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was appointed in 1810 Lecturer on History at Upsala. the old popular poetry of Sweden . plete than either of the two older referred to . A 2 . made under the autlior's supervision. there appeared fi-om his pen a series of Essays on the Poor Laws. the Bishopric of Linkoeping was offered to his acceptance in 1833. at Ransater. In 1840 he was again elected to the same trust. with Afzelius. the former of which comes down only to the close of the reign of Charles IX. and after visiting England. In 1824 he was nominated one of the eighteen in the Swedish Academy . in the present Diet. Some notice of the author's life may be expected by those who are unacquainted with his position and labours. on the death of Fant. full of the most curious and recondite " Litteratur Blad" or learning. which testify to the wisdom of his political views and the extent of his information. A. on his return from travels in Denmark and Germany. and with Archbishop Lindblom and Schi'oeder. and in 1817 Professor. by Dr. to whom the original of the present translation is dedicated. distinguished as the friend of every well-considered liberal measure. Subsequently he was charged by King Charles John with the superintendence of the studies of the Crown-Prince Oscar. or are But the work is even now more comcapable of appreciating the important relations of the subject. from which. 1783.. Such is a brief and imperfect summary of the public services and honours of this celebrated ' This the translator hopes to be able to issue in a future volume. which appeared at Upsala in 1818 and 1828.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. . was appointed by royal warrant to prepai'e for the press the great collection of the Sci-q^fores Rerum Suecicarum. and achieved on behalf of the literature of his country and his own fame. In 1828 he was created by his sovereign Knight of the Order of the Polar Stai'. and was . The present volume comprises all of the original which has hitherto appeared the continuation. and in 1834 that of Carlstad . Professor Geijer's History of the Swedes (Svenska Folkets Historia) was published at Oi'ebro in 1832-36 a Gennan version. his official duties and the engrossing concerns of politics. and those who have read Pirate. he has retired. Of these one of the principal objects was to advocate the liberation of labour and trade in Sweden from the fetters of corporate restriction. but he is understood to have declined both. entered the University of Upsala in his seventeenth year. Finally. During this long and brilliant career. . The work possesses a European reputation . Being in orders. was published contemporaneously at Hamburg. He was editor or chief contributor to the Swea and Iduna." will probably not his claims to the Scaldic laurel. In 1806 he took the degree of ]\I. reviews established in imitation of those of Britain . in the province of Vermeland . and in 1826. which will bring the history down to a more recent date. did not prevent him fi-om rendering the most important services to the literature of his country. and other annalists of the last century. Leffler. whose pupil he had been. Lagerbring. while the latter breaks off in the middle of the fifteenth century. in the Literary Journal for 1838-39. conveyed in a popular and eloquent mode of exposition *. and chosen to represent the University of Upsala in the Diet. he is also a poet as well as a " The critic and philologer. he filled one of the foremost places in the councils of his country . all competent judges admit that the writer has added one to the scanty list of great national histories. and the adoption of a liberal tariff on foreign produce imported. an emprise to which Dalin. member of the Commission of Public Education. He assisted in editing. In 1825 appeared a volume of Dissertations on the Early question History and Antiquities of Sweden (the Swea Rikes Hafder). in 161 1. and at twenty obtained the chief prize of the Swedish Academy for eloquence in composition. is in an advanced state of preparation and its appearance will be welcomed by all who delight in historical studies. and their Bearing on Society. While be remained a member of the legislature. now King of Sweden and Norway. He was born on the 12th January'. were unequal.

gratte. ien/i:. authority or weight. are necessarily evanescent. To the present translation. recurrence has been had to the German version''. those supplied by the translator are brief explanations of points on which many English readers might possibly feel at a loss. it may be remarked in passing. or piece of ground adjoining to a house. the learned school of metaphysical and political speculation. Swed. though containing many minor inaccuracies^. even in the most difficult cases. yet their quickness of adaptation is not to be denied. empty. find their correlatives in that of Sweden. perfect consciousness of its difficulty. and to ti'ansfuse the ideas in similar diction withIf the attempt fail. in the light of corroborative A few turning on minute topographical or technical matter. I by no means assent to of meaning. (of course those springing from some radical difference in the things symbolized are excepted. and X. for though their soil is not fertile in historical talent. pr. Its peculiar quality seems to be — 2 the first As for instance Gfriirer. Sv/ed. which. and a theory often maintained. but to an out loss of force or grace. It •i . and be pleased to recognize in him a kindred genius. and regretted the entire absence of any work on the subject in our own language. can lay claim to no serious consideration as one of any . the librarian of Stuttgart. Whether these objects have been attained in the present case it is for others to determine. though still existing in the Scottish or provincial I may specify a few instances out of hundreds. in his " History of Gustavus Adolphus and his times.inslated "grange" in the following pages. and promptly profited by them ^ . and length or sidesidd. The translator had been led by curiosity to seek information on Swedish history. fulfils by its general fidelity and vigour of style all the essentials of a translation. and more or less identical in the verbal meaning. and the wish that it might be performed. but i Svenslca Historien. especially at the present day. Hemman. The notes. to render as exactly as possible every shade of meaning and vai'iety of diction. apparently proceeding from the author's own pen. which supposes true translation to be impossible. unsatisfactory. It is continually possible to trace not only the Much of ideas. and feebly written. which originated in the desire to make known to the English public a The task was begun with a historical work of singular excellence. and Russia would have been scarcely less necessary. and leave but a I believe it to be possible to reproduce in our caput mortuum to mock the toil of conversion. sid. A translation should be close without stiffness.) expressions of equivalent siguificancy.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. of Germany have long since discovered his merits. Side. in essaying an English version of the only work deserving to be regarded as the standard of Swedish history. but they are never necessary to the text. the phraseology. but the idea was abandoned. the author has given his sanction. This deficiency. grata. language a just presentment of any prose composition in another. but for the reluctance to enter on an invidious olTice. or village itself. would be easy. has certainly not been removed by the recent ' a book which. In grammatical structure the English and Swedish languages have perhaps a closer aflSnity than any others of Europe. Hem is home. nor likely to prove a discommendation to English readers. It has been the aim of the present translator. Published in London under the title o[ History of Sweden. which may be read or not at pleasure. free and spirited without paraphrastic license. and should be regarded. French version likewise exists by a Swedish resident of Paris but this I have not had the advantage of seeing. hamlet. man. torn. as possessing only domestic interest. It was originally intended to give a map of Scandinavia. it must be ascribed not to its impracticability.) have been omitted or abridged. . are familiar to him. hum. it will be seen. it must be possible to find. is obviously the same with the Anglo-Saxon ness. to present a faithful and accurate image of the style of the original. ab alio pot'msquam a me. who belongs to the same generic Second to none among European scholars. dialects. imperfect command of the resources of the English tongue in the individual. nor their alacrity in acknowledging foreign obligations remarkable. meaning long or down-hanging. whence hampsel. It often happens that words which have dropped out of use in the written language of England. Professor Geijer's style bears a remarkable resemblance to the mode in which the old English writers thought and expressed themselves. Grele. /cA-a. because maps are now-a-days easily procured. Poland. a circumstance coincident with the expectations we should be inclined to form from affinities of race. are numerous. farm. The great will Englishmen writers of our own. 3 Berattelser * ' A . the word tr. to give proofs of this assertion. ajipearance in an English form of a portion of Fryxell's Stories from Swedish History meagre. to weep. like those of Gibbon. and analogies of language" and situation. points (chiefly in Chapters II. Swed. no less than of the continental literatures. Toom. In some passages of the Swedish original variations from the German are observable. Some changes of collocation and structure must be permitted. to play Swed. in these the former has been followed. avoided in the following pages. meaning a croft. With the noblest and most comprehensive of modern languages as our instrument. Whenever doubt was felt as to the true sense of the original. also the house. a me pot'msquam a nemine." two books is little else than an abridgment of Geijer. and maps of Germany. because nice distinctions still more idiomatic forms of expression. More examples of verbal identity might be produced than even in the case of the German.

constructing a symmetrical and harmonious fabric of verisimilitude from the poetical legends of the sagas and the scattered his hints of foreign annalists. unity of interest. but is an instrument admirably adapted to extract its essence. In the occasional inborn and homebred pith of his expressions. and manners. In the caution and sagacity with which he tracks way through the mysterious gloom of the mythological and traditionary period. as was also the weight which she could relations. to the modern poets of England. brief. the purest type of the ancient Gothic grounds. England. in the Script. For the pomp and grandeur which gild the medieval story of nations such as France. which indeed sometimes the vehicle best calculated to imbue the inquirer's apprehension with the spiiit of the age or subject. See instances in the accounts of Ingyald Illrada. and exercised its constructive faculties. mind exhibited itself. and patient triumph over difficulties manfully encountered. at times. and amply compensating their deficiency. he displays these qualities in an amplitude of measure that leaves nothing to be desired . or even in Down to our own day. the application of the name by tliem was indefinite. whose numbers. and 48 of tlie following volume. though always sparingly and with suggestive power. Here he some passages. as well as many Compare in the latter case specified. its claims on our curiosity need not be rested on any such factitious In its indigenous religion. at p. and vigorous spirit of the people whose story he relates. Ragnar Lodbroc. results ascribable partly to the talents of her sovereigns. for which the authorities follows in are few. ibid. the account of his legislation with that given in the Great Rhyme Chronicle. rant of its extent. At times there is a scriptural energy and solemnity which indicate one of the models he has followed. and inbecause fertile in memorials of heroic exertion. standThis will be acknowledged by such as compare the first two chapters ing upon unquestioned testimony.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. and as they were ignoto Chapter II. conjoined with an ai'tistic method and felicitous eloquence which we vainly desiderate in the Gei'man writer. the appellation the southernmost province of the peninsula. and power have thriven under advantages of situation. that Scandinavia was the home and dwelling-place of the Gothic tribes which subdued the Roman empire. denied by nature to the remote north. plain-spoken. is poui'trayed the free. throw into the scale. it might perhaps . ^. her power and consideration in Europe have that of her neighbour Denmark. soil. not only adorns the subject with the graces of imagery and fancy. the history of Sweden possesses a resources. . institutions. to the German wegen in Norwegen. as in the seventeenth century. ever exceeded the due proportion of her population and means. Of the heathen and Catholic periods. and climate. or illustrates elevating truths by familiar things. from the Icelanders of Swedish history is not only necessary. with that in Lawrence Peterson's Swedish Chronicle. not unequal to the theme. and partly to her comparative freedom from the religious divisions. by a few words. and the English ivay in Norraway or Norway. Both Scandia and Scandinavia are found. p. which are in the nature of an he blends the elements of comic and tragic emotion. and Spain. or the ten of the Scandinavian Antiquities. arising from the political divisions of these countries. and lighting up the dim obscurities of history with the gleam of truth. and Earl Birger. as an integrant part of general history. If the via in the latter were any thing more than a protraction of the termination. like all the chief northern writers. as the safest course in dealing with imperfect evidence. Yet there are many elements which lend the subject a character of elevation aad dignity beyond any that could be conferred by mere magnitude of material And above all. has been overthrown by the more critical learning and precise inquiry of modern days. his exposition is necessarily succinct and undetailed. with his account of the reigns of the later sovereigns. The figurative language he sometimes employs. and grandeur of narration. force. seems probably to come from Scania. which tore contemporary states. while ho excels forcibly than by pages of disquisition. In his progress to the names and events which have gained a world-wide celebrity. and even the intrinsic import of other departments of European history. and impart to his own narrative the same features that stamped the mind and style of the ancient heroes of Sweden. animated. ! subsequent passages. for the first be analogous time. in Pliny. drawn from the stores of demotic feeling and fancy. the exact language of is the original writers'^. it is also indispensable to the right comprehension of the mutual The study teresting in itself. * Although the opinion once so generally spread. the description of Birger's conduct on his return from Finland. where the student's attention is distracted by the multiplicity of constituent parts. Sconia (Skane). the same analytic faculty is exhibited which Niebuhr brought to bear on the darkness of the early Roman history. of the following history. and demand a breadth. and unsatisfactory. not less in deciphering the faint and imperfect records of the past. Ivar Widfamne. opulence. lofty achievement. discrimination. of 6 The name Scandia. Scondia. than in relating the best ascertained facts of the clearest pei'iods. crescit aim magnitudine rerum vis ingenii. we must not look here. and other distracting causes. Scandinavia. 72. wanting in those of both Germany and Italy. and striking. more His narrative is rapid. and to impress the mind of the reader. the meaning of which is explained by Professor Geijer in the first note This was the only part of the country distinctly known to the ancients. These exemplify the original form of They are not less deserving of investigation in society among all the kindred of the Gothic stock. Not unfrequently. Suec.

" beautiful type of a higher hope. we see perhaps a picture not unlike what England might have presented. of Germany. name to it. In this view and perusal of the following pages will show that it is neither forced nor exaggerated it would be difficult to point out any country which has more solid or legitimate claims on the attention — — in the Saxon colonization of England. though under very diffex'ent conditions. who filled the British island with their language. who reigned over the ocean. or the estates confer with each other at the diet. the arts of navigation. See Hist. would soon provoke them to cross the narrow isthmus of Sleswig. those wild worshippers of Odin. for Swedish soil was never won by conquest. their laws. . And even in the Sweden of the present day. we discover the sources from which the usages of the modern constitution of England. have sprung. when we consider the age and circumstauces in which they were produced . are supposed to have come from Swedish Gothland. and with those of the TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. seems as clearly established as we can reasonably expect. speaks of War has certainly had but too great an influence on peaceful colonization. or Giitar. for on this foundation has been reared the vast fabric of English law. it is to be observed. II. ." survives the storms of winter. Even the old legend of the immigration of Odin and the Asae." (Of this latter assertion. of the Decline and Fall. not less than in the forests of north Germany and Jutland. which were blended with each other by the slightest accidents of war or friendship. and their colonies. but the difficulty of issuing through the northern columns of Hercules (which during several months of the year are obstructed with ice) confined their skill and courage within the limits of a spacious lake. but many speculations. themselves. for notices on this subject.. occupied the Cinibric Chersonese. familiar to us in its daily workings. are almost identical in sound and the Jutes who 9 The share which the Scandinavians must have had many . who poured into Britain.. Essay V. of Scandinavians and Spaniards. by the admixture of foi-eign elements. and would not be satisfied until they had established their power among their insular kinsmen. when the king speaks to the assembly of the armed people. the Swedes. Even as the seed sown in autumn. reached their natural development in a free polity. by the snow. in the venerable precepts of the Scandinavian legislators. to give laws to distant people and unexplored continents. which record that compose this great family of mankind. and the habits of naval war. contracted territory. were is just insensibly united in a permanent society. at first of rapine. are mentioned along with the Saxons proper by Bede. and hence the institutions of this cognate people. dispossessed its Celtic population. In like mode. where their descendants were to build up an empire bearing sway over the East and authorities For in the wide extent of the West." Scarcely consistent with this and penetrating strain of reflection is another sentence soon after following. . the Swedish cultivator. and to launch their vessels on the great sea. It should seem probable." light Geijer. who fought under the same standard. The various troops of pirates and adventurers. their social and military institutes. They possessed arms and ships. that there swarms . Chap. she herself has never received a foreign yoke. on the coasts of the North Sea and the islands of the Baltic. and are identical with those of the Danes (so our old WTiters terra them) whose marauding hosts afterwards came to reinforce their numbers and dispute their heritage. elucidate those of the so-called Anglo-Saxons. Scandinavia Proper. Danes (Danai) and Jutes. Now the appellation Jutes is merely another form of that of the Goths Jutar and Gbtar. ad init. In the primitive forms of the Gothic monarchy. which is rather incautiously expressed: " The fabulous colouies of Egyptians and Trojans. the mythological lore of northern heathenism. that must be regarded as most ingenious and profound. From the same we derive the only full and credible account of the religious belief of our own Pagan ancestors. . The solution of this difficulty is easily derived from the similar manners and loose constitution of the tribes . have insensibly vanished in the of science and philosophy. their habits and manners. forth in ancient days hosts of emigrants and conquerors. which fiattered the pride. Poor Laws. unlike the Germans. The basis of society there is the " allodial right of property acquired by labour. however. who wrested from the crown of France some of its noblest provinces. ' . though passed over by of our historians from their defective information. than from the iUustration they throw on the origin and progress of the various nations In the sacred books of the Icelandic Scalds.) " The rumour of the successful armaments which sailed from the mouth of the Elbe. as well as Rugini (no doubt the classical Rugiior inhabitants of the island of Rugen. in Germany almost within our own generation. we must seek for the incunabula gentls AngUcoe^. nor made him a labourer under foreign dominion *. — — but not extinguished. 15 v. and refused to surrender their liberties into the jceeping of princes and nobles. clung to the traditions and habitudes of their ancestral freedom. and their For while Scandinavia has sent peculiar civilization disturbed. not of forcible subjection. This view " This derives countenance from the authority of Gibbon for it had not escaped the sagacity of that greatest of historians." During the middle age also. that the most numerous auxiliaries of the Saxons were furnished by the nations who dwelt along the shores of the Baltic. and compare Geijer. but the law of arms has never divided his land. and occupied its fair domain . the dawniugs of that intellect which expanded into the radiance of so bright a day in England under Elizabeth. its vitality covered. and gave their of Saxons. "was incapable of pouring forth the inexhaustible . XXV. by the armed bands of the Conqueror and his followers. we may find no consistent or satisfactory system of doctrine." he says in Chap. and the coast of the adjacent mainland). 10. like our own. and we trace unmistakeably the germs of the later Teutonic poetry. no proof. we find the best comments on the principles of our own jurisprudence. Again. i. and afterwards of government. and amused the credulity of our rude ancestors. had not the progress of the Anglo-Saxons been arrested.

to be the chief of the Scandian nations. than by the probable. with results for the government and community analogous to those elsewhere produced. among them. where their descendants are now engaged in a struggle of life and death against the aggressions of the Slavonic race ^. though perhaps less convincing evidence. apart from their home fortunes. ^ See the the memoirs of Swedish envoys as to the social state of speeches of the kings or their ministers in the diet Russia. the scourge of the and Olsten. have even represented him as anxious to break the power of the Swedish nobility. Denmark. of the following work. name. 2 Antiquities. but there cannot be a more baseless theoi*y as respects its application to Sweden. The events of the Union. . and track through the course of ages the winding currents of their strangely diversified destinies. " This was the introduction of the feudal principle in Sweden. But it is not in the days of barbarous anarchy that we should seek for the true heroic age of Sweden. was the mountain chain of the Caucasus. and the capacity of ardent endeavour. though referring to a distant age. The Swedes are acknowledged by the most ancient records. so to speak. powerfully enforce the lesson of in Ragnar Lodbroc. —the . The Danish interest depended mainly on the support of the nobles and clergy. possess some interest for us. That which some of the northern antiquaries liave styled their heroic age. the ascendency of the nobles appears established. would have defied with equal intrepidity the slaves of the Russian colossus. already referred See this view briefly stated by Geijer in Chapter I. with the most formidable of the sea-kings. and the inferior gentry exist in medieval Christianity. in the first volume of the History of the Anglo-Saxons. an appellation which has sometimes proved a stumbling-block to inquirers. are no more than fanciful How else. Such researches and speculations have an elevating influence. endeavoured to draw into the service of the crown. established no less by the internal evidence of language and institutions. a country of inferior size and population. It may besides be wrong to suppose that. of the sagacity and boldness of thought which distinguished their politicians. In the saying of the chancellor of Gustavus Vasa on the subject of church property (p. races of men whose vocation in modern times has been so different. in the very heart of that wild land of Circassia. frenzied as they often were. and forms a noble document of popular energy and patriotic devotion. pei'haps. whom our English chroniclers call Hastings. testimonies of historic records. and recommending to our informed reason those inspired accounts. and the Swedes only knew Christian as a bloody and remorseless oppressor. and as applied to modern times. in the elder The birth-place of the Goths. than by accepting the theory which makes the Circassians a branch of the Gothic race. offers few names that have preserved wide celebrity British coasts. It rests indeed on an entire misconception. they can throw no light recollections or baseless dreams. if not certain. by Mr. the following pages contain many proofs ^. of the unity of the human family. A powerful nobility had arisen during the contest of the rival kingly houses. at least. that the Swede and the AngloSaxon. . those of same — the evils of domestic dissensions. the story of the liberation by Gustavus Vasa possesses the interest of romance. did not liis apologists raising the peasantry the Danish sway. It Sweden. For this purpose it is superfluous to refer to the link of a common extraction in remote antiquity." With this view exemption from taxes was granted by the king both to the barons and knights. for instance. which led to her temporary subjugation by Denmark. trains of the soldier-kings and the magnates. we have perhaps the first clear and distinct enunciation of a principle so keenly contested at the present day. on the subsequent transactions of history. has been unjustly loaded with the charge of wanton cruelty. The feudal system. as they have appeared in modern times. in that full development which it attained in other countries of Europe. and more largely in the Scandinavian to. but with the termination of the great civil war following the introduction of and the seizure of regal power by the Folkunger Earl. * Geijer. from the warlike form.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. strenuous self-reliance. The case of the Saxons is supported with strong. To those who delight the origin of nations. but with energies better concentrated. is the secret of that gallant and hitherto successful resistance to be better explained ? None but the descendants of so brave a stock. illustrating the affinities of nations. The character of the people has ever been marked by depth of feeling. it seems to be now established. so often attempted to be discredited. who scrupled at nothing for the gratification of his own lusts and caprices. their annals. to investigate day of the world. more tenacious of life than might be supposed. The whole was an attempt to organize in a royalist spirit an armed force of nobles*. which shine out at every period of Their military achievements were signalised by desperate gallantry and brilliant success. vii of the English student of history than Sweden. Essay V. It has sometimes been supposed that the memory of Christian II. as connecting the remote past with the absorbing present. Ill). which king Magnus Ladulas. and by and improving their condition. often against overwhelming superiority of force. to rest upon their support for the maintenance of is true that he acted upon a somewhat similar policy in his own kingdom of Denmark. by the institution of a royal equestrian militia. the reflection is not without its charm. &c. Poor Laws. Sharon Turner. and surrounded itself with bands of men-at-arms. which manifested itself here in a peculiar We know the origin of feudalism. were brothers in the cradle.

to grapple with and the rights of Protestantism. he closed on the field of Lutzen a life.viii TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. prepared the way for that series of brilliant achievements which gave to Sweden a high rank among the nations of Europe. . yet not the autocrats. along with their clergy. offering in exchange releasement from a merely fully nominal burden. Charles IX. marks the commencement of the modern period of Swedish history. and Charles IX. with more enlightened — — — 5 Geijer. as the supporters of foreign interests in the country. the love of his subjects. " See Chapter IX. to which the surrounding common of the controvei-sies people were bound to render certain services ^. namely. commonalty who chose or were able to do service on horseback. For feudalism in Sweden wanted its proper foundation. at least the more considerable they became so in part. Sweden had been better prepared for the principles of the Reformation. were also ennobled. unsuccessful attempts to obtain their surrender. and perhaps the only righteous conqueror. and reconducted. The bishops were the most powerful men in Sweden. But however the social revolution was brought about. and in determining Gustavus I. to change the order of succession.. With us it has been organized from above. animated by respect for popular Under Gustavus Adolphus. By the measures of Gustavus I. never were there monarchs. and stood by them with a zeal and constancy which made Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus what England had been under The Elizabeth. as the active and efficient rulers. they had always appeared. perhaps. the solemnity of which is deepened by the sad recollection of his untimely fall. brought an accession of influence which enabled him to carry on the government in the face of foreign enmities and domestic revolts the regal power in Sweden encouraged by strong factions among the nobility and the clergy. of them. wealth. and otherwise often enough through abuse. as will be seen. and had taken a peculiarly obnoxious had doubtless a great share part in rivetting the yoke of Denmark. Essay V. enabling him to defy the combined qualities. and ceased to be under the Stuarts the head of the Protestant interest in Europe. the Swedes soon embraced the religious tenets of the Reformers with the ardour of conviction. Never was a country more fortunate in its leaders than Sweden under the three great princes of the house of Vasa. continued and heightened by his own great rights. the tide of popular fervour which had placed and sustained it on his head. but which could not here receive its full acceptation.. a word in its proper sense meaning un/ree. To Gustavus I. to throw his weight into the scale of the adherents to the new doctrine. one of the greatest among soldiers and statesmen. Cut off in the bloom of years. Greatness and warlike glory are promised by one of the most acute and knowing political thinkers to princes who advance the prosperity. The accession of the dynasty of Vasa to the throne." On these relations turns much between the nobility and the other estates of Sweden. while the immunities of the nobles entailed manifold made repeated grievances and oppressions on the commonalty. The fiefs. attached to the command of the royal castles and fortresses. It is calculated that in the Cathohc period the Swedish church possessed fully two-thirds of the soil of the country. the maturity of intellect. and cultivate the favour of the masses. and settle the state under a strong central government. The crown of the Vasas derived its strongest support from the people. given unity to Germany under a Protestant emperor. and the impulse given to the national industry. and the realization of the subtle Florentine's prophecy came in full measure with the third. which. in France under Louis XL. and the increment overcome the house of Austria. and fell by degrees into desuetude . a people precipitated by conquest into bondage. and crowned the radiant brow of Gustavus Adolphus with undying glory. in Spain under Ferdinand and Charles. (although by the earldoms and counties of Eric XIV. has an epic grandeur. in England under Henry VII. On this principle these fii'st two sovereigns of the house of Vasa acted . here in general never legally hereditary. with the augmentation of resources during a period of comparative peace under his reign and that of Charles IX. an appendage to the nobility . The obligation to military service was never performed. ofr'dlse. by the king as the first nobleman. and champions in war. imped the wings of victory. through the abilities and services of its founder. society was remodelled. such was likewise the statement Its vices were not unproportioned to its of the high chancellor Anderson at the diet of Strengness ^. backed by the arms of Poland. might have changed the destinies of modern Europe. guides of their subjects in peace. and the full career of victory. and the freedom of Europe. derived force to set aside the legitimate claims of Sigismund. " All of the or franklins. its reception was also more necessary. the I'est remained unennobled. augmenting proportionally as in other monai'chies about the same time. than in some other countries of Europe. reign of that monarch.) were. and Henry VIII. to vindicate hostility of the other northern powers. Toor Laws. (with whose character that of Gustavus has some points of resemblance). of dominion. if prolonged. From the same cause. who so thoroughly fulfilled the ideal of royalty. These and other political motives in facilitating the Refonnation. infra. of their kingdom. in return for military service to be performed by them.

and of this old regiment. all the alienated lands of . some fell upon the rock. than the natural increment could alTord." he continues. the crown had thus lost. and with the fall of Sweden's power. but now sounded par- cannot know." With this sovereign another period of historic splendour was still to come for Sweden. Thus Charles XII. 9 " Thus the act the crown in the year 1680. we often find cause to regret a spirit and a policy less far-seeing. that runs from the foot of the Alps in Swaubland to the Adriatic Sea. and from want of subsidies. was representative of the army of Sweden.' a government tottering betwixt alliances. " He came out of this war with a deep feeling of the deficiencies of the public condition. whithersoever the until his less well-balanced. than in the elder monarchs of Sweden. save where the youthful Charles XI. — readers. See other better informed evidence in the notes to Chap. owing to degenerate military discipline and deficient resources. Onwards from this date her history perhaps ceases to possess an interest so universal . a hand from amongst its ruins was turned against his life. under homely hut honest enthusiasm. yet it has aspects which. which again in the world represented the kingdom of Sweden. He took the trades into his own hands. was the loss of many. And had our master of worthy memory lived. braving first fortune. The beauty of these passages must be my apology for quoting them. from thence to the Baltic coast again. and also one of forcibly-compelling circumstances. and fully equipped. during the period of conquest. Christina evaded it. 8 " Sweden's most glorious time was a time of great life-giving ideas. They had at the head of this army done good service. was empowered by the estates to resume This passage is from Mr. and with the determination to found the martial power of Sweden not upon subsidies" (a resource hitherto " but upon the country's own well-husbanded resources." " " Then did the study to deserve the name. — ill in the ears of the people . XVII. infra. became from 1680 the chief object of Charles XI. absolute power was given by the unnoble orders. then misfortune. says the Lion of the North. the proposition of the nobility in the year 16G4. country had no more sons to give him . The eagle fell. ticularly ' which." Ibid. all that to his eagle eye that monarchy was destined to be. Thus war became even after peace a necessity." says Geijer. without forgetting their own advantage . for instance. plunged the kingdom into a war. by means of monopolies for the crown. Sweden has not great men of Sweden. 6. amidst the changeful 7 Such Witness his follower Monro. place to speculate on the lofty destinies to which Sweden may yet again be called. however burdensome it might be to the people. i. required by circumstances. every one had large opportunities of caring for it. lend it enhanced attx'action. which necessarily are less attractive in the whole to : . the conquering arms of the North to the Tiber and the Bosphorus once aristocratic and military monarchy." was termed by which Charles XI. " From Denmark our expedition by water (having taking service anew. himself maintained the honour of the Swedish arms. ConThen marched he forth over the old Swedish battle-fields to others spiring neighbours challenged him. " The and nobler intentions. was requisite — . The hero Charles Gustavus submitted to it not unwillingly. viewed It would be here out of in connexion with the recent politics of Europe.) did continue towards Spruce (Prussia). In the far distant. foreboding division and fall. with anticipations were certainly current in the camp of Gustavus himself. pretensions were for the first time distinctly asserted. And though war yet rolled to and fro its bloody tide for many a year over the spot where he fell. after the early death of Charles Gustavus. Posterity policy a. struggles against Russia under the princes of the Palatine House. He belioved to have means for the wars. its arrested in course. scarce guess. and under a new weak regency. and the course of commerce had to adjust itself accordingly. which had heretofore been rather in use than declared. and in Torstenson beyond all others lived the genius of his master in the field. whilst they were deaf to the general discontent which was fermenting below them. Against them and their colleagues but one I'eproach can justly be made. To render Sweden ready for war. Gustavus Adolphus may he likened to a sower from an onspeeding war-chariot wherefore of that which was sown. This led to contentions within the nobility. upon a war-footing. had Axel Oxenstierna's match in the council. Almost without knowing how. victorious course Sweden's most useful conquests " We have seen that the Swedish nobility. But the loss of this Lion to lead us. was universally unsuccessful.t ''. In the meanwhile. and some among stones. Lewin's Translation of the Essays. and it — hope of victory beckoned him. especially as they are imbedded in essays. during the peaceful remainder of his reign." &c. directly. that they could not be outvoted by the other orders at the diets. and privileges. the place is sanctified by the triumph of light. who. all with a view to effect an earlier gain. They thought that they could establish the state of Sweden. and from thence to the river of Danube. and other among thorns. in the essay already quoted. "now spreads itself forth glittering to our view under one of the world's greatest heroes and warriors. who were glad as the younger nobility were not sorry to see the power of the envied grandees now crushed. and there is breathed the peace of mankind *. gathering at length in his now all that remain to us. or indirectly by companies. and the crown absolute and rich. But that course had been directed towards the sun. the invincible King of Sweden. To recover what employed among others) — — an end which was accomplished by means of the Reduction^. and saluted the Pope within Rome. we had crossed the Alps into Italy. even for the future.TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION. felt himself at once unrestrained. leases.

and perplexed currents of human affairs. Within the last century and a half new nations have appeared on the scene new empires have sprung into life and gi-eatness, and now rear their giant heads over the ruins of fallen thrones and decayed monarchies. During the same period the Scandinavians, jealous and disunited, deprived of the assistance of more powerful kindred nations, at times almost shut out from the councils of Europe, and robbed of a portion of their heritage amidst the tempests of the French revolution, struggled against unpropitious fortunes to maintain their rank among nations, and make head against the encroachments of ambitious neighbours and rival races. A new era of peace, of rapidly advancing prosperity ', perhaps, too, if the aspirations of ardent patriots carry trustworthy in which the three nations of the northern peninsula will present a compact and pi'csages, one of Union, To Sweden, united front that may bid defiance to any foreign aggression has now risen upon them. whose power has but relatively declined, while absolutely it is much greater than ever, the foremost place will no doubt be yielded ; and a brilliant prospect opens which will yet be realized. Meantime, honour and regard should wait on this ancient and warlike nation, which keeps watch by the Polar lights over the To her are committed the keys of Europe, the vanguard of portals of the East Sea and the West.




ever the day should arrive, when the legions of the Muscovite shall march to con-

with those of the west and south, her post will be one of danger, and doubtless of glory. Once she was the arbiter of the European system ; she may yet be its preserver. But I detain the reader too long from pages more worthy his attention. My apology must be the

apparent necessity of attempting to explain the general character of a department of history hitherto too Let us listen then little known, as well as of a style which some may find unfamiliar in its treatment.
to the

words of a great scholar and politician, who, from the stillness of that distant retreat of the Northern Muses, speaks to us with a voice of gentleness, yet of authority and force.

' The kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, united since 1814, contain the immense surface of 281,358 square miles English. The population of the former in 1S39, according to the Geographical Almanack of Berghaus, was 3,111,067; that of the latter in 1840 was 1,243,700. They form now the fourth maritime power of the world, coming after Great Britain, the United States, and France. The number of their ships I have seen stated at 5450, and the tonnage at 471,772, though

am at a loss for the reference. The population of Denmark in 1840 was 2,194,950. That of the grand duchy of Finland, severed from Sweden by Russia in the reign of Gustavus IV., and whose inhabitants are far from having forgotten their old


is 1,393,727.

Page Page Page Page Page Page
1, col. 2,

line 17, for

" "

reollections," read recollections.

31, col.



9, for

mundok," read mutid


34, col.


line 14, for

38, col. 2, line 23,

Gothland," read Golllaud. for " befel," read befell.
after conflict.




9, for


Juta," read Jutar.

81, col. 2, line 11, place the

Note. Sti in Swedish sounds like sh ; j like ?/, as also g before ci or a. I have not in all cases rigidly adhered to the Swedish orthography, sometimes using the Latinized form instead. The mark generally placed over e tinal, is to be considered as merely arbitrary, for the purpose of reminding the reader that it should be sounded.




Notions of the Ancients on Scandinavia.

Upland. The Folklands Westmanland lations.

PAGE Meaning of these Appel^1


Relations of its History.

Modern Europe.

made known Saxo Grammaticus. The Ice-



of the Ancient Topographical Divisions. Settlement Swedes round the Shores of the Malar. Upsala, Sig-


Scaldic Poetry. Snorro Sturleson. Swedish and Danish. The History compared with Norwegian Subject divided

tuna or Birca


Mining Tracts



State of


Inhabitants in



Inland Seas the Mediterranean and the Baltic Seat of the Teutonic Nations their Irruptions The Suiones of Tacitus The Gothic Tribes Notion of their Scandian Extraction its Explanation

and Culture to the North. NorrProgress of Settlement land, Helsingland, Gestricland CharacFinnmark and

the Twelfth Century


Angermanland. ter of this Region Voyage of Ottar and Ulfsten.





. .

Tribes Carelians and Tavastrians.

Finns and Lapps
Extraction, and Present Di-

f ^t

Their probable




Idea of the Northern Mythology of the Kings Supposed Divine Descent


Extent of Odinism Annals and Destiny of Gods and Men its Heroic Odes Spiritof Northern Paganism; of the Swedish Legendary Account of the Establishment

id. id.


Races by Swedish Settlers. Expulsion of these Nomadic and Southern Sweden Vestiges of them in Middle Notices of them by Old Writers Ancient Polity and Manners of the Swedes Social Odin and his Council of Twelve. The Tings. Wedding and Funeral Rites in Heathen Times.



The Asae Odin; his Actions and Character. Fiolner, the First The Ynglings. Niord and Frey.
The Ynglingasaga.
Upsala Kings.


Formation of the Original Commonwealth





The Lagman"or"judge.

Free and Unfree.

Houses and

King Anund the



Feast of Ingyald

his Tragical

id. id.

Occupations of the People Fruits and Belies of Paganism

Origin of the Swedes Traditions as to him. Odin probably a Real Personage. .... The Asaj or Alans, a Tribe dwelling in the Caucasus Goths and Swedes two distinct Piiorily of the Goths.




His Mission by the Anskar, the Apostle of Sweden. Emperor Lodovic the Pious of his labours. His Visits to Sweden. Partial Success His Character. Rimbert. Relapse to Paganism Scandinahis Conquests. King Eric Edmundson and Eric vian Enterprises in the Ninth Century. King
the Victorious

The Second Dynasty.

Ivar Widfamne,


Founder his


Conquests ••• Harald and Sigurd. Battle of Bravalla Russian Monarchy Eastern Conquests of the Swedes. Vaners and founded by Ruric. Statement of Nestor. Varangians Swedish Wars in Russia Ragnar Lodbroc; his Adventures Fate of Ragnar's Sons of the Northmen Accounts of him compared. Invasion its Inhabitants Settlement in Switzerland. Hasslidale







Olave the Lap-King


his son, Olave

Tryggwason, King




of Norway; League against him The Anglo-Saxon Sigfrid preaches





LAND AND PEOPLE FROM THE HEATHEN PERIOD. Towns Inhabitits Produce and Commerce.


Provinces of the Southern Coasts Inhabitants West-Gothland and East-Gothland
the Sagas

r'll!' Occupations of the



Notices of



Gothland and Swedeland; their Boundaries Sudermaniaor Suthermanland, Nerike, Vermeland Snorro of Sweden by King Alfred and
Description Sturleson

Swedes and Norsemen. King Embassy from him to Olave of St. Olave of Norway. „ Sweden ••••; Effects of the Extinction of the Second Dynasty. of the Gothic PopuReligious Changes. Ascendancy Stenkil chosen King by them lation. who had espoused Civil Wars between the Goths, who remained Pagans. Christianity, and the Swedes, with Norway. A Danish Reign of Inge. Hostilities •••••••• Prince chosen by the West-Goths
, .

the Gospel to the Baptism of Olave the Lap-




Swerker. Ascendancy of the Christians. King duction of Monks. Visit of a Papal Legate.
of St. Eric




His Crusade in Finland, Deatli, and Cliaracter. Charles Swerkerson first King of tlie Swedes and Goths. State of the Church
Successors of St. Eric. Feud of Eljaras King Eric Ericson. Results of tlie Civil Wars.

Election of Charles Canuteson to the Crown. Attempt on Gottland. Burning of Wisby by the Danes. Norway adheres to Christian of Oldenburg Danish Incursion. Hostilities of Charles and Christian.



46 47

Folkungers. Usurpation of the Regal Power by the Earl of Sweden Disorders of the Clergy. Synod of Skenninge convoked by a Papal Legate. Its Measures

Public Calamities Unpopularity of Cbarles. His Feud with the Archbishop and Flight to Dantzic. Christian of Oldenburg, King of Denmark, admitted to the Crown Quarrel of Christian and the Archbishop. His DeparRecall and Death of Charles ture to Denmark.







THE FOLKUNGERS. A. D. 1250 — 13G5. Augmented Power of the Crown and the Nobility Dawnings of Literature




Waldemar, son of Birger, Earl of Sweden, chosen King. id. Revolt of his kinsmen, the Folkungers its Suppression id. Power of Earl Birger; his Legislation 49 Foundation of Stockholm Foreign Trade id. Waldemar's Quarrels with his Brothers his Pilgrimage

STENO STURE THE ELDER. KING JOHN. SUANTO STURE. STENO STURE THE lOUNGER, AND CHRISTIAN THE TYRANT. A.D. 1470—1520. Steno store the Elder chosen Administrator. Danish 71 Invasion under Christian 1
Battle of Brunkeberg, and complete Defeat of the Danes. Internal Tranquillity after their Expulsion the Treaty University of Upsala founded. Renewal of
of Calmar.






