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The ACD Network is a Train Collision prevention system patented by Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (A Public Sector Undertaking of Ministry of Railways, Government of India). ACDs have knowledge embedded intelligence. They take inputs from GPS satellite system for position updates and network among themselves for exchanging information using their data radio modems to take decisions for timely auto-application of brakes to prevent dangerous 'collisions', thus forming a 'Raksha KavachTM' (meaning a '(Train) Safety shield'). ACDs fitted (both in Locomotive and Guard's Van of a train) act as a watchdog in the dark as they constantly remain in lookout for other train bound ACDs, within the braking distance required for their relative speeds. They communicate through their radios and identify each other. If they happen to find themselves on the same track and coming closer to each other, they automatically restrain and stop each other, thereby preventing dangerous head-on and rearend collisions. Loco ACD of a train also applies brakes to reduce the train speed either to 15 km/h if on approach it receives a message from other train bound ACD that has stopped in a block section on adjacent track (and driver of that train has yet not communicated that things are 'Normal') or to bring the train to a stop if train bound ACDs of other train are radiating 'train parted' message thereby preventing dangerous side collision that may occur due to infringement of adjacent track by a stopped or a 'parted' train, respectively.
ANTI COLLISION DEVICES (ACDs) Introduction
Anti-Collision Device (ACD) is a self-acting microprocessor-based data communication device designed and developed by Kankan Railway. When installed on locomotives (along with an auto-braking unit - ABU), guard vans, stations and level-crossing gates (both manned and unmanned), the network of ACD systems prevents high-speed collisions in mid-sections, station areas and at level-crossing gates. The ACD uses both radio frequency and Global Positioning System (GPS) through satellites, whereby a train is automatically brought to a halt if the track ahead is not clear. The train starts braking 3 kms ahead of a blockade. The Anti-Collision Device (ACD), also called `Raksha Kavach,' envisages setting up a network of "self-acting" micro-processor based communication devices which automatically apply brakes on trains that are unknowingly getting into a "collision-like situation," including before stations and at mid-sections. "At the mid-sections, where neither the protection of signals nor guidance is available to the driver, the ACD makes the loco intelligent and extends its capability to detect any collision-like situations in a range of 3 km, which the driver cannot detect on his own. Situations like collision between two approaching trains or between a derailed train on one track and an approaching train on the adjacent track can thus be prevented," according to the KRCL official. The "silent" network of ACD systems can be installed on the locomotives, guard vans and at stations, which could ensure that trains do not collide at while travelling at high speeds. Further, if the ACD systems are provided at the level crossing gates (both manned as well as unmanned), the project could provide protection to the lives of road users also. "We have tested the commercial prototypes of ACD system, which has been developed indigenously for the first time in the world. It has been technically proven during joint field trials with Research Design and Standards Organization, nominated by the Railways," the official said. 2
The pilot project implementation of ACD was successfully commissioned on the NorthEast Frontier Railway this year. Despite the phenomenal increase in traffic.000 km falling on the critical and busy sections of the network is almost complete. 3 . Safety is the prime concern and all possible measures are being taken to ensure the safety of passengers. the Loco ACD gives the "station approach" warning to the driver about 2 km in rear of the first STOP signal of the station and in case the driver ignores the warning it will automatically regulate the train speed. while approaching a station. the lowest-ever since the 1960s. a reduction of almost 50 per cent. The newly engineered solution is integrated with the signaling systems and interlocking to react appropriately in case collision-like conditions are perceived at the time of reception and dispatch of trains from a station. In 2006-07. the number of consequential train accidents has come down from 464 in 2000-01 to 234 in 2005-06. Survey for expanding the system to another 10. The application of this device has been refined to not only prevent mid-section collisions but also to pre-empt their occurrence in station yards. The design of crash-worthy coaches and tight lock couplers with anti-climbing features has been finalized and all future coaches are being made as per the new design. For example. the number of accidents came down to 195.The ACDs are capable of multi functions. The installation of this device will go a long way in preventing collision accidents.
