CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design
Research design is the general plan of how you will go about answering your research questions (Saunders, et al., 2009). According to Cooper & Schindler (2006), research design aids the researcher in the allocation of resources by posing crucial choices in methodology.

In this research, the researcher was using descriptive study to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much (Cooper & Schindler 2006). Basically, descriptive statistics are number and the researcher will use descriptive study to analyze the performing calculation on sample data that summarize and describe the key features of the data. Furthermore, the researcher had made use of quantitative analysis method in order to estimate how marketing mix affect male consumers buying decision towards facial cleanser. Quantitative analysis method refers to all such data and can be a product of all research strategies (Saunders, et al., 2009).

In other words, research design can be defined as a framework for specifying the relationships among the study¶s variables (Cooper & Schindler 2006). There will be one dependant variable in this research which is male consumer buying decision in facial cleanser and four independent variables are place, price, promotion and product.

3.2 Sampling design

2008). Non-probability .. But according to Kotler. randomly survey enable every male facial cleanser buyer have equal chance of being sampled (Kotler. Besides that. et al.. however it is not necessary to sample the entire target population. although large samples give more reliable results than small sample. and the portion must be carefully selected to represent that population. 2008). sampling unit can be defined as who will be surveyed and target population that will be sampled (Kotler. (2008) defined sample size as how many people should be survey. Kotler.. 3. it is unlike probability sampling technique. 3. (2008). et al. et al. the population size for male in Klang valley is 2891. This means a group of male facial cleanser buyer was carefully selected to be studied in this research. 2010). In this survey. Malaysia government official statistic website showed that.000 in year 2010 (Statistic. it does not have a formula to calculate the exact sample size. As the researcher is using non-probability sampling technique..2 Sample size Generally. the researcher had selected the male facial cleanser buyer randomly in Klang Valley to ensure accuracy of the results.According to Cooper & Schindler (2006).1 Sampling unit Basically.2. sometimes even less than 1 percent of sample with proper sampling procedure can provide high credibility results as well.2. a sample examines a portion of the target population. et al.

self-selection sampling and convenience sampling (Saunders. 2009).3.3 Sampling procedure In sampling procedure.3 Data collection 3. The researcher was using convenience sampling in this research due to limitation of time. 3. the researcher can do respondent interviewed in shopping centre or distribute the questionnaire to respondents in order to obtain the results rapidly. Mean to say that the selection often based on personal opinion due to non-probability is quite arbitrary (Zikmund. On the other hand. purposive sampling. 2009). 3. the researcher has prepared 100 set of questionnaire in order to target 100 suitable respondents to obtain the final results. there are five techniques of nonprobability sampling. which include quota sampling. the researcher was applying non-probability sampling. Thus. Convenience sampling involves selecting haphazardly those cases that are easiest to obtain for the sample (Saunders. For example. snowball sampling. et al. 2009). et al. et al. Non-probability sampling provides a range of alternatives techniques to select samples based on subjective judgment (Saunders.2.sampling technique¶s sample size normally is depending on the research objectives and purposes..1 Contact method . 2000)...

php?surveyID=HCILMN_6b535f7. Besides.kwiksurveys.The researcher was using questionnaire survey method to collect useful information from respondents.2 Questionnaire design The questionnaires have been separated in two parts which part A is regarding the respondents¶ demographic characteristics such as age.com. questionnaire is one of the most widely used data collection techniques within the survey strategy because each respondent is asked to respond to the same set of questions.com/online-survey. (2009). et al. thus the results will be more consistent and accurate. While part B designed to measure the marketing mix influence respondents¶ buying decision towards male facial cleanser. income level and education level. The researcher has spent approximately 1 to 2 weeks to gather information and conduct survey through a free survey research website which is www. .3. 3.kwiksurveys. The researcher has created a survey form and distribute it through the internet to male facial cleanser buyer and this is the website link that created by present researcher to conduct survey- http://www. the researcher was distributing the questionnaires to male facial cleanser buyers in some areas in Klang Valley as well.. According to Saunders.

Hence the researcher had prepared the questionnaire based on the statement from some relevant journals to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire and ease respondents read. price. On the other hand. the questionnaire should be laid out so that it is easy to read and the responses are easy to fill in. (2009). Besides that. According to Cooper & Schindler (2006). the statements and questions in part B will be divided into four categories which are product. Table 1 in appendixes shows the statements that grabbed from various journals. neutral. author name. year of the journal and questionnaires created by the researcher. understand and answer the questionnaires.. Each respondent is required to answer the questions in each category by selecting one of the options from strongly disagree to strongly agree according to their own perception and opinion. According to Saunders. Generally. place and promotion. journals¶ title. agree. all questionnaires should be pilot tested prior to their administration to assess the validity and likely reliability of the questions. .The method that had been used in this part is likert scale model which include five optional: strongly agree. et al. likert scale is probably more reliable and provides greater volume of data than many other scales. disagree. likert scale is easy and quick to construct. and strongly disagree.

. However. et al. quantitative data analysis helped us to explore. (2009). describe and examine relationship and trends within our data.3. the researcher has to check every questionnaire properly before entering the data to computer to avoid any mistake or error made by respondents in the questionnaires.4 Data analysis According to Saunders. Thus. this is a very important process for the researcher as it will bring the final results of the research.. present.

the researcher was using SPSS software version 16. the researcher make a conclusion that the highest correlation was identified as the strongest variable that will be used as the most influential factor in affecting male consumer buying decision towards facial cleanser. The higher the values in coefficient of correlation. the stronger the relation was.Besides. correlation was used in expressing the relationship between marketing mix factors and consumer purchase decision making. According to Sekaran (2000). income level and education level. Table 2 in appendixes indicates the strength of correlation. Besides that. descriptive statistics to study the mean and standard deviation of each variable and frequency tables to show the exact frequency for every variable.0 to obtain correlation between marketing mix factors (4ps) and consumer buying decision. Therefore. the present researcher was using pie chart to show the respondents¶ basic demographic information which includes age. .