Dethronement of Waldemar. Magnus Ladulas crowned King His Regulations for checking the Power and Turbulent Spirit of the Magnates
Extensive Claims of Regalities referred to this Reign. Their Unsoundness proved. Payment of Land-Tax to the Crown not incompatible with complete Allodial Right of Property. Nobility and Freehold Tenure by
Equestrian Service Benefactions of Magnus to the Church. His Death. Ascension of his son Birger Swedish Law. Functions of the Lagman. Provincial Codes. Revision of the Law of Upland



with Russia.

Non-fulfilment Indecisive Movements.


^^ 76

King John of Denmark against the Administrator. invited into Sweden by the Council His Compromise with Opposition of the Administrator. King John
Desertion of the King by the Nobility. Death of Steno the Elder. Suanto Sture chosen Administrator Peace with Russia. AlHostilities with Denmark. liance with Lubeck. Steno Sture the Younger chosen


Marriage of the Royal
pact of

Tlieir Revolt

King Birger. Dukes and Seizure of the King's person. ComHelsingborg. The Dukes treacherously made

Jealousy and Ambition of

Administrator Accession of Christian H. in Denmark. Continuance of Hostilities. Papal Ban and Interdict on Sweden. Invasion and temporary Reduction of the Country by
the Danes



Demand by

prisoners at

Their tragical fate. Flight of Birger to Denmark. Magnus Ericson chosen King Aristocratic League for the Support of the new Government. Land's Law of King Magnus Ericson Con;

the Archbishop of Satisfaction for Injuries sustained from the Administrator. Massacre of StockCruelties of Christian holm.





gress of


General Character of this Period. The Monarchy a Federation Mode of Election to Strength of the Popular Element. the Crown. The Ericsgait Elective Customs of the West-Goths. Privilege of the

Crusade in Russia. The great Plague. Magnus and his Son Eric alternately Kings Dethronement of Magnus by the Swedish Nobles. Offer of the Crown to Albert, Duke of Mecklenberg

58 59



FOREIGN KINGS. THE UNION, UNTIL THE ABMINISTRATION OF THE STURES. A.D. 1365 — 1470. The Union Age. Dislike to the new King. German
Favourites Invasion by Haco, King of Norway, Son of Magnus Albert's surrender of Power to tlie Lords of liis Council. Margaret of Norway. The Crown offered to her by the Executors of the High Steward
Piracies Battle of Falkoeping and Captivity of Albert. Eric duke of Pomerania elected King. in the Baltic.

Upper Swedes The Yeoman and





of Inheritance.

Birthrights Protection of Private Char.icter by the Law.




of Homicides. Ordeals. Compurgators.

The Man-bote
Judicial Office and Power.


Mulcts Measures of Police. Punishments. Influence of the Church in ameliorating Manners. Early Abolition of


Treaty of Calmar

for the

Union of Scandinavia, July

Customs and Observances. Court Laws

The Land's Law.

1397 Philippa of England.

Oppressive Exactions by the new King's Government. Tyranny of the Royal Lieutenants General Rising of the People under Engelbert Eiigelbertson. His Encounter with the Council Success of his Army. He is chosen Administrator and Assassinated, April 27, 1436 Charles Canuteson Bonde chosen Administrator. King Eric retires to the Isle of Gottland. Oscillations of Choice of Christopher of Bavaria to the Parties.
; ,

Jurisdiction of the Nobility. Towns Seats of Trade. Crown Revenues

and Burgesses.
88 89




Royal Domain.

Boundaries of the

63 64


The Gottlanders The Coinage;

Commercial Privileges of the Germans.

Depreciation InstituFisheries. of the various Provinces. Prevalence of Immorality tion of Guilds. Introduction of Printing. DoState of Knowledge.


92 93

Charles Canuteson


High Steward.
to surprise

Jealousies of


mestic Manners and Old Usages Education of Youth. Popular love of Freedom





Death of

Catalogue of Kings




His Imprisonment by Frederic Denmark, and Sufferings. Conference of Gustavus with the Insurgent Dalecarlians 123 Designs of Lubeck. Rupture with its Government.


A.D. 1520

Surrender of Christian.


— 1523.

Birth and Parentage of Gustavus His Scliool-days and youthful Exploits his Captivity in North Jutland, and Escape to Lubeck He repairs to Calmar; attempts to raise the Smalanders


Relations with Denmark 124 its Detection and PunishConspiracy in Stockholm ment. Establishment of the Reformation. Measures

against the Danes State of Sweden under the Danish Governors

favoured by the Bisliops and Nobles. Massacre. Flight of Gustavus

the latter News of the

Church Discipline Rebellion in Southern Sweden. and Suppression


dangerous Character,




His Wanderings in Dalecarlia Agitation against the Danes Rising of the Dalesmen Gustavus chosen for their Captain; Apathy of the Helsingers Zealof the Stockholm Magistracy for tlie Danes Unsuccessful attempt to quell the Revolt by Archbishop Gustavus Trolle and the Danish Authorities Rout of Brunnebeckor Brunneburn Successes of the Patriot Force; Combats of Westeras and Upsala Narrow Escape of Gustavus. Siege of Stockholm begun. He is elected Administrator at a Diet in Vadstena.... Progress of the War. Cruel treatment of the Wives and Children of the Swedish Nobles by Christian. Attempts of the Danish admiral Norby to relieve Stockholm. Its Capture View of Christian's Policy and Character. His Flight from his Dominions. Gustavus elected King at a

1544— 15G0.



Settlement of the Crown of Sweden in the House of 127 Vasa. Internal Tranquillity Confiscation of Effects of the Recess of Westeras.
128 Church Property Increase of the King's Power hy his Ecclesiastical Measures. Assertion of Claims of Regalities over Com129 mons, Waters, Fisheries, and Mines Character of the King's Administration. Popular Methods of Government. Conrad Von Pyhy, Chancellor 131 His Pestilent Influence; and Ruin. The King's Avarice 132 and Covetous Devices His Domestic Economy, and Plans of Improvements ... 183 for Gustavus. Finance and AgriculPopular Regard


103 104




Diet in Strengness



A.D. 1524—1543.


Foreign Commerce Steps to its Extension. Regulation of Internal Trade.. Force. Navy. Education Military Condition and Manners of the Upper Classes and Clergy. Misunderstandings with Denmark Hostilities with Russia. Last Years of the King's Life

Mines and Forges.

13G 137

139 140

Misconduct of his Son Eric.
Eric's Love- suit to

The King's grave
of England.


State of the Country at the close of the War. DissoluThe Nobles and the Commons. tion of the Union.

Queen Elizabeth


108 Temper of Men's Minds Position of the Church. Pecuniary Claims of the Lubeckers. Gottland held by Norby for Christian II. ... 109 Expedition fitted out by Gustavus against Gottland. Treachery of its Commander. Introduction of Luther's

test in Livonia Designs of the Princes Eric and John.

holm The King's Farewell Speech

Diet of Stock^ 142 to the Estates. His Last

Doctrines into Sweden by Olave and Laurence Peterson 110 Financial Statement made by Gustavus at Westeras. New Taxes. Prevalence and Debts to Lubeck.
Severity of Distress Anabaptist Riots in Stockholm.

His Death. Account of him by his Nephew, Count Peter Brahe 144


A.D. 1560

— 1569.
146 147

The King's Rebuke






Bishops appointed.


Intrigues Plots for the


of Sture.

Punishment of the de113

linquent Bishops

Gustavus and Bishop Braske.
tion of Ecclesiastical Affairs

the Property of the Monasteries, and assumes the Direc114

The King invades

The False Sture

his Impostures. Rebellion in the Dales llo Diet of Westeras assembles its Composition. Speech of the High-Chancellor Anderson on the State of Affairs IIG Disputes between the King and the Nobles Ferment the Royal Demands the Common People among






Measures of the Diet respecting the Church TempoBishops' Castles sequestrated Assize of Tuna in Dalecarlia. Suppression of the Decrees of the Synod of Orebro nasteries.


Accession of Eric. His Accomplishments. Power of the royal Dukes John and Charles Characters of the Princes ; their Disagreements with the King The Coronation. Creation of Hereditary Counts and Barons. New Supreme Court established Administration of Justice. Eric's Overtures of Marriage His Profusion. Submission of Estland to Swedish Rule. John's Views on the Crown of Poland. Hostilities with the Poles. John imprisoned The King's Intentions towards him. Tyrannical measures of Police. George Person Atrocities of the Royal Court. War with Denmark Swedish Invasion of Norway. Eric's Account of the Military Occurrences Severity of the Conscription. The King's Persecution of the House of Sture Cruel Treatment of Nicholas Sture. Supposed Conspiracy in


149 150




Revolution in West-Gothland and Smaland, instigated Meeting on by the High-Steward Thure Jenson.
Larfs Heath 120 Plot of seven West-Gothic Barons their Chastisement. Steps for the Payment of the Debt to Lubeck. Bell

154 Family Investigation of the Charge. Arraignment of Six Lords at Stockliolm. Adjournment of the Trial to Upsala. Murder of Nicholas Sture there by the King and his

Interest of that



Attendants 155 156 Frenzy of Eric Discussion of its Nature His Insane Deportment to Duke John his Marriage. Incursion of the Danes into East-Gothland 157
; ;


of Cliristian


He Lands


Norway, and

Frivolities of Eric.


against his Brothers' Lives;

acknowledged King.

Attempt on Sweden


Dukes take up Arms


Pretensions of the new Lieutenants to Independence of the Duke. Re-erection of the University of Upsala. Peace with Russia. Disturbances raised by Fleming, the Governor of Finland 190 Convention of the Estates by Duke Charles at Siider191 kceping. Measures against the Catholics Kirk-inquest by the Archbishop. Distress and Discontent. Letter of the Dalesmen in support of Duke Charles. Civil War in Finland 19.3 The Duke renounces the Government, and convokes the Diet of Arboga 193

Eric brought to Trial before the Estates, and Deposed.
159 His Imprisonment and Sufferings Plots for his Release. Resolution of the Council of
State to despatch

Servants of


He is poisoned by the Widow and Children

Duke John.


Fortunes of his son Gustavus in Poland and Russia


John acknowledged King.

A. D. 1569

— 1592.

Position of



Charter of Privileges to the Nobility 163 Congress of Stettin, and Peace with Denmark. War 164 with Russia Successes in Livonia and on the Finnish Border. The 1G5 Crown-Prince Sigismund elected King of Poland Arrival of Jesuits Design of John to restore Popery.

of Sigismund's purpose to return. Decrees of the Estates in favour of the Duke. Arof Sigismund. Negotiations and Hostilities. 194 Fights of Stegeborg and Stangbridge Treaty of Linkoeping. Flight of Sigismund. Charles declared by the Estates Hereditary Prince Regnant.... 195





State of the Church, and the Popular Belief. visions of the Kirk's Ordinance

A. D. 1599

— 1611.






168 Machinations of the Jesuits. King John's Liturgy His Embassy to Rome, and Proposals to the Pope. 169 Abandonment of Papistical Tendencies Exasperation of the Differences between the King and 170 Division of the Royal Patrimony Dispute between them as to the Government of Livonia. Intentions of Gustavus I. respecting the Government 171 Crown-rights over the Nobility. The Equestrian Service. Views of the Swedish Nobles in this Age illus172 trated from the Treatise of Count Brahe

Upper Sweden
Severities against the King's Adherents. Execution of John Sparre, brother of the Chancellor, and others.


Diet of Linkoeping.

Arraignment of the Royalist



Condemnation of the Accused, and Execution of their Chiefs. Banishment of other Nobles of the King's
Offer of the


Crown by the Estates


LinkcEping to the

Disputes as to the Civil and Ecclesiastical Government
of the



King John. His Second Marriage. Affairs of Poland 174 Statutes of Calmar, for the future Union and Government of Sweden and Poland 175 r" Family of Vasa. The King's Suspicions of Treason in

Reflections on the Character and Policy of

the" Council Regulations of the Mines.


Improvements of Duke

177 of the Court. John son Sigismund 178 The King's Departure, and Stay in Reval. Remonstrances of the Council and the Army 179 The King's Return; his Disgust with the Council 180 The Estates convoked. Arraignment of Six Lords of the Council for their Conduct at Reval, and Design to annul the Hereditary Settlement id. Despotic Conduct of the King; his Harshness towards the Accused. The Russian War. Horn's Heroism,

Charles in Vermeland

Mismanagement and Profusion
determines to
visit his


Unjust Condemnation, and Pardon and Death of John




A. D. 1592


— 1598.

Duke. Military Operations in Livonia. Negotiations with the Poles. Visit of Charles to Finland 199 Condition of the Peasantry of that Province. Reflections on the Career and Position of Charles. His Generous Conduct to his nephew, Prince John 200 His View of Foreign Affairs. Diet at Stockholm. Famine and Plague. Refusal of the Crown by New Council appointed 201 Charles. His Religious Opinions, and Controversy with the Arch202 bishop.,... Projects of Religious Union. Rebukes to the Clergy. Correspondence of Charles with the University of 203 Upsala Acceptance of the Crown by Charles in 1604. HerediSettlement of Norrkoeping. Measures for the tary 204 Organization of the Military Force The King's Relations with the Nobility. Projects for the Amendment of the Law 205 Correction of Judicial Abuses. Regulation of the Pro206 vincial Governments and Magistracy Commercial Measures. Import and Export Duties. Mines and Manufactories. Survey of the Country.... 207 War in Livonia. Revolutions of Russia. Disputes with Denmark. Invasion by Christian IV 208 The King's Negotiations with Foreign States. His 209 Death. Spirit of his Life and Reign

183 184

Education of Sigismund by bis Father in the Catholic Faith. Proceedings of Duke Charles in his absence. Pardon of the Accused Lords. The Duke's Covenant with the Council Synod of Upsala. Abrogation of John's Liturgy The Calvinists declared Heretics. Fears as to the admission of the King. Mission of Thure Bielke to obtain Guarantees from Sigismund The King's arrival. Disorders at Stockholm. Diet of His acceptance of the proposed Conditions.. Upsala. The Coronation. Opinion of Gustavus Adolphus as to Renewal of the Sigismund's Conduct and Policy. Abuses of the former Union. Postulates of the Nobles Sigismund's Charter of Privileges to their Order. Arrangements for his Departure to Poland Quarrels of the Poles and Swedes. His Embarkation.
Position of the Council of its Members



A. D. 1611—1632.

185 186

Sketch of the Early Life and Education of the King by 210 Chancellor Oxenstierna 211 His First Campaign against the Danes His acknowledgment by the Estates, and Accession to the Government. View of the effects of the Heredi212 tary Settlement The Royal Warranty Restrictions stipulated on the Power of the Crown. Legal Rights and Obligations

187 188

213 of the Nobility Policy of former Kings with regard to the Feudal Prestations Efforts of Charles IX. and Gustavus Adol;

vast Infeudations to several



214 Order a Military Character 215 Prevalence of the Military Spirit In the Government and Democratic Parties Oxenstierna and 216 Skytte


to give the


Backwardness of the Nobility

Occupation of Pillau and other places.
Occurrences in
248 249 250

performing Military





Charter of Privileges.

House of Barons erected;

Consequences of its Institution 218 Objects and Organization; Representation of the


in the Diets in


Order of Proceeding
vincial Diets

General Diets


instances of Pro-



uncertainty of the Irregularity of the Amounts


of Imposition,


Second Campaign in Prussia. Actions before Dantzic. The Poles supported by the Emperor. Armistice and Negotiations for Peace Third and Fourth Prussian Campaigns. Junction of the Imperialists with the Poles Battle of Stum. Mediation of France and England. Six Years' Truce


Frequency of Diets in

Commissions of Estates. 222 Supplies granted to the Crown Equality of Assessment endeavoured by the King; Declarations of the Estates against Privileged Immunities. Collection of the Taxes 223


A. D.




Disturbances occasioned thereby. The Conscription Method of enforcing it by Commissioners.. 224 Conduct of the Levies throughout this Reign. Allo;

Overtures of the Protestants of Germany to Gustavus Adolphus. Views of the King as to Swedish Intervention in the Conflict between the Catholics and
State of


cation of the Soldiery for their Maintenance 225 Improvement and Extension of the System by Gustavus

Germany; Political Changes 254 Power and Designs of Wallenstein. Importance of the
Baltic Harbours Danger of Stralsund; the King determines


Resources of the Country; Extraordinary

to rescue


Loans, Sales, and Monopolies. Commercial Associations 227 Influence of the Government on the National Character. Contemporary Account of the People by a Belgian

Its Siege

by the Imperialists; Conclusion of an
256 257 258

to support the King in his MeaDiscussion of a Plan of Operation for the War The King's Argument for an Offensive War. Interruption of Good Understanding with Denmark Apprehensions of Hostility from that Quarter; Precautions against it Diet of 1629. Deliberations in the Council. Negotiations for Peace at Dantzic. Intrigues of Richelieu.

The Estates engage

Strength of the Army. Measures for the Improvement of the Mines, Forges, and Manufactories New Towns Founded. Rise of Gottenburg. Regulation of Foreign Commerce and Inland Traffic New Administrative;Offices. Supreme Court erected.... Its Functions and Influence. Royal Interference with the Course of Justice. Rarity of Litigation Condition of the People during a period of War. State








of the




Number and Composition
The King


of the Church Proposition for a General Consistory.. 233 State of the University of Upsala. The King's Solicitude for its Prosperity and the Promotion of 234 Learning

His Munificent Grants

to the University


Schools.... 235

takes leave of the Estates, and embarks for Germany, May 30, 1630. Voyage to Pomerania. 262 Landing on the Isle of Usedom Occupation of Stettin. Cruelties and Oppression of the

Position of Affairs at this Juncture.




Theory of the WarMeasures of Gustavus II 236 Campaign of 1612 against the Danes. Desperate Engagement in Smaland. Elfsborg taken by the Danes. 237 Danish Invasion of Gothland under Christian IV. and Rantzou defeated. Attempt on Stockholm. Peace

Military Position of Old Sweden.

263 German Princes his Embarrassments from deficient Supplies 264 Plans for the Ensuing Year. Winter of 1630. Continuance of Operations 2G5 Treaty with France. Reduction of Pomerania. Storm266 ing of Frankfort-on-the-Oder

Strict Discipline of the


The King

joined by several


Efforts to relieve Magdeburg frustrated. Its Capture. Barbarities of the Imperialist Forces 267 Pusillanimous Conduct of the Protestant Electors of

Conditions signed; Alliance with the Netherlands.




Saxony and Brandenburg. Exigencies of the Army. Entrenched Camp at Werben 268 Repulse of Tilly's Assault. Ravages of the Plague. The Saxon Troops join the Swedes 269
Battle of Leipsic. Complete Defeat of the Imperialist 270 Army under Tilly Defence of the Policy of the Operations subsequent to the Victory. Question as to their direction against
Austria, or to

Embassy from Novogorod
for their

to solicit

a Swedish Prince

239 Campaign of 1615. Peace of Stolbova; The King's of the Terms 240 opinion Internal State of Russia, described by Memoirs from
Polish War. Connexions and Intrigues of Sigisraund, King of Poland, against Gus-


Upper Germany


Swedish Agents.

tavus Adolphus 241 His Preparations for active Hostility. Humanity of Gustavus towards the Inhabitants of Livonia and
Articles of

Esthonia, the seat of War War issued for the Swedish Martial


Plan for a Defensive War; its Abandonment. Rapid Successes on the Mayne 272 Progress to the Rhine. Tilly declines Battle. Collision with the Spaniards at Oppenheim 273 Entry into Mentz. Compacts with the Protestant States of Peace of the Empire. 274 Proposals




Muster of the Military Discipline and Punishments. Army before Gustavus and his Family on the Meadow of Orsta. Embarkation of the King, and Sailing
of the Fleet for Livonia

Backwardness of Saxony and Brandenburg. War in Bavaria. Passage of the Lech 275 Occupation of Augsburg and Munich. The entrenched at Nuremberg Wallenstein against Gustavus 276 Camps


The former threatens Saxony. break-up from Nuremberg
Positions of the hostile Armies.
his Irruption into

State of Aflairs at the


Siege of Riga Surrender of the Town. Death of the 245 King's brother, Duke Charles Philip Campaign of 1622. Three Years' Truce. Campaign of 1625; Reduction of Livonia and Courland 246 Winter's Campaign Battle of Wallhof. War removed into Prussiain 1626 247

Plans of Wallenstein


Saxony Measures for its Defeat ... 278 The King overtakes Wallenstein, and is deserted by the Elector of Saxony and the Duke of Brunswick 279 The hostile armies in presence of each other on the field of Lutzen. Their Stations, and probable Strength 230



Order of Battle and Preparations. The King's address to liis Troops 281 Desperate Cliarge of the Infantry temporary Repulse.

off. Rupture with Denmark. Resolution for War 314 Torstenson's Instructions for Operations against Denmark. He evades the Imperialists 315 Account of Denmark In this Age by a Swedish Minister.

Campaign of 1643 broken

The King's Fall 282 The Duke of Weimar takes the Command. Arrival of with Reinforcements to the Imperialists 283 Pappenheim Final Attack and Triumph of the Swedes. Recovery of the King's Body 284 Reception of the News in Sweden. The Duke of Lauen285 burg suspected as the author of the King's Death Inquiry into the Probability of the Charge its Groundlessness evinced 286 Reflections on the Life, Character, and Intentions of

Its Military System Public Revenue. State of Norway. other Provinces


Description of the


Gustavus Adolphus


The Nobility, Clergy, and Burgesses. Reduction of Jutland. Design on Zealand 318 Maritime Operations and Engagements. Defeat of the Imperialists under Gallas 319 Naval Victory. Peace of Brbmsebro. Cessions by Denmark. Grants to Oxenstierna 320





Christina's minority, the guardians. A. D. 1633—1645.
Correspondence of the Chancellor with the Council of State upon the King's Death 288 Views of Gustavus Adolphus as to the Organization of the Ministry. Proposed Alliance and Match with
289 Brandenburg Oxenstierna's Draught of a Constitution. Diet of 1633. of Christina 290 Acknowledgment Regency of Guardians appointed their Oath. Preten291 sions of the Polish branch of the Vasas revived The Chancellor's Form of Government adopted by the The five Administrative Colleges. Prefects Diet. 292 and Judges Obligations of Official Persons to render an Account in of Inquest 293 yearly Courts Character of Oxenstierna. His Memorial to the Council.

government and abdication.
A. D. 1644—1654.

Assumption of the Government by the young Queen. Diet of 1644. Report made by the Guardians to the
32 1

Approved by the Queen.
to the Constitution

Sentiments of the Estates as

Youth and Education of the Queen her Learning and 323 Accomplishments Her Character and Manners described by Chanut, the French Ambassador 324 Concluding Period of the AVar. Invasion of Bohemia


294 Financial Measures recommended by him His Suggestions for the Improvement of the Towns, 295 and the Abolition of Burdens on Trade His Views upon the Conduct of the War. Negotiation 296 with the Saxon Court at Dresden

326 Instructions of the Chancellor to the Swedish Commissioners at the Congress 327 Desolate Condition of Germany. Wrangel appointed

Great Victory of Jankowitz of Co-operation obliges him to retreat. his Successes. Congress of Oanaburg

by Torstenson.

Effect of

Commander-in-Chief 328 Campaign of 1646. Junction with the French under
Turenne. Truce concluded with Bavaria 329 Instructions of the Ministry to Wrangel. Campaign of 1647. Last year of the War 330 Devastation of Bavaria by the Allies. Peace of WestAcquisitions of Sweden effects of the Peace. Consequences of the Alienation of Crown Estates Liberties of the Yeomanry endangered by the increased Power of the Nobility. Evil enhanced by the excess of the Royal Bounty Count de la Gardie, the new Favourite. The Queen's Displeasure with the Oxenstiernas

The Chancellor appointed

to the

Supreme Directory


297 Protestant League of Heilbronn the War. Project for investing the Chancellor with the Electorate 298 of Mentz, and marrying his son to the Queen Mutiny among the Officers of the Army of the Danube.
299 Dissensions of the Swedish and German Generals Operations on the Weser and in Suabia. Ratisbon taken 300 by the Imperialists Duke Bernard of Weimar and Horn defeated at NordBad Faith of Wallenstein. His Assassinalingen.




333 334


Inquiry into the extent of his Guilt. Dissensions of 302 the Protestant States of Germany Peace of Prague. Change in the Prospects of the War. Negotiations with Denmark and Poland. The Swed303 ish Ministry inclined to Peace Rising Influence of France. Policy of Richelieu. Visit 304 of Oxenstierna to him to settle terms of Alliance Fruitless Efforts of Oxenstierna for Peace. John Baner, the new Commander-in-Chief 305

Causes of the Decline of his Influence 335 towards the Nobility among the other Estates. Jealousy EflSsrts of the Clergy to procure an extension of their

Temporary Retirement of the Chancellor.


state of Public Feeling. Controversy

on Popular

Rights Claims to



by the Nobility refused.

Saxons take part actively against Sweden. Operations on the Oder 306 Invasions of Bohemia and Bavaria. Baner's Retreat from Ratisbon, and Death 307 Ratification of the Alliance with France. Oxenstierna's Home Administration 808 New Levy. Inquiry into Abuses. New Division and Allocation of the Army 309 Reforms in various Departments of the Public Service. Torstenson General-in-Chief 310 Military Discontents after Baner's Death. Dangerous Jealousies among the Generals 311 Invasion of the Emperor's hereditary Dominions. AdTlie

Solemn Protest of the Three Unnoble Estates calling for the Resumption of Crown Lands 338 Imminent Danger of Civil War. Suit of Prince Charles Gustavus for the Queen's hand 339 Its Rejection. She proposes to the Council that the


Prince be declared her Successor of her purpose to abdicate.

Its Causes,

and Personal.

Bent of Thought and Specu-

vance to Vienna, and successful Retreat 312 Reinforcements arrive from Sweden. Second Battle of

lation in this Age 341 Influence of Foreign Opinions and Literature. Intrigues to precipitate the Queen's Abdication 342 Their Detection and Punishment. Dissipation and Profuseness of the Court 343 New Favourites. Popular Disaffection. Appanage settled on the Queen. The Abdication 344 Departure of the Queen from Sweden. Her subsequent


345 346


Supplementary Notes.

comparable to a continent. for had sped away. quae sunt duo latissima aquilonis regna. of worships people. a.nd if attempts have been made in more recent times to supply this deficiency by art. little known countries. ceived. perhaps. with the old Empire or the Popedom.) Alteram in terrarum orbem. yet not wholly unsettled. Bipont. in times he more freqviently imparted than reforegone. second century. Nat. have pointed out the relation of the northern history generally to that of the kindred races. Norway. Tliey offer the completest remaining example of a social state. they became domesticated there. 27. Old Rome. Thus the history of the North resembles its physical nature. and had himself visited the shores of the North Sea. were soon lost in oblivion. beyond Germany was Scandinavia. until a late period. in whose rocks and mountains the primitive formations lie open to the daj'. then. or were thought to be fabulous . whose destmies we have taken upon iis in part to the youngest. and if the Greek had learned some truth from them. it did not long dwell in the memory of the Romans. vN'hich even by the first Christian teachers were likened to a new world ^. and comparatively the most original. but in a great measure even of those Germanic peoples. (Compare also ii. ance in history. INTRODUCTION. who preserved their own. with more that are unknown. the noblest covered. about 300 years before the Christian era. The Scandinavian North. Report spoke of an island of prodigious magnitude. ed. and the history of her middle age is generally more copious than that of her sister lands. et nostro orbi fere incogTiita. Hist. the terrible foe of Christendom. The reoUections. yet he relates. find a place in history. as well as the peaceful intercourse gi-adually following upon the conversion of the north. B . better known than ever he was by herself . almost entirely unknown to the cultivated nations of antiquity.' The geographer Ptolemy. This true. not far from the Scythian shore. of Nei'igon. without conjecturing that it might be It is not till half a only a part of the former. 16. in the cr)mposition of Latin chronicles. are yet the most antique in character. this was applied by the clergy. Of alien influences he knows least. taking occasion also shortly to comment upon the sources whence it is to be illustrated.HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. reckoning from his appear. In those laboui's Denmark stood foremost. was numbered among the sons of the Romish church. was to him. All to us through without really aboriginal recollections . de Situ Danise. and We in the We us. in so far as our subject demands. and should have most to tell of its ways. and that. 13. and. was in all likelihood The youngest brother of this great stock. referring probably to the southern portion of thegreat peninsula. (ed.) as an especially large island. here as in other parts of Europe. Roman influences had already intervened between them and their earliest recollections. must remain unknown Intercourse with Pagan or with Christian Rome. Adam. and a thousand years of the Christian era relate Western Scandinavia. which Scandinavia has to add to those of the Germanic race. before he. not only of the nations whose language was Romanized. and extraneous impulses. but we miss the voice of the which Pytheas received information in Britain. on the amber coast . yet can we by no means affirm that they have succeeded. as a novelty. of yet unknown magnitude . is he. brought most of the nations dwelling in western or northern Europe on the stage of history . at length shed light upon these remote. strong in ships. Bremen. however. nor without tillage. existing previously to the reception of any influences from Rome. its own idol. and when at length. will add some remarks upon the mutual relations linking the elder history of the three northern kingdoms . did not. but the one who has sojourned longest in the house of his fathers. 108. descry a temple wherein learning we know of Rome Pagan Germany comes is . 60. as to come within the sphere of historical light. that ' immense islands . and in duration stretching onwards so far. while in southern lands these are covered by more recent deposits. till then. (Norige. Pliny was well acquainted with these accounts.) 2 Transeuntibus insulas Danorum alter mundus apeiitur Sveoniam vel Normanniam. c. These dark rumours. Thule. in right of culture. century after the birth of Christ that these names appear. After a connection with the church of Rome had led to acquaintance with their leai-ning and language. Saxo alone is worth many men. the He speaks inhabitants styled it another world * '. Missionary accounts of the progress of the gospel among races whose names had long been the terror of Christendom. in her decline. iv. knew of Goths and Danes inhabiting the southern division of Scandia. had been of late dis- of these. Trans. and shortly afterwards Tacitus tells us of ' the communities of the Suiones in the Ocean. although of later date. Scandinavia was first laid open to the rest of Europe by Christianity. as the most northerly region of the earth. its antiquity We 1 Pliny. Lindenbrog. These well known names resound to us in the voice of antiquity. iv. of is which little that was primordial remained. arms.

period there remaui no such complete accounts as those of the latter days of heathenism in Norway . the historiographer. Somewhat more than two hundi-ed and forty years MUller Sagabibliotek. The IceScaldic poetry. more especially the Norwegian. the younger Edda. what neither of them possesses. the shape in whieli tlie reminiscences and fables of the heathendom survived among the people in the tionable witness twelfth century. judge (lagman) seems him incredible. Thus the oral transmission of ancient recollections. and explanations of the types and metres of the heathen poetic language. is supposed to have been of its com- contains likewise several heroic ballads ^. though in a shape modified by Christianity. the earliest Scandinavian chroniclers In Iceland was longest attest this unanimously. discontented with their lot at home. were therein the more solicitously preserved. in which Denmark's middle age is most rich. or retreating from the oppression of the powerful. Saxo drew with greedy hands from the living well of popular tradition. earl (jarl) in Norway. the Noma Gests Saga. See the whole second part of Saemund's Edda. in the period from 874 to 934. and piler. we find. and no where. rude but grandiose simplicity. and are easily distinguishable by their character from the later and purely fictitious sagas. fame and rank in the history of the world its 3 moment indeed through . who was also. and of the northern kings. who died in the middle age in the north. Sweden. Of its heathen contact with the European world. and obtained. having its root mainly Hence remains of this saga the great migration. ascribed to Odin. the fragments of an epic in recollections of cycle. according to ancient custom. was in almost all cases filled by natives of Iceland. maintained their independence. had foimded a new republic. To these songs were attached narratives. writers. In its more recent annals it has cast both into the shade. owing to its own literary records than to those of the Icelanders. They are to be found in the elder. From him we learn the wealth of that store of national remembrances extant from ancient days. or Saemund's Edda. being inspired by Paganism. the genealogies of princes and chieftains. and the naiTations of well-informed The so-called younger or prosaic Edda men. if the maker did not remain at court sufficiently long for that purpose^. equally in popular assemblies and in courts. although this collection of mythes of gods. retaining their original Pagan form. The Edda Saemund are found among many nations. still maintained his place at the courts of the northern kings .Saxo Gramniaticus. his INTRODUCTION TO THE is Swedish history compared with Norwegian and Danish. and the old popular ballads. of Sigurd and Brynhilda. What Denmark is for the history of the Christian dom. Snegle Halls Thatter. He wrote the Chronicles of the Norwegian kings *. "i — year 1133. in rich store. Nothing which such materials could supply is left imtold nothing . and contempolast party conflicts of Icelandic free- succeeded accordingly. it assumed a character always more artificial. elapsed from tlie settlement of Iceland. are for the most part extant. Of ViilundandHelge. and as the more old are interwoven with lays of Scalds. betimes remarkable for its exclusive use of the mother tongue. was gradually formed by the labours of several writers. they are far superior to all the poetical efforts of the Icelandic court poets. When a song was recited. the Icelanders were regarded as being pre-eminently the depositaries of the old poesy of the north. and to whose domination the island In Scandinavia itself was eventually subjected. or. as he himself says (for he is rather collector and compiler than author). save in the These north. For times near . poetical. It was intended for the instruction of the young Scalds. which constituted. for otherwise the Icelanders are very exact in stating the names of all the Scalds since the colonization of the island. Norriges Konungasagor. practised that venerable Scaldic art. mythic and heroic songs of the northern heathendom are older than any of the Icelandic poetry. some one of the company learned it by heart. only for a great Gustavus Adol- ^ We find the same subjects more copiously and prosaically treated in the Folsunga Saga. although. as the It came latest in latter to the rest of Europe. He appears only perplexed how to arrange all this into a regular history wherein he of the kingdom from the earliest times to . whose origin was ascribed to Odin and the gods . and having the most ample knowledge of its antiquity . and nurtured by the care of art. and the so-called high song (Havam^l). and shows that the old poetry of the Icelanders was cultivated in the end as a learned art. in respect to its history. a univei'sal and highly valued source of enjoyment. own he an unexcep- in describing tliose more remote. its middle age receives less of the light of history than that of either Norway or Denmark. rary with the in Iceland. show us the form usually adopted for the transmission of these remembrances. The old mythic odes cited in the younger Edda among which we distinguish the song of the northern prophetess (Voluspa). stands in nearly the same relation to Scandinavia generally. people of saga-writers. The songs of the Scalds. Sturleson. he e-xhibits. we may well suppose. and in the same language which was then spoken in all the three kingdoms of the Its most important name is that of Snorro north. for the most part men of birth and consequence. the notation of the songs was at least not later. and this office. esNorway. who may with reason be denominated a Scandinavian colonists. also bears his name. in auin dacity of conception and peculiarity of character. For a considerable time after the introduction of Christianity. In compass of thought and depth of feeling. under a leai'ned and ornate garb. originally committed to memory only. upon For 400 years they this distant island. embodied in his work ancient legends of the sovereigns of the north. and continued in active intercourse with the pecially with mother country. so named from the priest Saemund the Wise. Folsungs and Niflungs. Thus were formed the elder Icelandic legendary histories (sagas) of the chief insular families. passed soon away into a regular literature. whence most of the settlers had come. however. They rested on the testimony of the Scalds. and from this cause anonymous . and there are examples of the usual honorary being refused. born in the year 1178. of which he was the partaker and the victim. after the Scaldic songs. when the faith which had given it vitality became itself extinct. ere the sagas began to be written . and tlie Vilkina Saga . landers. the Scald. less. Norway is for that of declining heathenism .

or the middle of the ninth century. the possession of unrestricted power. although to southern Europe they were in a manner unlaiown. graphy of the Greeks and Romans. VI. prepared a new scheme of culture. down to the preaching of Christianity in the north. till the times of the Sture. that the For this the Alps. b2 . partly of Celtic origin. that the appellation monarch the early Swedish rulers. unable to subdue their tribes. To consider the accounts transmitted to us of the ancient period of Sweden. Geo- Germania. had descended from those heights into Italy.Two inland seas of Europe. What he adds therewithal. VII. indomitable from the fii-m and martial structure of their institutions. and that the sea and large rivers are the mother's milk of primal cultiThe Mediterranean and the Baltic have vation. their vessels were especially serviceable for rivers and coast navigation . fell in at all points with numerous and brave nations. s later period were partially occupied lations immigrating from the north. so unlike all we know of the ancestors from other sources. here consecrated by coasts from the time of Pytheas. the infancy of the elder European nations. — — . immigrating fi'om the east. their irruptions. Around the Mediterranean flourished the civilization of the classical world. greeted the land with this name. phus. Still the oldest legends which tell of the north. will then. seems only to be explained by supposing that the governing persons — also exercised a higher power. And now the waves of the great migration. Its situation on a great inland sea. In the first part of this history following we propose I. T. most of whom subsequently disappeared. and its inhabitants describe the transition fluence on the old form of society. in the north. the Sture as administrators and popular leaders. till at length. of which the natural energy of the north laid the foundation. CHRONICLES OF THE MYTHOLOGY. Certainly the condition which Tacitus describes a hundred years after Christ. free to general use manners of our this. as they approached nearer to Lower Germany and the North Sea. In the next part we will proceed to the more recent history of Sweden. as may be conjectured. The Aste. jet long enough lor uudyuig remembrance. I. with the contests of the Swedes and Goths for dominion. which receives vast streams from the continent. by no means implied. we Suiones were ruled by a single person with unlimited power. to the middle of the fourteenth . and arms . beyond which its circle did not extend. c. to Greece. a part of the Scandinavian peninsula. whether from this or from other causes extrinsical. If the Thule mentioned by Pytheas were. 44. the age of the Folkungers. or led by the towards the spirit which urges nations evermore south. and the union of the northern crowns. as with the rest of the Germans. . With Sweden Snorro begins liis In old Suithiod chronicles of the ancient kings. to the middle of the thirteenth century . and its in- We CHAPTER OLDEST TIMES. SWEDES be contented with probabilities on a which certainty is unattainable. the home of men. the reigns of the foreign kings. to Christianity. wliich had its birth in If it like us to topic in I [ I [ 1 her own bosom by purchasing their services money or land. their fleets. until the Romans. admitted the danger 6 appear so to distant observers. supposes cultivation to have long subsisted. each after its own fashion. Rome. relate to Sweden. with their continuations. beginning with Gustavus Vasa. it had already inhabitants and agriculture several centuries before the birth of our Saviour. and to Lesser Asia. nursed. into I KING. Odin and the gods had ruled over Manhem. and the Christian with religion supplied the nutriment. of vision long formed a wall. Teutons and Goths 9 Envaldshofding. Bojorum. or the middle of the fifteenth . Asia. instead of the nomadic hordes who now and then animated the Baltic. then. again. To give a summary : view of the state of the country at the end of the heathen age. The name of Suiones in Tacitus already denotes a powerful people . and its southern coasts. they broke through the mountain bulwark. IV. The states of the Suiones were powerful by the number so he was informed of theii. LEGENDS OF NORTHERN MIGRATIONS. reports rather than reminiscences. or wandered beyond the mountains in wastes and interminable forests ^. that of the Goths soimded over all the earth. could here create no exception from the couclusion of universal experience. VARANGIANS AND NORTHMEN. TRADITIONS OF THE NORTH. and even that arms were not. AND GOTHS. that maritime countries receive inhabitants before the interior of a great continent.S.people. which at a hy the Germanic popu(Guttones) inhabited the Baltic Compare Mannert. Getarum. Savage races. riches they held in honour the sea encompassing them prevented sudden attacks by their foes'. II. upon rewhich was not unlimited. and carried devastation to Rome. On the islands of the perceive indisputably the earliest European dwelling-places Germanic race '. but might well wilds of the inner highlands. founded ligion. Then the name of Gei-mans was first heard. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. sole ruler. Here we are re' ^ ' given to minded. till the massacre of Stockholm in 1520 at which point we will. III. The Teutonic nations . Scandinavia is by no means to be placed among the latest settled countries of our quarter of the globe. and those historically the most important. pause to contemplate the condition of the land and people at the end of the catholic period. 7 Deserta Helvetiomm. which perhaps was not unknown to Pliny. rolling over the corruption of the old woi-ld. Here also these are of the great not without recollections of the east. It in general denoted him who held the supreme authority among a whole people. V.