ACD is an intelligent friend to the engine driver. date and time. "The electro-pneumatic braking is then applied through suitable solenoid interface installed for this purpose in the cab of the locomotive." the official explained. speed. date and time.C. like Station Approach. Radio Transmitter and Crew Interface. It comprises a Command and Control Unit (CCU). speed. 4 . which can act on its own without any human intervention. after analysing the data from the GPS. SOS (for head-on. ACD prevents the head-on collision of two speeding trains. which accidentally happen to be on the same track. longitude. rear-end and side collision situations) and Gate Open. The antenna of the GPS receiver is fitted outside on the roof of the locomotive. longitude. The user-friendly device helps the driver to know the various positions in the form of audio-visual indications. which envisages the CCU to take a decision for applying either the normal brake or the emergency brake on the locomotive as the situation required.Need of A. angle. is a microprocessorbased module which processes the data and generates commands. deduce that they are on the same track and are heading for a collision. The CCU. which transmits the information and commands generated by the CCU and receives the information being sent by other ACDs when the two systems are within the radio-range of 3 km. The final module in the system is the braking mechanism. Then the ACDs automatically apply the brakes. a GPS Receiver. which picks up signals from the constellation of GPS satellites that are being exclusively used for this purpose. angle. bringing both the trains to a halt without the intervention of the driver. An ACD mounted on a train constantly looks out for signals from another ACD in a 3-km range. The GPS submits the data to the Command and Control Unit (CCU) to extract the parameters related to the movement of locomotive like latitude. which is the heart of the ACD.D. Another module is the radio trans-receiver. the ACDs. The moment both the trains are within the required breaking distance. The GPS Receiver picks up signals from GPS satellites and submits the same to the CCU to extract parameters related to the movement of the locomotive such as latitude. The main modules of the ACD includes a GPS (Global Positioning System).
Location Box For Gate Unit 5 . Driver Console Fig. It can also detect when the bogies of a train from an adjacent track derail on to a train's path. Also. the ACD will automatically regulate the following train's speed.The ACD can be used not only for avoiding head-on collisions but also to detect if a train has accidentally stopped on the same track as another. Konkan Railways has tested out 11 accident scenarios with the ACD. preventing a following train telescoping into its rear. Fig. if two trains are moving on the same track but the separation distance is less than 2 km.
the driver will receive the ``station approach'' warning as the train approaches the station.The ACD can be mounted not only on trains but also be installed at railway stations. If a station is equipped with an ACD. Fig. level crossing gates (both manned and unmanned). Unit at Manned LC Gate 6 . besides regulating the train's speed. and on guard vans. the ACD can sense whether a level crossing gate is open or damaged and warn the driver. Also.
Scenario – Gate Approach • Train approaches the Gate ST 346 At approximately 2000m from the Gate ‘Gate Approach’ message and audio buzzer appears for 10 seconds 7 . means for calculating the distance of a vehicle from a given zero point.Features of ACD The principal object of the present invention is to overcome these disadvantages and provide an anti-collision safety device for vehicles travelling on tracks. The device further comprises means for generating a series of position pulses. without any driving personnel. emitted by all the vehicles and received by all the vehicles. a device which itself can estimate risks and react in consequence. the invention is intended to provide a device comprising means of observation and making decisions for safe operation. More generally. the present invention relates to an anti-collision safety device of the type indicated above. and means for converting this distance into a time with a time reference constituted by a synchronization pulse received by all the vehicles. Fig. using in particular the principle of deformable movable blocks. the safety device of each vehicle compares this relative distance with its stopping distance and causes the vehicle to stop when the relative distance is smaller than the stopping distance. further. the distance between a vehicle and the vehicle immediately preceding it being determined by comparing the position pulses. characterized in that it comprises means for detecting and counting reference points provided along the track. To this end. that is to say.
