1 of 39

Determination of anti‐pitch geometry  – acceleration [1/3] l [ / ]
• Similar to anti‐squat Similar to anti squat • Opposite direction of  D’Alembert’s forces.

Figure from Smith,2002

Front wheel forces and effective pivot locations

2 of 39

Determination of anti‐pitch geometry  – acceleration [2/3] l [ / ]
It follows that the change in the front spring force  It follows that the change in the front spring force is:

where kf = front suspension stiffness. Similarly for the rear wheels. Similarly for the rear wheels.

3 of 39

Determination of anti‐pitch geometry  – acceleration [3/3] l [ / ]
Pitch angle

• •

Zero pitch occurs when θ = 0, i.e. when the term in square brackets is zero.  anti squat and anti pitch performance depends on the following vehicle  anti‐squat and anti‐pitch performance depends on the following vehicle properties –
– suspension geometry, – suspension stiffnesses (front and rear) and  – T Tractive force distribution. i f di ib i

For a solid axle the drive torque is reacted within the wheel assembly, i.e.  it is an internal moment as far as the free‐body is concerned. 
– In this case, M = 0 and equations modified by setting r = 0 for the appropriate  , q y g pp p solid axle(s)

Steady‐state cornering analysis Figure from Smith. • The gravity force on the sprung mass msg  acts vertically downwards through G. • The sprung mass rolls through the angle φ The sprung mass rolls through the angle φ  about the roll axis.2002 .4 of 39 Lateral load transfer during cornering Lateral load transfer during cornering Notation and assumptions in the analysis are: • G is the sprung mass centre of gravity. • The inertia forces mufa and mura act  directly on the unsprung masses at the  front and rear axles. • The centrifugal (inertia) force on the  sprung mass msa acts horizontally through  G. Each transfers load  only between its own pair of wheels. • The transverse acceleration at G due to  cornering is ‘a’.

i.5 of 39 Load transfer due to the roll moment  [1/2] [ / ] Replace the two forces at G with the same forces at ep ace t e t o o ces t t e sa e o ces A plus a moment (the roll moment) Ms about the roll axis.e Assuming linear relationship between Mφ and φ Mφ = ksφ ks = total roll stiffness .

6 of 39 Load transfer due to the roll moment  [2/2] [ / ] ksf + ksr = ks • L dt Load transfer sin two axles are f i t l • Tf and Tr are the front and rear track widths of the  vehicle  vehicle .

7 of 39 Load transfer due to sprung mass  inertia force f The sprung mass is  p g distributed to the roll  centers at front and rear  axles.  axles Centrifugal force  Centrifugal force distribution is Corresponding load  transfers are .

8 of 39 Load transfer due to the unsprung  mass inertia forces f Total load transfer .

Requirements: • Good isolation of the body(Good ride) – Soft response – – – – Inconsistent with roll resistance in cornering Inconsistent with roll resistance in cornering Roll stiffening using ant‐roll bars Spring can hit limits Additional springs as bump stops Additional springs as bump stops • Prevent high frequency vibration from being transmitted – Use rubber bush connections • G d Good road grip (Good handling) – H d d i (G d h dli ) Hard response .9 of 39 Suspension components Suspension components • Need for compliance between unsprung and sprung mass.

2002 .10 of 39 Steel springs Steel springs • Semi‐elliptic springs – earliest d l l developments in motor vehicle • Robust and simple – used for heavy applications f h li ti • Hotchkiss type‐ to provide both vertical compliance and lateral constraint for the wheel travel • change in length of the spring produced by bump loading is accommodated by the swinging shackle Leaf spring design Figure from Smith.

11 of 39 Leaf spring analysis Leaf spring analysis Wheel load FW . length. FC is parallel to the shackle Two load member The stiffness (rate) of the spring is determined by the number. is vertical. g the spring rate will increase (i.2002 . width and thickness of the leaves • Angling of the shackle link used to give a variable rate • When the angle θ < 90° . rising rate) with bump loading • • • • Figure from Smith.e.

 there is a possibility  of surging (resonance along the length of coils) of surging (resonance along the length of coils) • Spring as a whole does not provide any lateral support  for guiding the wheel motion.12 of 39 Coil springs Coil springs • Light and compact form of compliance for weight and  packaging constraints • Little maintenance and provides • Opportunity for co axial mounting with a damper Opportunity for co‐axial mounting with a damper • Variable rate springs produced either by varying the  coil diameter and/or pitch of the coils along its length Disadvantages: • Low levels of structural damping. .