Gotones regnantur. ii. or were derived by the saga from that central home of ancient Paganism. Nigellus. Such is the account given us by their own oldest historians. the descent of the kings was held ascribable to their people likewise. recurs in like manner perpetually for centuries onwards in history. and the so-called monarchy of Tacitus embraced. the numbers were by no means large. if not a great. cording to the same historian. ^ Dudo and Willelmus Gemeticensis. driven out by lot from an island of small extent'. immolation of kings to propitiate the gods (for this was the fate of two of the Yngling hue). p. ^ pp. 400. Common ]iarticipation hi the great . most nearly resembled the Swedes in respect to this disposition of supreme power '. to seek their fortune abroad. de baptismo Haraldi. paulo jam adductius quam casterae gentes. Every year the seakings went forth with the first open waters . and was traced up to gods adored by both. Gothic The tribes. Rer. Notion of their Scandian extraction : its explanation. as is said in the popular songs of Gothland upon the outset of the Lombards. The Swiss legends of migration contain the same statement. Certain it is that not until these had united with their kinsmen who dwelt on the southern shores of the Baltic. Script. strength. the question will still remain how the leaders of these warlike migratory swarms. By it the use of arms might be interdicted. and in gi-eat part actually lived at the cost of the rest of the world. which. 1. Steph. as he himself menIt is remarkable that. and appearing at the head of wandering tribes. followed upon a Thus even in this most famous emigration. according to the accounts we have. The notion of Scandinavia as a cradle and work. Paul Warnefrid. Or Scania. that the same Odin whom they revered in common with the Northmen. on whom the lot should fall. should have been hailed by the consent of whole nations as fathers of their race. The Lombards are first noted as a not very numerous band of Scandinavian youth. 67. was able to found new empires with inconsiderable means. and thence extended their dominion both further. bruited in so many quarters. But it is not the less certain that Scandinavia formerly contained. and that this warlike multitude. Nothing authorizes us to conclude that the northern countries have ever been more populous than they are now . that on account of the redundancy of population. as being the principal seat of a widely-spread worship. in the Norman expeditions of a later age. the are told of the Norman expeditions. Piratical expeditions formed the business of the summer. both in domestic and extraneous accounts. 217. 43. and migrations in quest of ' new dvvelling-places. Saxo. demands some explanation. Scandinavia would be termed in the elder legends of the migrations the parentland of so many peoples. * Jordanes de rebus Geticis. larger than the land was able to support. It gained strength from the predatory expeditions of the Northmen. Now if. and with low shores. 7. Germanorum Hrabanus Witichindus. civil conflicts. 171. The Goths and Lombards even declared that they had themselves come forth from this far extending region.The Suiones. nondum tanien supra libertatem. A tradition. rer. whose chief abode was deemed to be in the north. and by tliem its renown was diffused as the parent land of many nations. c. The Goths are said to have issued from Scandinavia in three ships only ". and the inheritance of This authority. de rebus gestis Saxonum. '' Norm. deemed themselves therefore necessitated to live. and the great spring sacrifice in ancient Sweden was From the same cause always offered for victory. according to the tradition. where the inhabitants of Haslidale still assert their Swedish descent. in Duchesne. at once attained widely greater consideration. did they grow up into that miglity people. vagina gentium. and fecundity so many witnesses speak. actions. who claiming to be descended from divine ancestors. ' 8 Jordanes. that no account of these migrations makes mention of any very large mass of folk. 62. Alaman. c. Scandinavia. even if impelled by the same headlong passion for adventures which. Of tiiese many are enumerated. in which those of the Lombards and Goths also agree. When after the emigration of the Gothic tribes. warliUe religion. the Goths. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and the other shows throughout his whole exposition that he based his nari-ative upon similar ballads '. the nursery of princely families. the belief of a divine origin. 2. i. wliich were liept imder the seal of peace. But if all this places the movements themselves in a new and truer light. ther case has ill-applied learning been able to hide the living fountain from whicli tlie author drew his narration. and afterwards probably with an elder branch of the same stock on the Miseotis. with the exception of one who inherited his estate". Every thing shows that the accounts of the northern extraction of so many populations are connected with the belief that their kingly houses were sprung from Odin. was also the father of their bad year . a regulation observed within the places of sacrifice. Script. of whose lofty stature. several states. Maurus in Goldast. unknown before. in Langebek. the same tradition is repeated derive their origin from the northern nations*. It is said also that the father usually drove out his sons who had grown up to years of manhood. and confirmatory of the foregoing. 3 Paullus Warnefridi de Gestis In neiLongobardorum. It is worthy of remark. 5 Otlicina gentium. Germania. Script. . in the olden time. of whom the one appeals to the historical ballads of his people^. 17.sacrifiees was a sign as well as a bond of peace among the different communities of ancient Suithiod. whence it is conjectured to have been one of the Danish isles*. derived from a priestly sanctity. yet a redundant population. the question would receive an answer consonant with the spirit of the ancient sagas. Through the migration of the Germans to the south. c. ed. ix. and is not yet extinct in the Alps. an old law or custom obtained in the north for those of the young. whether literally imderstood or not. Dan. was yet favourable to peace in tlie intestine relations of the people. had either themselves really come out of Scandinavia. The Northmen were at all times more formidable from boldness than numbers in their warlike enterprises. famine. shop of nations^. as having come out of Scandinavia Proper. who made themselves the terror of Rome. With the tradition of the northern kindred of the Saxons another was intertwined. proceeded those dreadful consequences. We Franks and Saxons became powerful in Northern Germany. rather the contrary might safely be laid down. of all the German tribes.

the Edda adds. wrought metals. features. whom afterwards the tears of gods and men. The blind demigod. it is a lore as venerable for age as rich in interest. Normans. Arises. Swedes. lations. prop. showed in all things their divine power. c. Paul Warnef. strife against that evil race. the same Woden. (Lit. but direful. 2 Germanise gentibus ut deus adoratur. Then after the earth arises. Back comes Balder. from whose intermixture this world arose. also over Fraukland. in order with them to advance to the observable more in an artificial poetic phraIn its essential seology than in the substance. slain in the abyss. celebrated in the same songs which perpetuated the memory of their Scandinavian extraction ^. at the ruin of our world. some equally to other nations. and all things. among many others. and the themes of which it chiefly treats. We Woden was have irrefragable testimony tliat adored as a god by all the German nations^. typified by the body of the giant Ymer. s 5 1 The Court of Gods. where. et ab universis sane. he is father of all. under many names and in various guises. Cold and heat. to his wife. c. and Suevers *. Ethelred. was the term applied by the Goths of the south to their kingly lineage.God-descended kings. stone. Franc. 8. The Gothic Midjungards Lit. which reappears similarly in other instances ^. the earth irradiated by the sun is his daughter and spouse. Their chief city is Asgard*. the .' According to the chronicles of the northern ' kings and the Edda. c. divided by a wall from Jotunhem. scald to Harald the Fair-haired. whom we call Oden. Anglo-Saxon authors. send their demons out of Nif'elhem and Muspelhem to a war in which the last gods). is the answer of exhorts him to acknowGreg. Columbani. as it has been transmitted to us. from whom the roj'al kingly families of well-nigh all the barbaric tribes ' derive their origin' the prince of the barbarian multitudes. In the Scalds he appears under the most diff'erent appelis • combat of Ragnarauk (the twilight of the Then at length are burst the bonds which chain the powers of natm-e. Lombards. Sweden) of the author. tired to heaven. was that of . the world of men. the peace made with the race of giants was broken. at the end of the earth. which however taken. vicBut tory. the shades of the dead. The word is the same in all its meanings with the northern Asar . adored by the Saxons. As. in his loftiest significancy. 1-3. Anst to Ast. And dwells with Hoder *. and so with other words. began the victorious. • Id.) Wodan est qui quem adjecta litera Gwodan dixerunt. During this struggle. whom the deluded northern heathens. from fire. in Ulphilas. 9. In the Grimnismal of the elder Edda. which in Ulfilas likewise signifies a beam. Odin hurled his spear amidst Then the people. and the first war was kindled. the same whose ballads form the basis of the Ynglingasaga. the earth born of night is his progenitress . Ger. to this day worship as God^. would give in the nominative singular Ans is ans. a new verdant with self-sown fields. fatlier of gods and men. some of whom wrote while the north was still Pagan. or a man endowed with god-like qualities. conflagration of the world. Nee de deorum genere esse probatur. column. are to devastate it with . was ever common to the Germanic race. in the old Northern speech God. 5 6 i. builders of the first temple and the first towns. could See a fuller view not free from Hel's subterrene dominion. sported and were merry until their bliss was disturbed by the arrival of certain giant maids from Jotunhem. ii. no confirmation of this legend re' mains. Bright in the sacred seat of high-throned gods. when with his brethren he has subdued and disiiosed Matter. When the gods reit was continued by the heroic who sprung from them. Although among the Franks. and wood. changed into As. ancient days. when the gods invented the arts most indispensable to man's life. denominate ' him the primogenial Woden. Midyard. or Manhem. of which some scenes are celebrated in . was the trunk of a tree. gods themselves are overthrown. Danes. There was a happy time. the dwarfs too have their abode. All evil vanishes away. a not unworthy exponent of the views embraced by a great and noble race of men in their first Its historical contemplations on the universe. possessed abundance of gold. as Gans to Gas. Odin calls home the fallen to himself in Valhalla. nearmost to the heaven habitants. according to a declaration ascribed to himself by an old bard'. nebel) and shade which the etymology is uncertain). Much of it belongs exclusively to the north. Odin 2. All these nations. it is nevertheless probable that the race of gods. a bright and beautiful kin. The Gothic anses. Chlodwig ledge the 3 when she first God of the Christians.' had set his sons to rule over Saxonland . or how ? ? 2 William of Malmesbury. line. of the northern mythology in the Svea Rikes Hafder (Inquiries into the Ancient History of (Nifelhem is the source of cold. families of earth Pagan odes yet preserved *. In conjunction with him they are also the first priests. the heaven or empyreal of blessed light. who embraced Christianity earlier. ipse apud Romanos Mercurius dicitur. slain Balder the Jordanes. Odin's gentlest and wisest son. Turon. Yet we would by no means maintain that the whole northern mythology. Good. and in the end it received from the later court-Scalds and the Icelanders a kind of over-elaboration. the formal variation being merely one of dialect. T. 1. who adore him. form his council of gods. The Irminsul (universalis colurana). father of time . strophe 49. c. Understand ye yet. Vita S. The twelve divine Asse. whose inworld. As in the Hostlanga of Thiodolf. demi-gods in Jordanes. in the realms of darkness and of cold. the home of a race whose lives are unvexed by toil . home or world of fogs Muspel or Muspelshem (of (tef 6\t). from light. compass and extent of diffusion are attested by its own oracles. The lastnamed tribe was a branch of the Goths. the Runes. lying in the centre of Midgard^. IDEA OF THE NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. the home of the giants.' mentioned among them. which is rendered by demi-gods. the battle-field. and this is besides expressly stated of the Vandals. In Odin's ti'iumph-hall. The Odin of the north is also explicitly represented as the god wandering far among the nations. Script. of. 29. the first lawgivers and judges upon earth. therefore. in Duchesne. means likewise a beam. especially the Anglo-Saxons. under the uttermost root of the world-tree. Annals and destiny of gods and men. and were connected by the same religion. subdued in the beginning of time. and the Gothic name. and derives from thence the famous lineage of the Folsungs. traced their royal families to the same gods. Extent of Odinisni. who withoirt fault of his own had 556. also hero.

on the other hand. stones. T. The chronicles of the kings ^ represent Odin and the Asse historically as founders of the northern monarchies they likewise claim to know whence these fathers of nations themselves derive their origin. and are the objects of vows. Northern paHeroic odes.Spirit of ganism. Franks. 518. In esoteric force. Sturleson. under which word Ihre mentions that . the night. quod sola reverentia vidcnt. in the north stalks forward undisguised. and neither fire nor iron could wound them . where lived Odin. was called in his By by their hostility the combination of these principles it was formed it will be destroyed. a great place of sacrifice. the form it first assumed. hut also applied ge- Felices errore suo. this was called the Berserkers' race 2. surrounded by twelve priests of sacrifice. Or Holnigard. to distinguish it from Godhem. or To die is beautifully called " to pass worship. revealing to us from the bygone times of the north the heroic deeds. Saxons. which the Greeks and Romans ascribed equally to " all the northern races. which contain the to the English reader by Mr. those fragments. near by ancient upon the Maelar lake. so deeply rooted in the minds of our forefathers. under a blooming exterior. it Thor at Veterum Borealium Mythologiae Lexicon. this nature-worship is peculiar in its kind. at Brejdablik. own may well be left to its own witness. a conception probably founded upon that doctrine. even in the worship of a transitory universe. the gods. 9 5 Gothiod T. away to another light. the names of many races occur. See the proofs of this in the London. . Lomfire. in which lay the city of Asgard. a victorious chief. Odin was fair to view. Without doubt the most recondite and essential featm'e of this creed was its defiance of annihilation. during the war of the English against this " The nation. But this receives manifold confirmation from the ancient odes. heroic songs of the old Edda.) 3 Deorumque nominibus appellant secreluin illud. and Sweden. 9 T. his actions and cliaracter. so in the chronicles he is the greatest and most revered of the oldest priestly rulers. See Finn Magnusen. Balder dwelt. beyond the Tanais. Here. agrees with that ascribed by Tacitus to the ancient Germans. than in the scalds of a later age of heathendom. That gloom and terror which lies at the core of every form of heathenism. as with them ^. Some of the hillprovoking the enemy by war dances. modern times is called by the where Sigtuna. as well as from the chai'acteristics and types of the Scaklic poesy. and birds. prayers. and the many-nourishing earth as the daughter of night. They came from the bounds of Asia. every sorrow of woman shall Burgundians. Burmese armj'. The sun. the deeds. by comparis(jn with the fates they celebrate. is distinctly set forth in these old herosongs. Laing's excellent version. and manners of the great migrations in the full energy of primeval paganism. ern Russia of scalds "). Danes. and the land was called Manhem.' and that. without armour of fence. and breaks out every where. Thus is explained the freedom asserted by the inhabitant of the north. recollections. now known 8 Svea Rikes Hafdar. Denmark. even when concealed. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. the crimes." as a Roman poet professed to think*. which denotes both the people of the gods and the Goths ^. sacred waters. — Gotar— Gotnar. so does that celebrate in all its manifold shapes but one master theme. The period to which they belong is discovered even by the multitude of national names which find a place in them. and the fall of famous chiefs. Heimdal at Himingbiorg. and that principle of tragic irony which pervades this whole mythical scheme. nerally to a temple or palace.')23. and preserved at all much more times by preference in the popular belief. which it expresses. That peculiar adoration of nature which was its basis. who were styled Diar (gods) and Drottnar (rulers). they received dwellingplaces which had then. and before the fight incited themselves to frenzy by opium. it is inferior to no theory of human origin on the beginning and end of things which found acceptation To some of these the in the world of antiquity. and The immigration were judges among the people. and of gods whose reign was not to be eternal. His people believed His warthat he determined victoi'y in combats. Huns. petrified as it were by time. be assuaged. the country of the gods. out of the land of Asahem. which Of Goths. and sacrificed after the Asse. the day. present approximates. nor can we fail to observe that the adoration of nature. by Major Snod- 8 7 Minor gods and goddesses. as with the Greeks." Their antiquity is also declared by the fashion in which they expound the northern mythology. penetrating with prophetic vision into the inner mystery of the perishableness of this Hence that notion of immortality sensible world. the gods. so that he gladdened part of the comitry about the river Duna day Cholmgorod by its inhabitants. the godlike powers of light." The transmigration of souls appears as an older doctrine that once obtained belief We find Odin reappearing in more '. built a temple to manner of the We His chiefs were named after the gods. into Saxonland. in conflict with the insurgent powers of universal nature. it is mentioned that a division of the The Konungasagor of Ynglingasaga. It is the voice of the northern sibyl. and refer here chiefly to the kingly dynasties. each a hieroglyph." who were thought to be secured against wounds by enchantment. was called King's Invulnerables. in depth and significancy. in its heroic poetry as well As this concludes with the ruin of as its divine. but on no one is originality of character more clearly stamped. "every man's heart shall be lightened . bards. can hardly doubt that this lore was derived from the east . Odin took up his abode. Finns. War. Those who are acquainted with the oriental mythology. 1S27. Germania. and like them were honoured . Upsala. Norsemen. the mythology is highest of the gods. happy in their error.appellations from the heavenly mansions of the deities '. Niord is in Noatun. c. riors went forth into the battle like men frenzied. in the prophecy of Vala. ' destiny these songs predict that they will endure in all lands. 2 In the Narrative of the Burmese grass. Tkans. took its course through Gardarike (as the West. for such systems have generally much that is common. From Odin and the AsEe all the knowledge and art of the northern But as Odin in regions was said to be derived. For just as the old mythic songs afford but one general appellation. than one age. . even towards his deities. Such is an outline of that old religion of the north. are invoked together with the Asse and Asyns^. their Odin. 1 Swedes. where is Frey the only historical name. to which we have chiefly listened througliout the foregoing exposition. of a gigantic poesy. so in the heroic songs. •< Thrudwang.

With that he devoted to himself all men falling in battle.. which became a poetical appellation for king in general. and means lord. by the The poem contains relations of intelligent men. Niord too died a natural death. before the happy time departed. poet. Again we perceive the same theme which the heroic lays of the north delight to commemorate. in after times. into a vat of mead. and sacrificed to him for peace and the blessings of the year. called by Saxo Fro. tlie oldest Swedish dyna. his sister. and often when war impended. formed a kind of poetic whole. the Ynglingasaga. and when he died. mider wliich he deposited all his property. corroborated for the most part by the citation of the scald's own words. War came . when in all kings 3. but can by no means venture to make a record in which truth and fiction are so closely intermingled. was the last of and superintended the sacrifices. to do this was called to give points. At a feast with king Erode. and on his deathbed he caused himself to be gashed with spearAfterwards. died a natural death in Suithiod. while Frey vemained in Suithiod. were Oriental Berserkers and (Of berserk there are various derivations the Valkyrias. as he states. Three sacrifices yearly he commanded them to one towards winter for a good and pi'ospcr. and augmented it. oneself to Odin. tribes living Fiolner. and yet the times of abundance did not cease. revealed himself. or peace of Frey. and serk. hearts when he sat among his friends . and was. the more property was heaped with them upon the funeral pile. . had closed his days in the lap of abundance. is the first Yngling. Frey his son obtained the supreme power after him. The Frode-fred. but he appeared terrible to his foes. Being female slaves in the house of the Danish king Erode. now called by the people kin-barrows (atte hogar). Among other names given to him is that of Yngve. and so ended the peace of Frey. Upsala-audr. whence we have taken the preceding sketch. These. This. and mainHe was born in the land of tained the sacrifices. the fall of a famous dynasty from inborn discords. As in all mythical systems. and chose this place to be his chief town. give in an appendix its catalogue of kings. the court-scald of king Harald the Fair-haired. as the temple tasaungr (mill-song). as the younger Edda adds. and two daughters of the giants are again the cause of its interruption. was called. the lofty halls. The Swedes burned his body and lamented over his grave.sty was staled the Ynglings. and happiness. was written in Iceland. and the knowledge of divination. 3 T. in Upsala. who survived him. shirt. Odin. practised and taught the art of song. Freya. After Odin. He was eloquent. For that reason they would not burn his body. the foundation of a chronology. is the Moeso-Gothic Fraiija. the Vaners on the Tanais. hei'o. then of the Swedish In Frey's time was peace. for which he was bound to defend the land from hostile asOdin sault. and the burden of their strain was of gold. supposed that he had gone to Asgard of ancient days. god.) 5 The song is quoted in the Skalda. therefore. According to an ode of Thiodolf. foredoomed by a curse denounced of old. bare. enjoined that the bodies of the dead should be consumed with fire . it is also clear from the sequel that the older sagas. who pretended to the power of making the English bullets harmless all three were slain. frequently transforming his outward In Sweden he established the same law shape.however. son of Yngve Frey. In his days most of the gods died. Suithiod the folk paid tribute to Odin. he fell. but called him the god of the world. so that all he said was believed to be true. They believed in him and sacrificed to him. so that the people believed him to be the dispenser of prosperity to men. to every man who had shown himself valiant. and audr. in which the ancestors of that monarch to the thirtieth degree are celebrated. they sung in the mill. ous year. and peace. This We We itself near tlie . the richer should In memory of disthey arrive in Valhalla. the regal stock is traced by the poet to the gods . Peace and prosperity nevertheless continued. (from uppsalir. both seemed to them a good and happy lot. Over all offer worshipped him on that account more than other Frey fell sick. the Anglo-Saxon Frea. and caused himself to be marked for Odin. is the golden a^e of Scandinavian mythes. and said that he would repair to the laud of the gods. and calling home others to himself . and before the journey to the north had been received with his children among the Asae. and Chinese frontier were led on by three young and beautiful females of high rank. When at length it became known to the Swedes that Frey was dead. Thence arose the Upsala estate (Upsala ode). a second at mid-wiuter for the harvest.s. on the establishment of the power of the gods a period of prosperity ensues. Niord assumed dominion. Frode in modern Swedish means fatness or fertility /rd is seed. king. first a possession of the temple. the mystery For of the Runes. ends under Fiolner. the first pui'ely mortal ruler. The Ynglings: the first Fiolner. • Frey.) (Frode is another form of the name. the -renevoi of the Greeks. But when the king urged them too harshly to labour. the old German Fro. have seen that in the chronicles as well as in the mythology. the rest. like his father. the deities. Suorro Sturleson placed it at the head of the old chronicles. the third towards summer for victory. ." as the old poet sings. But the Swedes and there entertain his friends. from which he borrowed his account. and the Asiatic Shaman or magician. dispensiug victory to some. and is called Grot. and hence. were to be erected . and all He first his discourse wore the garb of poetry. But Fiolner. property. most obvious is probably the true: bar. or mark oneself for him. as they deemed. the king fell . sepulchral mounds. rich in friends and He erected the great temple the gifts of the year.) means the domain of the temple. T. he is at once god. He which had been observed by the Asa. and would there live for ever. his human character is pourtrayed not dissimilarly to his mythological . Then his men erected a great barrow. they placed him secretly within it. and to sacrifice for a good harvest. During his sway there were happy times. and met his death the windless lake. tinguished men. all THE FIRST KINGS. lawgiver. and memorial stones (banta-stenar) besides. in his drunken" in ness. they believed that it would always continue so. and turned the millstones about so swiftly that they broke in pieces. they sang of war *. but they told the Swedes during three years that he was alive. and they boi-e the yearly tributes to the mound.The lives of Niord and Fiey. lands the years were plenteous. The Swedes looked upon Frey as the author of their felicity*. short accounts of the Swedish kings of this race.

where their attendants were likewise gathered together. to enter banquet upon his inheritance after his new hall. After Ingiald. This is said to have happened at Ranninge. They give us a historical instead of a mythical Odin. branches. to enlarge his whose power still dwells in the pojiular memory^. Uppsala forms let the fienitive plural of this word. Reg. on which our mediseval chronicles dwell. the Yngling dynasty ef Sweden is As it approaches this event. took to themselves the names of the old 9 who were ah'eady acknowledged. Script. woe was Wisbur. uprooting the woods and cultivating the He caused roads to be laid down Open glades too were then found There were formed large shires (harads). After his time. where an extra- ordinarily large ring-wall of heaped up stones is still caJled Brage was Kjinningeborg. large and splendid. so far as their line can be reckoned in unbroken succession. until his own A days Sweden was still a great forest land. . portion of the narrative we will give in its own words. and now he had cora- fore a great He caused therebe set out in Upsaia when sovereign. therefore. and for the renowned Gothic emian account of the establishment of the gration. This was the burning at Upsala. and the laud was settled far round about. which was consumed with themselves and all who were therein^. With several other kings Ingiald dealt no better. ' Catal. rerum Suecic. framed in the fourteenth century. the overthrown. on the contrary. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. but was afterwards himself murdered by Asa. where he rooted out and burned down the forests. He was called Braut Anund. continues the Ynglingasaga. realm and kingship were ever the more dismembered as families spread into new . pass that at the drinking of the Brage-beaker. sevi. king of Scania. and other men of great Six kings came and took their place to his feast. it will be observed. at a funeral feast held for king or earl. now a hamon the isle of Fogd in the Maelar lake. of evil renown. Feast of Ingiald. When once in harvest-time he was travelling between his houses with his court. and thence received the name of Trafalja (the His posterity went over into Norwood-cutter). At her instigation Gudrod murdered her brother Halfdan. for he set governors of his own over their dominions. submitted to the conditions proposed to tlieni by the sibyl Huld. the passage of which required many d. Thereafter Ingiald. or therewithal to die. were lords paramount in Sweden since Odin iniled but there were at the same time over the land many shire kings. He that bore sway in Upsala was monarch (envaldshofding) over the whole dominion of the Swedes until Ague died then first was the realm divided among the brothers. the god of eloquence and poetry. seven kings. and during his time were good harvests and peace. and earls. Odin a real personage. Braut Anund was of all the kings happiest in friends. and buried him with his train. the rather that a domestic catalogue of our kings. med. who fled for safety to her father. grounding their system of ancient Swedish history chiefly upon the Ynglingasaga.8 King Anund clears the woods. and then set fire to the king's palace. over the wilds. He built a When in the seventeentli century the Icelandic sources of information upon northern antiquity became better known. and drink out the goblet. until they drunk the toast which was called the Brage-beaker *. His son Olave found a refuge in the wastes of Vermeland. saga throws some light upon the condition of the land and its inhabitants. and marched into Sweden against Ingiald. in the forests. His daughter Asa shared her father's surname and qualities. although those. and vowed realm one-half towards all the four winds of heaven. in So it came to pletely entered upon his heritage. a rock falling overwhelmed him in a mountain gien. Uppsalr here the name also stated. was father. in two respects modify the point of view from which we set out. our historiographers set aside at once the expeditions and achievements of the Goths. The vow was fulfilled when at even-tide he caused the six kings to be seized and burned. King Anund bestowed much labour and cost in cleared spots. because was called Illrada (the ill-ruler). . destiny of sealed when the sons of king order to wreak revenge on their father. who knew himself to be detested. T. and named it the hall of the Then sent Ingiald over all Suithiod. so that his state lie when Ingiald became to was sorely diminished. king Anund caused houses to be built. with wildernesses. make a vow. The chronicles. that he who gave the banquet and was to take the inheritance. for the whole people of Svea rose against king Ingiald's kith and kin. Hence it of the palace. His tragical end. He had given her in marriage to Gudrod. 1. should sit on the footstool before the high seat. and too weak to offer effectual resistance. after he had made trial of their wisdom.iys' journey. for the numbers of the people overflowed. son of Anund. t. In those tives. the he made ways to be levelled (bryta) throughout Suithiod. ii. and made progresses of pleasure throughout the land. Then he was led to the high seat which his fathers had filled. agreed with the testimony of that poem i. or to the health of any person held in peculiar reverence. king Ingiald rose up. way. to bid kings. took the great deer-horn. high seats in the new hall. a descendant Harald of the Swedish Yuglings. This was a solemn cup drunk upon making a vow to perform any feat of gallantry. Ingiald and Asa made all their people drimk with liquor. Then it was decreed that the line of the Yngliugs should in days to come be extirpated by their own swords. At the approach of Ivar's army. whereupon he drank off" the horn. and it was said that he had been made cruel by eating a wolf's heart in his childhood. Thereupon Ivar Widfamne assembled a host. Twelve kings in all. appear in the saga itself as priests and representatives of deities is * 7 She is called is Dame Hylle. Swedish monarchy by an immigrating race. that the Asae whom king Gylfe received into Sweden. which was first united into one kingdom by the Fair-haired (harfager). Upsala power went from the family of the Ynglings. he is said treacheFor this reason he rously to have put to death. 6 Bra^e-bagar or Brage-full. Thereafter the throne is dyed by the blood of brothers and sons. In every shire of Suithiod. queen of the witches of Northland. as for the king's palace '. Odin and the Asse they pronounced to be the human archetypes of the gods of the north . shed by their nearmost relaby the crime of Ingiald Illrada against kindred. Thereupon must he stand up to the Brage cup. It was then the custom. assumed The Upsala kings sovereignty over the Swedes.

where their remains. Arabian geographers of the tenth century terally the inhabitants of 2 himself. ORIGIN OF THE SWEDES. a preference which they owed to Odin. of Now whom a great branch afterwards moved in a south- easterly direction towards the Black Sea. 9 ' demi-gods^. 14. But this opinion places its supporters at variance with the mythology itself. Tacitus had already heard that in Northern Germany a wandering hero was worshipped from the most ancient times. of a false Odin. who was sent in 1246 by Pope Innocent IV. and is connected by other testimony than that of the Ynglingasaga with the belief of his oriental extraction. that Odin had temples in Sweden indeed. Rer. it is at least not improbable that an inter- new Edda gives suflRcieut ground for suspicion by tracing the ancestors of Odin through the Trojan heroes up to Noah. 1735. name of Asciburg from Ask in (ash). the arrival of the Goths in Scandinavia. who crossed over into Britain during the latter half of the fifth century. If we rather derive the ' Histoire des Mongoles. under the name of Alans or Asse^. i. depuis Tchinguiz-Kan jusqu'a Paris. c. some. the name As^ is historical in the east. nor in Iceland. by which the tradition of eastern descent may have been originated or revived in Scandinavia. To this conclusion the Anglo-Saxon genealogies cannot be adduced as repugnant. since in his account the Suiones stand for the whole commonwealth. as still It is added. a people whom he styles Aspurgians. marched at the end of the fifth century from the Danube to Scandinavia. like the rest of the Germans. a village not far from Xanten on the left bank. and Jordanes. where this people is named Alans or Asee (Alains ou Asses). Duchesne. Voyages en Asie. 693. and refused to see in the immigration any thing but a learned fable. attested by history. according to usage. who formed a junction with them on the Black Sea. which was chiefly settled by Norwegians. Compare Langebek. If we allow a reasonable time for the establishment of this superiority. who was of Alanic extraction. by confounding the Goths with is 3 > Epilogue to the Edda. . also a Gothic people. 1545 by the Venetian Josaphat Barbaro. and there formed a union with their kinsmen of the ancient stock . had course was carried on conversely between these and the Northerns. The importance of Odin as a fabulous divinity has been recognized. perhaps. band of Herulers. head. 696. yet in the olden time and first united under a common spiritual separate. ledged in the days of Tacitus. that the preface to the come in as if conquerors '. pro deo venerati sunt. Saxo. it is the second chapter of his summary of the Chronicle of Gregory of Tours. The Anglo-Saxons point to a Troy. who arrogated to himself the consideration and power of the true ^. sacred tree of Odin. in Saxo With the Franks a this is called Byzantium. i. The Ass. interpretatione Romana. while it has been considered that to enter upon the question of his historical personality would not repay inquiry. p. before his arrival in Germany. Asburg or Asgard. By D'Ohsson. Norm". Dudo. Asse. 8. not only for their own but the northern legends of descent was so usual. times in the tenth. quem pagani jamdudum Script. on whom. Asciburg on the Rhine was said to have been founded by this Ulysses. The chief seat of their worship was placed among the Swedes. and the more. this was the to the Critical History of 1 Denmark. Again. " Ulysses. also. 63. that an old chronicler relates how the Northmen who ravaged France themselves declared that their people were of Ti'ojan extraction *. Goths were in fact anciently seated (as may be proved) upon both sides of the Baltic. and now blended. sometimes in the fourth. or thirteenth generation from the same Odin ^. speak of this people as dwelling northwards of the Caucasus. and the division which remained in the south afterwards sent thither in order to procure a prince of The fact is related by a contheir royal blood. the Swedish Odin may be fairly removed to a period beyond the Christian era. 1824. 1." as Tacitus expresses himself in another place in respect to the appellations of the German gods. referrible to one still older. twelfth. sojourned in Greece (a name commonly given by the Northerns to several eastern countries). Paul Warnefrid relates that the same Odin. the site of a Troja Francorum. Probably the arrival of the Swedes in Scandinavia occasioned the emigration of the Goths. Dan. a view that wants not confirmation from other quarters. Strabo places an Asia. they were worshippers of Thor . Vinezia. Age of Odin. Hague. narrower sense. Procopius in the sixth century calls these Alans a Gothic nation. Among his ancestors they enumerate a god bearing the Gothic name ^ who . paid divine honours. At all events. and also boasted of a royal line whose ancestors were gods. that they styled themselves settled. Hist.Traditions as to Odiii. temporai'y witness It is not. They extended formerly to the Tanais. but neither in Norway. See also the travels of the Franciscan Jean du Plan Carpin. More recent inquirers have denied all historical weight to the beginning of the Ynglingasaga. de Bello Goth. to the khan of the Mongols. 7 . styles himself a Goth. all this seems to prove that the Odin of history had not succeeded universally and com])letely in transferring to himself the veneration which in the older religion was paid to the father of the gods. seeing that they are so little in imison as to derive their princes. and there were traditions of more than one Odin. from 1436. In Pto- lemy. *. i. Their Asiatic extraction. who resided sixteen years. but that of the Swedes. liin the however. this name appears upon the Lower Rhine. Script. The Alans were a people nearly akin to the Goths. appearing first on the Black Sea. in these regions. That pagans were even found who had little revei-ence for Odin. who had although at the sacrificial feasts cups were quaffed in honour of him before any of the other gods . Viaggi fatti da Vinetia alia Tana. nay. are mentioned by travellers in the fifteenth century. the latter does not ascend to the antiquity to which Jordanes. are not wanting. and it is believed to be still extant in Asburg. 9 Compare the Anglo-Saxon genealogies in Suhm's Tables 5 Timour-Lane. although. and named after him. on the eastern side of the Mseotis. instead of the Oriental Asgard . he bestows a Roman name *. to whom the Lombards. Geat. Later examples of such communiA cation. ii. 58. blended with those of the Goths. which is deraces nearly allied scribed in the Ynglingasaga indeed. and in their own estimation had been denizens of this region longer than the Goths. similar learned garb. according to the statement of Fredegarius. 15. 8 Procopius. in which Odin is undoubtedly both a godlike hero and a prophet among the people . and the great sacrifices instituted by him This prerogative was already acknowin Upsala. and in the same quarter.

and the vicinity of Denmark would naturally make its inhabitants better acquainted with the kings of Gothland. though the latter does not hold without some exceptions. and episodically also the king of which is named Finn in Jotunhem." The dynasty which now succeeded in Sweden. in references to the my thes of the Edda. The poets style them Jotuners. are the elder people in Scandinavia. therefore. sons of the rock. although descended from him only on the mother's side. exhibit the two extreme points of variation. Herein we find Ivar Widfamne. many kings of Sweden. On the subject of tlie ancient relations between 2 3 of busying himself with designs for the subjugation in Zealand. Ivar Widfamne. Tived formed the boundary between Suithiod Proper and the Gothic kingdom. That the Gothic kingdom possessed the higher an^ tiquity. the thunder-darting. and gives a false view of the whole. the hill-folk. besides the eastern lands and Of his lineage were the the fifth part of England. that comnerally hostile in their tenor. they gathered round the altars of old Fornjoter. of whom Saxo tells us . as they do now between Swedeland and Gothland hence these provinces were formerly known as the land north and south of the forest (Nordan och Sunnanskogs). words and sounds are more abbreviated. giants (j attar). 29. geit results. as king of all Sweden. has mistaken the : Ynglingasaga.10 Priority of the Goths. is contemporary with Adil. 111. Upon this battle a fragment of an Icelandic saga is preserved. takes its name from Ivar. . was an old belief in Sweden . Gothland. king of the Goths. . of yore so famous in the north. from Sigurd Ring. though a Christian. the Swedes and Goths. descending from Gaut (a name of Odin). the Upsala Consequently the otherwise unknown perking. and in his portraiture of northern manners. son of Halfdan. His daughter Aud." Suithiod Proper. the folk of the caves of earth . mountain wolves. i. on the other hand. which Thor. Decani Upsaliensis. c. we have the testimony of an Anglo-Saxon poem preserved to us the unknown . Poema DaCopenhagen. and the exploits of Ragnar Lodbroc and his sons. 43. In our judgment. in Upper Sweden. whence we passages. These are represented as Skilfingers by family . descendant of Skold. naces him. although to the Icelandic saga neither of the Swedish kings here mentioned is known. of Hroar. munity of descent and religion in both nations did of either independence or not mutuality prevent enmity *. They are at war with the kings of the Goths. of that country. 38. and Suithiod. Thorkelin. Beowulf. Skilfing is a name of Odin. It is called also the line of Sigurd. The dialect of the Dalecarlians on the one side. and in the Edda it is said that the name of Gothland was older in the north than either the Danish or SweFurther up in the mid region of dish dominion. Havn. and in the Edda. These accounts relate chietty to the fight of Bravalla (the Brafield). These outlines are wholly taken from the old heathen poems Hijstlanga and Thorsdrapa. in the Anglo-Saxon as in northern sagas he is brother of Helge. both a wider and a narrower application *. Two rlistinct races. The Ynglingasaga does not reckon Gothland as A line of part of the dominion of the Ynglings independent Gothic kings is mentioned. Et Gotisk Heltedigt fra fbrrige aartusinde. 1S20. sons and events of which the poem speaks. from the danger which meThe latter is the only personage whose name at least may be recognized in the old catawhich style him Hroar logues of the Danish kings. • Chronica Erici O'lai. den. from whom Gothland is said to have received its appellation '. the Goths who gave their name to tlie southern and earlier settled portion of the peninsula. brother Skbldingers. sense in several iii. The hills and woods of Kolmord and Hrodgar. is yet demonstrably older than the Icelanders. the kingdom of the Swedes was founded in Suithiod. Helge. must in Swebelong to the times of the Yngling family of its king. from the famous Ragnar. flies from the face of her queen Compare Svea Rikes Hafder. and from the relations here subsisting between these and the Swedes. sec. The scene of this poem lies in Denmark. for all cannot have been . or that of Lodbroc. unknown to the Icelanders. nicum dialecto Anglo-Saxonica de Danorum rebus gestis. Getes and Scythians. 1815. for the name has author of which. Still higher towards the north was Jotunhem. Icelandic writers know in general little of these Gothic kings. present day the dialects of the Gothic provinces are distinguished by broader and fuller verbal forms. " " IvAR Widfamne " brought (says Snorro) all Sweden under his own sway. and his first achievement is an expedition to Denmark for the dehvery . who entitles it. Id. which soon become confusion of the tinguishable amidst the sanguinary Norman expeditions. Their leader is called the chief of the Finns (Finnehofding)'. the product of his invention. removes it. The separateness of the two peoples appears clearly marked even subsequently to the introduction of The annals of our middle age are Christianity. Its history is obscure even the order of succession of the kings cannot be determined with certainty. its hero is a Gothic champion. Swedish and Danish kings who came after. . the land. occupied in great part with contests between the Swedes and Goths for the possession of a right to Even at the give a king to the whole country. His conquests. and a more plentiful use of diphthongs . HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Nor have all these disappeared from history without leaving any trace of their exIn them probably we may discern the istence. while he agrees with them in the peculiarities of the northern poetic language. enemies of the Asse. and their country afterwards Finnmark. and that of tlie Scanians or Smalanders on the other. the abode of wild and wandering tribes. whence in both the kings of Denmai-k are termed In the Ynglingasaga. by sowing dissension and bloodshed the royal house of Denmark. master also of the Danish kingdom. and a great portion of Saxonland. He made himself ''. et iv. but is to be assigned apparently to the commencement of the Ctiristian era^. the relative of Higelac (Hugleik). s 7 5 8 We follow Grundtvig's edition of this Anglo-Saxon poem Pjowulfs Drape. c. were debarred from quoting this highly interesting poem before we became acquainted with the labours of Grundtvig. In the historical sagas it is called " Suithiod Sjalf. Respecting the earUer times only broken notes of legendary indissong have reached us. properly so called. embracing the northerly part of the peninsula. although domestic traditions refer to kingly families much more numerous in Gothland than in Sweden Proper. is said to have overthrown.

