Sulfur) Disease: Mildew (Flint) Prune: Winter Prune Train: Shoot Position Prune: Thin Crop Pickup Truck Use ATV Use TOTAL CULTURAL COSTS Harvest Costs: Pick Fruit Bin Handling Haul To Crusher TOTAL HARVEST COSTS Interest On Operating Capital @ 5. COSTS PER ACRE TO ESTABLISH A VINEYARD NORTH COAST .616 109 3.061 122 328 18 109 59 43 83 63 389 269 26 1.

482 40.882 5.266 31.764 8.082 1.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 1.104 8.908 14.881 8.802 14.768 14 23 2.313 37 21 7 181 243 8.415 300 21 140 1.341 39.684 14. continued Cost Per Acre 1st 2nd Year: Tons Per Acre: Cash Overhead Costs: Office Expense Liability Insurance Sanitation Fees Property Taxes Property Insurance Investment Repairs TOTAL CASH OVERHEAD COSTS TOTAL CASH COSTS/ACRE INCOME/ACRE FROM PRODUCTION NET CASH COSTS/ACRE FOR THE YEAR PROFIT/ACRE ABOVE CASH COSTS ACCUMULATED NET CASH COSTS/ACRE Non-Cash Overhead (Capital Recovery): Land Buildings Shop/Field Tools Fuel Tanks Wind Machines Equipment TOTAL INTEREST ON INVESTMENT TOTAL COST/ACRE FOR THE YEAR INCOME/ACRE FROM PRODUCTION TOTAL NET COST/ACRE FOR THE YEAR NET PROFIT/ACRE ABOVE TOTAL COST TOTAL ACCUMULATED NET COST/ACRE 3rd 1 300 21 140 1.353 5.249 65.313 37 21 7 181 349 8.482 40.423 4.781 26 73 2.331 4.341 5.881 31.881 31.684 55.166 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 13 .082 10.600 40.882 37.313 37 21 7 222 8.788 31 73 2.482 300 21 140 1.

000 533 167 2. Lube Material Custom/ & Repairs Cost Rent 0 4 0 0 38 33 0 0 0 0 17 0 17 0 0 17 0 17 0 122 2 265 0 16 3 18 283 0 6 0 0 0 5 216 0 95 18 42 0 22 0 0 33 0 38 0 0 0 474 0 0 0 0 474 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 750 133 0 883 983 Operation Cultural: Prune: Preprune Weed: Spray Vine Row (Glyfos) Prune: (Cordon spur pruned) Prune: Tie Canes Weed: Mow Middles Disease: Mildew (Sulfur) Frost Protection: Windmills CM: Trunk/Cordon Sucker Irrigate: (water & labor) Fertilize: through drip (8-8-8) Disease: Mildew (Oil) CM: Sucker/Shoot Thin/Shoot Position Disease: Mildew (Rally) CM: Leaf/Lateral Removal & Wire Lift Thin: Thin Crop (color thin) Disease: Mildew (Flint) Thin: Thin Crop (set thin) Disease: Mildew (Pristine) Pest Control/Water Management Adviser Pickup Use ATV TOTAL CULTURAL COSTS Harvest: Harvest-Hand Labor Harvest-Bin Handling Haul TOTAL HARVEST COSTS Interest on operating capital @ 5.104 3.00 2.00 27.903 322 11.00 0.31 Cash and Labor Cost per acre Fuel.000 97 5.778 8.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 2.313 37 21 181 2.00 4.434 Annual Cost Capital Recovery 8.778 19.00 170.898 7.00 2. For Assessment/Membership costs.31 4.00 6.Napa County 2009 Operation Time (Hrs/A) 13.128 0 91 8 98 3.961 Your Cost Per producing Acre 175.981 190 266 2.00 40.37 0.00 1.00 18.01 15.00 12.00 1.500 39.738 CM=Canopy Management.00 0.30 0.00 10.903 322 11.75% TOTAL OPERATING COSTS/ACRE CASH OVERHEAD: Office Expense Liability Insurance Sanitation Property Taxes Property Insurance Investment Repairs TOTAL CASH OVERHEAD COSTS TOTAL CASH COSTS/ACRE NON-CASH OVERHEAD: Land Building Tools Wind Machines Vineyard Establishment Equipment TOTAL NON-CASH OVERHEAD COSTS TOTAL COSTS/ACRE Labor Cost 230 49 478 212 49 49 89 265 58 0 24 177 24 708 177 24 318 24 0 148 24 3.00 3. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 14 . X=number of times as 2X= 2 times or 2 passes.130 220. COSTS PER ACRE to PRODUCE WINEGRAPES NORTH COAST .967 750 240 10 1.00 1.063 300 21 140 1. see page 7.06 1.226 Total Cost 230 59 478 212 86 87 305 265 153 18 83 177 63 708 177 74 318 79 100 269 26 3.00 2.00 10.00 1.00 5.313 37 21 181 2.