Scenario – Gate Occupied • Level Crossing Gate ST 346 is detected to be occupied by the road vehicle . Scenario – Gate Open • Level Crossing Gate ST 346 is detected to be OPEN – Audio Visual Indication is automatically activated to draw the attention of the Driver and brakes are applied to reduce the speed to 15 Km/h. Fig.Audio Visual Indication is automatically activated to draw the attention of the Driver and brakes are applied to reduce the speed to 15 Km/h. which may be obtained by a tachometer (e.g. a phonic wheel) supplying speed signals to a function generator which is initialized by the position pulse and which furnishes an output signal as soon as the function generator has reached the actual vehicle speed. According to another characteristic feature of the invention.. the vehicle being caused to stop if the signal from the function generator 8 . the stopping distance is determined from the actual speed of the vehicle.Fig.
an alarm is given by a position alarm device set off separately or in combination by a breakdown of the reference point detector. According to another characteristic feature of the invention. Raja ram adds. as a platform. calculation of stopping distance) is controlled by the signals supplied by duplicate breakdown detecting circuits. or a transmission breakdown. According to another characteristic feature of the invention. It [ACD] has an integrated digital radio modem and works on the VxWorks Real Time Operating System (RTOS). the absence of coincidence characterizing a breakdown or a risk of collision and causing stopping Technology used in ACDs The heart of the ACD is an Intel 80386 processor that uses the DM&P M617 Intel chipset. This alarm is transmitted to the central control station (PCC) by the emission of a pulse characteristic of a vehicle. a beakdown of the reference point counter.” 9 . “VxWorks. the output signals from the means checking for intrinsic safety the coincidence of the output signals of the duplicate circuits.does not lie within the distance between the vehicle and the vehicle immediately preceding it (relative distance window). is most suitable for realtime applications. and the central station PCC then distributes a general brake or line emergency stop signal that stops all vehicles on the line. the safe operation of the loop functions (calculation of position.
Working Of ON-BOARD ACDs 10 .Fig.
C. 11 .d is the heart of a. and status of it working with the help of sprats radio antenna.U is microprocessor based module. of the ACD the C.U. Date and time. Speed Location in terms of Latitude.C.C.U unit take a design for apply either a normal & emergency break or the locomotive break as the case may be. Longitude. The C. this information also send to the C.The working of Anti Collision Devices (ACDs) in Indian Railways The working of Anti Collision Devices (ACDs) in Indian Railways is described as The loco a. Angle. In the a.C. And as like a brain of the acd system. A transmits information such as: Identification no. for processing all receiving the information from the other acd and the data from the GPS receiver.d the radio single from the consolation of Global Positioning System (G. Longitude.d network.S) satellite or received by GPS receiver through by antenna. This signal is sent to the command and control unit that is C.P. It processed the data and generated the command from the acd.U. The GPS submits the data to the Command and Control Unit (CCU) to extract the parameters related to the movement of locomotive like Latitude.c.c. It also received the information being send by other acd range within range 3 Km. Speed.c. A part from the GPS receiver there is a radio Trans receiver inside the acd.
station ACD. level crossing ACD. Such as :. And embedded software to a apply breaks automatic with art any input users. 12 . Both mobile and stationary ACD exchange information and take decision base on trans working rule. the tracks side and sates nary module. Automatically active the breaking to the train and prevent collision relay in accident. and loco side ACD. Within range of 3. The GPS receiver received the data from the satellite and radio trans receiver communicate with the other GPS. All the ACD work on the principle of distributed control system. It’s very simply but it two ACD on locomotive within pre define distance and proceed and risks on collision system.Km.This is active with the help of the auto breaking unit of the loco on board mobile loco ACD and guard room acd have both a GPS receiver and radio trans receiver.
Fig. ADC Network 13 . Unit for Locomotive Fig.