was supplied by his step-father with men and ships. and all his most costly ornaments. climbed a precipitous rock. Harald Hildetand. as well as Ivar Widfamne. when victory appears to have declared for the foe. and commands the Danes to lay upon it the prow of king Harald's ship. Because he was a great warrior. arranged alliteratively by Saxo. so that the fleet of the Swedes and Norsemen passed through Stock Sound. and Jutland besides. King Harald. Aud. who compared him to the snake of Midgard. Harald lent all the readier ear to his incitements. age. 3 mans » 2 Bravalla. Hordr said that his great age had Norwegians gathered beneath his banner. Odin appears in the form of Brune. which had formerly belonged to king. Tacitus speaks of this order of battle acies per cuneos disponitur. and many ^ Part of modern Russia. and Ragnar Lodbroc. Great prepaSigurd assembled an army from all Suithiod and West Gothland. over Suithiod as well as Denmark. Ragnar Lodbroc is the most renowned hero of the Norman expeditions . round lamenting. repaired to Zealand. in her latter lock. men called him Hildetand (from hildur. In his old Harald Hildetand is said to have appointed the son of his step-brother king in Upsala. he therefore orders his men to cease from the fight. But Sigurd Ring was king after Harald Hildetand. Odin himself. old and he blind. marching to Suithiod. The most eminent champions on both sides are enumerated. Better for him. and the flames are kindled. he causes his horses to be m-ged to their utmost speed. as they were in the ballad he followed. and : tand. had. a son wed- princess. becomes lier second husband. and being told in the wedge-like formation *. braw. tells Sigurd that the old king has fallen . and the agreement extends also to various minor features. among the Asoe. are hundred. insatiable in conquest. or fair field. lit. On his venge. where the dominions of king Radbard commenced. to die in battle than on a sick bed. and challenged him to go in quest of the gi'eat serpent. tooth). arrival eastward in the Carelian gulf '. prays to the gods. it will be proper to glance at the less known expedition of our forefathers to a difTerent quarter. and refused to go on board to the king. The oldest military enterprises of the Swedes were directed to the east. when Battle of Bravalla." . who is himself said to have taken a share in the combat .Harald and Sigurd. a king of the Yngling line. 11 father with her young son Harald to Gardarike ^. which is found under a heap of slain. and searches for the body of his relative. He sent therefore messengers to king Sigurd Ring that they should meet one another and fight. Then he causes a funeral pile to be raised. cries ' I had thought that there were only Odin and out. obliging the latter to hold a parley with him from the ship. but before we pass to the exploits attributed to him or his sons. he deemed. and his son Ilagnar grew up in his court the tallest and goodliest among men. THE SECOND DYNASTY. that his great age made his life a burden both to himself and to his subjects. ' myself who imderstood that. and when he had come out of the wood to the bay of Bra. the mother of Harald. he found his fleet waiting his arrival. Ingwar. The hosts encountered on the shores of the Bra wick. a councillor possessing the confidence of both Harald and Sigurd. specifies as the source of his information a song still remembered in his day. who having come. T. which is said to have been possessed by his grandfather Ivar. and Ivar collects a great army from Sweden as well as Denmark. and the chiefs of the war walk inquires how Sigurd had planted his battle-aiTay. king Sigurd calls upon every man to bring gold and arms. The names. and was there received as In Scania. among the Ger- . Harald. rations were . Next. T. As this enterprize came the other. and vanished. and cuts desperately among their ranks. till the stroke of a mace hurls him dead from his car. and to have given him all Suithiod and West Gothland. and received for answer that he was abhorred both by his own forefathers and the demi-gods. and thence his mother's kin. " Baneman. but it appeared to him that the Danish and Swedish kingdoms would soon fall asunder. that he might arrive in Valhalla with an ample retinue. in order to take his reKing Ivar was then very old. he found support . named Randver. brave. for the interpretation of which he applied to his fosterfather Hordr. T. and so all the chief- great tains did. Both the old men threw themselves headlong mto the sea. would die. and pitched his camp between the forest and the sea. nearly the same in his account as in that of the Icelanders. or the east realm (Osterrike).' At length. lying over against Gothland. In respect to the war between these kings. Harald was at this time fifteen years old by the charm called Seid he had been made invulnerable against all sorts of weapons. which divides Suithiod from East Gothland. and that Harald Hildetand might ride to Valhalla first among all the troops of the fallen. When the corpse is laid on the pyre. the number of the ships was two thousand five rendered him unfit to interpret dreams. and among them shieldmaids and Scalds. son of Aud. his narrative itself also bespeaks a poetic origin. the king of which. to feed the fire which was consuming so and honoured a king . who instigates the kinsmen to war. Radbard. in the form of Brune. and ascribed to the old warrior and bard Starkother. where Stockholm now lies. and that Ivar. Ivar in wx-ath called out that Hordr himself was the worst goblin of all. one against King Sigurd himself marched southwards by the Kolmorker forest. to nothing by the king's death. seizes two swords. without being able to transmit his power as an inheritance to his posThe king further asked of his ancestors terity. is borne in a chariot into the battle . are said to have made warred and made conquests in Easterway (Osteras the countries veg). war. King Harald's power was from Denmark and East Gothland many troops from Saxony and the countries east of the Baltic also joined him. the Icelandic fragment on the fight of BraThe latter valla ^ agrees generally with Saxo. The Gulf of Finland. The empty chariot was the slayer* of Harald. married to a Norwegian and father of Sigurd Ring. and the landing was to take place. and prepare for friend and foe a welcome in the hall of Odin. he subdued all Swedelaud. he devotes to his ghost a horse with splendid utters the wish trappings. Ivar had a dream. and his army was so large that their barks covered all the Sound between Zealand and Scania as with a bridge. . reserving to himself Denmai'k and East Gothland.

with their families. and this Finnish appellative for the Swedish people receives a remarkable historical confirmation. too. Svegder. Remarks on Lagerbring's History of Sweden. 69. and with this an old name of the Slavons. which is the Suiones of Tacitus. and from this it is < is a radical letter in the name although the Icelanders say Sviar. a people who are said to have been from an early period in the service of the emperors. ambassadors from their king Chacanas (Hakon ?) and wished to return to their country to the Greek. and the reindeer. . in consequence of an incorrect reading. Englaiiders appear to have been Danes. and then takes the name of Suithiod. According to this view both these mythical denominations belong to the two alien races. Slavons. but the Scridfinns the most savage^. people. the Anglo-Saxons Sveon. Warnefrid says the Scricfinns were so named from their art of sliding {skrida. In the Latin translation of Grotius the name Gauts has disPaul appeared. who happened in the year 862.' This is said to have . the Vai'angians of A The Swedes praises in their nuptial ceremonies ^. The Ynglingasaga makes the Swedes renew their acquaintance with the regions whence Odin came. But as the Anglo-Saxons write the name of Sweden both Sveoland and Sveodland. by the route they had now taken. and vveut to the Slavons. ' Id. and Suithiod would thus be literally the host-folk. and from that time (says Nestor) the land took the name of Russland. They are said to have come partly from Thule. Paris. Scandinavian king visited the great Theodoric in Italy ^. With these came certain persons. the eldest. to skir. ' Comperit eos esse gentis Sueonum. and a key to the import of the term Vaners may be found in the interpretation which refers the name to the Slavonic stock.) lies the word Thiod. Ruric. and to have chosen himself a wife in tlie land of the Vaners. have seen that Jotun and Finn are to be explained as one and the same type. and the name is thus synonymous with fosderati. as we have historical proofs of an intercourse subsisting between Scandinavia and Southern Europe as early as the first part of the sixth century. found on closer examination that these men the Germans said that they were sprung from (Mannus). c. in this resembling every other. Rodeslagen.) which means an army. were accordingly chosen. 1. Tuisco is the first Teuton. the Russians are still called Vaners (Viinalaiset). probably from Roslagen. of whom Ordericus Vitalis relates that many quitted England on the Norman conquest. History of the Russian Empire. like Jotuner. 15. declaring to them " our land is broad and good. and took service at Constantinople. again are called by the Finns Russians (Ruotsolaiset). the northernVaringers . These Russian Varagians are the Varangians of the Byzantines. it is added. suit. and appear in forms of phanWe tasy. vaere. ' Jordanes de Reb. pactum. as it were. and the inhabitants of Novogorod before they were. the sea to the Varangians. who took with them a numerous train of followers. Sveon would appear The name itself then may to he contracted from Sveodan. Thiut. were Swedes Ust. They sent about tiie men therefore across : domain of humanity. he derived from the Icelandic Sveit. The Danish . i. Lodovic. It is certain that the later Byzantine historians. allege that the Varangians were natives of the remote north. Maltret. (See Note A. and partly from England but most of even the .) on incurvated pieces of wood used by tliem in the chase. but in tlie end. Frankish annalists inform us that in the year 839. Suethans is the Swedish name in the old Gothic form. to Nestor. ii. as the Gothic soldiery in the service of Rome from the time of Constantine the Great were called. named Varagians. He gives it the name of Thule. Venedi. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. from which the old national name of Teutons. and it is worthy of remark. but they are said to have served from of old in the body-guard. beThey had come as longed to a people called Rhos. ed. who. Costly furs were brought to Rome through many nations from the people of Suethans ' in Scandinavia. 3 The name Fargani. relates that daring and gallant conquerors. In 5 Thus Man of the earth. son of the god Thiiisco. as the Swedish coast lying nearest to Southern Finland was anciently called . soldiers who serve by agreement or bargain *. with whom our forefathers came oftenest into collision. tines in the year 935. ''. sets out by elevating the people who acknowledged its creed and this is into the representatives of humanity the reason why the indigenous names of so many nations mean nothing else than folk or men preBut just as Manhem has a less exeminently*. which in Procopius incontestably denotes Scandinavia^. settling in Novo' After these new comers of the Varagians. It is by no means improbable that the inhabitants of the north had early taken part in this military service. He had also seen one of the rough jerkins of reindeer skin. (read. although in the mythology they lie. Vanadis. logy. and made the Finns and Slavons After two years.12 Tlie Vaners. Thiuthans. Teut. that the Slavons of Dalmatia worshipped the good Frichia. and the modern one of Teutsche. of a foreign race which tliat is. Assiu-edly. Ro- den. beyond the Baltic are denominated. . tensive sense. are derived. an enormous island. and had come from Thule. 233. would then mean the Vendish goddess . Goth. without the Vaner. are still of Varangian descent and were called. AnnalesBertiniani. such as we call a lappmudd. is said to have visited his kinsmen in that part of the world. de Bel. be our princes. inhabited by several nations. so both the alien races above-mentioned. had spoken with the natives of this land of the extreme north. agreeing with Godans. ambassadors arrived from the emperor Theophilus of Constantinople to the Frankish emperor Lodovic the Pious. Varangi. they voluntarily determined by to subject themselves to their sway. the oldest Russian anna- the mythical appellation opposed to the people of for the northern mytho. under the name of Varangians. have yet some historical significancy. and wanting order alone come. corresponds. drove out their masters. Statement of Nestor. 1662. Get. He describes this skating. and reign over us. the natives tributary to them. and the Morlachers at the present day still sing her were called Rus. Veneders. from the information of persons who themselves knew the country. Procopius. By the Finns. had come across the sea. as Freya is called. according to the literal meaning of the word. 71. The Varangians their exploits. the love.) 2 Procop. who first make mention of the imperial body-guard. Germ. who again was born In the latter name probably (Tacit. " From wara. according to their own statement. or the Anglo-Saxon Sveot." Three brothers. the historian of the Gothic war. gorod. ii. among whom the Gauts were the most numerous. Bohemian language Freg is the name of the goddess of Hallenberg. Manhem. 6 Karamsin. blessed with every desirable thing. is is year 1100. used by these Finns. weakened intestine quarrels. an Upsala king. first appears with the Byzan- plain that the .

who are hence called axe-bearers. reigns in Upsala over Sweden. as they are related both in the Icelandic sagas. 6. resolving never again to take a wife. in how far the testimony or silence of the Icelanders should of itself determine what belongs or does not belong to the older history Sweden. coming a terrible serpent. It is thus we have ti-eated their mythology and their Ynoflinffasaga. An Italian bishop. Their allusions. was the fairest among women . which he describes. can be regarded a. and a great sacrificer the chief object of his adoration is a cow. especially of countries lying south-east of the Caspian Sea. hardly one that is Slavonic being found. whetherin the earlier or later Scalds. and by the first historian of northern Christianity in the eleventh century'. Of all this they know nothing. in Muratori. This is the same which is mentioned by a Greek emperor in the tenth. Denmark's Latin saga-writer. in the years 9i6 and 968. ii. who is called earl. where he is persuaded to betroth himself to the daughter of the Swedish the sea-king's befel. which are found on Swedish soil. t. Porphyrogenitus. so long. and returned to his original pursuit. a son of Harald Hildetand. and Karamsni. although it is not very probable that their power could have been established. were in reality Normans. the lowing of which is said to He is represented at have scared his enemies. Luitprandi Episcopi Cremonensis Historia. But Nestor declares them to have been the same people. with the Thet Svenslia I Stockh. or Osten. She was called Kraka. like silk. question of electing the Swedish prince Charles Philip to be czar. 1828. that sica. that this attack. the rulers were blended. de Administ. at the point where the distance between the streams is least. Imp. that those who were called Russians by the Greeks. pulonim. we find his father Sigurd Ring mentioned only as king of Den- names are purely Scanduiavian. a name at that time common to the mark. C97. Constantine 1. In this expedition. This improbability is heightened by the fact that. One example of this confusion is presented in the actions of Ragnar Lodbroc and his sons. by Brynhilda. The results above stated may serve to throw light on the question. from Arabian authors. had won Thora. that these Ros were of S66. ex Script. were continually traversed by the Swedes after the foundation of the Russian monarchy for the purposes of war and commerce. Kraka discloses to him that she is gurd really Aslaug. wicked. without any ground. fir. by M. to tlie old connexion of Scandinavia battle-axe. as we are told. and by Saxo. chose out men to govern his kingdom conjointly with his sons. in Russia as in Normandy. contempoi'aneously with the assumed foundation of the Russian empire by Ruric. Ragnar Lodbroc adventures. 13. After she has born four sons to him. excusing themselves on the ground that they had seen a maiden of such surpassing beauty as to render them incapable of minding their work. After the death of Thora. Varangica. in the seventeenth century tbe tradition When tliere was a was still preserved in Novogorod.Ruric. History also knows that the same people even waged war with the Arabs on the shores of the Caspian Sea*. On his return.) ^ (History of the Ryssland Tijo ahrs krigs-historie. 6 ' generally Germanic race. is yet not altolost to history. Ragnar finds favour in her eyes. 8 Des peuples du Caucase. daughter of the famous SiFofnisbane. and another more to the eastward by the Volga to the Caspian. torn. Stritter. ambassador at the Greek court. only after a historical groundwork has been laid. with the east. and landed his meatp-urveyors to bake for his men. . as it he entered with his ships the harbour of Spangarhed in Norway. he was recommended by the Archimandrite Cyprianus on the ground that Ruric had been a Swede. daughter of Herraud. c. in Hist. life. He was twice ambassador to Constantinople. Ragnar was clad when he performed this exploit. he is said to have received his surname of Lodbroc. Byzant. from the country of the Varangians to that of the Greeks. confirmed by his authority. according to the Hervararsaga. the victories and perils of . he visits king Osten in Upsala. or by some king. and relates the iuis. Once in time of summer. from its position. . In the saga of Ragnar Lodbroc. as also by foreign annalists. D'Ohsson. Afterwards. Memoriae Po- Schlbzer's Nestor. In the narrative of the emperor. This expedient was common in the enterprizes of the 9 Northmen. was contemporary with another expedition which was undertaken against Constantinople by Igor. in Swedish wars Russia. had been long in use ". . The sea-kings of the Ros and their squadrons threatened Constantinople by the Black Sea on more than one occasion. What they have preserved to us is highly as being on terms of good understanding with This chief.s valuable and important. as it was called in England. they drew their boats from the Don to the Volga. of From the rough breeches in which Gothland. Both this way down the Dnieper to the Black Sea. Ten Years' War of the Swedes Schlbzer maintains. and of Sweden. C. which the Byzantines themselves speak under the year was made by an unknown people named Ros. as is to be seen by the name of their leader Askold and a Byzantine writer says. ii. that it reached down to the ground about her. and they concluded with the Greek emperors a treaty in which the order of events. c. 982. He is depicted as powerful. King Eisten. or as he is termed both by the bishop and the Byzantine ^VTiters have it Ingor (Ingvar). Adam of Bremen. who afterwards disappeared. THE SECOND DYNASTY. and she becomes his wife. albeit from distance of space and time the most obscure. as well by the multitude of Runic stones in Sweden. 1. 1671. in language and manners. his 13 Russia were Swedes *. Widekindi. iv. at one blow. was the principal arm of the Varangians. where Ragnar is made to succeed him. '> Compare Stritter. in particular. governed people. they were already powerful enough to appear in the guise of enemies before ConstantiNestor himself intimates that the track nople^. the critical editor of Nestor. c. for here the expeditions of the Northmen shine out through the gloom although the crowd of enterprises incessantly renewed perplexes the gether . Ragnar. by encountering and overRagnar. Stritter Rus- ne\vKo<p6pot. of Prankish. This is proved irrefragably. and her hair. which took Paris. and of the ninth and tenth centuries. But these came back with their bread burned. According to both Schliizer. v. the cascades of the Dnieper are mentioned with both the Slavic and the Russian (Scandinavian) name. as by the large number of Arabic coins. Eccles. We Scandinavian populations^. 88. place in the time of Igor. king. That of the west is better known. but of must be explained and employed solely in connexion with the accounts we derive from others. in Russia. the son of Ruric. This eastern theatre of achievement for the old northern champions. ei'ected to the memory of travellers to Greece. ii.

Their causes were partly the weakness and divisions of the European states in that age. have been transplanted likewise to that which succeeds. some of which contain more than 200 has been lately recovered. the popular legends so rife in his time lie at the foundation of his highly decorated narrative. is situated. Saxo. Matthew Westm. refuses to tell his name. to be bound up with this name . but turn back. Yet the inhabitants of that region camiot be derived from any m actions king Hermanaric. The deathsong composed in Ragnar's name. on the coast of Northumberland. an old champion celebrated in fable. in this as in other cases. will be born with the mark of a snake round the eye. she herself takes ui the war. but disagrees with the saga in many particulars. and nothing came of the Swedish marriage. 24. a king of the northern heathens (his name is not mentioned). and dies smiling under the bites of the serpents. and die in a manner worthy of their sire . and Christianity began to change the man- • another daughter of Sigurd Fofnisbane ^. their expeditions were directed to Scotland. from the recitations of the people of these lonely islands. piously than even in the elder saga. tended her flocks bears her name. They molest Italy. places him in connexion with the heroes of a bygone age. 3 In the year 794. cidents both of her mother's life and her own. upon Another legend makes Ragnar a man of princely birth. on the other captive. is still extant. which accordingly came to pass. on which he sings his death Their loss is avenged by the other sons of song. she jjredicts that the son of whom she is pregnant. the former is made captive. was in its essence one of far higher antiquity. and plan a march to Rome.14 Fate of Raguar's sons. as in Jordanes the brothers Sarus and Ammius exact the same revenge on ' ners of the barbarians. countries tually attained more or less sway. In the ninth century the terrors of these inroads were at their height. the memory even his own glory by braving dangers. since the desolating incursions of the Northmen continued for so long a period to harass Europe. of whom Biorn Ironside reigned in Sweden. where the dialect of the Lowlanders still bears the most striking resemblance to the northern tongues. The death-song ascribed to Ragnar. Here his crew are cut off in a fight with king Ella . who had some time before plundered the monastery of the isle of Lindisfarne. in which he recounts his achievements. also differs considerably. in these countries as well as in the north." where her death is avenged on king Jorraunrek by the brothers Saurle and Hamdir. which ends wdth the fall of king part Osten. that Ragnar Lodbroc. until when these ceased. he had ravaged the firths of Scotland. Ragnar's sons next spread desolation far and wide in the southern lands. Frigga. The evil. one causing himself to be burned on a pp'e made of the sculls of his slaughtered foes. appear in other popular songs of the Feroes. Earlier probably than to France. c. he attempts a mai'auding enterprise on the English coast with only two ships. occisus ab Anglis. sons of Ragnar by his first marriage. and is thrown into a pit of snakes." and dismdl en forna. where Spangarhed. however. Roger de Hoveden. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and Sigurd Fofnersbane and his race. who was fraudulently put to death in England in the middle of the ninth century. conjointly with Aslaug . and mention is made just before of the sword-games of Lindi' See Loke. Fceroiske Quceder om Sigurd Fofnersbane og bans oet. however. England. Randers. while the songs of the Edda and the Volsungasaga give us stories respectmg self at hand. Scattered fragments of legends relating to this hero long Svanhild. The name and exploits. It is also easy to conceive that the wars waged by his sons. while the saga. previously to his capture by the Englanders. Invasions of ihe Northmen. shows at the same time that the exploits of several persons have been cumulatively ascribed to one. 1822. in some parts more costanzas.) Com" " Harapare in the Edda the songs Godrunar-hvata. and which the Northmen evenIreland. 2 Other songs of the Feroes are echoes of the heroic odes of the Edda. collected and translated by Lyngbye). His sons. informs us that. The poetical contexture of this saga discovers it- once by the circumstance. In the southernmost part of Norway. samJede og oversatte af Lyngbye (Lays of the Feroe Isles. near the Scottish border. Ragnar is incited by the fame of his sons' actions to repeated voyages of adventure . as they are represented in the old Volsuiigasaga. Ragnar believed her . If we compare the northern saga with the accounts which foreign chronicles give us of more than one Ragnar. which drove out larger swarms of warlike adventurers. might have been incessantly retold anew. Annal. The whole cycle of Sigurd Fofnisbane's saga consisting of ballads.' . In proof of the truth of her story. and partly the foundation laid about the middle of this century for an extension of monarchical power in the northern kingdoms. and by his own desire thrown upon spear-points. but a war instead with king Oaten. It had already found a channel in the great national migrations. exact revenge for his death. although. This is carried on by Eric and Agnar. and of the terrible and protracted devastations inflicted by Lodbroc's sons both in France and England. Accounts of him compared. of whom the latter falls in battle . where he chants a song on his own deeds and on the expected joys of Valhalla. taken from old Gothic legends. he himself is taken augment of the most destructive period of the expeditions of the Northmen in the nmth century appears. while the north remained as of old. seire. Torfaeus and Schoning heard ballads on their The hill on which she is said to have story. was taken and Princeps eorum crudeli nece est put to a cruel death. and mentioned betimes by Saxo. Ragnar. and in order to continued to dwell in the popular memory. while the impossibility of chronologically reconciling the different narratives. towards the end of which. is made the good-son of Sigurd Fofnisbane. the other ordering his barrow to be erected on that coast of his kingdom which was most exposed to hostile assaults. deceived by erroneous information. who has devoted wellnigh a whole book of his history to the of Ragnar. no doubt. and the people of the Feroe islands in the present day still sing lays of Ragnar and Aslaug ^. Ragnar himself probably belongs to the eighth century. Odin from Asgard. and their renown is noised throughout the whole world. or other descendants so termed. which with nearly the same circumstances and names are found in Jordanes. a statement in the English chronicles gives some reason for supposing that his dismal end may have happened ^. by marrying the fair unknown. the place at which Ragnar found Aslaug. in Jordanes Sonilda (de Reb. Get. the warlike attitude of Scandinavia towards the rest of the world became more conspicuous and alarming. which received their inhabitants from Scandinavia. of a Lodbroc who was killed in England.

will cease to awaken surprise if the opinions we have advanced respecting their origin be admitted to have congruity to truth. Copenhagen. it will be proper to touch upon a tradition which still survives in another region. on the way to I neighbours in the mountains of the highlands. ' At first the Swiss. That at the long end of the ninth century there were still heathens in these regions to whom it was necessary to preach Christianity. Visigothi. Miiller. became gradually independent of each other. test the spring. 525. 9 ' Ed. At present this legend is confined to Hasslidale. for it was formerly usual to mark the scene of a Swiss. in Switzerland. For the share of the Swedish name in this Swiss legend of migration. besides that this may be couched in the appellation of Normans. Compare Langebek. and Lochlin. i. because Friesland peditions . that their settlement comparatively new. from the increase both of churches and courts yet they kept united against foThe country people of Upper Hasli. and enrolled also among the records of the land-registry there. severed from the rest of the world. 436. 5 Extract from a parchment manuscript of the year 1 534. the name by which that bard designates their country. and their reigners. mentions it in a public ordinance as a proof of the former dense population of Sweden. 15. and must be regarded rather as being of Scandinaviaif descent. were at last Ruremonde. concerning the northern origin of this branch of the handsome people of Upper Hasli. 1825. its concluding allegation. they arrived at Wiflisburg ^. n. and in old times it was still more widely diffused. And. for this must be the same in which.' Ibid. The legend begins by assigning the usual cause of northern emigrations. few in number. namely a famine. as Ragnar's saga relates. and it is also Imown that for a time they were few in number *. subject to the Northmen. record of this tradition is not very ancient ^. The poems of Ossiau atpresence and wars of the Scandians in Scotland. It is plain fi'om legends which still survive among them. 419.' in a Dissertation De Colonia Suecorum in Helvetiam deducta. and. is by no means improbable. .' ' . n. Published by the author. The acknowledged end of the Norman expeditions was not merely plunder. from which they broke up in the following Annals of Ulster. according to the saga of Olof Tryggwason ". while the rest returned upon hearing the rumour that the emperor Charles the Fat was collecting a great army on the Rhine to oppose them. during tlie greater part of the ninth isli army is m century. Also called Avenche the ancient Aventicum. n. 1828. Nor.' ' — ' combat by hazel-stangs. Script. i. because a contemporary Norman chronicle relates that in 881 they ascended the Mosel.' Miiller. i. Thirdly. is the same under which it is mentioned in the Irish annals'*. Copenhagen. ' stances agree with the Swiss tradition. are also called in extraneous accounts West Goths. 7. H Anglo-Saxon immigration of such old date known to history. ' of Elsloo. as the motive of the journey but the points of departure are both Sweden and Friesland. and be best recognized in the remarkably preserved in Upper Hasle. that a settlement followed.' Ibid. Rer. Dudo. in the canton of Berne. whence their expeditions issued. but it was once general among the inhabitants of Schwytz . 5 Hasle is a common name in Sweden. In the inner valleys of the Alps. a Swedish king). Even Swiss historians see in the inhabitants of these Alpine dales a peculiar race *. then common to all the people of the three Scandian kingdoms. dwelt far from one another in the waste places of the mountains. fourthly. its contents may be thus described. Dan. and the neighbouring i. and there also recurs the old Swedish federative system. ' called hazeling the field 8 Duchesne. the sons of Ragnar Lodbroc took part in this expedition . SETTLEMENT IN SWITZERLAND.' is 6 | i Ut acquirant sibi spoliando regna. along the banks of the Rhine • in their progress a Frank. as so many circum- encountered and defeated. and afterwards two. 421. ' Tradition says of the'Underwalders that they were the last to be Christians. because. 2 j i 'At the end of the ninth century VVigger mentioned as the apostle of Switzerland. 138. in Switzer- land. which was (att hassla vail). King Gustavus I. alienated from this ancient confederation. Its inhabitants. and wintered in a fortified camp at a place called Haslow ^. 4 They may after so long a time higlilands. in Johnstone's Antiquitates CeltoNormannicae. dwells an inconsiderable tribe which still asserts its Swedish extraction. and their ordinary domicile. quibus possent vivere pace perpetua. 37. and from valley to valley. The pilgrims march from a place called Hasle. ' Next. where they form a setlength arrive tlement. In the whole land there was but one church. i. and they at the Alps. and Gustavus Adolphus refers to it in his The written negotiations and letters to the Swiss. because. defeated a Frankish army that was brought against them. Script. and Underwald. and consequently Ln part came m from Swedish West Gothland 3 ' ". Before we quit this subject. . really was. this event falls within the age of the northern exin the first place. as to the manner and order in which they first it is peopled the land*. according to the northern saga. History of Switzerland. in the canton of Berne. often denoting old battle-fields.' municated from the of the ' : The old men of the highland valleys still tell how in former centuries the people moved from mountain to mounThis the tain. old shepherds stated tons in the years 1777 1780. after a manuscript comEast-Prison song spot. it is to be remembered that those Northmen who accompanied Biiirn Ironside (a son of Ragnar Lodbroc. along with the Upper Haslers. Upsal. in the neighbourhood of Maestricht. Old chronicles mention that they penetrated as far as Worms. in Duchesne. Setting aside these. but the acquisition of a new home ^ .' Miiller. and this the smaller portion of the Norman army might have remained to select in the valleys of the Alps. 1786.Hasslidale. Haslou and Haslac in the Chronicles. and carried their devastations along the Rhine. and abounds in chronological and other errors. Uri.' 1 ' (the first Schwytzers) were a peculiar race. . p. because the land seems in their eyes to In our judgment resemble their own country. Now the hamlet Then the valleys of Schwytz.

the darker. as oftshoots of Scania '^. which Fcereyinga Saga. in Icelandic. while the latter cover our land. i. laung. Scania at this time presents an already ancient cultivation. of the shortest passage across which at Helsingborg we find ancient mention *. qui et videri potest. Seland in Scoiiiam trajectus multo brevissimus in Halsingeburg. in the eleventh In the century. In the dawning of light which. but such vocalic changes are not unfrequent. 79. casts its rays even upon the last days of the heathen period. although itself a mark for the attacks of the sea-robbers who swarmed every where in these waters. in Scania. Norv. . aurura ibi plurimum. divesquemercibus. every summer of the ninth century saw the fleet of the Islesmen ^. it was famed for the fertility of its soil. " Hallandia et Blekingia ab integritate Sconiae. The former. Nial's Saga. is is c. ceu rami Saxo. Afterwards it is called the fairest part of Denmark. Ualsa means and not from 8 Viris et armis Helmold praestantior esse probatur. let us inwhat were the land and the people times quire of old ? To this question we will attempt an answer. c. i. the name Halsbre or Helsingor. while Skane. with us. Bleking is still reckoned as belonging to any migration of Helsingers. but is reckoned as belonging to the Danes in the oldest short description of the northern countries at the end of the ninth century ^. we will seek for it in the exterior nature of the north. 2 The Knytlinga Saga speaks of Halland in Scania (Halland i Skdney). 1 c. c. Slav. a marsh-land. Gotelba tiuvius a Nordmannis Gothiam separat. 7 Narrative of the Travels of Ottar and Ulfsten. the word lang. 1. Hence. as well as Halsehamn to the north. Sconia insula in Adam of Bremen. since it is surrounded by the sea on three sides. was at first a kingdom in itself. 2 Sconia armataviris. and Germany was covered wdth dense forests. on the point of the Scanian promontory named The Skaun. p. means a marshy country. and in the graves of our forefathers. Torfaeus. First. was formerly pronounced Skaune. . where gold or other property gained by piracy was stored up for security ". Thus word gang was formerly written gaung and g'ong . VIEW OF THE COUNTRY. Helsingiaborg is A mentioned (about 993) in iii. 78. c. POLITY AND MANNERS. 28. Scania. surpassing even that of more southerly adjacent countries. Civitas Lundona. given in the Anglo-Saxon translation of the History of Orosius. to shed some light upon the more remote. Subsidiary evidence may be educed from other sources .opulentafrugibus. also Hiostad (Ystad). About the same time Lund is mentioned as a place of considerable trade. quod raptu con- Skin-ey. and long.16 Scania . and the rein-deer once roamed in primeval woods. cum omnes tractus Germaniac profundis horreant saltibus. mai'king the old dwelling-places of its inhabitants. 246. of which the roots are still dug up in the dried mosses of the levels. ninth. 57. 83 . Egils Saga. from what is known. 85. and honey from the then celebrated Scanian fair which was held in the autumn. does not easily change its original aspect. ' At the time. Originally. the light of history rises north. in what form does the land reveal itself to our view through the twilight of the old sagas ! Commencing with the south. successfully resisting the whole Danish force. the rapacity of the sea-robbers ^ . 60. where the ure-ox. not drawn from uncertain conjectures. 1809. and the shades of the bari'ows are yet to be summoned forth by the spell of love and will consult nature as well as knowledge. Var land ecki audigt. says the Scholiast upon Adam of Bremen. and were comprehended under that name sometimes even after the Danes established their dominion in this quarter. when Norway extended to the Gbta-elf. that is. Thus we may perchance succeed in combining many scattered features into the picture of a whole which may be consonant to the truth. 3 Terra salsuginis et vastae solitudinis. Praef. de situ Daniae. as the inhabitants do. the unknown. offering small allurement even to excelling Zealand and Jutland in pons *. while the interior of Jutland was still a wilderness^. which might have free play upon a boundless field. and search the land of the dead that we may judge of that of the living. word indeed is pronounced Skcen. Inhabitants. Porro. de Situ Dan. memory. Towns . although sometimes severed from its dominion. surrounded with a wooden barrier. Helsingbr without doubt the same called in the Halseiri in Denmark. 3. LAND AND PEOPLE FROM THE HEATHEN PERIOD. In the Soimd. AND THE PROGRESS OP SETTLEMENT. Halland is spoken of towards the end of the heathen age as a poor district. wheat. the island of Skane. oak and beech woods abounded *. c. as the name seems to intimate i. Brem. bearing the yoke reluctantly. With tliis more bright over the the ninth century. emanating from a new age and the approach of Christianity. and men and weaHalland and Bleking are distinguished ^ towards Nor. Halsingborg or Helsingborg. 5 " the Eyrarfloti. from which Ivar Widfamne is said to have issued to conquer both Sweden and Denmark. '' geritur. '' ' Knytlinga Saga. Ad. and the number of its martial inhabitants ^. on the other hand. Breraens. 56. Chron.. duplices ex unius arboris stipite promeantes. to take in sail and lie into the land. and may contrive. stretching 1 way and Gothland. The old name is still KuUen. Egils Saga. but founding ourselves upon the testimony of a definite age. CHAPTER 11. Adam. Havn. and in the same decennary Hist. which drew an ample freight offish from the teeming coasts. : m We the variety of its staple wares. 1. both long. or brought back meal. p. its produce: HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. the greatest market of the north. historically known at least in its general character. the elk. sola Jutland caeteris horridior. ascribed to king Alfred last edited by Rask.

c. 144). river. E. Bersi. at Skiirum or Skaurum (Saga of St. c. 3. when enumerating. per condensa silvarum. At amassed the same time the islands of Oeland and Gottland Travellers are already Swedish possessions '. 6 Eigils Saga. Saga of Olave. who lived by the sea. > montium. and also Finland *. and wadmal or home-woven woollen cloth '.Gothland fi-om the present Bohus-lan. Blecinga-ey. Nials Saga. This embraced the Gota-elf. are manifestly the same Finwedi. whom Saxo calls Finnenses. mentioned early in the eleventh century. vet. Heimskringla. 3 The inhabitants are styled. Here ( Alfvar). 83. it is North Mark begins. elf. Dalsland. who preferred death to becoming the property of the victor. Barbari qui Pleichani dicuntur. Formerly that country stretched to the GotaIn the eleventh century it was maintained elf. Ilistoria S. the Finn mooi". of which mention is made thus early *. " To the ' Lying in Aleharad on the West-Gothic side. 70. where the wood of Eda now Travels of Ottar and Ulfsten. The whole countiy about Opslo Bay. This name applied to the country from the Giita-elf to Swinesund. c. towards the borders of Halland. and in later times were denominated West Goths. AND CULTURE. west of the Vener. here were vended salt. . whence the name of the German Elbe. a hardy and stubborn race. 3 Also Elf. and to have embraced those wide forests separating West. (pronounce Smaulbnd. born in 9 The trading town c. and belonged to the diocese of Skara." says the legend of St. Heimsk. to old Lbdose '. ecclesiae Su. in Norway. Benzelii Monumenta. Ni. 7 The Icelander Rut. 8. one half was in possession of the Swedes. Benzelius. and was a haunt of the sea-chiefs. adoi-ned with rich fields and meadows *. 8 in Vermeland. 3. Heimsk.e. town at Liodliusuni is four days by the river. ward of Lake Vener. swarming with bees and honey. Finwid in the West Gothic Laws. p. and covering Dalslaud. 130. that the ancient border^ had been the Gota from then the Marks ' to the the sea to Lake Vener and lastly. that is. dwelt with the Both Konghall and Loddse are mentioned in the tenth century. by following which trade they wealth and had abundance of captives. where called Bleking's Island. The mountainous district bordering upon Gothland. The Swedish kings extended West-Gothland to Swinesund along the sea . c. sent to her at Konghall 100 ells of wadmal in 961. from the very character of their country. was anciently Eastern Smaland called Smaland (small land) '. Nials Saga. were regarded as belonging to West. the boundaries of the three northern kingdoms met. and thence to the Gota. whose cataracts still roared in solitude." Rimtrading * Now Historia Sigfridi (written about 1205). T. and afterwards as a place of trade. and bore no good reHere in the interior the saga placed putation. dreaded pirates. 7 Olave. 2 Nials Saga. it was girt romid by the densest foi'ests. after Starkotter's Ode. Starkother had fought in the days of old with the demon champion Hergrim and won Ogn. passed from Scania to Gothland through deep forests and precipitous hills. 1. probably a place of sacrifice in the heathen time '. Upsal. but a fruitful country. the Norwegians on the other side claimed all the land to the westfrontier. the descendants of the demons (Troll) and elves more hateful than all other men. Mark ' country. 128. " Per ardua Words of Adam of Bremen. Adam of Bremen says. together with Findar of Wicken (Fiiidar rnaritimo genitus Vermelanders between Norway and Sweden. More is named a part of it so early as the ninth century 2. Terra Finlandias The inhabitants. Wikweriar. and Skara. c. and it could not be otherwise. Mention is made betimes of Calmar as a port ^. speaking of the same way. Saga of St. 96) is Falkoping(apud Falu oppidum creatus). 59. Elfwagrimar. Monumenta Hist. c. begla. was long called the Finn waste. Provinces. Fineyde in the Knytlinga Saga. 6 So said the peasants to the messengers of about 1019. c. or goblin. Olave. the warriors at the fight of Brawalla (1. St. Wikingers. and sent forth pirate chiefs *. Wikwerir. so that old West-Gothland reached from the Gota-elf southwards to the sea. Saga of Harald the Fair Haired. Western Smaland. f 7 8 Ad Brem. Olof Tryggwason's Saga. Sigfridi. the woods. p.ils Saga. "' 4. I. ^ Saxo. . in Eric Olaveson. sti-etched to the sea. ultimately preferred subjection to Sweden. 4. c. 78. forest of Eda Yet the boundary was disputed. 44. when hostilities with Norway broke off this intercourse. or upon the Dana-holms. which lay somewhat further to the south. the Finn weald. and elf-men ^ were. 8 1 . c. Kongelf.Southern TOPOGRAPHY. Helms. or even higher. 17 The barbarians of Bleking'* were Sweden*. Saga of Sigurd Jorsalafarar. 81.Gothland. was formerly called so. who was called Mother of Kings. 9 The plural ending Smdlbnd. when the wildei'ness was still the . and the great stream of the Gota. the Kiilen mountains. vii. as far as the present frontier of Norway. Falkoeping. Travels of Ottar and Ulfsten. who had come from West. This Fiim wold appears in old times to have stretched for a great distance. C . abounding in game and streams peopled with fish. mentions. gave The people of the little heed to these pretensions. Elfarar. necessaries which were conveyed inland so that the West Goths were malcontent. Alfliem and Wiken'''. Finhid on the Rhunic stones. e. much dreaded formerly by trading vessels. This in 1020. 1709. S. 30. The borderers. SF^TTLEMENT. and considered as forming part of it. and probably also the contiguous Olave. c. by the TroUhtetta. On the island of Brenn. 83. Travels of Ottar and Ulfsten (or Otlier and Wulfstan). •• A hundred years after Calmar is called a Heimskr. That is. c. herrings. daughter of the Elfin. « Inch lay near thereto. 27. 35. of Magnus Barefoot. The middle and southern portion of Smaland was called Verend . which then was only known by the name of the Marks. which had its name from the frequent conferences of kings held there. trading town. per abrupta petrarum. sinu). Of the island Hisingen which the river forms at its mouth. ' all the land between the Raum-elf and Hervara Saga. Saga 3 Kalmar naze. inhabitants of the Finn wold. who. Sigfrid. independent of both parties in their forests and mountains. Trade joined with piracy was carried on at an early period along the coast of Wiken. Ships ascended the stream to Konghall *.Gothland. the favourite of the Norwegian queen Gunnliild. St. presented facilities for both which were not neglected. or Elfwar-fylke ^ ' The wick (river-district j. as the Smalanders still do). was formerly usual. the bad grim elves. and it appeared doubtful whether the journey by land or the voyage by water was attended with greater dangers *. The wick-men drew their supplies of corn and malt from abroad ^ . which pours the water of so many floods from the Vener into the sea. the otlier in that of the Norwegians. The district now bearing the name of Bohus-lan was formerly called Ranrike *. c.