75% TOTAL OPERATING COSTS/ACRE NET RETURNS ABOVE OPERATING COSTS CASH OVERHEAD COSTS: Office Expense Liability Insurance Sanitation Property Taxes Property Insurance Investment Repairs TOTAL CASH OVERHEAD COSTS/ACRE TOTAL CASH COSTS/ACRE NON-CASH OVERHEAD COSTS (Capital Recovery): Land Building Tools Wind Machine Vineyard Establishment Equipment TOTAL NON-CASH OVERHEAD COSTS/ACRE TOTAL COSTS/ACRE NET RETURNS ABOVE TOTAL COSTS 5.31 28.00 2.50 0.36 100.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 3.00 6.00 5.30 17.347 300 21 140 1.77 5.730 97 109 31 47 97 5.00 50.00 Value or Cost/Acre 20.77 4.Napa County 2009 Quantity/ Acre GROSS RETURNS Cabernet Sauvignon Winegrapes OPERATING COSTS Herbicide: Glyfos Fungicide: Wettable Sulfur 97 JMS Stylet Oil Rally 40 WSP Flint Pristine Frost Protection: Wind Machine (Propane @ $3.Gas Fuel .00 2.77 29.961 8.36 3.75 20.00 Price or Cost/Unit 4.00 24.00 1.17 0. water monitoring) Harvest Labor Rent: Tractors (2) Forklift (1) Labor (machine) Labor (non-machine) Fuel .082.313 37 21 181 2.45 154.32 16.981 190 266 2.00 150.74 51.50 3.60 per gallon) Water: Water pumped (155.778 19.50 16.00 4.69 3.00 10.Diesel Lube Machinery repair Interest on operating capital @ 5.00 5.00 24.48 pint lb gal oz oz oz hr/ac acin lb acre ton acwk acwk hrs hrs gal gal 6.00 4.70 6 5 42 22 33 38 216 95 18 100 750 99 35 496 2.903 322 11. COSTS AND RETURNS PER ACRE to PRODUCE WINEGRAPES NORTH COAST .898 7.738 672 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 15 .410 Your Cost Unit ton 1.2 lbs per gallon) Custom/Contract: PCA (pest.063 15. nutrition.66 17.00 2.866 gallons) Fertilizer: 8-8-8 (10.33 20.