13 of 39 Torsion bars Torsion bars • Very simple form of spring and consequently very cheap • The principle of operation p p p is to convert the applied load FW into a torque FW × R producing twist in the p g bar • Stiffness related to diameter. length of the torsion bar and the torsion modulus of the material Figure from Smith.2002 Principle of operation of a torsion bar spring Principle of operation of a torsion bar spring .

the piston moves upwards transmitting the motion to the fluid and compressing the gas via th fl ibl di h i the flexible diaphragm • The gas pressure increases as its volume decreases to produce a hardening spring characteristic • Systems are complex (and expensive) and maintenance Figure from Smith.2002 Basic diaphragm accumulator spring Principles of a hydro‐pneumatic  suspension spring .14 of 39 Hydro pneumatic springs Hydro‐pneumatic springs • Spring is produced by a constant mass of gas (t i ll t t f (typically nitrogen) in a variable volume enclosure • As the wheel deflects in bump bump.

2002 .15 of 39 Anti roll bars (stabilizer) Anti‐roll bars (stabilizer) • Reduce body roll • Ends of the U‐shaped bar connected to the wheel supports and pp • Central length of bar attached to body of the vehicle • Attachment points need to be selected to ensure that bar is subjected to Torsional loading without bending Anti‐roll bar layout Figure from Smith.

  • If the displacements of the  wheels are mutually opposed  wheels are mutually opposed (one wheel up and the other  down by the same amount).  is produced Figure from Smith.  • If both wheels lift by the same  amount the bar is not twisted and  there is no transfer of load to the  vehicle body.  Roll bar contribution to total roll stiffness . half the total anti‐roll  stiffness acts downwards on the  wheel and the reaction on the  vehicle body tends to resist body  h l b d d b d roll. the  full effect of the anti‐roll stiffness  is produced.sus and the roll  stiffness of the anti‐roll bars kr.2002 Total roll stiffness krs is equal to the sum  of the roll‐stiffness produced by the  of the roll stiffness produced by the suspension springs kr.ar.16 of 39 Anti roll bars (stabilizer) Anti‐roll bars (stabilizer) Conditions: • One wheels is lifted relative to  the other.

 (a) dual tube damper. • In mono tube – Surplus fluid  accommodated by gas  pressurized free piston pressurized free piston Figure from Smith.  Mono tube.2002 Damper types.17 of 39 Dampers  types and characteristics Dampers – types and characteristics • Frequently called shock Frequently called shock  absorbers • Main energy dissipators  gy p in a vehicle suspension yp • Two types: dual tube.  (b) free‐piston monotube damper (b) f i b d .

18 of 39 Dampers  types and characteristics Dampers – types and characteristics • In dealing with road surface undulations in the b d l h bump direction (damper being compressed) relatively low levels of damping are required compared with the rebound motion (damper being extended) g ) • These requirements lead to damper characteristics which are asymmetrical y when plotted on force‐ velocity axes • Ratios of 3:1 Figure from Smith.2002 Damper characteristics .

2002 .19 of 39 Dampers  types and characteristics Dampers – types and characteristics • Damper designs are  achieved by a  combination of orifice  flow and flows through  spring‐loaded one‐way  l d d valves – At low speeds orifices are  effective ff i – At higher pressure valves  open up Shaping of damper characteristics • l t f lot of scope for shaping  f h i and fine tuning of damper  characteristics Typical curves for a three position  (electronically) adjustable damper  Figure from Smith.

• Methods based on the Fourier transform Methods based on the Fourier transform • Power spectral density ‘S(n)’ of the height  variations as a function of the spatial  i i f i f h i l frequency ‘n’ κ = the roughness coefficient g .20 of 39 Road surface roughness and vehicle  excitation • Road surfaces have random profiles ‐> non‐ Road surfaces have random profiles  > non deterministic.