makes it probable that its occuover the fertile and well-watered plains and woods pation could not be recent. obligatory on the traveller. and the forest was the haunt of footpads (stigman) and robbers.) 7 A qua (Sconia) ferunt diebus septem perveniri usque ad civitatem Gothorum magnam Scarane. Saga of St. the wood was for a long time so difficult to pass. But what was the appearance of this commercial route at the end of the tenth century ? It passed through a great forest. packed cross-ways upon horses. ii. 3 to warm and dry themselves without Olof Tr)'ggwason's Saga. The intrenchment to be seen on a hill in the parish of Hamraar. in early times. the old times. way from Skara to Upper Sweden and Upsala through East Gothland. 332. Saga of St. in Torfasus. As. 60. 120. from Konghall to the interior of West Gothland. B. formerly the most in the thirteenth century. penetrated rough and uninhabited wastes.' the Vetter lake. went to the middle of Holawed. or the renowned of northern battles. is men- Such a tioned as existing on the land. in the time of Olave the c. two days' journey longi.Skara. ubi ingruebat. > A rast is a length of road equal to Rimbegla. in order that those who came next might be able delay. ' Nerike. such the Baltic. The wares were partly over rocky mountains. as old persons relate. the black or mirk wood. beyond it thick gloom. 1. roomy enough to alford quarters for the night to twelve travellers with their wares. during went from Scania upwards. hard to pass through.18 Their condition HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Here. what a man usually travels without resting. are said to have existed. in 997. to . descended with his army to contest with Harald land. and the forest region of West Goth. Myrkwidr. the Tiwed is said to be cold. Here where from a rising of the Kolmard the noblest prospect succeeding period. nearer rasts broad ^. ploughed field. the way easily missed. by a long circuit. Olave. Heimsk. In the midst of the wood was a safety-house (salohus) as it was called 2. East-Gothland. So late as the year 1177. On the inner side. Even peasants were sometimes known hardened enough to take part m this bloody work. 2 Norv. which must have received their wares from Wiken. . reigned obscurity. and the scantiness of ancient remains plainly indicate. the list of these West-Gothland is to be reckoned. during the heathen times. Ibid. but soon becoming the more times the great forest was ordinarily traversed by its eastern border on the coast. hilly district above the Motala stream was long a wilderness. which. takes his c. of the country. Hence in former the West Goths disputing supremacy with the upper formerly stood at Husby Fell ^.from the north. s. 10. still considerable. especially those frequented by traders. and in Scandinavia generally. safety-lodge. tandem ad portnm regni ipsorum qui Byrca dicitur jjervenerunt. so that the whole occuhistorical light most falls. The Lagman Edmund also. Ansg. the shadows deepen towards the east. inter- Cum jacentia maria navigio transeuntes. 1. which were maintained where roads. 96. the means of intercourse with For the journey thence to Sigtuna by Telje. East-Gothland's southern forest district stretched formerly much higher up from It was a solitude the hilly territory of Smaland. was the usual passage. in Olof Tryggwason's Saga. Skalholt edition. Kon. c. used to as undoubtedly one of the earliest settled provinces At the end of the heathen age we find commend their souls to God. in the north. journeying from East-Gothland to Vermeland. who after their shipwreck were probably obliged to take this long way by land. and if the stroke of the axe announced to the tired wanderer some lonely clearing or the vicinity of an inhabited his prayer was place.arii. to leave behind him at least split wood. completo mense pervenies Sictonam. where the hilly region of Smaland presented The neighbourhood of the Western Sea supplied the greatest difficulties. hill. in company with Hallfred Wandrada Scald. about half a Swedish mile (three English miles). Heimsk. c. in the chapel which of Sweden. the accounts. Swedes (Upp-Svear). Telgas. was much more extensive Hildetand the field of Bravalla. The eastern boundary towards Smaland. land. Travellers more dark. The ascertained popidousness of their territory in the Norrkoeping to Stockholm now rims. ii. c. which is found in the law-book of West Gothland. per longissimam viam gravi difficultate pedibus incedentes. Such was then the condition of the frontier tracts In interspersed between the cultivated districts. 8 So is described the journey of Ansgar and his companions. et Birkam. one of the most fruitful in Sweden. It was regarded as a duty of succour. this source. wandered in its wide and unknown wilds for six or seven and days. when the latter formed a province in itself. one of those otherwise untenanted lodges for travellers and their goods. 31 and from . the night's lodging gi'anted to sometimes paid for with his life. was erected as a defence against the attacks of the East Goths. p. Hist. were trading stations in inner West-Gotliland. lap-king. Fragment on the Fight of Urawalla. 476. 62. not through East-Goththis period. The journey was dangerous. now the Kolmard. and even if the saga lays here the scene route probably lay on the side of West-Gothland of any imj)ortant event. Holveden means the hilly wood. part 2. from the old word hoi. and like all the frontier forests so notorious for robbers. it is silent on the condition . pied a month '. On the East-Gothland side. and answers to what the peasants understand by the old wood mile (skogsmil). *6 Broocman. as both the nature of the country. Beskrifning bfwer Ostergotland. and great wastes which intervened had to be crossed *. ^ See the Kolmirkr. where the road from powerful from their adoption of Christianity. way between Trondhem and Jemtc. but through West-Gothland the rest of the world. 151. by weeks more were required. p. and stretching westwards to the shores of Lake Vener. 1 See the Account of the journey made by the West Goth Audgils. in the eighth century. for no stranger ventured beyond difficult of access Its northern woody and the forest of Holawed ^. The name now used is Kolmarden.' Uplands Lagen (Law of Upland). et. Olave. (Palmskbld Collections. Vita S. that in the Christian age travellers who wished to pass into Nerike. increased in breadth and difficulty in the interior of the country. lies from West-Gothland to Upper Sweden. embracing districts where we now see the high level. according to Thus we know less of East than of West Gothland in a journey was performed partly in boats. a distance which was traversed in a week. Ad Brem. Si per terram eas a Sconia per Gothorum populos et civitatem Scaranen. Here lay the great Kolmorker forest *. The oldest East-Gotliic settlements were perhaps in the midmost tract. 176. without finding a refuge against hunger ' twelve Still later. Sigurd Ring. three at least that part of it upon which. which the Dalecarlians still use in this sense. although in old times of East-Gothland opens to the view of the traveller broad woodlands. ki"g Suerre. the heath. continued by that of Tiwed. in the eleventh century.

Compare Svea Rikes Hafder. rich grassy meadows con^ when Sudermania. Ecc. the kingdom was divided into the land north and south of the forest ^. which is even now so well watered. another. was held both in old and modern times. and Bafwen. Above Vermeland. which carries off the vale-streams of the great lakes Yngarn. and is perhaps the scene of the death of the greatest king of the Yngliug line ^. with branches running deep into the country. the old line of demarcation. The wood is called Braut Anund is said to have been Brtiten (from irrt/((. At Sotaskar (Sola Rock). 74. 140. varied with so manifold beauty of bay. Saga of St. near Orebro. these streams T. service in Sweden. south of Motala. 31. differed as much from the modern. now lies. in the fragment of the saga on the battle. allured the eye of old poetry betimes to this region . Hist. An Swedish catalogue of kings stales that Brattoniund was slain by his brother Sigward at a place called Himmelshed loci vocabulum interpretatur ca-li in Nerike (in Nericia campus. in so far as it was taken into account at all. * Adam of Bremen. anciently of several different stocks. subject to both kingdoms alternately. which sti-etched along the border of the former in indefinite extension towards the 9 We given now ascend to old Swedeland. On the west. The traditions confirm each other. Sverike. SETTLEMENT. as is evinced by the abundance of laemorials remaining from the times of heathenism. and Mosas in Nerike. were the scenes of many a combat whose memory the sagas have sung. reckons it as belonging to East-Gothland. 46. when Nerike depressed between hill-peaks connected them. Brem. Yet the settlement of their country is old. 19 across lake Vener. as the The cultivation of early from that of later times. and from this circumstance in former days. and thence over the Kolmard. . perhaps from that very reason. Before Olave Haraldson entered Lake Malar with his ships. c. which has its name to the monarchy of Sweden (Sverike). Suithiod Proper was encompassed by old Gothland. south of Mariestad. for the name of Dalecarlia was not yet known. and the place where Oerebro. that for a long time there was no church between Ask. fii'st laid the a. These. and Eidskong in Norway. on whose banks rose the holds of the sea-kings. Himmelshed (Himminlieidur. Sunnanskog. lake. T. B. the nether realm. 2 See the minute account of such a journey from VermeSaxo relates land. Between the dales were forests and mountains . 681. traverses great part of the province. in the eleventh century. still communicates with the sea by Nykoeping river. i. whence the name ' of the territory. 48). Langhals n. it is plain which Oresund is meant in the description of the march of Sigurd Ring. . B. Olave. that King Braut Anund with his train. Explained as Nederrike. The first occupiers kept close to the streams which took their course to lake Vener. iv. 3 < 1. north. Cat. Eida Skog. and Mosas. c. to belong to Gothland in the wider sense. which proves that the settlers of Olave confined themselves to the western part of Vermeland. and the waves of the Vener. The name still remains in the parish of Eda in Vermeland. bordering on Norway. he overcame the Viking Chief Sote.). The settled districts were separated from Norway by the waste wood 1. the whole of eastern Vei'meland was a wilderness. Gothland that Landslagen south of the forest. Ad. TOPOGRAPHY. This district. in Eigils saga c. visiting his manors in time of harvest. at the place 6 It is ' Sweden Proper was called the land north. K. and a border land in the occupation of both Swedes and Goths. The Kolmard and the Tiwed still separate them. Description of East-Gothland. and to Norway. and the Lesser called old — 2 A district of this character. still too marshy for cultiva- Rhyme-Chronicle gives the same account. heaven's heath). 8 I. by lake Hielmar. its proximity to the coast of Wiken. He derived much of his materials from the relations of the Danish King Sueno Ulfson (magnam materiam hujus libelli ex ejus ore coUegi. and it is perhaps on this account that the oldest historian of Christianity in the north *. Brem. Nordanskog.Gothland. way). This great lake. and the whole sion extent of sisted its of moor and moss low lying.) is c. Inter Normanniam c. p. related in the Ynglingasaga. 9 Ynglingasaga. East-Gothland side also a similar tradition is current.xe to the root of the primitive forest. (Tratalja) Swedeland. Nerike is of more recent occupancy yet it was '" . 67. he had to fight with the Vikings of Sijdermanland. through which the road into that country has long passed. Sigurd Ring marched over the Kolmard to the fight of Bra valla. s. probably settled by Braut Anund. 539. hill and dale. Gl. merly called Wikingakir the old district of Wingaker embraced both the parishes of that name with Osteraker and Malm. 02 .5. Reg. Suec. c. was killed by a land-slip between two precipices. Land's Law of king Christopher. commences tion. then along the stream of the Motala to Brawick. Verheland. which at Tarsta in the parish of Skyllersta.) The forest filled up the interval. and goes through the parish of Swennevad.3. Beskrifning om Skara On the (Description of the Diocese of Skara). its ice-fields. Lindskog. where Olave the Treefeller when the hate of the Swedes had driven him from his refuge in Nerike. formed in the age of Paganism by the Swedejunction of Swedeland and Gothland *. HJigahed. as its i-slands. 61. a diviwhich is as old as our history. with the border conflicts and adventures which its shores often witnessed. Through Nerike. ' There is an old saying that the distance of Stift Tiwed once filled up the ten miles between Mokyrka. and soon arrived at well-being s. ii. but calls the i)lace So the great ridge in Nerike is named. the Sudermanians show fewest provincial peculiarities. 1. was little else than a group of islets. alone formed the frontier on the eastern as well as the western side of the Vener. communication in Sweden. AND CULTURE. de situ Dan. Skridfinns or Finn-Lapps still wandered in the wilderness* . (the land's law). thus exAs a people tending Gothland to Lake Maelar. of 1442. (Among the Verm.39. Although the great woodland formed the border. Wingaker in Sbdermanland was for- 3 buried near the high stone half a mile south of Swennevad on the road. day has been when the great forests of Tiwed and Kaglau nearly met '. 1. in the recesses of which robbers lurked in ambush for those who undertook the dangerous office of carrying the tributes of Vermeland to the Towards Gothland. about 944. through the wide-extended valleys of the country. congregated in a border-land on the sea. 54. Ad. et Svioniam Vermelani. c. For Vernieland was a debateable territory between the Swedes and Norwegians *. the chief seat of the sea-kings* of Upper Sweden. (Broocman. K. formerly Oeresund '. 1. 7 The place was also formerly called Eyrarsund and Eyrarsundsbro. form one of the great systems of water . Hence. vii. now stand on the boundary between Sweden We Proper and Gothland (Svea and Gotaland). The name is still extant in the Hundred of Sotholm. who passed several years of his youth in military lb. Script. forests king of Norway ^. Rer.

that Norway may with great labour be traversed in one month. 5 Swadrik. Sueonia. . ' The Swedish dominion (Svia-welldi) has many divisions. Gothland is included. says the of more modern date therefore Ynglingasaga (one existed when it was written) . JiLAR. but Sweden hardly in two . all that could be used to for cultivation and pasture lay upon the sea . Quenland. in some places two weeks. and what lies near.' Comparing these descriptions. but above that lake. yet not very far. wild morasses. ceptation. to the north beyond the desert. the two most extensive kingdoms of the north. In this wilderness dwelt the Finns. x. the east. before-mentioned. Tiundaland makes the third division of Suithiod . eleventh century gives us the following picture ' To those who have passed by the Danish islands ex(so the historian of Christianity in the north presses himself). and paid after the the place now called was still in the chronicle of Scottish name of Sweden : Trans. 7 Travels of Ottar and Ulfsten. among number. Gauthiod 1 An amount demonstrably too great. for the regions above the Malar Lake. land. which surrounds with its Alps that of the There are many populations in Sweden .' written in the sixteenth century (for example Olave Peterson). the first Swedish kingdom was founded. after the 8 the Swedes. with Vermeland and the Marks. that hence is taken the old as it Upsala Ode. we have elsewhere shown. fled to king Anund Jacob Olave. and he took possession of the land round about. there is Upsala.son Ynglingasaga. hence they appear able with Of their power to break all the rest of the north. it must have been yet more so in the narrower and the accounts remaining leave us at no loss where to seek for the In the land upon the oldest Suithiod. as well as the temple. and first the gods. Another landlot is East Gothland. Suecia. M sacrificed manner of the Asae. sometimes to In the latter acthe whole realm of Swkden ^. Suithiod. was a Swede by birth (Saxo. lay rocky mountainous wastes of varying breadth ^. the number of the churches in the diocese of Skara. Next. c. . removed the place of sacrifice to Upsala. arose from a misapprehension (quinnornas land. another world opens itself in Sueonia and Normannia. was named Sigtuna 2. and westwards the Norsemen. Instead of Sverike. - fight of Helgea. The Ynglingasaga (c. Swedes. in equal extension with the cultivated land. that under the bishop who is set over it there are eleven hundred churches *. 23. the West Goths are next to whose land borders on Scania . Brera. then (from Lake Malar upwards) the Sveons over a vast extent of country to the A hundred and fifty years land of the Quens ". and was from an early period applied. according to the third it embraces the districts around the Malar. Saga of Magnus the good. later. so that for crossing them. earl Ulf. Sverge. all eastwards to the sea. c. and hence the name Upsala Ode. postea longis terrarum spatiis regnant Sueones usque ad terram foerainarum. hence the Swedes also worshipped Frey as the god of harvests. which is also a bishopric to this now belong Gottland and Oeland. former. One of the editors of our old laws sugme that this statement has crept in from a clerical Yet the Rimbegla has the same error. Tiundaland is the principal and best cultivated part of Suithiod. Under his sceptre the peace of Frey and plenteous years prevailed in all lands. When the latter. Beyond the mountains and the wilderness which was parallel with Southern Norway. had himself foimd. The Goths stretch their bordei-s as are other. as he said. instead of Quenernas land). whose leaders traced their progenitors to Here Odin erected his court. p. of the latter was long and narrow. To this the whole kingdom is subjected . during twelve yeai's warfare in these lands under the Swedish king Anund Jacob. the East Goths us.) et Gothorum populi. the first shows the name of Sweden extending generally the second uses it likewise to the whole kingdom in the narrower sense. were required. Proper. especially the land of the Norsemen. Nor in the Steiddis (States) I dar nocht ga. p. decreasing north it was mountainous. was 592. is contracted from Svea Rike. the . the dispenser of fertility. (in the Latin of the middle ages Svedia. 1. According to the Anglo-Saxon means forest as well as morass and mountain. lay Sweden (Svealand) The stretching to the north as far as Quenland '. the country of women. 422. they name it part of the world. Bannatyne Poems. Smaland and Nerike are not named. which included also Vermeland and Dalsland. king Alfred says. (Note." as the Upsala estate was called after Frey. far as Birca . vilde moras. For so the Swedes call the estate of the Swedish kings . the people of Sweden. Saga of St. in Adam of Bremen. 163. caused earl Ulf to be assassinated.20 Describcii bv HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. In the ninth century. His father. in others six days. Svea Rikes Hafder 1. and are reckoned among the stoutest warriors both by sea and land . and all these together make a still larger bishopric. But however ancient that name may be in the first-mentioned larger application.) has therefore a double import. West-Gothic Law. sometimes only to Upper Sweden as distinguished ment from Gothland. Both countries are encompassed by very high mountains. and brother-inlaw of king Canute in Denmark. the fifth Sioland (Sealand) and what is adjacent thereto. Dunbar. which he. c. 103). oniy so that the land itself. instead of vi. the softer pronunciations Sverige. broadest in the in width towards the south and east. they are remarkable for strength and skill in arms. is Sueonum in Sweden in 1031. that which is called Westmannaland or Fiadhrundaland is a bishopric. Gauthiod. 5. became usual. Alfred and Snorro. Here was the oldest " property of the kings of Sweden. so that in his days the country people were richer than before through the seasons and the peace . xi. on the east (across) the Sarmatians. Respecting these the Christianminded king of the Danes ^ has related to me. which is called Sodermanland this is a bishopric. acre hominum genus et ad bella fortissimum. where old Sigtiina lies. the Gautigoth of the Gothic historian Jordanes. there the king's seat and that of the archbishop. 176. and this realm is so large. the fourth is called Attundaland. north-westward the SkridThe country finns. Denmark. or wilderness generally. In Suithiod Proper is a landlot. almost unknown to our . which is undoubtedly derived from the and with it Blekiug. 1 Snorro writes in reference to the establishof Christianity in Sweden . . Gothia. 4C) does not reckon the inhabitants of the latter gests to King Sueno Ulfson. 6 In the But mor in original. . That the terra fa-minarum which suggested to this author the fable of the Amazons. . 3 Supra eam(Sconiam) tenso limite Gothi habitant usque ad Bircam. Ad. . the Swedes (Sveon) had on the south the Baltic. and Norraway. One is West-Gothland.

The Morakarl (inhabitant of the parish of ' Mora in Dalecarlia) still says holds this place in the Registrum Upsaliense. they still continued to give the first vote in the election of a king. Upland. also called Manhem. and formed a province in itself. in the confined acceptation. although those of the north were not then so extensive as still They were nover included among the Folklands. to this tradition.. Out of the first. from many different quarters. The division into Hundreds. 21 revei-ence than the otliei" deities. as well as Attunda and Fierdhundra. being even now almost wholly an island surrounded by the Malar lake. whensoever a Swedish elective diet was conThe voked. The district of DroHtheim in Norway was also divided into Fylkes called mean the same. was formerly called Olanda-mor. 1. or Harads. which however. B. The Folklands were the chief seat of the Swedes. the domicile of the Swedes properly so called. contained the mining thickly wooded. however. Manhelgs. and the dred of the Arlennings. incapable of tillage. the former perhaps. Tiundaland contained ten We We 3 The term Folkland first appears in the law book of UpBut the three shires which made the Folkland. The divisions of former days are not . TOPOGRAPHY. both words indeed •• arja to plough found often in similar compounds. up to the present time only partially printed. Folklands. now Erlinghundra. The same Frey who reaped perhaps the first harvests of the land. denoted all the settled region above Lake Malar. anciently the first in Tiundaland ^. Attunda eight. Tiunda. Sudermania and Nerike were border tracts. ar-bot. was of late origin . K. Afterwards. as agreeing with lines of division This northern boundary fixed by nature herself. . which thus appears to be of earlier date than the introduction of Christianity. L. It ga till moren'.Folklands. arose the Folklands (Folklanden)^. the Kings call the former district namely of the population of Sudermania and Nerike. still forms the general line of demarcation between the chief agricultural district of Upland and its the ridge hilly woodlands. and in general what was anciently called Upland. made in the year 1344 by command of archbishop Hemming and 'the chapter of Upsala. both Arland. where the eattle-staUs stand. these possessed the right of giving a king to the him higher this From whole realm. Between these boundaries lay old Tiundaland. or Arlanders. 9 Hun- of the Folklands. B. as the names. civ. that afterwards in the Christian age. Between both. and through Lofsta and Hallnas. and from the oldest Suithiod. and when this privilege was invaded by the claims of the other provinces. Fierdhundra at first probably four and here doubtless we discover the true origin of the names. rest upon lake Malar. nature of the country and with The earliest settlement in Upland was made where which the Chronicles of Odin founded that we earlier half of the fourteenth century Sigtuna . in which cultivation. Of the old king Ane it is related. ^ ' to the parish of Olanda-mor. According to their numerical succession he is said to have named the Hundreds of his kingdom. which received their inhabitants from both sides. in all cases the same with those of later but the Hundreds composing the three old Folklands may still be ascertained. but that were already settled beneath them. and mentions Oresundsbro and Staket as attach weight border points on the other side. at the time when even Westmanland seems to have been one of the FolkThe inhabitants were called Upper lands*. Fierdhundra. which for so many centuries preserved this relic of the prerogative of the old Sweons. as for example. and its ten Hundreds can still be pointed out within these hmits. still the as belonging to Attundaland. un-Iand) is the opposite of Arland. (Olof Trygywason's saga. ed. The forest went through Uanemora and Tegelsmora. year. one after another. that part others . people the soil. is said to have also introduced human sacrifices. when by the extension of cultivation it was parted from Fierdhundra. properly answers Morkarla in the Hundred of Oland. to go to the wood. From ar. compi'eliended Tiunda. from the list of which Westmanland also disappeared. thus produced. and on which Sigtuna rose. arose out of the oldest structure of society among our forefathers. and is at the same time which separates the waters flowing to lake Malar on the south. whose Swedish forefathers had passed the forests of Kaglan and the Malar. use both liindig and oliindig to mark the quality of whence . and defined by natural boundaries. 71/or. when their name and power was more widely spread. was formed the hundred of Arland *. a Swedes (Upp-Svear) in the heathen period proof that they were not the only Swedes. Its middle and northern part district (bergslag) of Upland. and extended north to the sea^. as the Gothlands were of the cognate race. is a forest. had been destined for the same fate. if we compare the detailed . the law book of Westmanland speaks of the ting or court of the Folklands. whom the people rescued. hundreds (hundari). in old Swedish. its southern part was cleared so early. year's growth. Skalh). but were at length considered as whence the neighbouring was called at first Sigtuna. The latter. find. Beyond the narrow bay of the Malar called Skarfwen. or the untilled wood. and Tiundaland received its name. to Odin. as the situations evidence. originally terms denoting arable land and wilderness. he sacrificed nine of his sons. that a saying of the country makes the boundary of Tiundaland go on tlie one side through the present parishes of Skefthamraar and Vendel. point cultivation was extended over regions wliich formerly lay waste. are already mentioned under the Yngling line. from these which run to the Baltic on the north . afterwards Habo Hundred. from Arland to Oland '. 8 In the Register of Upsala. ar-madr. in the wider sense. SETTLEMENT. statements the possess respecting them. on the other hand. through its sea-kings. up to the days of Gustavus Vasa. 5 In the Registrum Upsaliensej a collection of deeds formerly belonging to the cathedral of Upsala. which was reckoned belonging definitively to Swedeland. the oldest cultivation of Upland stretched south and north. which already receives this name in the old sagas. in the meaning of aring. Attimda. Legends of horrors in the night of paganism are blended with these earliest accounts of the occupation of old Suithiod. They were called Gothic or Swedish as the points of view differed. that to protract a life which had already lasted its full space. Oland ( lit. extensive hundred of Oland. the southern border-points. in the Register of Upsala. &c. from ^ with the earUer accounts. lands are already named in the Ynglingasaga. and the meaning is still preserved The country in the adjective oliindig. B. li. and of a survey Folklands. AND CULTURE. because the tenth son. Hence. B.

Brem. Yet to this name. The eight districts of Attundaland reached in the eleventh century to the sea that of Sea Hundred (SEehuiidari) indicates the Sealand of which Snorro makes mention.cantonments of lake Malar appear to have ^. and embraced old Westmanland as far as Beyond. Rodslag and Skeppslag have the same meaning. From Scania to Sigtuna or Birca was five days' sail *. in quo loco sinus called skeppslag. is an exception. of which Birca was formerly the best known.. 3 '' Sictona civitas distat ah Ubsola itinere unius diei. ejus freti. With the origin Ad. In this manner the coast too was gradually occupied. afterwards added. Ecc. The four Hundreds of Fierdhundraland are undoubtedly the three lying between Orsundsbro and the Saga stream. formed in the heart of the kingdom the principal channel of internal and external traffic. dierum babes Dan. 2 Scholiast to Adam of Bremen de p. they follow the shores of the Malar. presenting several go<jd harbours. a name preserved in the district of Siunda or Siende. quod celeberrimum Sueones f' Oxenstiern. Here. in the heart of the forest. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. 22. 48. 54). our antiquarians have wished to find manifest traces of the old town. navigantibus ad Bircam not acquainted. the limits of this shire extended other Hundreds had been added to the four oldest. This. Slavons.' Palmskbld. of friendly as well as hostile intercourse. and barter their wares ". Arcs is the mouth of a stream. 1. and Vita Rimwhich Adam of Bremen had before him. especially from Thorsacre onwards. 3 Birca est oppidum Gothorum. Lake Ma. not. in their progress to the sea (whence it is also sometimes called a bay or outlet of the Baltic). in the forests of the north none are found '. exposed to the frequent assaults of sea-robbers. in the Farther south. With the advance of cultiafter three vation. Upsola dicto. habent in cultu deorum. in medio Sueonise positum. quidam ' A A Sconia Danorum iter. v. was a town lying in the centre of Sweden. the course of the water with scattered habitations. which thence received I of the • name am quinque sit. here called oppidum Gothorum. says. its interior is studded continuously with island groups. as well as of other people of Scythia. Olave. 62. a definite meaning attaches only in so far as it marks a portion of old Suithiod distinct from the Folklands. because rookarlar (Oarmen) or mariners dwelt upon the coast for our forefathers were wont to assign to the seamen particular districts. 1157. the apostle of the north.elar. with two others. of the year 1640. Sconia Danorum per mare velificans quinto die pervenies ad Sictonam vel liircam. from the resemblance of names. These. &c. we are told. in a protocol of the Council. Brem. all the running waters of Suithiod fall. Compare Vita Ansgarii per Rimbertum. In this shire they are scattered over the south and middle districts . that when he wrote (in 1072). used to assemble here to a staple. on. and near the boundary of Upland. 50. Tracts of ancient occupancy iu Sweden are every where marked by the barrows which indicate the graves land *. witnesses who had seen it two hundred years before. as old remains prove. Lying eastwards on the sea. Birca was desolate and razed to the ground. c. stretching to the Dal-elf. This description is not suitable to the little island Biorko. following. of those who once tilled the soil. xiv. they afterwards became '. 1. i. c. with Thorsaker in the west. A roaming life. by sinking masses of stone for a diction (lagsaga) of Upland. 6. They call it the great distance. for some are mentioned in the Register of Upsala. as his words imply. the most famous of all among the Swedes . was in later times still reckoned part of the juris. day's journey *. had. is styled by the same writer in another place Birca Sueonum (de situ Dan. in the days of its prosperity. Birca. it is expressly said. The islets south Barbaric Sea stretching towards the north. and Sembers. wliere the present mining district appears for a long time to have been almost wholly untilled. This spacious and noble lake. tlie productive territory of Ui>laiul stretched. Rimbert. juxtaenim sunt. along the stream which runs from lake Temnar to the sea. He mentions Hist. which they ' . Its entrance was in all times narrow*. that Birca was situated near and from thence to Upsala was only one Sigtuna ^. What is here said of the course and extent of cultivation in old Westmanland. but sideways to the westward. Roden. made arms. Rodslagen was so called. and in a diploma of 1280. Topog. Lastly. Ansgar. and the piracy of the Finlanders. and the ships of the Danes. this tract into ship. Above the northern frontier. ii. at Tierp. and by the scald Thiodolf ^. which land. ascending the water-courses. in the Malar. to use the words of the saga. its name. mentioned in the Ynglingasaga. long Tiuudaland it impossible for the inhabitants to submit to the regulations of civic order and fixed partition. also saw it *. (Swarta) in the Malar at Westeras. Ad. Eastern Aros is the mouth of the water of Fyris in Lake Malar at Western Aros is the mouth of the Swart water Upsala. Here must be placed the connnon-wood (Almiinnings-skog). it appears to have been once called Seven Hundred. a name remaining in Roslagen. non longe ah eo templo. Ibid. into whose basin. c. for the inhabitants. it is Suithiod's coast territory. Norsemen. 3 In the relation of Ague's death. the navigation was very dangerous to those who were careless or little conversant with the localities. p. Thus did the ancient inhabitants of Sweden establish themselves on both sides of the M. c. branchmg with so from separated Gestrieland. to . 80. to the end of lake Malar and the forest of Kiiglan. Saga of St. p. Hist. although the author fi'om whom we have extracted the above account adds.22 Westmanland. s Tuhundra. The Sembers are the inhabitants of Samland in Prussia. so that hardly a But we may appeal to vestige of it was to be seen. . visited it twice his successor and biographer. the parsimony of nature. more general as used by him. for the Chancellor Axel 7 The parish of Enaker. that Rimbert also had been in Birca. and garlanded with isles. as its import is preserved in the still subsisting division of . are also numerous Westman- made the passage dangerous both themselvesand the enemy yet here was the safest haven in the Swedish rocks. berti. 2 These are of old standing. . not far from the temple of Ufsala. 22. where. Westeras^. 59. Ecc. ' They are enumerated in the Register of Upsala. is confirmed by memorials remaining from the heathen age. in common in the Folklands. within the heathen age. all that part of Westmanland which was cleared and brought into cultivation was called and foi'med Two Hundreds'*. a settlement was formed. in the place where a bay of the Baltic or many been formerly included under it Toren. now Sodei'torn. 5 Western Aros. forms a desirable haven for the nations dwelling round . not iu a due northerly direction.lar. Siuhunda.

forests. Anglo-Saxon Byric. through fifteen rasts of wood and wildei'ness. and build his court. It is still so called. for help seen '. at the breaking up of the ice. yet the commencement of its cultivation may be dated from the opening of the mines during the Christian middle age . dently SiGTUNA. which had been covered by the snow throughout the winter. were temples of idols. through a still larger wood in Western Dalecarlia. except in Nasgard parish. for one of them is called the "former. was probably derived from the ' Anglo-Saxon form of a northern word of similar meaning. 8 2 ^ Sverre's Saga.) At least 47 years before. and in any case. till they arrived in Jernbaraland. since tun means fence. and the great Gustavus Adolphus. In almost all the metallic districts of Sweden. The name Birca. Ad. interposed between the greatest water-courses and lakes of Sweden. who lived dispersed in the forests . when they began to visit the coast of the Malar . but of what nature the fortification was. (For some further account of Dalecarlia. see note B. from Jernbaraland eighteen rasts to Herjedalen. which lay through wildernesses. has been mentioned above of the wooden retrenchment surrounding the town of Lund. days so remote. at the end. through Helsingland and Jemteland to Norway.Birca. inhabitants still subsist by the preparation of skins. Icelandic Scalds visited the Malar so early as the time of Eric the Victor. Adam of Bremen. A still more adventurous journey speak of Birca. 23 port of the kingdom of Sweden. here united in one channel. 51. TOPOGRAPHY. Here always where sepulchral mounds are likewise is the Jernbaraland (iron- m bearing land) of the heathens. This word may be viewed partly as a translation of the name. On his flight from Southern Norway. who later. although it probably was not yet destroyed. archbishop of Bremen. earlier. Near its watei's cultivation existed since pagan days. over streams and lakes. to oppose his passage. Sundborn. a village where were rich traders.. doubtless. Svai'dsio. never having quitted their forests to minYet they gave Sverre a good gle with other men. present dm-ing the twelfth cen- paved the way for agriculture this applies in great part even to the Mine-Canton of Upland. died there in 936. whether such a one was a man or a beast. All this is a new country. 12. and morasses. first inhabitants. 204. abundance of goods of all sorts. afterwards so celebrated from the actions of Gustavus Vasa. Here there was not only vichiity of place. bsterbergslagen. for Unni. according to the Edda. which long afterwards were called may be judged from what Olave's booths. and scarcely knew. If the town had been destroyed in in tlie interval {this it probably happened the next century). to Malung. highlands of Kopparbei'g. which. thence through woods and wildernesses.) 1 Borgstad. and in eastern Dalecarlia none. but community of names and it is not otherwise to be explained how the old Icelanders should never . enclosure . Olave's expedition in the spring of the year 1030. c. as the pagans said. 5 Molungr. the memory of a town then so celebrated could not be lost for them *. and still more extensively to those of East Vermeland. are the districts of Sala Silfverberg and Stora Kopparberg. lay near Birca . ' many and powerful deities' . The name is supposed to have been given from The the snaring of the marten. 100 years Biica. as the historical Sagas inform us. during which the adventurers had often nothing for food but the rind and juice of trees. the oldest of the Swedish mining to districts. also. and the name was even given to the Eastern division. Thorsang (Thors Haugh) is. who chose him for their captain. copies the Slavorum. and the present Eastern Muie-Canton '. or. where the travellers lived on the flesh of the reindeer and birds. between which the boats were carried : huts were erected for the night campings. and sacrificed to their gods or ' evil spirits'. Sverre again proceeded with a band of retainers through JernThe peasants now made retrenchments baraland. perhaps Elfdal or Mora. Ecc. Near Birca there was then certainly another town or castle with some fortificathis there tions. and Over these tracts lay the course of St. then. and which." and it is in • this quarter we must also seek for Birca. Remark therewithal that they mention two Sigtunas . and WestFor although this whole mountainous manland. and in part even 5 s tury ? The people were still heathens . which is here Eastern Dalecarlia. i. and wished to know nothing Yet he got through. and shared in the fight of Upsala against StyrbiiJrn in 983. Trans. one of the oldest places in Dalecarlia and there are relations yet existing which describe how the inhabitants spread their farms into the . it is mostly far more recent. although of no great strength . This was in 1177. with berries. often across great floods. and aided him on his journey.and came to Jernbaraland. Hist. in so far as the term is applicable The town here not named is eviagainst peril. ^ through the twelve-mile wood (tolfmila skog) to Eke's hundred in Vermeland •. Birca was still in existence. and arrived this of them. Nerike. which we first hear of in authors of Saxon birth ^. he chose for his ' castled town' ^. What aspect did this remote territory. they had never seen a king in their country. 9 There are no barrows to be found northwards of the Dal. 20G. except in Mora. was made 150 years later. castle. a place which had even then a name. T. the same Sigtuna where the Ynglingasaga makes Odin establish sacrifices. He marched out of Upland through the forests. as the frontier forest towards Dale- (Svea Rikes Hafder. and so too. so far as is known to the author. so was it with the mighty Dal-elf. king Sverre ^ marched with a band of robbers. and many treasures. somewhat more than f Eikis Herat. and in the following year. Brera. as Mine-tracts. Thence the road lay over a country of incredible difficulty. saj-ing they were not used to such kingly ])rogresses. 1. and farther over Jemteland to Drontheim (Trondhem). there the inhabitants and traffickers of Birca sought a refuge from hostile assaults. and Helmold. time at Alfta in Helsingland. latinized into Byrca or Birca. AND CULTURE. nay. been yet forgotten. The southern part of the province of Dalarna (Dalecarlia) is of older settlement. . tract. although it does not appear under the same As the great streams generally drew to name. reception. was anciently not without mining operations . though writing in Latin. comparatively. Falun. dating from the new impulse given to mining pursuits under Charles IX. carlia is called the ten-mile wi'od. Jerubai'aland extended thence to Western Dalecarlia. " in liis Chronicon former in reference to Borg. it is said. which is here called mol. and inhabitants who lived by the chase '. SETTLEMENT. could not have (The Swedish mile is six and a half English. their banks the oldest population.) So the Copenhagen edition. as has been shown.

wliich was granted to them by king Magnus Ericson. established a commercial intercourse between his subjects and the settlers of this This addiction to trade is noted as charegion'. He fled before king Osten Illrada eastwards from the mountains of Kiolen . Among eleven such in there are five which are marked with the soHelsingland. and was for a long time his man. Saur over them to be king. and generally popilation ascended from the sea the waters of the valleys. falls entirely within the range of history . they traded with their furs to Norway. and the It might inscription Sigillum commiinitatis Gestrikiae. observes Snorro. rying on a trade -with Sweden. after him Helsingland is named. chase were the first.. 43. 435. 8 9 ' j Merkisman. half liistorical. For this cause was Heriulf. At last he enticed the king's sister Ingeborg to love. Sweden's southern region was inhabited by Goths as far back as our information reaches . which had their cattle-stalls in These pasture-lands being soon cultivated. Ericus Olai. banished from the land . in vallies bow and an arrow. which spring out of the nature of the country. Norges' Hist. by reason of the troubles. fonnerly so separated by the a large. and dwellings erected upon them. 7 Saga of Haco (Adalsten's fosterson). 1. 5 The Forest tSkog) parish of Southern Helsingland was anciently a wood commonable to six adjacent parishes in Jemteland bears on its arms an elk with a wolf at its gorge and a falcon on its back. and pushed on through Helsingland to the sea. All that portion of the present province of Norrland which lay along the coast from the mouth of the Dal ^ to above Norrbotten. although its earliest seal has a crowned bust with a drinking-horn reversed in the hand. 47. and the goat of Helsingland to the cattle-rearing of this province. which was formerly at Hedemora. T\o sons of Heriulf are mentioned as under-kings in Norway. II is preserved in the church of Mo. near the stream of Herje. on the pursuits of the inhabitants and their relations with each other. p. with the words. was occupied in the heathen age. a ' lost in Finland. two of whom slew each other in a quarrel respecting a fishery. and carHaco the Good. and for this they continue to be remarkable at the present day. . it followed partly the sea. there are barrows called goods-mounds and heathen-mounds. when that leader was encamped there with the Da'ecarlians against the Russians. This was Sigillum Communitatis Terrs Dalecarlorum. two barrows are mentioned by Hulphers in a single Runic stone upon the isle of Frosoe. fled with her. he was well received in Sweden by king Eric Edmundson. which is still proceeding at the present day. Eastwards to him fled many who dwelt in Drontheim. it. who is related to have introduced Dalecarlia had but one Runic stone. Thorer Helsing was grandson of Ketil . and settled in the wild valley south of Jemteland. has been preserved the settlement of the northern part. coming subject to the king of the Swedes. called Helsini^-Runes. four miles west of the church of Lillherdal parish ^ They still tell of a daughter of this personage. or Herjedale^. son of Gudfast. ^ Saga of Haco the Good. Gestricland also bears an elk on its arms. In Gestricland. issued at a general ting or court held methods of levying tribute. although of late origin. Only Jemteland. Gestricland was. eastwards on the sea. Dalresa. father of Harald the At a Fair-haired. * Ketil Jamte was the son of earl Anund of Sparabo in Drontheim (or Trondhem). with whose inhabitants both their extraction and : But vicinity of situation disposed them to amity.' be supposed from this. and the man whom he struck died. Not to be confounded with the Storsib (great lake) of •= whicli hoards of silver are said to have been found.' king of Norway. that the horn broke. a tree. c. upon which the province received its present armorial bearings. Of " Quas regiones fluvius Elf distinguit a Suecia. which after him received the name of The people of this Heriulf's dale. by the representation of natural objects. cattle-breeding and the chase supplying their mateSo permanent are relations rials of exchange. Helsingland Proper. the latter of whom claimed a right to the clearings. and Jemteland. The land-marks were now fixed by a at the judicial writ. the general name of Helsingland. and four sons. 14. and when Harald the Fair-haired grasped the whole dominion for himself. c. forest of Odmord. when king Osten was vexing them with taxes and set his dog called .' district still show the spot where the fugitive pair are said to have dwelt. the three burning mountains of Westmanland to its mines. {Georgii et Justus Dissertatio de Halsingia. and the mound where Heriulf's ashes and treasures were buried. and one of his grandsons was among the Elk hunting ^ and the first colonists of Iceland. feast. although heathenism was not extinct when the old nomadic inhabitants of this vast territory already began to be driven back by the new settlers. many from Drontheim and Nauradale again Further settlements were made joined him. There he tilled the land. the Swedes the original had settled Helsingland'. lay Herjedale and JemteLAND. I Schcining. eastward of Jemteland. racteristic of the first Non-landers . the following ' Heriulf was banner-man " relation is preserved to king Halfdan the Black.24 Helsingland. The oldest seal of Dalecarlia South Hill of Helsingland in 1343. who thence had the surname of horn-breaker. of tlie occupancy of the middle division by the Swedes an account. in memory of dstmader. that although in the fourteenth century new parish had been formed within its bounds*. was still called in the fifteenth century by In the west. again.' time of Steno Sture the elder. nearer the mountains. 14. Gestricland. the new settlers and the old proprietors. yet often throw light. and partly the stream of the Gafel (from which the fishing village and town of Gefle received its name) to the lake Storsio *. those who abode there be- the settlement of Herjedalen. The new settlers therefore prayed that they might be allowed to form a separate parish. So the crossed arrows of Nerike refer to the chase of its forest bore an axe. in the animals. parish of Hede. although these had been already alienated by will and paid tax to the crown. on Herjedalen. he struck another courtier so rude a blow in his anger v

ith a silver-mounted drinking-horn. were transferred by the occupiers to their children. that the province had its name from the time when the Upsala kings first visited it in demand of guestrites (gastning). Christianity hffre. while they themselves inhabited their own Contests soon arose between granges in the old parishes. of Liung and Liusne. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Of the first settlement of these countries the Chronicles of the Kings give the following account. and is still. which was one of the most ancient 2 ' Helsingland and Gestricland. two dale arrows crossways. The arms of the provinces. half mythical. and long the principal occupations of those who fixed their abode in these territories . In the Hulphers. he cleared the woods and cultivated the ground in the district now called Jemteland. especially in the parishes of Ofvansio and ThorsFrom acre. and stood high in his favour. the country round which.