2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 16 .147 1.862 18 481 25 14 0 50 25 14 0 24 25 0 24 25 22 82 118 22 61 972 22 61 529 22 61 528 22 61 556 22 61 542 22 61 1.063 300 21 140 1.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 4.898 7.75% TOTAL OPERATING COSTS/ACRE Cash Overhead: Office Expense Liability Insurance Sanitation Property Taxes Property Insurance Investment Repairs TOTAL CASH OVERHEAD COSTS TOTAL CASH COSTS/ACRE JAN 09 230 29 478 212 43 43 94 FEB 09 MAR 09 APR 09 MAY 09 JUN 09 JUL 09 AUG 09 SEP 09 OCT 09 NOV 09 DEC 09 TOTAL 29 43 43 116 265 94 15 9 83 177 31 31 31 31 9 15 63 354 354 177 74 318 79 10 22 2 462 10 22 2 294 10 22 2 35 10 22 2 905 10 22 2 459 10 22 2 456 10 22 2 482 10 22 2 699 10 22 2 74 750 240 10 1.Napa County 2009 Beginning JAN 09 Ending DEC 09 Cultural: Prune: Preprune Weed: Spray Vine Row (Glyfos) Prune: (Cordon spur pruned) Prune: Tie Canes Weed: Mow Middles Disease: Mildew (Sulfur) Frost Protection: Windmills CM: Trunk/Cordon Sucker Irrigate: (water & labor) Fertilize: through drip (8-8-8) Disease: Mildew (Oil) CM: Sucker/Shoot Thin/Shoot Position Disease: Mildew (Rally) CM: Leaf/Lateral Removal & Wire Lift Thin: Thin Crop (color thin) Disease: Mildew (Flint) Thin: Thin Crop (set thin) Disease: Mildew (Pristine) Pest Control/Water Management Adviser Pickup Truck Use ATV TOTAL CULTURAL COSTS Harvest: Harvest-Hand Labor Harvest-Bin Handling Haul TOTAL HARVEST COSTS Interest on operating capital @ 5. X=number of times as 2X= 2 times or 2 passes.961 1 295 25 14 991 95 22 1.000 97 5.442 2 36 25 21 14 6 911 25 14 8 467 25 14 10 466 25 14 13 495 25 14 16 715 25 14 991 95 22 1.098 25 14 10 22 2 50 22 2 25 22 2 25 230 59 478 212 86 87 305 265 153 18 83 177 63 708 177 74 318 79 100 269 26 3.000 23 1. MONTHLY PER ACRE CASH COSTS to PRODUCE WINEGRAPES NORTH COAST .147 1.159 22 61 111 22 47 72 22 47 71 CM=Canopy Management.981 190 266 2.967 750 240 10 1.

540 10.482 4.482 4.884 -3.084 9.757 21.50 7.586 7.284 670 516 2.670 4.621 -221 2.786 4.048 1.157 11.386 3.356 11.003 12.894 18.00 -6.50 5.947 11.501 21.940 8.209 23.992 -6.882 3.237 873 2.557 13.670 2.282 YIELD (ton/acre) 4.192 17.511 26.838 -3.898 7.403 16.267 1.967 1.106 2.346 9.605 3.838 11.901 6.038 -6.455 6.372 2.775 425 2.684 4.778 19.882 5.00 6.077 3.792 21.346 3.463 11.655 24.694 10.50 -3.448 3.733 14.094 6.986 9.592 -5.957 16.333 3.967 914 96 4.111 15.448 8.967 827 96 4.50 10.592 13.140 11.913 3.340 5.882 5.803 10.898 7.324 819 2.911 23.086 97 5.222 1.855 19.50 5.625 4.967 741 95 4.00 12.282 3.284 6.282 3.238 9.494 12.882 3.186 6.00 5.203 14.50 2.00 3.00 5.333 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 17 .238 -1.00 7.901 15.50 5.082 4.50 3.000 3.882 3.438 13.792 -2.967 1.