21 of 39 Road surface roughness and vehicle  excitation Substituting The variation of S( f ) for a  vehicle traversing a poor  vehicle traversing a poor minor road at 20 m/s is  shown Figure from Smith.2002 .

22 of 39 Human response to whole body  vibration b • Human body –complex assemblage of linear and non‐ y p g linear elements • Range of body resonances ‐ 1 to 900 Hz • For a seated human  – 1–2 Hz (head–neck)  – 4 8 Hz (thorax abdomen) 4–8 Hz (thorax–abdomen) • Perception of vibration motions diminishes above 25  Hz and emerges as audible sound. • Dual perception (vibration and sound) up to several  hundred Hz is related to the term harshness .

 normally in  ships • ISO 2631 (ISO. 1987) • whole‐body vibration from a supporting surface to either  the feet of a standing person or the buttocks of a seated  person The criteria are specified in terms of • Direction of vibration input to the human torso • Acceleration magnitude Acceleration magnitude • Frequency of excitation • Exposure duration .23 of 39 Human response to whole body  vibration b • Motion sickness (kinetosis) – low frequency . 1978) and the equivalent British Standard BS  6841 (BSI.

24 of 39 Human response to whole body  vibration b • Most sensitive frequency range for f vertical vibration i f ti l ib ti is from 4 8 4–8 Hz corresponding to the thorax– abdomen resonance • most sensitive range for transverse vibration is from 1 to 2 Hz corresponding to head– neck resonance • ISO 2631 discomfort boundaries – 0.2002 Whole‐body RCB vibration criteria.63 Hz for motion sickness.1 to 0. (a) RCB for  vertical (z‐axis) vibration (b) RCB for lateral  (x  and y axis vibration) . – most sensitive range is from 0 1 0.315 Hz RCB – Reduced  Comfort  Boundary Figure from Smith.1 to 0.

• This model allows the pitch. bounce and roll • The suspension stiffness and damping rates are d i d d i derived from the individual spring and damping units Full vehicle model Figure from Smith. bounce and roll) • Vertical degree of freedom at each of the four unsprung masses.25 of 39 Analysis of vehicle response to road  excitation • Most comprehensive of these has h seven d degrees of f d f freedom • Three degrees of freedom for the vehicle body (pitch.2002 .

  (b) quarter vehicle  model Figure from Smith.2002 .  The two most often used for  passenger cars are the half‐ vehicle model  and the quarter  h l d l d h vehicle model. These have four and two degrees  p y of freedom respectively.  Reduced number of degrees of  freedom In the case of the half vehicle  model.26 of 39 Analysis of vehicle response to road  excitation • • Much useful information can be  derived from simpler vehicle  derived from simpler vehicle models. roll information is lost and  model roll information is lost and for the quarter vehicle model  pitch information is also lost • • • Half and quarter  vehicle models. (a)  hi l d l ( ) half vehicle model.

27 of 39 Response to road excitation Response to road excitation Pitch and bounce  characteristics • Equivalent stiffness is  calculated as  calculated as • Generalized co‐ordinates  are z and θ Notation for pitch–bounce analysis Figure from Smith.2002 .

pitch = C .28 of 39 Response to road excitation Response to road excitation • Equations simplify as Equations simplify as  •If B=0 – the equations are uncoupled •On a bump only pitching occurs – not desired ωn .bounce = A ωn .

29 of 39 Response to road excitation Response to road excitation Roots of the equation are Roots of the equation are Distance of O1 & O2 (Oscillation centres)from G Figure from Smith.2002 .

1.8 for sports cars .30 of 39 Response to road excitation Response to road excitation • If inertia coupling ratio is If inertia coupling ratio is  – O1 and O2 are at suspension centers – it becomes a 2 DOF (2 mass) system it becomes a 2 DOF (2 mass) system  (0.2 for some front drive cars) If w < w . T > T and on a bump  nf nr nf nr – – Two equivalent masses one gets a feeling of in phase motion  one gets a feeling of in phase motion No coupling of front and rear suspensions and minimal pitching ∴better ride < .