Mound of the North path '. s 9 ' was formerly written Sillanger. old accounts still remain. was a territory of vast size. Dissertat. 1772). s In the Lappic Sildut. formerly a fishing village. and from the word tnor. found Finnmark. T. and new granges (hemnian) detached from the old. . 2 This parish has two herrings on its seal. which appears only a careless utterance of Midelfva. Saga of Finn-skatt. Northern Scandinavia was called Finnmark. who having passed the forest. hbgen stigen. with many great firths . enormous waters also near them spacious forests. 25 the traveller was yet obliged to rest in a safetylodge in the midst of the wood. . Angr means wick.) New Angermanland has three salmon in its arms. though the trading peasants (Bircarls' as they were called) visited this upper region. (Asp and Genberg. 8 i Helsing. whence its arms have that figure. beyond it that of Helsingland. TOPOGRAPHY. Finn-fard. 1674. now . in the ninth century. Midelfvaland is the land between the rivers. the largest in Scandinavia. in the interior. herring. in the country itself. or district of Indals-elf '. or the Lappic kala. to fish and trade with the Lapps whence the archbishop of Upsala at this time extended the limits of Helsingland. wild regions of mountains and dales. wood. 1734. Agriculture was more anciently practised in the southern part of Helsingland than in either of these provinces. no doubt at first supplied the most available means of subsistence. In the Lappic. but only a single Runic stone is mentioned. from heathen times. To this point the law of Upland was obeyed. as far as the Ulea stream in East Bothnia. and the Lapps were driven from the sea-coast. Pitomaano (perhaps the forbidden or sacred river. Odmord (waste wood). the mountainous districts of other parts of Sweden. Above this limit stretched the wastes of Lappmark. and hamlet of Klabbble. the settlements thus begun reached to Skeldepth ^. Ubme-ano (from umome. 8 Said to have had its name from the murder of St. broken place of land. was notorious for the acts of robbery and violence perpetrated in it the boundary line was formed by the Mordback (murder-brook) ". indicate the relations subsisting between them and their neighbours. which formed part of his diocese. or to the sixty-fifth degree. In the former half of the fourteenth century. running along the waste. deriving its to the coast. Torne. c. . especially Tornea. Two streams are shown on the armorial bearings of the province. almost as far south on that side as Halogaland on the other. Egil. germanners (men of the creeks or rocks) by the salmon fisheries* among the clusters of islets formed by the Angerman river. although the name incontestibly has the Lappic or The Fennic origin above stated. 6 So the names of the Ume. Kalix. Of these and of the aspect of the country. such as are sometimes Ups. p. wood. or radno. Heaps of stones. and the name Tome streams. according to an ancient authority. land. and the names of the rivers now become Lappic ^. From the most ancient of them ' we . Mound of the South path. layer of rocks. 63. From this example may be leariieil the history of the progress of cultivation in Norrland. north. nay. the apostle of the Helsingers. Holm. the young doe) kala. Salmon-fishing in the spring and summer allured the Norwegians across the mountains to the mouths of these streams a few remained throughout the winter the number of inhabitants received accessions of Swedish incomers. • In the parish of Umea. but the rearing of cattle. Finn-faring. This is at the present day the course of settlement in Norrland. . an arrangement probably subsisting from the heathen age. Kiilama. quarters. but these are here proportionably more recent than in other Skelleft . Mound of Sundheath (from which Gusta\-us Vasa addressed the Helsingers). Narrative of the Travels of Ottar and Ulfsten.) Our oldest antiquarians derived the name from sail. advanced here and there to the sea-shore. are found along the river Angermanna. and the sea fowl (for wild geese are the river. probably borrowed from the Swedish. • In Southern Medelpad many barrows and Runic stones In Angermanland not a few of the former are to be seen. 3 (Sill. name ^ from its situation between the considerable streams of Niurunda and Indal. This. or genehence the name of AngermaA. . at its mouth. like every other border forest. was settled before the inner dale. 14. throughout Sweden. and east. from the similarity of name. Finn-kop. Oxford. s Medelpad. It may be mentioned as an example of priestly invention. The herring and sprat (stroming) fisheries upon this coast are as old as the name of the parish of Employment was furnished to the AnSilanger ^. from he!si (collar). Pasturage was every where the beginning of cultisettlements (nybyggen) were made. is the name of a sort of wild duck or goose with a ring round the neck. Settlements existed as far as the Umea. happy. rather. and extended across to the White Sea. Finn-trade'. lying to the north. 7 Sunnanstigshogen. SETTLEMENT. if it was not. This was to a still greater extent the case with the provinces of Medelpad and Angermanland. now a town. river is called by the Lapps Tome ano. from radn. the fisheries of the Baltic. AND CULTURE.Angermanland. The north-western part of Helsingland is probably that which was peo. Raune. and found here the islands of the blessed. These names were also given to lands belonging to the estate of Upsala. vation. by which the divisions of Helsingland were formerly regulated. m pled by Norwegians from Jemteland and Herjedalen. till the Swedish setlers were numerous enough to follow the example in Swedish Lappmark. into Finland. the southerly valley of Niurunda. seems to have had its name from a tower (torn) built there. the sea. Where the road enters West Bothnia the last barrow is perceived *. reindeerprohibition) Kalas-ano (from the Fennic calf. Stephen. de Medelpadia antiqua et hodierna. fish. are beyond this point the only grave marks. or perhaps further along the Western coast. there are said to be barrows. Tower in Lappic is torne. where Hernosand is spoken of in the fourteenth century as a haven and staple. which some think of natural formation. having upon the west. with oldest Helsingei-s) *. hiigen i Sundheden. Pite. the manner of life and adventures of a northern settler of former days. Lule. This. forss. the chase. tongue rally a narrow. ' An account of the Bircarls is given in Scheffer's History of Lapland. Such phrases as Finn-tax. which is found in tlie name nord- Kolmord. ford). The Norwegians levied tribute from the wild inhabitants of Finnmark. and ano. That places of common interment and sacrifice were the points of union for the first settlers is shown by the old appellations . Hiilphers on Medelpad. is pronounced Melpa. and the great ridges which are called the Keels *. Finnmark commenced. Rauna-ano (reindeer river. elf or stream) Luleano (eastern elf). as ancient remains prove. from pjettom. waterfall or torrent. above Halogaland in Norway. carries a chalice (kalk) in its arms. that the parish of Kalix. in which the population adhered yet more closely In the former.

to entreat assistance against the Carelians who had ravaged his country. Thorolf stipulating that he should have an equal share of the booty. for the whole intervening coast lay waste. ' have Quensays king Alfred in the ninth century. A voyage to Biarmaland was regarded as a very gainful enterprize in the north. claimed exclusively the produce of the tributes and trade of Finumark. and this laud they had met with since was the first inhabited their departure from home. about the year 877. sea-fowl catchers. and they observed only some hunters. for the chase in winOnce he resolved ter. his manner of life. we observe also in this description the Norrland peasant of former times on the gulf of Bothnia. and the last-named people the Laplanders. countered and beat the Carelians in the mountains. and besides. five reindeers. lie among the hill tops. Fennic tribes. . and the Quens roamed as far as and across the frontier. He had visited the country. and the relations in which he stood to the Lapps. . were neighbours of our forefathei-s ' The Swedes. the latter prepared from the whales' hides and seal skins. partly from a desire to see it. Biarmaland stretched from the Dwina to the Volga and Kama.' in the present Swedish Norrland. and a costly chain round the neck.uenland. for which reason he was obliged here to wait for a north-west wind. and made predatory inroads upon the Norsemen.' one bear's hide. was situated at the mouth of the Dwina in a the great forest. because he had not himself seen it. the king with three hundred men. sent a messenger to Thorolf. The sacred place of this peo- . land on the north of their country beyond the and wilderness. and won a very rich spoil. understood. Thereupon Thorolf returned to Q. accounts of the north. name by which the Finns and Lapps now designate the Supreme Being. but that tlie land that stretched much farther towards the north here all was a waste only the Fuins sometimes made a stay in certain places. till he and his followers came to a great stream. Round the sanctuary was a palisade with the gate closed . and of these he gave some to king Their skins were very useful for ships' Alfred. in the hillocks and soil of which much the rich were gold and silver was stored for when to the bui-ied. pursuits. charged v. and the minivere and partly on account of the plunder collected on the way. Beyond this. and in this direction he sailed five days along the land. and twenty swine. that 870. whose tusks furnished the finest bone. crossed the Kcilen moun2 Butter and pork were in great demand in Finnmark. prince of the Quens. which was granted. in skins and feathers. not above seven ells long. yet he had no more than twenty cows. marched eastwards towards Quenland. had killed sixty in two days. When he is came in the wild to the king he had 600 unbought tame reindeer.2G Voyage of Ottar. for a trading voyage was often also a piratical expedition. The greatest means which 111 those of the country possessed. Several other Fennic tribes are mentioned in old ple . The kmgs of of Harald the Fair-haired. This was the condition of the wilderness but upon the great flood dwelt of the Terfinns Ottar the Biai-mers. twenty sheep. since the time . This idol had on its knee a large silver cup full of silver money. and. whales were found forty-eight ells long. as these did upon them. : nic ]>eople. did not dare to land there. partly on account of the traffic. and among them six decoys. there. Quens were intermingled in these for we are told of Quenland. the other of seal skin. — — and Quens inroad of the Kures in the time of as well as Sigurd Ring. and the largest Of such he said. but some of the inhabiseemed Their speech tants came on board to him. in which the furs of the sawere exchanged. and minivere as he chose to take. that the king should have a third part of the plunder. the chief men paid fifteen martens' skins. Here he waited for a due north \ iud. their deity was called Jumala. He was rich in such quote a passage If we substitute the salmon and seal fishery for that of whales. Then. They carried boats overland to the great lakes their small into An Sweden is mentioned possessions as were their wealth. a jerkin of bear or otter skin. one of morse hide. The Biarmers were a Fen- Norway. Every one paid according to his substance . that it lies near the Northern part of Norway. and in addition as many skins of beaver. a part of their wealth was consigned tomb along with them.' But Scridfinns and Northern tracts. Caravans from Bokhara brought thither the wares of the east. yet they sought help from the Norwegians against their enemies. that with six ships he fifty ells. consisted in the tribute paid by the Finns. and this whale fish was much smaller than But in Ottar's others. how much of it was true he knew not. the Scridfinns on the north-west. both of their own and the surrounding countries . it would appeal-. Faravid. He was one of the first men of his country. the commissioner of Harald the Fair-haired. till after three days he arrived as far northwards as whale fishers ever used to pass. own land was the best whale fishery .ith the levy of the tributes. who were all Finns. having the desert country the whole way on the starboard (to the right). the wliole country appeared to be cultivated. and the fishery in summer. who caught wild deer with them. which he therefore to him like that of the Finns. that animals called reindeer. on which the Finns. ropes. contaiuing a description of a voyage from Halogaland to the North Cape and The the moutli of the Dwina on the White Sea. He sailed yet three days to the north there the land bent along with the sea to the East. ten sacks of feathers. but chiefly on account of the walruses. more civilized than their cognate tribes. ness. the open sea on the larboard (to the left). to search how far the land extended towards the and whether men dwelt beyond this wildernorth. Norseman Ottar. Thorolf sable. set a high value. ble. and was the seat of an extensive trade. and then he sailed four days to the East along the coast. on the Western Sea. The law of the Quens was. and six men kept watch alternately every night. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. who left Norway about the year said to his lord king Alfred of England. and fishers. and were able to maintain this claim along the coast 2. Here too was their place of interment. and he ploughed a small piece of arable land with horses. The description of their Old country shows that they practised agriculture. he sailed towards the north along the land. he dwelt among the most northerly of all the Norwegians. in a well-settled country. whalebone and cordage. They enproceeded m company to Upper Finumark. and the Biarmers told him much. the Norsemen on the West. since the land and sea now curved towards the south. he with a light which hundred. with two ships' ropes. the beaver.

a branch of the Esthonians. apparently somewhat advanced in culture beyond the Carelians and Quens. Quenland ^. conclusion confirmed by the dialect. the Carelians. They had spread from the inner side of the gulf of Finland (called from them the Carelian). This seems a clear proof that the Lapland or Skritefinnia of former days stretched to this point. . under the year 1042. roaming also into Swedish Norrland. The Finns of Tacitus. 27 in Norway at Wefsen in HalogaThis powerful Halogalander. Tavasters. 329. and was slain in battle with the natives . The name is here written 1 in the forests throughout a great part of Upper Finland. Many such circles are found in Orihwesi and other parishes adjacent towards the north. but the Lapps. these old Finnish inhabitants. harassed the Swedish coasts with their piracies. Letts . Chron 49—50. in which beyond doubt lies the tribual appellation. « Compare Porthan. mentioned by Icelandic and Norwegian writers. Goths. " In the ninth century Estland still stretched to the VisTravels of Ottar and Ulfsten. which is the Russian pronunciation of their own Hame. were really Lapps. p.iiens were once spread. the Esthonians. which abound Tavesti. is shown by the circumstance that the whole North Sea was once tains. or the inland called the Queii sea. but with the name of Jiimer. who practised agriculture. where agricultm-e was whence it extended. for instance Esta-skar. or circles of loose stones. Some memorials of the piracy of the Esthouians and Tavasters are met with in Sodermanland. Egil's Saga. &c. 88. on the former sojourn of the Lapps in Finland. (Untersuch. leagued with the cognate tribes of the Kurians^ and Carelians^. SETTLEMENT. Even at the present day. was once applied to the whole country between the Vistula and the times by gulf of Finland ". 14. The old sagas represent intercourse between the Swedes and Esthouians as very early established. The coast of Russian Lapland was formerly called Karelastrand. South of the gulf of Finland we come upon the Esthouians (Esterne). his followers erected his barrow on the sea-shore. and it comprehended in this sense the whole of Bottenland. and that the land of the Tavastrians. are not mentioned under the heathendom by any distinctive appellation they were designated by our forefathers under the general name of Finns. To their territory the name of Finland was applied in distinction from the more savage Finnmark. who were styled Finns by the Norwegians and Icelanders. common to an important branch of the included not only it population of the north several Fennic races. to northern and eastern Finland . twenty Laplanders and Carelians of Kemi and Simo were baptized in a great vat at Tornea by a Swedish archbishop.. of December 9th. began here. by steps so slow as to be easily traced. which means not only a thaw. earlier than any of their brethren. first from West.). a translation of Hiime. Ester. and opened an intercourse with Sweden. Finns. all Finland. ^ That Finland Proper. to be regarded as younger in Finland than the cognate populations every thing seems rather to show that they were the main stock. from Hiim. Abo Transactions for 1778. marshy. it remained race still so called. also a narrower apmentioned as lying between plication. occurred. First spoken of under this name in the bull (jf Pope Gregory IX. tula. at length with the Fennic which in ancient times extended through Courland into Prussia^. and in their present dwelling-places they try . over Eastern Finland to the extremity of Finnmark^ . Saxo. in a word. a word signifying pro. the Swedish settlers displaced the Quens. South and West Finland. territory till addicted to war and piracy. 1237. both in Kurland and Semgallen. is a Porthan ad Paul. 18—20. Another wild race. Over how wide a tract the Q. as were the Finns of Scandinavia itself. Through the country of the latter king Suegder marched when he repaired to the East in quest of Odin. whose memories have survived from the heathen ages of the north. exactly as usual in the Lappic kata (cot). who was an active sea-chief. AND CULTURE.' they were delivered from the fear of Swedish 3 i '•• first introduced. p. miry ground. in the Esthoni. and the name was only extended by confusion to the rest of the soIf such called Finnish tribes in Finland Proper. as has been remarked. also Tre and Tre-nase. but none further south. ' that the waves of the Baltic might chant their When songs to please the king of the Swedes. with Tavastland (and afterwards also a part of East Bothnia)." f Permisti Estonibus Chori. trace the extension of agriculture from Lower Tavastland upwards. the Tavesters or Tavastrians '. it is at least in part imputable to the nations themselves. Just. This name. about 1350. p. taken from their easterly situation in reference to Scandinavia. considerable remains of 6 Thunmann Russian Chronicles mention the Tavastrians Skyllinge. 87. The name of Finns was from a very early time. to Upper Tavastland *. were tenanted by one and the same Fennic race (the Tavastic). mentioned by this name in Swedish records of a later day. it is said. Just. The stones are placed in a circle. . the Fennic name of which (Kainu) reminds us of its former possessors. Paul. sometimes in league with the former. Yngwar ravaged Estland. Suome. xiv. Many have maintained that the name originally appertained only to the Laplanders. They inhabited the southern and most fertile division of the coun. skerry. and arrived land. One still remains. It is. The same The notion lies in the Icelandic Tha (read thau). where the Lapp has his hearth. TOPOGRAPHY. by way of the Aland isles and Roslagen. wet. appear sometimes at war. supporting themselves otherwise by their herds and the chase. at this time drew great profits from the productive herring and cod fisheries of Lofoden and Vaage. 142—143. and the Tavesta Sconce in the parish of King Alfred and Fundin Noregur. and in the great Rhyme-Chronicle often Tavester. upon both coasts of the gulf of Bothnia. are at least as old as the furthest period to which the recollections of the north extend. and afterwards partly from East Bothnia. but also thawed. however. the indigenous name of Tavastland. Esta-klippa (Est- round which he and his family sit and lie. and is still. pants of Southern Finland. both Finns and Lapps give themselves the same national appellation. perhaps. Inquiry into the ancient " We find still History of some Northern Peoples. Such are the Fennic tribes. 3 •' The Lapp-rings (Lappringarne). whence the name of Trelinns or Terfinns. distinct from the Savolaxars and Carelians. Est-cliff ). occupied at different various tribes.C'arelians. They are not. and 2. We can besides." Lencquist. Same. where. properly so tongue. Helsingland and Finland*. first syllable Tav is more bard to explain. which may be proved to have once reached farther south than is stated in any of These occuthe sagas. and though the latter name has it We find domination. are manifestly vestiges of the habitations of Lappic families. c.

from Riga. their remains and memorials are numerous. Hence the Finns of Finland call themselves Suoraalaiset the Esthonians. as Lappinjarwi (Lapp lake). pleased at being called Finns. . are but translated names expressing the same idea. Arwidson. are forbidden to carry arms. p. finis. Ingria.uens and Carelians lived in the forests after the fashion of the Lapps. Compare Ancient History &c. still the admitted and indisphysical putable affinity of their languages evinces on the •• this is that expulsion from Finland. often of Finnish extracpeople dying off before cultivation. Somelassed the Lapps. Tacitus. and applicable to them at this day. lapp. . they otter the spectacle of a Yet the process of transition from one state to the other may be observed. 415. ScliefTer. Lappfiard (Lapp . the heathens of Carelia. This national name is therefore really of common application . and Ssum in old Russian. a sort of no- } Northern Europe. which recurs besides in the denominations of several Fennie tribes'". skin. also called Wildmanstrand) and in the Swedish parishes Lapptriisk (Lapp marsh). Lappdal (Lapp dale). they took the word from the Lapps. the latter think it an honour that they can claim kindred with the Finns. cattle. places the Finns nearly in the present Lithuania. and the reports which reached them as to its inhabitants relate to As the regions lying much farther to the south. tant (probably the Fenn in old Swedish. of 12. The old Q. but See Note C. firth). mistrust. are still found in Kemi Lappmark *. have been found among and near the Finns. it belonged even of old to m other baud that both belong to the same stock. the mountains. Walilenberg on Kemi Lappmark. The simple subject Lapps are said to have translated the Scandinavian Fenn bythe Finnish Suomi. marking the nature of their original dwell*.). of which the Lappic Same is only a varied prois an abbreviation of Suomenmaa. low. this a[)pellation seems to have originated with the Finns themselves. they maintain that the Swede and the Lapp were originally brothers. The same idea lies in Kaiimlaiset. and must have been situated in their vicinity. same word with the foregoing). From Upper Finland they were driven out by the Tavastrians chiefly. (laiset is a termination answering Joh. 1. for the whole of Northern Europe had no existence for the Romans. and took shelter under a board. Suomi. must have received a lively impression of the great differences. of which . the Lapps under the bare sky. tion. is used at present. Thus the Lapps grians. It is difficult exactly to distinguish Lapps and Finns in old times. Paldamo s Abo Transactions. c. in order that they may be debarred from practising cruelties against the Swedish Christians. Karjalaiset. 1827. and the ox by his horn. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. 1 Missionaries in Esthland. From Tavastland upwards. on the contrary. the Finn. for their own name but when the Finns learned this.28 Finns and Lapps." named Lappegunda. 177".xtvire of selfishness. dwellers. and lappot. Account of the Visitation in the Parish of in Ififio. This is nearly the result of the views advanced by . is a great degree ing places. Finland the former presence of Lapps is often discoverable from the names of places. 148. &c. and maa. the chief Not more than a century representative of value. conies from karja. in times not yet very dis- and moral. 5 Lehrherg (Untersuch. 223. as a frontier people. and in the account of the latter are divided into several stems. the Finnar of Scandinavia. mies. Lehrberg look upon this derivation as In the Lappic. 25. A singular mi. mention a " provincia extrema." says the Finnish j)roThe energy of the Finns applied to cultivaverb. and Lehrberg. Sabmelads. as is known. herdsman to ish). geographical knowledge of the ancients increased. 212. They speak partly of an expulsion from Finland (Scheffer. 210—212. Lappinranta (Lapp strand. to denote money.30. Gruber. and childish feeling characterizes the Lapp . is the same likewise applied to both Finns and The Feuni of Germany. and probable. 5 are here mentioned with the Carelians. and this again of Suomithenmaa. 7 whence karjainen. In a bull of Gregory IX. which God made into a house but the Lapp remained without. to be The Lapps. the Finns in the interior of East Bothnia and Kajana lived with their rein-deers almost after the fashion of Laplanders ^. by his tongue. . partly of one from Sweden (Hogstriim). affecting a race of men whose antiquity has no history apart from If we look to their prethat of their neighbours. both all madic agriculture. . gen. tion. perly morass word. and taken the latter (pronounced Same). land. which is implied in the word^ . From the Fennie loppu. dislike this name. as far south as Esthland. the land of the marshfrom suo. Lapps. Tonieeus). since only the latter general appellation is employed. among the Swedish Lapplanders. Although Tacitus. this need not prevent us from supposing' that the Fenuic population extended to the extreme north. the Lapps themselves retain the tradition ^. has a two-fold reference. all of them unquestionably In Finns. inhabiting the Thule of Procopius and the Scanzia of Jordanes. chiefly on the products of the chase. Lappinsalmi (Lapp bay). Fisher Lapps as they are called. sent condition. nunciation. Lappinkangas (Lapp ridge). man. and made the name their own. are so engrained in their primitive wildness. Lapps are first heard of within the limits of Scandinavia in the twelfth century . 127. with a warineiBS that is " The man often sullen. that. Lappia and Vatlandia. state and character. . as the Finns of Kajana. from kaino. Lappinlinna (Lapp tower). in the year 1220. 2 This tradition. The Finns still refuse to acknowledge theii* consanguinity to the Laplanders . appears to have been practised The Lapps of by them from very early times. Liv. lappa means a cleft or cavity also Lappwik (Lapp bay). According to the latter. No one is more given to perplex a than this otherwise meritorious writer. both in the Finnish and Laj)pic tongues. A storm burst the Swede was affrighted. extremitas. 1. marsh. and clearing the ground by fire. Hiimelaiset. Riihs. as the Tavasters style themselves. as well from the incompleteness of the accounts. from the inner side of the gulf. Cajani. ii. despite the provident spirit of Christianity. I Tornaeus. closely translated. Orig. and the cares of a paternal government. prevailing between them. the indigenous name of the Carelians. miehan. as from the very nature of the question. spoken of by Lapps *. Stockholm. Whatever weight may with reason be laid on these variations of aspect. Inand Vatlanders (the last belong to the district of Koporia and Ingermauland). In Noi'them Scandinavia we again meet with them. and Ptolemy stations his on the Vistula. Finland and its Inhabitants augmented by A. Every man who has himself resided among these races in Northern Scandinavia. but are Sweden. J. p. of lost. Lappinrauniot (Lapp cairn). according to his conception. a decided and energetic temjierament. and a half ago. and from this cause raha. I Inquiry into the Ancient History of Russia. Since that time the Swedes dwell in liouses. . a marked diversity appears. to the Icy Sea. the I"'inns appear further to the north. and afterwards in Finland. and is probably oldest on the other side of the Baltic.

spread farther into the country. who adopted these appellations. been from early times stations of transit between Among Sweden and Finland. afterwai'ds levying tribute upon the produce of their hunts." whence it appears that the Finnish name was used in a more comprehensive. 4. although state. with expressly noted several Lapps and Carelians '. and in contact with them. if they had not already before his time crossed the Dal river. Ancient History of Sweden. is full of traces of Lappic and Finnish inhabitants still more ancient ^. Finno. . who all received letters of denization from graves.) taret. at first century we find a Swedish prince going to dis- possess the Quens". may be inferred from the tradition which ascribes to the Finns the discovery of the chief mines of middle Swerlen ^. and fisheries. Yet the Lapps and Finns appear to have stood in dissimilar relations to ancient Suithiod. Probably this also applies partly to middle Sweden. Finnstrom. according to tradition. The silver mine at Sala was also. and in the same age Helsingland was still called the main seat of the Skridfinns '. and Finnish swords are mentioned in the Icelandic sagas. to many places in which they have given names*. 8 Vermilani cum Adam. Rautan synty. the Finns have a native appellation. Scritefingis. Charles IX. and Northern settlers in partaking. and of this manner of interment I know of no example among the Finns. That during the middle age they were still to be found in the interior. the islands of Quarken. and in later times the Finns retained the praise of excelling in the labours of the forge. That intercourse subsisted at an early period between . and in the Aland isles. some along the Gulf of Finland to Nyland and Russia. * Thus. by the same misapprehension as in Adam. a Swede. find Lappvesi 2 . properly so called. . or sala. * . AND CULTURE. longis terrarura spatiis regexpression as to the Suiones. Quenland is here. Lapps and Finns had crossed by the same route to Sweden *. . They roamed over wide tracts of wilderness into the forests of Vermeland ^. the so-called Lapp-oren (Lappisles). for in an inroad by the former tribe into Norway. 78. From the name of Jomala (God). -which even on the Finnish side have most of them Swedish names. — we and Lappii. far above Birca. 9 At the cattle-stalls of Finnbo. secret. as well as a restricted application.. gave currency to this notion. Swed. 59. 463. others to East Bothnia and earlier. nant." that is. h'alvi'd. on 1 Among the Finnish side. and were probably the same with those Lapps. 7 Finnsta. de sit. requirement.h with some Fennic among them. does not admit of doubt. Lapps are found. according to the popular notion. these are represented as opposing them and being defeated *. there are graves of small size overgrown with grass. cultivation being here older. which our ancestors called grasjem. p. thout. Fundin Noregur. with a Swedish population . is the son of a Finnish king on the borders of Suithiod 8. and it is probable that the Finns. and trade . Finnsibn. tradesman. Script. as they applied this name to the whole of Sweden *. . but from the beginning distinguished by fixed dwellingthe Lapp places. Upland. existed in the age of cremation. of whom memorials and traces are still to be found in Dalecarlia*. Fennic Runes. in remote antiquity. 3 •' The isles of Aland and Quarkeu have n. and Gustavus Adolphus. Septentr. and many names preserve the memory of Lappic and Fennic inhabitants for example. discovered by Finns. Compare Volundar Quida in the elder Edda. An incantation song in general is called synty (birth). in Swedtn. wherefore deduced the name by which he spoke of the Swedes these first became from the relations under which known to him ^. is attested both by Adam and Sturleson for his Brem. would be imsuitable. but the process was of gradual accomplishment. to hide. Among these nomadic races the first Swedish blended with other Finns. Their manner of living in the forests. which. and the hundred of Rautalambi in Finland has its name from rauta and lammi. 5 For marsh-ore (myrnialm). it be inferred that here was a Finnish altar. Scritefingorum) caput Helsingaland Adam. . Expulsion was the lot reserved for the wanderer. where the mining districts were afterwards formed. Compare RadlofT (Beskrifning om Aland). The new settlers mostly followed the coast-line. " 9 " Seppa. An old mine at this place is still called Finn-pit. Koskinpa. Sweden Ruotzilainen. as the graves show. where the Kajaners or Quens roamed. it is said. lake or marsh thus from marsh-iron. who kept it a secret and the town of Sala had its name from the Fennic salan. The preparation of marsh-iron was known to them from an early ^ an old Finnish Rune sings of the birth of period iron '. Compare Schrbter. tarolats. to sell. Non-land shew themselves. Quorum (soil. In the Fennic tongue every handicraftsman is called a smith '. Aland. * Ruotzi or Ruotzimaa. liusbandry. Aland has a great number of barrows. SETTLEMENT. in Description of Aland. which. (Tariff? Tnrj. That Lapps and Finns therefore were found formerly as at present in Norrland and the Lappmarks. and begun the colonization of Norrland. That the Swedes had already begun to settle upon the coasts. . Finnaker. because. want. in order to cast out evil. Finnbo. which the inhabitants call Lapp- " Among the Lapps. the mine of Falun is said to have been discovered by a Finn from Thorsang. Dan. living in the forests of Dalecarlia are the descendants of later immigrants. A Swede generally is styled in the Lappic tongue Laddelats. Finskog and in the parish of Hafverd the so-called Lapp-pits. we must first be able to ttU its origin. in which burned earthen jars have been found. although their position is more obscure. both by application and derivation means landdweller also Taro. Below Finnmark was Quenland. and the interior long remained In the eleventh ill the same condition as of old. 3 In Roslagen and Northern Upland are found the names may Lindenbrog. 6 Scholiast to Adam of Bremen. Lappbijle. Their former intercourse with Roslagen is the more undoubted. but among them too. Ruothi and Ruotteladz. The most famous smith known to the ancient north. Brem. Jomala. Finnby. 29 in a subject the inhabitants of Finnmark are races of " Finns. p. Yet several barrows are found in this parish. Swedish colonies found their way by this passage. in the parishes of Svardsio and Sundborn. near Lake Hinsen. From these islands they arrived in Roslagen. Finholm. Iron in the Fennic and Lappic is called rauta. and the nomadic life passing away before it was reached by the dawning light of history. The most southerly vestige of Finns Proper in Scandinavia is to be found in the saga of the discovery of Norway which represents a chief of the Quens as finding kinsmen on the little island of Lesso in the Cattegat. herds. and celebrated in the Edda. lie at the outermost point. styled Terra foemi- narum. from tarrohet. route. in the midst of Fennic and Swedish names. and Finns inhabited the miners' The Finns now village to the time of Gustavus Adolphus.Vestijjes TOPOGRAPHY.

In those dwelt a wild people. valtakunta (valde. deferring their further developement until we approach the consideration of the old laws. Jotnnheim and Finnmark were therefore one and the same. the popular legends mean heathens or barbarians generally. are indigenous. also the names of and others. power). Olave. where it is said that Norway is the name of the whole country from Jotunheim southwards to Alfheim. 7 Ab his. to gods. so that few or no Fennic appellations were preserved in those quarters where were formerly settlements or wolds of the Finns even real Finnish villages of the parishes of Ny and Dalby in Vermeland . ground. like that of modern days. king). the Jotnar. Many may be brought to shew that this was generally the meaning of the Icelanders. Such. as the opposite of Manheim or Suithiod. receded confirst. and culture ^. sakko (sak. Tlie Swedes were always and from of lations are changed. and such were the Finns whom they speak of as scattered in the ninth century along the whole frontier between of Bremen places above the Vermelanders. of lations of the Fennic. iniless vigorously opposed. * FinnaithcB. but Swedish names always old peculiarly the cultivators of the Heimskr. were Adam Among all the Germanic races. retreating with equal haste. Finnwold (Finn heden).30 Described by HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Finnvedi. mar kina(marknad. Jotunheim. a vilremaining. the terms for cattlebreeding. although resting on principles of higher antiquity. The Huns of proofs . family. broke from their unknown lurking pljices. lakes. agriculture. is so like Fineyde. is mentioned in connexiim with Gestricland. even where others had preceded them. Drottnar. and spread devastation over the levels. plea. too. Northern Language. of Bremen. old writers. ruthinas (drott). like . they say. however.. navigation. names quite different On the other hand. by computation. with whom on the other hand the old Swedes were oftenest brought in hostile or amicable contact. Those of forests. who desire to be called Finns. in Jordanes. All the Finns Proper who have been found in Scandinavia immigrated from the eastern side of the gulf This can be said of Bothnia and out of Finland. which has borrowed from the Swedish all words having . especially those with fixed abodes. also the Scridfinns whom northwest of the Swedes Sweden and Norway. that we can In Adam He cast to the rocks. denomijudges. though full of intimations as to the Intercourse between the two races. formerly inhabited by Quens and Lapps. became earlier acquainted with them than with the Finns of Finland. kaupungi (kbping. Even were lage in the parish of Angulstad. judge). which was the tinually towards the north-east. may be named. that the Sagas. hunting. although this Hunaland. and granges matter mountains. c. earliest rulers are styled Diar. the original features of are of greater importance. 9 It has been objected. where the Finns are most nuthe Swedish names of the hamlets are often transmerous. The Norwegians and Icelanders. Saga of Harald the Fair-haired. Saga of St. for ^ • 232. ' p. priests. and important also on the Fennic. changing Fennic into Swedish appellations. their Swedisli neighbours those of the Finns themselves. originally bounded the latter on the north. Here. may be found. Eccles. c. tuomari (domare. who sometimes yearly. the name of Finns was applied chiefly to the Lapps. 2 For example kuningas (konung. about one tenth. fine)." conqueror of the mountain god. tori (torg. n. 9.433 words contained in the Lexicon Lapponicum of Lindahl and Ohrling (Holm. and did Odin sit in judgment. and embraced even Swedish Norrland. have not preserved a single Fennic name. the Scandinavians pre-eminently retained the conception of Their the divine origin of the first social union. and with tlieir labour they everywhere baptized it. This is manifestly the same Saga of St. By the former. they were either extirpated or blended with the Swedes. I am myself from a province (Vermeland). most handicrafts except of the smith and In Norrland." " Ancient cited in History of Sweden. The Lapps of Norway. which in their present shape belong to the Christian period. lay the fabulous Hunaland. qui hsec se vidisse testantur. surrounded and Of 1 1 . ' . 25. it should be considered that names of estates little in this question. bear among from place). See the passages and the chief of the Finns on the fells. is so old. maintain that they are the Rask on the Ancient true old inhabitants of all Norway. cut off by advancing cultivation. from whom the oldest accounts have come to us. In Kind's Hundred of West-Gotliland. 419. although even their appelnature. market). that in the recognize their identity. if only from the influence of our language on those spoken by them. the northern sagas speak of Finnish kings." " the king of the people of the earth-holes. This custom with our ancestors. notwithstanding the fundamental dissimilarity of both languages. there are no Fennic or Lappic names Sulivara. some. 96. soil. Compare above. are borrowed from the Swedish." " the slayer of the mountain-wolves. Brem. but whom history cannot accompany so far back. 6. which there are Finnic words." 274. after whom the Finn heaths or wolds of Smaland were already named in Old Sweden had thus its the sixth century ^. esivalta (authority). until. great yearly sacrifices assembled and united the At the place of their celebration peace people. which in Ketil Heng's Saga. Olave. 8 c. and with twelve of the wisest men the UpThe sala king uttered his decrees in his court '. ' . to whom the names of so many places in Southern Sweden refer. of which several later settlements of Fennic immigrants in the forests of Sweden furnish examples. overseer. Of the Swedish polity we will here merely sketch the outlines. a kind of colonization. and contemn the Norsemen. one parish still bears the name of Finne-kumla. the Swedes and both these tribes is manifest. p. Hist. and probably also the Huns of later ])opular legends. of which there seem to have been prior examples here . boundary line given in the Fundin Noregur (in Bibrner. So for example Snorro says that Norway stretched from the Gbta river to Finmark Heimskr. the sons of the as well as the wandering Lapps. eye-witnesses relate ' that the mountainous tracts of Sweden had other inhabitants than the cultivated districts. which radically differ from it so an influence remarkably great on the widely Lappic '. also in the parish of Nether Tornea. streams. the hillfolk. when Finns were brought from Savolax in Finland to Vermeland. is Thor called " overthrower by the heathen Scalds the " the of the altars of the Fornjolic god. who consider themselves as the aboriginal denizens of Sweden ^ and Norway ". and the Fiuns also partially occupied them. Finn woods. nations applying in common With twelve such sprung up with Swedish settlements. Compare Ancient History of Sweden.Jotunheim. 114. 6). These remnants of Fennic races are demonstrably the Jotuners or Jotuns of the heathen Scalds * and of Snorro Sturleson ^ . was removed higher to the north. ruler. consequently. and therefore in the present Dalecarlia. boter. But the mythic denomination. So too the Finns whose first abode was in the old frontier forests of West-Gothland *. 59. It is only Though by a transference of this name to the ideas of father of a weaver (kanguri). c. 1780). fair). therefore. and sometimes every third year. this the only example. where there have been Finn woods from the time of Cliarles IX. only in part of the Lapps. In these he Lapps retained their stations. Ad. reference to civic government. c. So late as the eleventh century.