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 5.173 97 5.803 21.116 6.992 9.282 YIELD (ton/acre) 4. see page 7 4.00 3.653 4.409 29.284 13.50 5.238 5.009 18.788 1.282 YIELD (ton/acre) 4.265 11.638 -38 1.484 10.101 17.50 -9.282 3.592 11.00 -2.294 14.638 16.448 6.967 1.792 11.311 20. RANGING ANALYSIS NORTH COAST .340 6.055 14.670 3.825 7.479 5.301 19.562 5.330 -3.786 5.75% TOTAL OPERATING COSTS/ACRE Total Operating Costs/ton CASH OVERHEAD COSTS/ACRE TOTAL CASH COSTS/ACRE Total Cash Costs/ton NON-CASH OVERHEAD COSTS/ACRE TOTAL COSTS/ACRE Total Costs/ton For Assessment/Membership costs.135 1.082 4.00 3.448 10.055 26.357 18.082 4.482 4.975 -1.533 9.778 19.316 4.898 8.977 1.711 18.684 8.682 4.803 1.684 -5.084 -1.330 -1.511 13.133 11.682 4.778 19.890 1.003 6.809 26.778 19.50 3.346 15.565 NET RETURNS PER ACRE ABOVE OPERATING COSTS PRICE $/ton 2.579 6.409 16.346 13.111 NET RETURNS PER ACRE ABOVE TOTAL COSTS PRICE $/ton 2.638 8.875 1.319 6.701 23.882 5.967 1.979 9.259 98 5.50 5.448 14.701 2.Napa County 2009 COSTS PER ACRE AT VARYING YIELD TO PRODUCE WINEGRAPES YIELD in Tons/Acre 4.346 11.750 11.891 6.157 23.740 13.898 7.013 2.200 11.392 -992 4.00 9.50 10.778 20.379 11.192 -3.00 -8.448 12.367 3.000 97 5.50 -1.255 21.50 OPERATING COSTS: Cultural Cost Harvest Cost Interest on operating capital @ 5.330 -4.009 NET RETURNS PER ACRE ABOVE CASH COSTS PRICE $/ton 2.609 21.038 14.50 13.898 8.701 12.392 15.933 6.346 18.898 8.603 18.386 10.094 16.150 936 2.448 15.179 4.894 8.438 -4.826 3.778 19.948 3.392 -7.962 1.064 1.566 4.992 19.557 6.682 4.778 19.025 9.740 5.225 6.884 12.222 2.779 6.455 16.740 3.898 7.346 16.

761 960 3.700 500 500 500 1.875 785 7.846 7.188 16. INVESTMENT.645 301.050 1.000 4.000 75.131 5.107 87.902 Yrs Life 15 15 5 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 7 10 10 Salvage Value 8.139 62 14.500 0 21 25 100 308 375 1.050 8.000 Capital Recovery 1.375 640 5.500 5.810 5.203 58.000 6.503 93.70 300.921 10.250.250.612 415.200 Description Liability Insurance Office Expense Sanitation Unit acre acre acre 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 18 .682 ANNUAL BUSINESS OVERHEAD COSTS Units/ Farm 30 30 30 Price/ Unit 20. AND BUSINESS OVERHEAD COSTS NORTH COAST .000 10.124 9.000 6.978 40 5.711 40.103 249.971 24.00 140.000 1.655 Total 1.338 1.079 62 62 62 105 105 105 801 4.000 32.00 Total Cost 621 9.803 156.519.849 902 991 57 57 57 95 95 95 722 3.978 Description Building 400 sq ft Vineyard Establishment Land 35 Acres Tools-Shop/Field/Fuel Tanks Wind Machine TOTAL INVESTMENT Price 16.Napa County 2009 ANNUAL EQUIPMENT COSTS Cash Overhead Insurance Taxes 220 269 45 55 40 49 2 3 2 3 2 3 5 6 5 6 5 6 36 44 181 221 2 2 265 323 810 987 486 592 Yr 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 Description 60 HP 4WD Narrow Tract Air Blast Gil 3Pt 200 gal ATV 4WD Bin 1/2 Ton 2Bins #1 Bin 1/2 Ton 2Bins #2 Bin 1/2 Ton 2Bins #3 Bin Trailer 2Bns #1 Bin Trailer 2Bns #2 Bin Trailer 2Bns #3 Mower-Flail 5' Pickup Truck 1/2 Ton Sprayer ATV 20gal Truck Flatbed 20 ft 2 Ton TOTAL 60% of New Cost * *Used to reflect a mix of new and used equipment Price 45.000 5.000 5.000 350 49.131 Yrs Life 25 22 25 10 23 Salvage Value 5.674 Total 4.866 0 52.380 44 5.765 103.050 1.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 6.003 88 88 88 101 101 101 768 12.752 ANNUAL INVESTMENT COSTS Cash Overhead Insurance Taxes Repairs 66 80 512 4.775 17. WHOLE FARM ANNUAL EQUIPMENT.002 1.866 5.430 343.583 Capital Recovery 3.173.250.