31 of 39 Suspension performance analysis Suspension performance analysis • Quarter car model Quarter car model • Frequency ranges – Low ‐ 1 to 2 Hz – resonance of sprung mass Low  1 to 2 Hz  resonance of sprung mass – High ‐ 10–11 Hz – resonance of un‐sprung or  wheel hop • Suspension designer has selection of characteristics and parameter values for suspension springs and dampers to achieve the desired suspension performance .

32 of 39 Suspension performance analysis Suspension performance analysis Road  holding • Lowest transmissibility  y (best ride) is produced  with the softest  suspension • good road holding  requires a hard  suspension rs = kt/ks k (b) – low transmissibility at the  wheel‐hop frequency and  (a) ride id in the mid‐frequency range  between the two  Effect of suspension stiffness on sprung and  resonances unsprung mass transmissibilities. (a) sprung  unsprung mass transmissibilities (a) sprung mass transmissibility. (b) unsprung mass  transmissibility Figure from Smith.2002 .

2002 . (b) unsprung  mass  transmissibility • Control of the sprung mass resonance requires high levels of damping.3 used for passenger cars Figure from Smith. but results in poor isolation in the mid‐frequency • Wheel‐hop resonance also requires high levels of damping for its control. control but with the same penalties in the mid frequency range mid‐frequency • 0.33 of 39 Effect of Suspension Damping Effect of Suspension Damping sprung and  unsprung mass transmissibilities.  transmissibility.  (a) sprung mass  transmissibility.

2002 . tyre force fluctuation and clearance space limitations • highly non‐linear analysis • Requires simulations in the time domain • ISO weighted acceleration response of the sprung mass p p g denoted by the Discomfort Parameter D is evaluated ISO weighting characteristic for  vertical vehicle body acceleration i l hi l b d l i Figure from Smith. li iti • random road excitation • assessment of ride.34 of 39 Refined non linear analysis Refined non‐linear analysis • suspension spring and damper non‐linearities.

suspensions where parameter values can be continuously adjusted Conflict diagram for constant  Conflict diagram for constant suspension workspace (C) Figure from Smith. the performance locus changes and the suspension settings are no longer ‘optimal’ • controllable suspensions.35 of 39 Suspension performance analysis Suspension performance analysis • Influences on variables by the choice of parameter values t h i f t l to maintain a constant value of C • Ideal Suspension minimizes D and L L.2002 . • When the vehicle traverses a different type of road and/or at a different speed.

however.36 of 39 Controllable suspensions Controllable suspensions • With passive suspensions the ‘control’ force control exerted simultaneously on the sprung and unsprung masses is: p g • Control of the wheel‐hop frequency is. not possible because the forces required would have to react against the spring mass and necessarily increase its acceleration .

improved by 20–30% for the same wheel travel and dynamic tire load when compared with a passive suspension • • Fully active suspension Fully active suspension Figure from Smith.2002 .37 of 39 Controllable suspensions Controllable suspensions • • • Hydraulic Control Speed of response. up to 60 Hz Actuator is driven by an on‐board p p pump controlled by signals y g derived from transducers fitted to the sprung and unsprung masses. Signals are processed in a controller according to some control law to produce a controlled force at the actuator With practical limitations taken into account ride can be account. high bandwidth.

38 of 39 Slow active controlled suspensions Slow active controlled suspensions • • • Low bandwidth (up to approximately 6 Hz) Hz). The potential performance gains are y less than those for a fully active systems.2002 . The aim of this form of suspension is to control the body mode to improve ride. Slow active suspension • • Figure from Smith. Such systems require much less power than the fully active system. with simpler forms of actuation. but the viability is much improved. Above its upper frequency limit it reverts to a conventional passive system which cannot be bettered for control of the wheel‐hop mode.

but the hardware and operational costs of this type of suspension are considerably less Performance is impaired by changes in payload which alter the suspension l d h h l h working space : overcome by combining the controllable damper with some form of self‐leveling system • • Semi‐active suspension Figure from Smith.39 of 39 Another Controllable suspension Another Controllable suspension • • Passive damper is replaced with a controllable one one. Designed to produce a controlled force when called upon to dissipate energy and then switches to a notional zero damping state when called upon to supply energy.2002 . Performance potential of this suspension closely approaches that y y of a fully active system under certain conditions.