B. 45. or The was. the bitterness of which was little mitigated by the determinate fines through which the laws opened a path to reconciliation. gods took to themselves wives after the same fashion ^. . or the funeral-feast held." Bleking still bear the latter name ^. s Compare Hallenberg (AnmSrkuingar.. although the illegitimate were not otherwise excluded from all inheritance. If it were a temple. of which names and customs still observed in some places revive the reof Christianity. place of peace. in Kylingared parish of 2. 31 was enforced *. find the churches.. as Odensvi. 4. was called himself. cattle) as synonymous with property in general. the old means both sacrifice. violent death was deemed so pleasing to the gods. and thereby genebloodshed rated incessant feuds. and Gritha stadr. athletic sports of a jovial and martial character . 24. herds of our forefathers constituted their principal wealth . as among almost all nations. sentence passed. the father was free either to expose or bi'ing up a new-born child . that no grass will grow on the grave of a perjurer. Hence some barrows are still called Tingshbgar. of these conventions. gifts 3 '' from Jupiter.Social life ANCIENT POLITY AND MANNERS. and to another 1 Mundi-keypt. Mund was the ing to her parents. Thorsvi. 2. Marriage. '' Thiodolf. and called by tlie common people Thor's wedges (Thorviggar). and was priest. gold-bought. . legally married spouse. for the Upsala king was guardian of the holy altar. an oath was regarded as the strongest bond. 44. names of several fairs. A similar precipice is found upon the hill of Valhall by the lake Strengen. in heatlien times. 285. was distinguished from irregular connexions. shield of peace the sacrifice with the attendant banquet was prepared deliberations were held. the perjurer wandered with the murderer and the adulterer " in streams of venom. rock. This too is Homeric. Titer's hammer. before the slain man was avenged. diet. means both a dwelling generally and a sanctuary *. 23. was the legal form of matrimony. 6 5 On Lagerbring's Swedish History. e. c. membrance. 9 Arf. str. To wrestle on these barrows is a custom not yet extinct. 7. For this life as for that too. Law of West-Gothland. and made The the children legitimately born (lagfijdda). and had it sprinkled with water and named in the presence of his chief kinsmen. whence they used the word (fa. " Hard by the parish church of Hellaryd in Bleking is a steep rock called Valhall.32. bought with presents '. as the sacrifices were for the most part offered at the baiTows in which their relics were inclosed. After the introduction we to come. in the Ynglingasaga. name war. down from which. 2 A Frey's consort was gulli-keypt. and sought for no other standard of value." and among the common people of Sweden a sapng yet holds. but did not exclude them. and leader for his household. he demanded back the bride2 Damisaga. made veugeance for the holiest of duties '. The terminations lund. When Vulcan surprised Mars and Venus. having several wives. ' The heritage could not be taken possession of. vi. a man might without blame keep concubines but the heritable estate passed to the legitimate children. and mere participation therein imUnder the ported peace between the rival races ^. c. as distinguished from the woman who had been seduced or stolen away in . Along with his wedded wife. answerhemfylgd. str. After death.Gothland and halla ^. but there are ex- Voluspa. on the pillars surrounding whose high seat were carved the images of the gods'. which mentions one such in West-Gothland. even among the gods. 1. amples of kings. assize. Compare GBtrek's and Rolf's Saga. ii. A religion which in certain conjunctures sanction to peace. as in Homer. laid upon the loiee of the veiled bride. the portion which the bride received from maeli. in the latter case he raised it from the earth in his arms. str. in allusion to this old usage. The Hammarsheimt in the elder Edda. less than the commonwealth was based upon the worship of the gods. like the prince. his Thor consecrates with hammer the funeral pile of Ynglingasaga. and therefore the particle ve. for which . and so " fared to ValThree such cliffs in West. which thence received the appellation of kith-rocks. were held the kemp-games. purchase concluded with the father or the nearest relative (though it was rather a sjTnbolical expression for contract generally). and fair *. ? Eyrbyggia Saga. See Note D. 42. As with the Greeks and Romans. as the tradition runs. was united with the commemoration of the dead. c. who likewise kept their court. hog. is ' . Remarks on the Hiiga-ting see Heimskr. Frbsvi. gift or jEtte-stupor. at the strand of corpses remote from the sun. that he might sacrifice in their behalf for a Thus the right of property. still Hence the word "ting" occurs in the c. • Balder. banquet. as The household no the heathen Scald calls him *. The father of a family. was said to be won by gifts and speech' '. Vatnsdaela Saga. as for example one by Old Upsala. and trafKc conducted. reason Ting. as the same sign consecrated the funeral ' pile on which the dead were burned is *. Edda. ^ More frequently there was only one. as Harald the Fair-haired. Adoration of the gods. holy place. The word from stapi. lent its The same A Those who were advanced in years precipitated themselves from lofty cliffs.^gisdr. Drott. Medh mundok medh f. that it was not sought for in the field of battle only . purchase-money. participation of the Fylkiskings in the sacrifices was a proof that they were at peace with the over-king or drott. so often met with in old graves. &c. inaugurated her into her uew destiny ^. as plentiful harvest. The god's agriculture. " to gash oneself to Odin with the sword" was deemed better than to die of sickness or of old age. not unfrequently built in the vicinity of heathen places of burial. Odin it is said took possession of the land by erecting a temple and sacrificing after the manner of the Asae. and among all Pagans. Hence their assemblies for religious solemnities were called hoga-tings ^. and the people paid tribute to him. Saga of Harald Gylle. Odys. in the castle which is woven of the spines of snakes ^. men formerly threw themselves into the Val loch. in the elder Edda. judge. place thus set under a seal of peace was called Helgi stadr. which lies at its foot. whence the sagas speak of the play-grounds (leke-valla) in the neighalso bourhood of the ting-sites. Upon well as probably symbolized also by the wedgeshaped pebbles. the name of the god to whom it was dedicated was prefixed. who was called Adalkona ^. c. proceeded from the gods. as conformable to law. 318. Here mace The the celebration of the great national sacrifices in Upsala was founded the claim and right of the Swedes to give a sovereign to the whole realm. sal. 42. &c. viii. also generally mark old places of sacrifice. occurring in the name of so many places. in local names.). . 3 49.

B. T. the sanctuary. Description of the diocese of Skara. At Halleberg in the same province the upper part of the hill is called by the people Vahlehall ( Valhall). (Hence by abbreviation also kung or knvg. a higher office was that of Jarl. that the people. and Suithiod means the army-folk. B. The kings of Upsala. ' iiTrj^r means a man of birth. the legal oath was taken at the altar on a ring dyed with the blood of the victim. 7 8 " and court of a district. On man was considered worthy of a place in his hall. were distinguished from the rest by a paramount sovereign authority . the people were recognized only as bearing arms . the best illustrations are supplied by the Icelanders.) . after the completion of the spring sacrifice. so great defence. and with invocations of the gods ' . and vowed to settle in the spot where they should come to land . as in the mother-land. and especially the noble and rich warrior. 96. ' . 9 Such a band following a particular leader was called Sveit. i The Kings of the Tignar-name. common the original commonwealth. among see this constitution again reviving as it were before our eyes. when this title had become usual instead of that of drott. f. at the farm of ' This oath was called baug-eid (ring oath). elective now From his band of warriors. his son. The old title of this functionary was Herse ^ . called vebiind. words which have the same meaning Tacitus poor to Odin . (See Note E. who have so much in common with the old Scandinavians. as among the Greeks of the heroic age.l2. Edda. (The harads hlifding. his kinsmen would assemble and put him to death with a club ^. B. 2. 75. Conjointly they formed a kind of nobility . with the tradition of the purpose to which it was formerly applied. See the account of the rock Stafva Hall in Lindskog. in a multitude of small associations united among themselves. under the command of Therefore Upland. threw themselves headlong from its top into the lake '. f. an assembly of the whole army. and perhaps still is. The Chronicon Saxonicum ed. T. although with some admixture of the latives. whether the poor a part of his life to robbery and piracy. to come to ting and ring' (Law of WestmanManb. 8. 504. on ship-l)oard among the crew followed and remained hereditary to his descendants. Har was a term for a number of at least a hundred. From suit. and hdrads ting of the text are now the judge Saga of St. the name of Suithiod was probably formed. 2 Iliad xviii. Under that of Ivar they ceased to exist as rulers. and embraced the three so-called Folklands. people. army. was long preserved.) The inner ring was surrounded by an outer one of hazel stangs. Both bore the title originally attached to princely rank *. bound together with willow rods. the chief seat of its princes. the hundred was formed. in the public assemblies the chief this ring on his hand . after dances and sports. To the same warlike polity appertained the division into Hundreds or H'arads. the like happiness he enjoyed in a future life.) 5 Harbardsliijd in the elder Edda. and from his priestly functions arose his title of Godordsman (the man of God's word). or the host of the Swedes*. When approached the shores of Iceland. sala. c. description we recognise the chiefs of the Hundred in old Suithiod. or was buried in the earth. Hundred of Ydre. Odin's followers and the first Suithiod. Centeni ex singulis pagis. Kniiung. by which the gods. war following. daughter of king Eric of Upas a powerful Swedish Herse. Pompon. and worship. principle. 2 Plin.' divided the land he had chosen among his refirst colonist The rank which and followers. Also temple-oath.) are evidences of this custom. and as no inherited but only acquired treasures were allowed to accompany the dead man to the grave. explained by some to be the same word as folk). Melade Situ Orbis. Gibson relates that the most solemn oath of the northern heathens who ravaged England was taken upon the holy ring. but there was still no scarcity of kings. judicature. In their capacity of members of the commonwealth. even though without the dominion. for so much wealth as a man brought with him to the funeral pile. was preeminently the land of the people or the army. in the parish of Noira Vi. the holy bands. harad or fylke (district. Hist. T. < Gbtrek's and Rolf's Saga. married to Thora. Suet (Law of East Gothland.) 3 So for example in the Landnama Saga. as the ancients relate Domestic of the Hyperboreans and Scythians 2. It was their prerogative to gather around themselves a retinue wore among whom we a like arrangement is mentioned by the Germans s. 106. he had filled him to land. the judges sat under the open sky in a holy circle upon stones 2. in East-Gothland. 5. From Egil's Saga we learn that a judicial process might be annulled by such an occurrence. Slaves at least were decidedly excluded. for Konung denotes in our old language a man of birth'. and this proceeding. and maintained by common contributions. the other hand " it was not good to journey * " so that there was reason to doubt a temple was erected. iv. called Onskalla. and established. Odin's fountain. or title of dignity. and this was called ' conThe leader now secrating the land to oneself. To arrive in Valhalla with a numerous and well- To come with great property secured happiness . speaker in the name of the In this gods. first took possession of their new home. as iu old Suithiod. in case he came not from the field of battle in the bloody train of a great lord. and their Hundred Courts. ' land. and were hence also called kings of the hundred. iii. that if a man became bedridden and frail with age. or doomsters' rings. whereof part every year marched to war. one Gorm is mentioned. so often met with in Sweden. 3 Such a club (called jette-klubba. that is. where. and it is said that those who threw themselves over were afterwards washed in a pond now almost overgrown.32 Formation of the HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. it was this belief which induced the inhabitant of the north to devote approved escort. c. Whosoever broke them was a violator of the old laws. But for the knowledge of the ancient social fabric of the north. was said to be done after the ancient manner. The great Ting of Upsala was called Allslidrjarting. for purposes of West-Gothland.. that is.) or Suit. Olave. fire was usually carried round the tract which was to be occupied. they were called Sveahar. and Ihioti. the remarkable statement attaches. iv. 112. legends even inform us. friends. The old Domare-ringar. TruUerum. at which the Ting was held . was honourable. The joys of Valhalla were reserved for the freeborn. he threw the props of his high seat into the sea. str. kith-club). Havamal. and therefore judge and reconciler. and it was the attempt to outroot the various subordinate princes which overturned the dynasty of the Ynglings. settled around him^. for all the sons assumed the title. When a place of abode had been selected. Nat. (Valhalla is hall of the chosen or wale. and after death were relegated to Thor *. 32. and the expression of ' str.

Songs of Sigurd and Brynhild Asserus. Examples are found of splendour in arms. to war in the remaining houses of kingly rank. although their condition was tolerable under a good master. - Lawman. Rye and bariu the sagas . The odalbonders. Saga of St. must also have been early known in the North . and had the chief voice in its court (land-ting). 7 In the Icelandic republic. now 3 ^ '' Compare Orvar Odd's Saga. Ynglingasaga. It was from such an apartment that king Fiolner fell into the vat of mead. They spoke also in the name of the people to the king. for the inhabitants of the various provinces became dissociated from one another by distinct codes of laws. general acquire property. w ho were not entire The shieldstrangers even to the fatigues of war. 1778. 253. Gunnlaug Ormstungas Saga. the leech. c. appears to have induced the people to elect from their own number guardians of their interests. raiment. and ornaments. the poet. to which the peasants brought victuals and beer. her love brought calamity. 9 1 (See Note F. the highest office was that of Lagman. the walls of the temple within and without. when the victims had been slaughtered. The more indigent were sometimes reduced to live in caves. 17. but generally wadmal (the woollen-cloth above-mentioned) was an acceptable present even to a queen. 138. alsherjargode. The artists most highly esteemed were. but did not venture to assume name. for the most part captives in war . stood at the head of this class in their own province. There were besides unfree persons and slaves. Olave. Saga of Haco the Good. Ad. priest of the whole people. the old Swedes surpassed every other people. In the houses the floor was of earth. his freedmen he employed in the herring fishery and the like gainful labour. The king and queen sat on the chair of state in the midmost jilace of the bench which was tm'ned towards the sun. nor in Ann the Aged in . maiden (skolde-mo) was dedicated to Odin. . 123. which presents to us the Scandinavian constitution without a king. which were often tended by the best-born men of the land *. occupations. and there were few who did not redeem themselves within three years. '^ the elder Edda. abounding in honey and herds of kiue. 41. Thus arose the power of the Lagman ^. of sowing and harvest. c. Vita Anscharii. Brem. or more correctly of the different nations. covered on solemn occasions with straw . was to exclude women from the drinking cipal guest . They were chosen by the peothe Tignar ple.Free and iinfree. Olave. Brynhild wove in gold the famous exploits of Sigurd ^. where they expounded the law with the best skilled and most discreet of the people. to which honours almost divine were paid by the northern pagans. and drank to each other across the chamber. It is related of Erling. and the oldest of stone. surrounded with a palisade or fence. on the other hand. for their defence against the arbitrai-y violences of the sovereign. c. and wore in right of their birth leaders of those warlike bands which devastated This uninterrupted devotion the European coasts. The first teachers of Christianity describe old Sweden as a fruitful territory. on the inner side of these the guests sat. Knitting and weaving were as usual the occupations of the female sex. corresponding to the sleeping-rooms in the houses of the country each by its own justiciary. . c. to eat raw flesh was held a mark of the judge of a province. rich meadows. The houses and likewise the temples were for the most part of wood. administered in '. Raguar Lodbioc's standard. or free-born yeomen. of the brewing of beer and mead. the The weapons and fleets of the Vikings show that iron was in use at an early period. sea-kings. Quia hie minus pauperes inveniuntur. Brem. of ploughing both with horses and oxen. Saga of St. the fire burned in the middle of the room. ANCIENT POLITY AND MANNERS. and we find the slave Tunue. and sometimes even in the mythic songs. was wrouglit by his daughters'. 33 of champions and waniors . as in Homer. Previously. that he had prescribed to his slaves a fixed day's work. which began to be confined to the officers of The Lagmen. The poor were so few. . c. which attained such great importance towards the end of the heathen period. Mention is made also in ancient records. themselves the royal household. At the sacrificial feasts. The arts of divination and medicine were also practised by women. peasants. s Heimskr. In the dwellings of the principal men there were upper chambers under the roof. and forbidden to wed . With the price of their liberty Erling purchased other slaves . in s. barbarism Houses . This might raise them to wealth and power . Copen. 17. which ley-fields are spoken of according to Pliny the Germans cultivated. Piracy brought into the country abundance of foreign wares * and the hoards often dug up show that gold and silver could not have been scarce. and the bakmg of bread. This was the manner of peace but the usage of the Vikings. Malt and butter formed part of the tributes paid to the king at Christmas ^ . with the figure of a raven. Heimskr. a Norwegian herse. composed the body of the nation. Vita Alfredi. and dependent on the good pleasure of their masters. or permitted to build cots and settle in the forest *. treasurer of king people in modern times. that the first Christians could only find a use for their alms in foreign countries^. wheat we find as an article of traffic. By the walls stood long benches with tables before them . were besprinkled with blood . oats. the boiled flesh and broth were then eaten. arms were made of copper or a metal mixed with copjier. implements of flint stone found in graves are often religious symbols. and the smoke obtained vent through an aperture called the wind-eye (vindogat) in the roof or wall. In the exercise of northern hospitality.) 7 P '> Ad. the beer being sent over the fire. and the assembled people. they were called hostkings. these were beyond the pale of the law and the land's right. Food and drink were blessed with Thor's hanmier-sign ^. On the bench overagainst them was placed the prin* men and women sat in pairs and drank with one another. Sweden. parties ^. In the earliest times he was called c Lit. 16. the idols. The armourer. with wide-stretching woodlands and waters. powerful enough but they to rise against his son and successor could neither contract legitimate marriages. in the great assemblies of the nation '. after the completion of which they were allowed to labour in the evening on their own account till they had earned their ransom. the soothsayer.

whom he had himself redeemed from . passes by*. hills. fountains. in Langebek.. Dudo 3 '' in Ducliesne. who was still alive when the life of Anskar. and it was their wish that such persons might be sent into their country. He was a zealous preacher. A. D. and in the interior of which were set up the images of Odin. When unknown noises are heard in the night. and afterwards in that of the more I'ecent foundation of the same name in AVestphalia. are met with in every quarter of the land. Thordcin. and no one would venture to follow him to his dominions to preach the gospel in Denmark. of the Swedish envoys again fixed the attention of men upon the young and ardent preceptor. and from his childhood had felt a lively call to dedicate himself to the conversion of the heathen. 800— 12. ple. that their king was not disinclined to give audience to the teachers who proclaimed it. In the last of these combats the traders were overpowered. who announced among other tidings that many of their people longed to embrace the Christian ftiith. AND THE PRINCES OF THEIR FAMILIES. " In that time. who from their converse with Christians had conceived an inclination for the Christian faith. Thor. 2 ii. but sometimes the shedding of noble blood was deemed requisite. and became rector of the school attached to the old convent of Corbey in Picardy. Of Odin. 6 See Topographica on Smaland. who questioned him whether he was willing to visit the distant north. of Paganism. Loccenius. " 9 ' Daemisaga. was not yet twenty-eight years old '. he obtained a partaker of his labours. Anti(|Uit. They journeyed in the company of traders . when men believed in groves and " it is said in mounds. or known only as the terror of Europe. accounts of tlie manners of the Russian 5 A similar custom among the peasants of Mecklenburg is mentioned by Frank. Traffic was still conducted with arms in the hand of the merchant. where it was usual among the peasants when reajiing to leave a sheaf behind them in the field for Odin's steeds*. Old and New Mecklenburg. and Frey. Thus more than two years passed away. In tliis he gave instruction to youths. witl\ the Liipi ad Anglos. it is said. and their cattle. Baldersbia. as the envoys experienced to their cost . in Smaland. CONTESTS OF THE SWEDES AND GOTHS FOR SUPREMACY. whieli it. we are told. To the emperor Lodovic the Pious. R. ]!rem. and also in Scania and Bleking. from which we extract this account. Script. Odin. and the miser who hoards treasvn-e is said to be serving Odin. Human sacrifices were not seldom the prelude of such an enterprize^. who was devoted at an early age to the monastic life. .'^0. Anskar Compare Sermo Dan. 22. and probably he now acquired a knowledge of the Northern tongue. Snco-Ootli. Accepting the mission gladly. ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY. Odin. were obliged to flee to the land. in holy places and palings " then to the old law of Gothland the of the expeditious of the came more and more savage. as the hoi'rid cruelties Northmen and their out- since the first preaching of Christianity in Sweden. and could no longer give him protection. Therefore. is still called in Scania Baider's brow ^. of the people were martial and simbut through piracy and the traffic in mcMi. After a thousand years which have passed away horses and waggons. when he was summoned to the presence of the emperor Lodovic. { 826. in Langebek. ST. and groves. p. . and a plant. A. which shone with gold. 7 Varagians in Karamsin. c Chronologia Anschariana. Anthemis Cotula. Norman. even the nearest and dearest. was written. Ad. until the request but he was undismayed by calamity and continued He passed sometimes through forests. he opened a school upon the frontier of the Pagans. legends resembling the mythes of the Edda have been transcribed from the recital of the Smalanders ^. heretofore almost unknown. STENKIL AND HIS HOUSE. Odin. and his battles with the giants.3. and Frey ^. The thunder is termed by the Swedes Thor's din'. a pious brother of his convent named Withmar. Odin is yet remembered in the popular creed. and probably the Swedish envoys were themselves men of this class. for on their return they were exposed to repeated attacks fi'om the pirates who swarmed in the waters of the Baltic. his journey. EXTINCTION OF THE OLD DYNASTY OF UPSALA. 496. and had found in their own vocation a motive for wishing to open a peaceful intercourse between their country and the Christian world. so rich in recollections of the heathen time. Of his hunt and his horses there are stories current in several provinces. came messengers from the Swedes. Svensk Botanik. and losing their ship. S. when in 826 Harald king of Jutland received baptism in Mentz. 1." A Cliristian related that dead bodies of immolated men and he had seen seventy-two animals hanging in the sacred grove of the temple at Upsala.34 Fruits and relics HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. a Frank by birth. D. 57. they were commonly a punishment for malefactors. or other spots named after Thor. in order to preach the faith of Christ to its inhabitants. Thor." is a curse which is sometimes heai'd . CHAPTER III. as of — appendix — sacrificed they to the heathen gods their sons and daughters. Anskar readily consented to accompany him on that errand but when this prince was forced to flight. for example in Upland. 429. CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY. SWERKER. The manners was united with rages upon women prove *. of which the Edda says that it is light as Baider's eye-brow *. with meat and drink. they were often hardened into In the latter days of heathenism they becruelty. in the Palmskiild manu- script collections in the Library of Upsala. " Go to although only as an evil spirit. captivity and slavery. Anskar shared the same fortune. ERIC. Ill that day lived Anskar.

apostle was appointed metropolitan of their country P 40. Hist." That his own labours in Sweden were not barren of fruit.skar. c. Edmund. of to say. They assign him a colleague in his office. or as it is also called. was called Olof. but to labour with their own hands for support. * Vita Anscharii. have been called Ring. a staple and village upon the Mtular lake. c. and when no one else would undertake the perilous adventure. public affairs hinge more upon the concoi'dant will of the people than upon the power of the sovereign^". Brage the Aged. he abolished the shameful traffic in men. and in the diet an old man stood up. Anskar was inshall ducted into the archbishopric lately erected in Hamburg for the conversion of the north. for his arohiepiscopal seat 5 consistat potestate. that " so good a man had never been seen on earth. culcated on them the maxim. no Christian teacher. was at the same time expelled . period Unne archbishop of Bremen came to Birca. who had been despatched to Sweden as a missionary. c. and found the statements of unknown. captives lived in these regions who longed eagerly for teachers. who 853. among the gods of their Anskar's ancient friends advised him to country. the matter should be proposed us. Bremen Anskar continued the work he had begun. i. have journeyed even to Dorstad *. A church was founded whilst Anskar remained. The answer is said to have turned out favourably to the request of the Christian teachers. 17. ut quodcunque negotium publicum niagis in populi unanima voluiitate." . and approved by an assembled diet which was accordingly done. which the narrative Ukens to the sea. Of this God it is not is c. Nithard his nephew was killed. (The Anglo-Saxon Willibrord. 35 sometimes in a boat over great lakes. and whose grace will stand us in good stead. Here he was welcomed by king Bioi'n. and Vita Remberti. Wherefore then should we reject what is needful and profitable for us. and the Swedes. T. where he the people seem to have relapsed into heathendied. he gifts. 51. D. with a profit.) in 696. who to the Icelanders is as little known as the Olave already mentioned . for the us at home ? sake of this faith. now a village {Wyk te Duer- 6 7 The Nordelbingers. and spoke to this eifect : " Hear me. quam in regia ~ who promised " to lay his petition before the people and was himself after death venerated as a saint but it was said of him while he lived. a zealous disciple of the gospel. 9. was of reverence for the miracles of the saints. if our own gods should prove unfavourable to For many Christian the messengers confirmed.Saxon Church. to ask of no He in- man's whom we have more Sweden. is proved by such examples as those of Hergeir and Fridburg '. quippe apud eos nioris est. to whom Anskar came. had eventually reconciled himself to his countrymen. by pope Sergius 3 Sic and received the castle of Utrecht from Charles Martel. . and these had imparted the knowledge of Christianity to others also who desired instruction and baptism. History and Antiquities of the Anglo. which he passed there. the king expressed his conciu'rence. is without doubt the same called Biorn of the Hill (at Haugi) by the Icelanders. their custom. 829. This king Biorn. although a century and a half elapsed before Sweden received a Christian king. and he was generally surrounded by youth whom he had redeemed from slavery. His character. J Mission of Anskar. and the following year. This first journey of Anskar to Sweden was made in the autumn of 829. when after the expiring of this Compare Vita Anscharii. revisited Sweden himself in the year There was now another king in Birca. Among the neighbouring Saxons north of the Elbe ^. the old gods should be consulted respectmg the new faith. a thing which many of us in the dangers of the sea and other perils have proved. 24.selves. to make provision for the supply of instructors to the Swedes. where rich merchants resided. c. yet with the condition that in the other part of his dominion (probably the Goths). At this time the king of Sweden is said to ism. in winning succeeded however. or seek afar off that which is offered to For some of our people. Though simple and meek of heart. the archGautbishop was obliged to abandon his charge. with the addition that one of the most famous heathen Scalds. yet the latter was powerful enough to win by arms a kingdom in Denmark for himself. and the Christian teachers were permitted by a decree to reside and give instruction in the country. After the death of Anskar in 865. as long as he lived. Brem. who having been restored from exile by Danish assistance. among the forests on the bank of the Elbe. and he himself used to twist nets ^. was surprised by the Northern sea-kings and destroyed . and to transmit This is the same Olave of whom it to his sous *. a haven. 30. and m all likelihood the sparks kindled by him were never entirely extinguished. port of the indigent and the ransom of captives. was the first of his Christian labours When the people had given their consent. and another period of the same duration passed away in the contest between Paganism and Christianity. dwelt in his court.A. Formerly a famous staple. that he helps those who put their trust in him. 16. Therefore do I advise that we should receive among us the servants of this God. d2 . and the Christians were persecuted by the above-mentioned king Edmund. he was a man of lofty His revenues he employed in the supcourage. Vita Anscharii. bert. of the Frisians. who erected the first church. who have indeed preserved only his name. INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY. his immediate successor Rimbert excepted. king and people. who accompanied him in " that all this journey'. Returning from among the Swedes. and his biographer mentions the emotion with which he restored to a mother the son of whom she had been robbed by Swedish freebooters. with which those so-called Christians defiled them. c. From his new archiepiscopal seat of goods. full He regarded his dreams as prophetic. . and after he had finally departed. stede). until with his companions he reached Birca." says the biographer and follower of An. It was determined in the diet that by means of the sacred lots (a sort of oracle which Tacitus mentions). Hergeir. ventured during seventy years to Sweden and . near Utrecht. Among them was a chief man of the place and the king's councillor. named Eric. and was instructing. assembled in their diet (ting). Eccles. who is mighty above all. he continvied. at first only a village. Ad. xiv. but found this new dignity more fertile in danger than Hamburg. SteLingard. castle founded by Charles the Great. had resolved to adopt one of their former rulers. He brought back with him from Sweden persons who had been thus dragged from their homes into thraldom. the king's favour. save his life using even for such by flight .

that land. He is surnamed the old. Ska/tlander. Swedish Norrland received new settlers . and to which several sons of Swedish princes removed. he should have possession of that part of the kingdom which fell to him by right meanwhile. and placed himself on the barrow wherein the ashes of his father were deposited. and stand in undoubted connexion.36 the Scandinavian enterprises. which forms in several respects a new epoch. Styrbiorn sacrificed to Thor . The royalty of the old Upsala kings. king of Denmark. compelling Harald Gormson. find ourselves now in the middle of the ninth century. says Snorro. . see Torfaeus. in order to exclude every hope but that of victory. Eric and Olave. Eric Edmundson. in the environs of Upsala). one division of whom. 9 ii. that he undertook an expedition against the Curians who had thrown off the Swedish yoke. But Styrbiorn caused all his ships to be burned. as he did not cease to . we may conclude that he died in 935. who united Denmark under one head. instigate his friends to revolt. where he is said to have subjugated Finn- history succeeded by his son Biorn. for the jiowerful Eric Edmundson is mentioned as the undisputed sovereign of both nations. Estland. he must either be placed as regent under the minority of the legitimate heii's to the throne. and the islands of the Western Sea. To Britain. in Miiller's Sagabibliothek. and continued at war with him to his death for the possession of Vermeland he died. sixty ships with their crews were given to him. was stripped of it by Harald the Fair-haired. which were in aftertimes called the old dependencies of Sweden ^. This is also the time in which Ring. which gave king Eric his surname of the Victorious. in a period when royal birth and a warlike retinue conferred the title on every leader. When the yonng prince had reached his twelfth year. den. we find long after- invasions. with his sons. This was the most notorious seat of the self in warlike northern Vikings. These statements coincide with Nestor's account of the foundation of Varanrule iimong the Slavons and Finns. after they had assumed the government. or both he and his sons belong to the cla-ss of petty kings which. 983. wards subsisting in Sweden. and Courland (Kurland). Harald the Fair-haired. him. Ireland. the sagas afford no exact catalogue of the Swedish kings. He left a son who is known under the name of Styrbiorn the Strong. Norv. now appears more firmly established over both Swedes and Goths. one of whose discoverers was a Swede. which at this time raged most fiercely. they were probably in early youth at . and received from his sovereign a golden It is remarked that he endited no poetry ring. The Danish monarchy made was founded by Gorm. the Speaker (Taleman) of the Swedish commonalty bore to his in the memory it assembly of the general diet. Carelia. for a token that he challenged his mheritance. a descendant of the Yngling line which had been overthrown in Sweden. oi'iginally resting on their sacerdotal character. tributary countries. he refused all further attendance at his uncle's board. the decease of Eric Edmimdson will fall in 885. Eric promised that upon attaining his sixteenth year. For although the names neither of Ruric nor his brothers are known to northern poetry. whence England was conquered and the thi-one of Naples erected. notwithstanding the attempt of Ingiald to suppress them. and marched towards At Fyrisvall (a plain on the stream of Upsala. and first raised liimself to the masterdom over its entire territory. Eric went in the night to the temple of Odin. As their names are not mentioned in the contest which afterwards arose within the royal family. but the two strophes rehearsed in the presence of the king and the army have been preserved to our own days ^. is said to have reigned over Sweden. silence regarding Sweden subsequently to the fall of the Yngling line. and for the history of the north we begin to obtain a determinate chronology. on the Pomeranian coast. established themselves in Normandy. forming a completely military republic. Fyris. When the victory was won. Thus gian these recollections illustrate each other. The new sway produced an extensive emigration of malcontents and fugitives. broke the power of the inferior princes in Norway. and the conversion of the Northmen the common interest of all Christendom. Then Thorward Hialteson stepped forward. The first seeds of Christianity in the north were sown amidst the tempest of the northern had fared well with the realm of Sweden while king Biorn lived. poured forth the song. life of Anskar relates. that he might practise him- and distant enterprizes. under Rolf's command. either previously or subsequently . whose whole contained in the honourable testimony which. We their father's demise. after an interval of ten years should have elapsed. Eric and Olave were his sons and successors since the foi-mer was alive in 993. was fought the famous battle of three days' duration. Eric ascended to attend now sometimes removes liis narrative to Swedish gi'ound. and as the Icelanders give him a reign of fifty years. and the coasts of Greenland and North America were soon visited from this point by maritime adventurers. On the year of the battle in Hafur's Firth. r A. Thus furnished. while the number of contemporary witnesses from the time of Harald the Fair-haired imparts greater certitude to the testimony of the Snorro Sturleson^ who observes a long sagas. D 1 885— y. eighty years after his death. fresh bands of warlike adventurers streamed forth upon the well-known track. Styrbiorn distinguished himself as a rover the extent of his devastations. Styrbiorn and almost all his followers fell in the conflict. ' Hist. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. If we reckon from the year in which the latter acquired the whole of Norway '. when Harald had been for ten years sovereign of Norway. having subjected to his power that part of Norway which part of Ragnar's dominions. and devoted himself to the god. the constitution of which reminds us of the West Indian buccaneers of the seventeenth cenThence he sailed with a great fleet to Swetury. and made enquiry whether any man would recite an ode of triumph for a guerdon from the king's own hand. formerly made an eminence by Upsala. Iceland. and I'educed their country again to pay tribute. and the sea-kings swarmed in all waters. 97. . 2 Thattr om Styrbjorn. was colonized. Among Icelandic fires and snows a new focus of northern poetry was kindled. reigned conjointly until the latter's death. and became at by length captain of Jomsburg. who therefore afterwards abandoned him in the hour of danger. He was is Eric the Victorious. Within this period also fall the conquests of the Swedisli king Eric Edmundson in the East.

his sons fled to Sweden. p. who had given shelter to a fugi" He is more tive Norwegian princess . that he might not fall into the hands of his enemies. and her voice after his death was most potential. 21. League against Norway. who had received baptism in that country. A great fleet under the command of the allied princes was assembled. Sigrid now formed an alliance between her husband king Swen of Denmark. on account of her haughty Although the king separated from her. . as sight of her menace. had taken in the contest. The battle was fought near the isle of Swolder (probably Ruden) on the Pomeranian coast. saved in his mother's arms upon her flight from Norway. What these resolve is confirmed by the king sometimes. This missionary. If this were so. The latter some j'ears afterwards resolved upon an expedition against the Veneders." exclaimed Sigrid. and by his exploits in foreign lands had gained himself a great name for bravery and fortune. The dominion of Harald the Fairhaired was divided among his many sons. the former foe of Christianity. 1024. his ships were unexpectedly surrounded. 27. to the time of Adam of Bremen.s. c. was the first Christian monarch of Sweden. Sigfridi (written in 1205). 344. when we were at " The Swedes strife *. Olave Tryggwason esthe lap-king. 6 ~ Olof Tryggvason's Saga. " That will be thy death. His Ad. though one portion of his subjects. tablished himself on the Norwegian throne. although reluctantly. whereby Swen. some of them Danes sent by the archbishop of Bremen. the second apostle of lapsed^. and it was not long ago that he had more to say than I. bound himself to the diffusion of the faith *. as well as with the headlong zeal with which he sought to enforce Christianity. king of Denmark. his sun. Suec. have kings of ancient lineage. 170. sinus (because transference of property was accomplished by delivering an armfull of turf). post susceptam Christianitatem denuo re- Stockholm. who invested the sons of earl Haco with the government of the largest portion. plunged into the sea. Adam of Bremen was so informed by the Danish king Sueones accepit. T. for the war in which Olof bore an active part shortly after his accession. But when he had obtained her consent.Olave. was." The first consi^rt of Eric the Victorious was Sigrid. and a plan was laid to attack the Norwegian king on his return with their united forces. at the desire of his wife. 37 battle of Fyrisvall was fought in 983. and was seen no more. Sigafridus. Olave. ii. it is said in the catalogue of sovereigns annexed to the old law of West Gothland. the son of Eric the Victorious by Sigrid. powerful than I in many matters. and after a desperate resistance overpowered. The share which the Danisli king Harald Gormson. yet he remarked to an envoy from Norway. THE SECOND DYNASTY CONTINUED. dissatisfied with this revolution. That he had become a Christian previously to the battle of Swolder is plain from the statement of Adam of Bremen. donare. from skot. while Haco himself The boy really exercised the supreme power. had meanwhile grown up to man's estate amidst many singular chances. therefore. His . they renounce their own opinion for his. and the sons of earl Haco. and had found greater favour in her eyes than his kinsman Harald Grenske. though he afterwards re. Olave is said to have endowed the church with lands. and thence received the surname of the Lap-king (skot-konung) '. still an infant in his mother's lap when the people offered their homage. its restoration was accompanied by a covenant between the kings. 1691. in order. or Vandals. and was baptized in the well of Husaby in West Gothland by the holy bishop Sigfrid. This sovereign was certainly one of the most powerful who governed Sweden during the heathen age. and preferred his claims to the crown as a descendant of Harald the Fairhaired. in order to win back domains she had formerly possessed in that territory. Sigfeid was invited frojn zeal. Swen S" . it is said. in consequence of which the son of Harald. lapsum qui et apud Svedos et Nordmannos juxta Ibid. as she declared. already mentioned. the North. England by Olave he had probably become inembrace Christianity during his stay in Denmark with his father. Olave the lap-king. that when Swen regained his kingdom by Olave's help. whom she caused to be seized and burned alive. and on her refusing. p. who deAt length stroyed each other in mutual contests. proves that he was then no longer in his childhood. to unteach the petty kings from their habits of wooing. he struck her on the face with his glove. aftei'wards pi'oduced a war between Sweden and Denmai'k. Rer. 26. Brem. Christian teachers had visited Sweden from time to time. whose sister was given in marriage to Olave Tryggwason. and died at a great age in the hundred of Verend in Smaland. named the High-minded. devoted a long life to the preaching of Christianity among the Swedes and Norsemen *." Adam of Bremen also The have placed tliemselves under Swedish superiority ". prompted by their been performed during his father's life-time . accompanying the act with insulting expression. king Swen of Denmark. qui post obifum patris sui Herici regnum super cum exercitu supervenitns infelicem Svein . Script. He returned to Norway. who became the nominal ruler of the country. when they go into the field all obey the king. but their power is dependent on the people. of Pomerania. Hericum fuisse. Olave was bajitized before the year 1000. was driven from his dominions. and found a protector in Olave About 995. Olave demanded that she should receive baptism. the Norwegian earl Haco invited over Harald own spontaneous clined to Gormson. the ceremony must have disposition. she continued to be a personage of importance. and she did not lose She espoused afterwards. although against his own will. others Englishmen. speaking of a rich peasant his subject. +A u. and Eric remained in possession of both kingdoms until his death ^. seem to 3 < '' planted the cross". isque duravit usque ad nostram setatem. who through this alliance in the end recovered his father's kingdom.surname lias also been referred to the verb skota. Id. her son king Olave of Sweden. Olave Tryggwason. says. Medii Mw\. He lived. Olaph. Norway was divided among the conquerors. ' ii. 9 Historia S. At home they pride themselves on their equality . where upon his arrival he had first The earl was killed by his bondsmen . and would thus be explicable as the donor-king. in the year 1000. Swen Fork-beard. for next to Anskar Sigfrid deserves that name. overthrew the power of earl Haco. Olave himself. In Norway a great change had taken place. praedicavit. She contracted a new marriage with king Swen in Denmark. This prince had been a suitor of the powerful queen Sigrid of Sweden. 11.