The Following Accidents are prevented by ACD Detection and Prevention of Head-on. Station Approach Warning to Drivers: .To bring all trains to a halt within a radial distance of 3 Kms. Guards and Station Masters: . reducing the train speed to 30 Kmph in case the gate is detected in ‘open’ condition through Gate ACD.Consequently bringing any approaching train on the adjoining line to a dead stop.Can result in saving of Manpower for deployment of detonators during foggy weather.Except when a Train on main line overshoots the ‘Fouling Mark’ Detection & generation of Train parting / Jumbling: . at manned non-interlocked level crossings. as in a block section. in emergencies 14 . Speed limit imposition:. Manual SOS functionality available for Drivers.In addition. Detection of fouling and prevention of collision due to fouling:. Provided 100% coverage of ACD fitted trains is available on the Concerned ACD route. Rear-end and Side Collisions: – Only system in the world to provide these UNIQUE features even when a train is not protected by a signal.Based on ‘preset’ conditions in FRS of ACD ‘Train Approach’ Warning for road users at Level Crossings both manned and unmanned :.
etc. Various collisions/situations which are not preventable in any case. the protection against collision will be missing. insufficient braking distance. Train derails and its wagons/coaches dash with another Train. with or without ACD network.The situations in which ACD network can’t prevent a train collision An analysis of ‘preventable’ and ‘non-preventable’ accidents by Safety Directorate of Railway Board of a total of ‘128 train collisions on Indian Railways’ during the five years period namely. ‘Adequate’ braking distance at that speed is not available when a ‘dangerous’ collisionlike situation arises suddenly – However. inadequate reaction time. already on ‘adjacent’ track – No reaction time situation ‘Failure’ of brake power of the Locomotive/train Rolling backward/forward of a ‘Stabled load’ 15 . as such if one of the two trains is a non-ACD train. from April 1997 to January 2002. indicated that 82% of these collisions were preventable by ACD. severity of the collision would be reduced as a function of the reaction time. The balance 18% of the collisions were ‘non-preventable’ in any case due to various reasons like failure of brake power of train. are enumerated below: Other train is a ‘NON’ ACD Train – ACD functions by reacting to another ACD.
Does not degrade the existing safety level.Benefits of the ACD system Very economical and cost effective. Date wise Maintenance Report – Failure of Loco Unit and Gate Unit. Easily adaptable and expandable. Date wise Report of incidences of Warning to the Driver due to Gate OPEN or Obstruction. No way had side equipment required. Daily Maintenance Report – Failure of Loco Unit and Gate Unit. Maintenance Support System (MSS) Daily Reports of incidences of Warning to the Driver due to Gate OPEN or Obstruction. It does not require any inputs to be fed by the crew at the start of journey. thus human error is eliminated. Less susceptible to Vandalism. No cabling on the track required (which is more expensive and cumbersome). hence no requirement of Power. Employs state-of-art hardware and software technology. 16 .
ACDs can be implemented in railways to prevent collisions and to decrease the timing between two consecutive trains running one after another. 17 . It can be used in heavy vehicles like cranes. ACDs can be used as a tracking device.Applications 1. 3. 2. earthmovers etc to prevent accidents and for their safe working in public places.
System Adaptability • Loco Unit can be provided in any type of Diesel or Electric Locomotive • The Auto Braking Unit (ABU) is suitable for Air Brake/Vacuum brake/Computerised Control Braking systems • Level Crossing Unit can be installed at any type of Gate working system to detect OPEN/CLOSE condition of gate • Loco and Level Crossing Units are capable of withstanding -10 deg C to +70 Deg C temp variation 18 .
Conclusion • Anti-Collision Device (ACD) – A KRCL ‘Patent’ • Unique features – Prevents in a ‘mid-section’ – – – – ‘Head-on’ Collisions ‘Side’ Collisions ‘Rear-end’ Collisions Accidents at Level Crossings • No other Technology in the World supports above features 19 .
www.com/anti_collision_devices.html 6.html 4. www.com 2.google.rediff.in 3.gov. www.References 1.com 5.hindustantimes.org 20 .ask. www. www. www.wikipedia.com/acd.konkanrailways.
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