89 7.05 0.01 8.14 1.73 0.14 1.60 1.60 0.12 0.15 12.16 0.22 13.98 1.16 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.05 0.16 0.09 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 19 .32 0.89 1.00 0.00 0.26 2.78 3.61 4.67 0. HOURLY EQUIPMENT COSTS NORTH COAST .50 1.40 331.90 20.25 2.54 0.73 20.00 0.25 Yr 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 09 Description 60 HP 4WD Narrow Tract Air Blast Gil 3Pt 200 gal ATV 4WD Bin 1/2 Ton 2Bins #1 Bin 1/2 Ton 2Bins #2 Bin 1/2 Ton 2Bins #3 Bin Trailer 2Bns #1 Bin Trailer 2Bns #2 Bin Trailer 2Bns #3 Mower-Flail 5' Pickup Truck 1/2 Ton Sprayer ATV 20gal Truck Flatbed 20 ft 2 Ton Actual Hours Used 297 180 90 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 182 60 9 Capital Recovery 7.02 0.00 0.89 1.26 2.Napa County 2009 COSTS PER HOUR Cash Overhead Operating InsurFuel & ance Taxes Repairs Lube 0.00 0.36 0.05 0.29 0.45 0.25 1.16 0.26 11.06 0.00 0.13 0.75 34.01 6.79 0.54 378.16 0.09 0.27 0.69 1.67 1.81 4.18 1.00 16.73 2.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 7.02 0.06 0.46 5. 22.10 0.44 3.10 9.00 0.36 17.07 0.14 1.06 Total Costs/Hr.09 0.00 0. 13.09 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.15 0.12 0.54 1.52 Total Oper.00 0.71 0.53 0.16 0.25 1.

1.478 gal per acre.227 gal per acre.00 4.70 0.00 10.30 Glyfos Glyfos 0.57 25.57 acin = 15.00 20.70 1.15 *1.00 20.00 27. 2009 Winegrapes Costs and Returns Study (Cabernet Sauvignon) North Coast (Napa County) UC Cooperative Extension 20 .20 1.00 ATV ATV 60HP 60HP 60HP 60HP 60HP 60HP 60HP 60HP Wind Machine Wind Machine Wind Machine ATV Sprayer ATV Sprayer Mower 5' Mower 5' Air Blast Sprayer Air Blast Sprayer Air Blast Sprayer Air Blast Sprayer Air Blast Sprayer Air Blast Sprayer 1.00 1.70 0.50 pt pt Material Broadcast Rate/acre Operation Cultural: Prune: Preprune Prune: (Cordon-Spur pruned) Prune: Tie Canes CM: Trunk/Cordon Suckering CM: Sucker/Shoot Thin/Shoot Position CM: Leaf/Lateral Removal/ Wire Lift CM: Leaf/Lateral Removal/ Wire Lift CM: Thin Crop (color thin) CM: Thin Crop (set thin) Weed: Spray Vine Row Weed: Mow Middles Disease: Mildew Tractor Implement Unit Frost Protection Irrigate Fertilize: Through Drip Harvest: Harvest-Hand Labor Harvest-Bin Handling Wettable Sulfur Wettable Sulfur Stylet Oil Rally Flint Pristine Propane Propane Propane Water Water Water Water Water Water 8-8-8 3.UC COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Table 8.00 18.00 10.20 *0.15 *1.70 0.50 0.70 0.20 1.50 lb lb gal oz oz oz gal gal gal acin acin acin acin acin acin lb 60HP 4WD Bin Trailer/Bins Bin Trailer/Bins Bin Trailer/Bins Rented Tractor Rented Tractor Rented Forklift Haul September Truck Flatbed *0.00 2.15 *0.15 *1.30 0.00 15.00 12.70 0. OPERATIONS WITH EQUIPMENT NORTH COAST .70 1.15 acin = 31.00 2.57 *1.Napa County 2009 Operation Month Jan Mar Mar Apr May June July July Aug Jan July Mar May Mar Apr May June July Aug Mar Apr May May June July Aug Sept Oct May September September Labor Hrs 13.00 3.00 10.