it was the custom of the laud in the heathen times. After sharing in the English wars he returned to his country. and all his court around him. that thou. corresponding to the hornung of the Germans. too proud to yield. The chief justicer in Sweden is the lagman of Tiundaland . for there . Thorgny. although his name is unknown to our domestic records 2. When audience was granted. This is the Ting. Leges Edwardi. Kurland. Script. ii. He maintained. . their seat Swedes embraces many provinces. . a descendant of Harald the Fair-haired. haughtily. T. 2 Ann.) iterum a regno expulit et Daniam obtinuit. to solicit peace and obtain a bride for the king of Norway at We follow the chronicles of the Swedish court. to see and hear how all befel. had long remained in his family. Ang. myself freshly remember king Eric the Victorious. Ad. and with him rose all the peasants. Restituitque eum Olaph uxorem. which indeed he presses with all heat. earl of the West Goths. and therefore knew his manner well in his time things went prosperously with the realm. where the long continued ravages of the Danes had at hist led to the subjugation of the country. seeing that Olave the la])-king would never hear Olave the Norseman sjjoken " of. however. 29. Thereupon was deep silence for a while. ut christianitatem in regno sue plantatam retinerent et in extcras nationes efTundereiit. He was reckoned the . a thing that no king of the Swedes before him has coveted. where Norwegian envoys were in attendance under the escort of the earl stepped before him and greeted him. his first ex])edition to England. after the king's affairs. the same desire for a reconciliation with the Norsemen. Overagainst him on the other side of the diet sat earl Ragwald and Thorgny on a bench. miserabill morte vitam finivit. Now. and he was affable to his people. course of his career as a sea-rover he was led to Sweden . yet was it easy to come to speech with him. whose like for tallness they had never seen his beard reached down so far that it lay on his knees. had like northern princes in general In the passed his youth in piratical expeditions. and yet would he rule over Norway. has when the king. was no dearth. in the name of the West Goths. I wisest earl man in Sweden. Kyrialand. In the chamber sat an old man on the high seat. Svanus Tyrannus post innumerabilia et crudelia mala qua vel in Anglia vel in aliis terris gesserat. ye that bear the Tignar name. c. addiictis secum Lachiman rege Suecorum et Olao rege Noricorum. will let none speak with him. a name which. The first day wlien the diet sat. of whom several are mentioned as taking part in the wars When Swen's son Canute undertook of England. at length broke out at the general diet in Upsala. and there was a great din of arms and tumult in the crowd. assumed royalty. eo quod matrem Euam habuerit Fecerunt(|ue pactum ad invicem firmissimuni. and subdued to his dominion Finland. Eslhland. This Lachiman was perhaps a Swedish lagman. But this king who is now. says Snorro. and it is likewise But after Christianity fair and time of traffic. afterwards so well known under the name of the Saint. Sturleson in our relation of the event. in Twysden Hist. but he met with no better a reception. and on one occasion. behind stood the common sort in a ring. that thou Wert not strong enough to speak to our king Olave ? To me therefore it seemeth not less honourable to belong to the peasants. and foreign chronicles speak of a Swedish king who accompanied Canute. and was foster-father of Ragwald. that while he was in his prime he marched every summer to the war. a good understanding with the Swedes. the He answers for all. had first been discussed in the mote. roused by this negligence. well remembered Eric Edmundson king in Upsala. so that the with the people great ones hardly dare to betake themselves to the court without the consent of the judge and the peasants. yet took no measures to secure his own frontiers. Simeon Dunelmensis. a had come into Sweden. of long duration. and the kings removed court of from Upsala. Thorgny an- He accompanied the ambassadors to the great folkmote at Upsala. and the chronicle following. My father Thorgny was near king Biorn a long time. as the usage was. was well entertained. Hostilities with Norway. my grandsire. or tlie bishop holds a diet him they all follow. in Wilkins. At last Thorgny rose. but the king sprang from his seat in wrath. and every one its own court and its own law in many chapters. where are yet to be seen earthen walls and other large works of his. and after a while mentioned the business on which he and the envoys had come. Thorgny thus spi ke "The kings of the Swedes are now otherwise minded than once they were. 2 (Goje-manad. being blockaded by Olnve the lap-king in the Malar lake. Olave of Norway. and broke off" his speech. the earl. Earl Ragwald declared. some upon the barrows that lay by. and put an end to the domination of the Swedes and Danes in Norway. surrounded by the followers of the earl and Thorgny's serving swered. when they sacrifice by their king for peace and victory. a Ting and fair were still The dominion of the held there at Candlemas. and the discontent of the people. Wherefore we peasants will. they saw there king Olave on his chair. that the great sacrifice should be held at Upsala in the hornmgmonth (February)*. and will hear nought but w'hat is pleasing to himself. at the same time expressing their fears lest the king should receive them ungraciously. as well as the office itself. he was now called Thorgny . They came to his estate. drew together a party. and was wont to tell of him. Sveno tumulato Chnutus filius magna cum classe. In Sweden. one of the Norse messengers stood up and preferred his request with a loud voice . for I was with him in many of his enterprises. This was Thorgny : Embassy from liim. Wherefore didst thou not bethink thee ere thou camest on this journey." men . Olave ot Sweden. was little consonant with such a purpose. king Olave. for which many must live in unpeace. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and warded it stoutly. or great all the Swedes. the month when the deer shed their horns. that he would not endure discourse from those who had aught to propound to him. Brcm. embittered Olave's life and reign. in regnum suum. whcretVire the earl first repaired to him with the Norse envoys. sanguinary cruelty in England. chief among the yeomen. Yet did he never deal so : Kagwald. on the other hand. He augmented the Swedish dominion. and every law has its judge (lagman). and the eastern countries far and wide. Strangely ye comport yourselves. and to have freedom of speech even when the king is near. Tliamisiam intravit. on which were large and pleasant mansions. Olave Haraldson. lOH.38 St. Olave the lap-king was his ally. he is said to have made his escape by excavating a new channel to the sea. His tributary lands he lets slip from him by his carelessness.

It remained only to conclude peace. and was obliged to transfer his conquests in Norway to his son-inlaw . the it is placed by various later from a misapprehension of a passage in Anund sons compelled that prince to replace them again in their former dignities was concluded in 1052. Then a great clashing of arms again resounded from the people. that no prince was ever so loved by the people of Sweden. though it is evident that he was alive in his after 1036. which pleased the Swedes ill. and her sister Astrid . THE SECOND DYNASTY CONTINUED. Although he was the elder of the two. King Anund Jacob. He had ceded Denmark to his stepfather. He was obliged at length The peasants were already assemspeech. had. though he was afterwards revered by them. as Olave's violent zeal for Christi- their prayer. because he burned down the houses of malefactors. Sophia at Novogorod. surnamed Gamnial (the old). His son Magnus the Good was recalled from Russia where he had been educated. though itself more recent. and will not suffer lawlessness and trouble at thy hands. had well nigh produced the consequences threatened in anity. Now they gave him the name of Anund. Adam of Bremen knew Anund Jacob from the account of Swen Estridson. and his rigorous punishment of the Norwegian pirates. But if thou heed not our words. The Lawman of the West Goths contended that they should renounce for ever the old line of princes. Condemnare. the daughter of a Venedic chieftain. the daughter of the Swedish king promised to Norhad already been married to the Russian way. the inhabitants of the other provinces have consented to. that so the kings of Sweden had ever done. and an account is preserved of a poetitical contest which took place between two of them If thou wilt win back those lands in the East the king's presence. then it seemeth to us that we Upper Swedes should have most to say thereto . which belonged to thy kinsmen and parents. though a Chiistian. although against her father's wishes. These were the more dangerous. given her hand to the Norwegian king. v. as the sagas state. ^ Edmund. 39 quarrel with Norway's king. The year of his death is not known with certainty. But the king rose up and granted sliKuIdst make up thy tliy and give him at his court. Two years afterwards died Olave the lapking. while king Edward retained only the name of The peace by which Godwin and his sovereignty. the son sister Estrid. for so it has ever been. had created many enemies. which both in the north and among the Normans of France. 89. he was also reproached with having allowed Adam of Bremen states that king sagas. which was arranged at a personal interview of the two sovereigns at Kunghall. Breach of his promise on the king's part. on the other hand. 5 Simeon Dunelmensis ad ann. Anund Jacob was now sole ruler . yet loved the old heathen poesy. daughter Ingegerd in marriage. if his father would not comply with their desires for the old king was still continued in the government. and received support from that country in his j)retensions on Denmark. and deliberating upon the king's dethronement. in which annalists. Astrid. " If the matter have gone so far that Olave. with an inscription wliich states 105) as the year of her death. for never. who is called the king's handmaid. alsuperiority of Sweden." Thereupon they led forth the king's young son among the people. He had been named Jacob at his baptism. we will set upon and slay thee. They conferred with their fellows. which were at length admitted upon the death of Magnus. which fixes the date of the former's death in 1024. the son of Eric the Victorious. St. who had not abandoned his claims on Norway. Dearths vexed the land in his days. in taking counsel of the peasants. from his kingdom. He was the faithful confederate of his brother-in-law Olave of Norin . as a saint. and took him to be their king. .Its consequences. The " Historia Archiepiscoporum Bremensium" gives 1051 as the year of ^ Anund 7 Jacob's death. Yet the old catalogue of kings in the law of West-Gothland declares that he was severe who remained judgments. — monarch Swen only now survived. of his Upper Swedes have determined among themselves. king of Denmark. m common with the whole North. said they. however. of which Canute took posand he only returned from Russia and Sweden to lose his life in battle against his former subjects at Stiklarstad. must be deprived of the kingship. way. c. grand duke Jaroslav *. Glossarium. after many and singular vicissitudes of fortune. the eastern dependencies of Sweden to be lost. and in the following year their father died ^. stipulating that he should stand upon the rights of the peasants. Du Fresne.and defended him against the powerful Canute. and our ancestors never needed to take counsel of the West Goths as to who should bear rule in the realm of Sweden. died in Sweden. on condition that he should fulfil his engagement. long in Sweden. Of the family of the latter to flee session. Anund Jacob was her full brother. Saga of Olave. now lord both of Denmark and England. when Olave Haraldson had been for seven years king of Norway. Certain chiefs of the Upper Swedes. Within this limit falls also the end of Anund Jacob's reign and life. that were puffed up with arrogance hke Now say forthwith what thou wilt choose. being born of a Veneriian mother. was attached to such offences as entailed the outlawry or banishment of the criminals '. because he did not become king till late in life. and remarks of him. who plundered even their own coasts. Not less than four Scalds are mentioned as residing Her monument still exists in the churcli of St. after the sons of Earl Godwin had reached their highest power in England. what is known of his reign chiefiy relates to the share he took in the affairs of Norway and Denmark. because he had broken the decree of the great Folkmote (allsharjardom). his brother had been preferred to him as being of nobler birth Edmund. was born of a mother taken captive in war. and gave himself little solicitude about Christianity '. 1052. Edmund was brought up among foreigners by the relatives of his mother. we will attend thee thither. Ingegerd. that what the chiefs of the this bled. a penalty. who had remained true to Olave. and became at last. had there been a king of Sweden called Jacob. her half-sister. a calamity for which the ." thee. and said. adding. He was surnamed Kolbranna. turned this circumstance to the advantage of his cause. ascended with Swedish aid the throne of his father. on the death of Canute and his sons. For so did our fathers before us they threw five kings into a well. succeeded his brother. On the other hand the Norwegian settlers in Jemtland and Helsiagland submitted themselves to the Olave the lap-king.

So the race of Ivar. by poisoning their wells. m Upper Sweden who excited these apprehensions we are told that the same teachers. The so-called bull of Pope Agapetus of 954. and step-son of Edmund the old. earl of West-Gothland. because " and they descended from the gods themselves . whichsoever he preferred. first to Ingeborg. When the heathens demanded that he should clioose some provmce of Sweden." and that " the West Goths rejoiced in him as long as he lived. contemporary at the time of the transaction with Swen Fork-Beard. he and heathenism would anew become dominant *. 96. Ad. His father Ragwald. Ulf and Eilif. says the api)endix to the Hervarar saga in his time the Swedes observed Christianity ill. Olave had already meditated destroying the old temple at Upsala. thus too the expression in the old Table of Kings. have a happier issue. and charges him with harshness and avarice *. prediction now presents itself to our observation. By its influence was first abolished that condition of incessant war with all the world. It was the justiciary of West-Gothland. dissolved the effective bond of the old social institutions. and who when he could not induce them to consent exclaimed. will 8 ]. and founded in Skara the first episcopal see. Saga of M-. The last province was an ancient possession . Edmund's reign was short. who are said. now spent themselves in a domestic field of Chrisaction. forcing no Christian." So too The fulfilment of this See Adam of Bremen. c." . by whom he had two sons. mentioned as leaders in the war between king Anund Jacob and Canute the Every new doctrine bears in itself the seeds of and that which is pre-eminently the religion of peace had doubtless to contend with the greatest obstacles in the north. Stenkil in like manner maintained himself on the throne. 9 The account which is inserted in is the law of West-Gothland. for the exercise of his religion. were severed from the Swedish dominion. and Bleking. to have cut off the whole army sent against them. had already shown himself during the His reign of his predecessor a zealous Christian. king of Denmark. (said a Pagan councillor of Olave the lap-king. + A. their ancestor on the maternal side. and contracted a subsequent alliance with king Edmund Gammal. that " he held the West Goths dear before all the other men of his realm. Stenkil. It is also worthy of remark. West-Gothland had been the chief seat of Christianity since the time of Olave the lap-king. Adelward. as being a Christian. Olave. and revered belore all others in the northern lands. and after his death the kingdom passed from the old royal family. had destroyed the idols everywhere among the Goths without incurring any danger. To him also our chronicles attribute the disgrace of agreeing to a boundary by which Scania. . 17. . among whom the Christians were most numerous. Stenkil. Olave the lap-king. Saga of St. and the future will show it. who were still mostly heathens. ir. who was now raised to the throne. and for himself the loss of his kingdom . termed in Hyndla's song in the elder Edda. which would refer it to the time of Olave the lap-king. which happened in 1066. Swedes vvei'e wont to hold their khigs responsible. who bore to him a son named Stenkil. that those who will now hear of nought else than that the kingship should remain in the old line. Edmund GamalPessimus. election to the crown is the first sign of the undisputed preponderance of the Christian party . yet I say to you. tianity. however. The Catalogue of Kings already referred to styles him the bad (slemme). other hand unmolested. but with blunders. many changed his title into that of Swede king (Sveakonung). Appendix to Hervarar Saga. that Goths alone are mentioned as taking part in the otherwise unimportant war with the Norwegians under this king's reign. Stenkil himself was son-in-law of Anund Jacob. The longcontinued hostilities with Olave of Norway led to an outbreak of this discontent. Stenkil answered them. Earl Ragwald had been twice married . sister of king Olave Tryggwason. Olave the lapking reckoned himself the tenth of this dynasty." long had they guarded the race. 1060. When Edmund died is unknown. related through several channels to the old line of kings. it is said.king appears to have displeased the Goths. Great. iii. who at the assembly of sacrifices . Stenkil. in Deimiark .r" 40 Effects of the religious innovations. Brem. which had its roots so deep in the habits strife. refused to be styled Upsala king ^. hitherto turned in an external direction. the man to be a selected West-Gothland. will Uve to see the day when it shall pass with their own consent to another race and this . but he was withheld from his design by the above-mentioned decree. On the other hand the new title of Swede. D. " Ye of Upper Sweden have for this time the control of the decision . He was the twelfth aud last in succession of those old Upsala kings who descended from Sigurd Ring on the male side.) although many had now fallen away from the old beliefs. makes him. died at the same time as the Norwegian king Harald Hardrada (hard-ruler) fell in England 5. was cousin of Olave the lap-king. of the boundary line and Egino. and leave theirs on the of northern life. and the new dynasty is of Westgothic origin. 2 adopting and confirming this boundary. The contextshowsthatit was chiefly the inhabitants of since the people Upsala ventured to propose that the old dynasty should be set aside. shortly before William the Conqueror became master of England by the battle of Hastings. who is styled a powerful and far descended earl in Suithiod. and whose dynasty is styled the line of the " sacred to the Upper Swedes gods *. afterwards to Astrid. generating civil discord and war. a dame of royal birth in Norwegian Halogaland. ^ According to the appendix to the Hervarar Saga. the two former had been conquered by Eric the victorious ". lost in an expedition against the Quens. Olave ' Hi. By adto the observance of this covehering throughout nant. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Stenkil cliosen bj' the West- Goths . 13. When the Christian teachers now again insisted on the mea-sure. because this title denoted a guardian of the Pagan he therefore lost all consideration among Upper Swedes. that the long fostered elements of evil. Ibid. '' '' c. Here this sovereign received baptism. besides. bishop of Lund.gnus Barefoot. Halland. 71." evinces by what part of the country this preponderance was maintained. his subjects would expel him as one who had brought malefactors into the land. that the only consequence of complying with their request would be for them death. is manifestly a fabrication. . He had a son named Anund. bishop of Skara. unless this Swen was confounded with Swen Estridson. however. Ad Brem. was.

both the sons of Stenkil. all the chief men among the Swedes. observe here the first violent outbreak of those civil wars. is also called Ingemunder and said to have been invited over from In the course of more than two centuries Russia. kings. cut in pieces. were called Vterings. the condition of . that when the contending princes had perished in their mutual hostility. no other source informs us. who is Anunder. The first is the year of Stenkil's demise . Only the bishop of Scania directed the congregations of the faithful in Gothland. both the Russian and Scandinavian annals contain manifold proofs of the closeness of Inge. Swen. and held firm to their old customs. they proposed to him two alternatives. He abolished the sacrifices in Suithiod. iv. When in this way the royal house had become extinct. exhorts to protection of the Christians. Swedes put great ' Snorro Sturleson. for thiscaimot apply to the house of Stenkil. that from fear of persecution no bishops dared to enter Sweden. This is the sole account preserved to us of these intestine commotions. She was accompanied to Russia by Earl Ragwald. He calls them Halstein and Anunder. and if any further proof were required that these Russian Varangians are the same who in the nortli. They deemed that Ingd violated the old law of the land. passed a portion of his youth ^. and with them Inge. as we may infer from the statement. both bearing the name of Eric. who was now called to the throne. but it appears also to have been a contest against the new sovereign house.Gothland. Pope Gregory VII. and submission towards the Church ^. for they are doubtless the same " kmgs of the West Goths" whom « The Scholiast on Adam of Bremen. knows of no king Haco. and to this they all consented. ESTABLISHMEiNT OF CHRISTIANITY.} and Christians. c. Inge answered and said. the most powerful man in Suithiod. Olave. rious. were raised to the throne. contended for the throne. 41 A great civil war now broke out in Sweden. 95. the king's brother-in-law." A single Swedish chief is mentioned as a defender of Christianity. because he that kuig Stenkil had allowed to annulled much At a diet which the Swedes held with subsist. and it deserves the more attention. This writer states himself to have been a contemporary of that prince. often subsequently We renewed. raised a cry. the rival peoples combated for predominance. as Inge the elder was sometimes named. and expelled therefrom. c. in them. 5 1 . 2. and drove out Inge. assigns him a place before Stenkil. Another nearly contemporaneous account informs us. pelted him with stones. and drove him out of the diet. in the reign of Eric the victoRussia.3. in a rescript of this date. after which a king named Haco was chosen This Haco is also mentioned after Stenkil by *'. and extending over a long period. That this was a war waged between the Pagans and the Christians is proved by the sufferings which the Christians are said to have undergoue. 2. and the Christians were so molested. He offered the Swedes hind to maintain the sacrifices. it would be found in the fact that Vladimir. as proceeding from almost the only contemporary witness to whom we can appeal for the events of those times. Apparatus ad Hist. in them was fought the last struggle between heathenism and Christianity . that he would not reject Then the Swedes the faith which was the truest. who reBlot Swen^ was for paired to West. p. and chose for his bride a princess of their nation. and enjoined that all folk should be christened. after Nestor. that with them the royal lineage became extinct . and divided for the sacrificial feast. Who these contending princes were that drew down with them in their fall the chief men of Sweden. are said to have fallen. both of whom afterwards the throne.A. This narrative. the ties which connected our forefathers with About 980.the realm was so utterly changed. known lie The great general causes. A horse was led forward in the assembly. " Inge stated in the appendix to the Hervarar saga. than that he had been king for thirteen winters. which latter must mean Ingemunder. Then Swen was made king over all Suithiod. from their service in the imperial body-guard at Constantinople. and that he died in West. remained behim in the meeting. after the federal association founded on the ancient religion was dissolved. but communicates no other particulars of his history. the daughter of Olave of Sweden. " After the death of that most Christian king Sten" two kil. bias in Trou Swedeland. They belonged to the old reigning family. Celse. Reign of Inge. disconIt is tents broke out anew in Upper Sweden. sought and obtained help beyond the sea among the Varangians. to us. father of king Stenkil. Vladimir's son Jaroslav afterwards consolidated his power. induced nople. before our eyes . Thereafter three winters king over the Swedes. 8 Karamsin. on the contrary. name and dignity of king in this province during the period when the remainder of the country was torn by civil discord. for both these troubles and the thirteen years' reign of Haco fall between 1 066 and 1081. Ing^. one after the other. The old Table of Kings in the Westgothic Law. began to sacrifice.Gothland at the He probably possessed the place of his birth. With the assistance of the Varangians. are but imperfectly time requesting the Greek emperor not to permit their return to Russia'. however. the Russian grand-duke Vladimir (in the sagas Valdemar) the Great. Sviog. Soon after the accession of this prince. and the kings themselves. and the tree of victims (the idol) was besprinkled with the blood. although the sagas occasionally mention him as successor of Stenkil. and was probably written not long after these occurrences. and in the war between them. designing after his object had been attained to rid himself of his dangerous Constanti- auxiliaries. 7 Sectio Prima Bullarii. was son of Stenkil." says Adam of Bremen. yet the trust in their heathen gods. in the latter we already find his sons Inge and Halstan reigning conjointly . but which both in the motives immediately producing them. if they would grant him the kingship. Ragwald and his son Earl Eilif are both mentioned among the chiefs of the Russians. from bMa. Then all the Swedes again rejected Christianity. Civil wars of Pagans 1066 -8. to sacrifice. * Blot Swen. He was probably never acknowledged by the Swedes. and names him Haco the Red. Saga of St. either to follow the old law or to abdicate the kingship. His reign lasted a longtime . 15. and in their progress. from the foundation of the Russian empire by the Varangians.. he was blessed in his friends. and the Swedes took him next for their king^. and was a good Christian. which ends with the sons of Halstan. at the same them to repair to filled since he left two sons. Saga of Harald Hardrada.

as belonging to Norway. " brought to his end death. the year of the latter's unknown. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. the old catalogues inform us . who thence received the surname of Fridkulla (the maid of memory. the (iota river and the sea. The former died in 1118". a Christian in his old age. and came unexpectedly upon Swen one morning. who wrote towards the end of the same century. who himself appears king in some catalogues. married Nils Swenson. and king or Of the two dates. Anglo-Sax. or Slavons of Wagria. her first husband. and was succeeded by his own sons. notwithstanding the power of Stenkil's family. and by his death left the kingship open to Magnus. 11129. Another of his daughters was married to peace). vived him. of Denmark. is and 1139. held in Konghall in the year 1101. Are Frode. by the hereditary estates of his mother. The Goths. Canute was son is lord (Hlaford. attempted to raise their own importance at the expense of the prerogative of their neighBut the Swedes. This reconciliation was strengthened by the marriage of Magnus with Inge''s daughter Margaret. had a son named Kol. were called Philip and Ingo. the garb of the Scottish Hifrhlanilers. king of Denmark. 1 See the Chronology to the third volume of the Sagas of the Kings. . despising this usurpation. and themselves elected a new sovereign who was forthwith slain by the Goths. and dying a natiu'al death. Who as was a son of Olave Naskoimng. In the royal house of Denmark there still existed descendants of this line on the female side. who. Fixing their gaze on the shadow of their ancient power. that he came audaciously and arrogantly to the diet of the West Goths. but have left to history little beside their names. who claimed the land between the Vener lake. set up by them as the their cause.42 Hostilities with Norway. Magnus wa. three Scandian sovereigns (Eric Eiegod of Denmark was also present). given for this event. A Danish prince chosen by the \Vest-Goths. obtained after some time the sovereignty of Upper Sweden . 218—228." this sovereign was." He was the last of his house on the male side. they mention after Ingo a king Ragwald. Scheda^. whence it is probable that the son whom some accounts give to Inge died before him. and not as the law prescribed. the The Upper Swedes strongest and tallest of men. but in i 129 he had already a That conspii-acies were formed against successor.s prince of the Obotrites. s Table of Kings. and obliged him to abandon At a personal conference of the tliis pretension. Laward of a 7 much more recent period. Magnus Barefoot''. xiii. in 1064. jealous of his designs. and whose testimony respecting these times is perfectly " ^ trustworthy. daughter of Ingo the elder. without receiving their hostages. through Margaret Fi'idkuUa. and to have died in East9 ' So named because in his wars in Scotland he adopted L. " with the remark that the Swedes styled him happy in harvests. surnamed Short-head (Knaphoide). set tire thereto. ." recent historians liave been induced to ascribe to the king the destruction of the idol temple in Upsala. to be invalid. but never violated the laws observed in each individual province '. and passing over the Swedes. and his descent from the family of Stenkil. W. be concluded from the manner of his him may He expired of poison. Copenhagen edition. they declared the title of king. who after a long and childless wedlock with the Norwegian sovereign. ship over the Swedes. which invents a date for his death. and raised up the Christians anew. Inge marched with his household-men and an army. The sagas celebrate him as a gracious and mighty king. Halstein was also son of Stenkil. The sagas call hira Ilirald. and thus. of whicli the Table of Kings in the Westgothic law attests that it had ever gone well with the realm of Sweden so long as this decease is did not suffer their own privilege to be diminished by the envy of an inferior people. Then Inge again recovered the kingthere slain. History of Denmark. and fell three years afterwards in the civil war which this homicide produced in Denmark. The Danish prince appears hardly to have reached the threshold of his reign he murdered in 1131 his cousin Canute Laward^. Suithiod. for he is mentioned as king. a peace was concluded*. The sons of Halstan. 3 antagonist of Ingo the elder. and with him the progeny of Stenkil became extinct. rose in rebellion against him. o His tombstone in the Abbey Churcli of Warnhem in West-Gothland. By the conversion of Blot-Swen's family to Chris- family reigned. But in 1133 a new election had already taken place in Sweden.). tianity the Pagans had now lost the last su])port of This prince. L. surrounded the house. a choice which incensed in the highest degree the people' of Upper Sweden. Trans. governing the realm to his latest day. a Russian grand-duke *. Masjiius Barefoot. The testimonies of Pagans and Christians His brother Halstan surdiffer upon this point. 1130 latter " is. His son was afterwards Valdemar I. The Russian annals inform us that his wife Christina died ii\ 1122. venturing to offer the supreme power to Magnus. and so on to He marched continually day and night. acquired in West-Gothland influence sufficient to procure his election to the throne upon the death of Inge'. on tlie Danish crown. eastwards to Smalaud. and was king together with his brother It is doubtless by this relation that more Inge. i. of whom they remark. duke of Sleswick. the beyond doubt. sa} s . (ad. and burned Swen came forth and was all that were within. who reigned conjointly after their father and uncle. who was venerated as a saint after death. over Sweden with rigorous hand. bours. and bore him a This prince. See Dahlmann. notwithstanding the disastrous fate of his father. Inge waged war with the Norwegian king. 5 Mistislav. and therefore they slew him for the disrespect he had shown This befel in the year 1129 ^ He to the nation. must have governed independently some portion of the kingdom. thence to East-Gothland. of Eric Eiegod (the good). prematurely usurped. by which SwERKER was called to the throne." to denote the plenty which they enHe is said to have become joyed under his reign. of traitorous son called Magnus. Saxo. altliough but small in number. To what period his life was'prolonged is not known ^. by an ill draught. Probablj' the defection of the Jemtelanders to Norway in the year 1111. an error ot the pen for 1129. who alone possessed the right of con- ferring it. alleging as their grievance that he did not keep to the old law of The West Goths allege that he ruled the land. real or pretended. would not have been left unpunished if it had occurred under his reign. called the Great. altliough of this old writers say nothing.

. c. Olave. whom the East Goths. " At this time were found in Swedeland . This peace. summer. the English pope. s 5 ? Compare Langebek. related of Sigurd Thorson. the Cai'dinal Nicolaus Albanensis. Sigurd. . king of Norway. c. 1. " the justiciary and the West Goths delayed to acknowledge him. The . corn-rich. Most of them were the Norrlauders St. Brem. 458. and elected a Christian monarch. celebrated at the time of the old winter sacrifice. The festivals of heathenism were replaced by those of Christianity. and Nils of Denmark. the old sacrifices were still continued for a long time in Upsala. and the third towards winter. ^'- H'i''iwi%'l!fil? the Upper Swedes. France were sent tiiither by St." says the old Swedish chronicle^ . according to a tradi- David. but consecrated and turned into Christian churches. and may cast a glance retrospectively upon its slow progress. " a Eric's father was called Edward. of Olave his sons. as he had already done in Norway (in Denmai'k one had been established. and kept at the beginning of February. who disagreed both as to the person and the place.$ Choice and fate of King Swerker. and almost every province of Sweden had its own apostle. . 1. married to Christina. excepting the first. Three things did holy king Eric endeavour to build churches and reform says the old legend religion. the contribution to the see of Rome linown by the name of St. they retained embraced their old prerogatives under the new religion. But after he had embraced Christianity. Askill. or truce of long duration. 27 It was not in the spirit of Catholicism to destroy the old idol-houses. Saga of Haco. his mother Cecilia was sister of Eric. Gradually the sacrifices were abolished. called after his death the Saint. and prohibitions were issued against the universal and constant practice of carrying arms. who himself subsequently filled the papal chair under rest of the Nnrth. the ensuing revolt of the Swedes. while heathenism existed. but a quarrel arising between the Swedes 1103) and Goths. who had made himself by his excesses an object of hatred. Mean- while Christianity was advancing among them through detached efforts of individual zeal. and Christian churches sprang up in the former seats of idolatry'. or as others state." Henr. to whom both divisions of the kingdom paid obedience. the former ^ which had been the chief stronghold of Paganism. enjoined "that the temples should not be demolished. In harvest he with his friends a harvest-home. is also named Kornuba. King Swerker was assassinated by his groom while on his way to church. Monks of Clairvaux in Nydala. and the first Christians were compelled to purchase exemption from the obligation of attending first We at their performance port and contributing to their sup("onformably to a public decree. since the against the heathens of Sraaland. Swerker was an unwarlike king. the diffusion of Christianity in Swe(leland. The legate designed to erect an archbishopric in Sweden. 246. . — — He tion in the neighbourhood. •1 Saxo. as Jilot-Swen and Eric Aorsell. were confined to Birca and its environs. 3 Script. English. Ad. R. of keeping three sacrifices every year. the same edict remained in force under and even Steiikil found himself obliged to for after the death of Ragwald. iv. S. first raised to the throne *. one at the commencement of the second in mid-winter. i. or Kornike. both religions liad been recognized by law since the time *. 8 9 many heathens and bad Christians for there were some kings who rejected Christianity and maintained the sacrifices. the same who afterwards procured himself to be chosen king of the Goths. and the change in the relations of parties. daughter of the younger Ingo. Upon this occasion. Saxo. 3 The parish church of Kaga is said. 2 It is "he had T. 1155. first men and of the districts governed West-Gothland were all faithful to their charge.A. according to the Harvarar Saga.ittle Yule. His son John. 15. and Warnhem. A Romish legate. the faith of the gospel. Hist. whence the Swedish Pagans held him in abhorrence as a robber of sanctuaries. for we are told wei-e that chief well. which latter is manifestly a corruption of koinrike. obliged him to postpone the measure '. are now arrived at the times of St. ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRISTIANITY. ''^ 43 Gothland ' and according to the most probable accounts. is still called in some provinces I. appears clearly from the attempt of Ingo the elder to abolish the sacrifices. who had at first to contend with great difficulties ^. among the islets of the coast of Swedeland. and the election by the heathens of counter- observe kings^. already menHe was himself tioned as reigning in Swedeland. yet he lived to see many troubles in his old age. and to overcome the enemies of his faith and realm. he was the father of Swerker. and had occasioned hostilities with Denmark. at ' the introduction of Christianity into England." Keinisk. D. Huntingdon. de Situ Dan. Bernard. xiv. and some time without a king. iii. called also hawk's night (hokenatten)." Saga of St. the oldest were Alvastra. the Sudermanians St. Candlemas. a rich Norwegian. Haco the Good of Norway had removed the pagan Yule. upon Christmas day. he preserved the custom of giving entertainments. The establishment of Christianity . and all those we have mentioned. to the catholic Christmas. Suec. which however was only carried into execution by the former . terminated in the civil war which followed his death. Peter's pence was established. to have been built by him." The its provisions. 123. Pope Gregory the Great. moved by tliefearof havnig a foreigner to rule them. Saga of Sigurd the Pilgrim. good and wealthy yeoman. and arrived in Sweden in 1 152 ®. fell a victini to popular indignation. where episcopal sees were speedily erected in Skara and The measures previously taken for Linkoping. died the death of martyrs. Thus the Westmanlanders reverenced St. at Lund. had concerted in 1123 a crusade name of Adrian IV. boasted of plundering a temple consecrated to Thor. Thus it came " to pass that the Upper Swedes placed in the royal chair of Upsala" Eric. J 1133—55. observed about the same periods as and when at last the old Folklands. Regular ministers were first appointed in Gothland. although the Eastgothlanders chose for their king Charles the son of Swerker. and the third feast he held at Easter were gathered at his board. Stephen. on the contrary. D. visited the North at this period. the grand-daughter of Ingo the elder. c. the sovereign who saw Christianity firmly established in Upper Sweden. after the idols were broken. to govern the people as law and justice pointed out. This was Nicholas Breakspeare. monasteries in Sweden were founded in the These commotions extended to Gothland and the time of king Swerker . Botwid and St. Eric. in winter a Christmas kept and many guests revel. that the custom. rer. . and the Danish prince Magnus Nilson. While Christianity had attained ascendancy in Gothland. formerly observed as midwinter's night (midwmtersnatten).

Eric is some measure of this name defensible. and plete the Church of the altar*. Bequests to the Church. its legitimate owners. Henry. r. he laid the foundation of the connection which so long subsistsd between Sweden and that country. and the austerity of his him after death the reputation of life. Liljegren. This precedence. place and the legal key. and without the consent of the spiritual authorities. exhorted the devout to make pilgrimages to his named Philip * of whom nothing is is known. represented as having violently usurped to the injury of the house of Swerker. homicides. 1 Just as St. Charles Swerkerson. The Danish prince Magnus Henryson was descended from Stenkil by his mother. however. especially during the vacancy of benefices. five years before the death of Swerker. in 1 163. and by introducing Chi-istiSwedish auity. on the 18th of May. Eric. 95. Papal briefs to the archbishops and their suffragans begin now to throw some light on of tomb. After a short but valiant resistance he fell dead covered with wounds. the crown in 1150. the people revolted. the condition of the Swedish Church. he was . Bishops of Skai-a. Repeated mention of these remonstrances shows that the disorders complained of long continued. and is even accused of having been a party to the plot against him. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. in IICI. Eric *. death. a computation which usage afterwards sanctioned During the reign of Charles was ' . s 9 Margaret marned the Norwegian Swenskt Diplomatariuni. indeed he was acknowledged but for a time in Gothland. and divine service. In the fabulous and partly invented list of sovereigns of early ages given by Joannes Magnus. Eric was in Upsala by the Danish beleaguered unexpectedly the celebration of prince Magnus Henryson. king Sverre in 1185. we shall probably conclude that this was the last attempt at the restoration of the Westgothic dynasty. and that the latter had once before called a Danish prince to the crown upon a like occasion. which accoi'ding to Saxo were the source of so It is expressly said that Magnus mvich strife. was far from at a period nearer his being well-inclined to him own. whose inhabitants liad a reign of ten years nominated Charles Swerkerson. Eric Ericson. the town of Stockholm bears his effigy on its arms. was constrained to flee into Norway. actually entitles himself Ericus Tertius. to the lialf of the mai-riage-bed. he was defeated and slain in the year 1161. His virtues. harassed the Swedish coast. ibid. ii. The Romish court.. subjecting them to the ordeals of battle. ** Crusade in Finland. furnished incessant matter of dispute. the exertions Upsala. in particular. and hands the death of a martyr. at East Aros. Christian king of the name. so far as is known. . or other malefactors . He was reverenced as the Protector of Sweden . styled Eric IX. as also probably by transplanting colonists thither. Bein Upper Sweden was undoubtedly his work. whence his grandson is called in the old chronologies and catalogues Ericus Secundiis. burning down their houses. where two of his ' he had a brother sisters afterwards married . the present Upsala. Pope Alexander III. that they embezzled the revenues of the churches. suffered at their apostle of the Finns. was in effect murder of the elected. neither priests nor a conveniently built house for the congre- he applied gation. that they cited the cleigy to appear before secular tribunals. Canute. State C of the Swedish church. Against the heathens of Finland.. . Complaints are made that secular persons. for in a papal rescript of 1208 his family is the crown. By the Church he was never canonized. In a letter from Pope Alexander III. his banner waved in the field to enwith the enemies of courage the Swedes in battle the realm . Eric. xiv. and was thereby a coparcener of those hereditary estates in WestGothland devolving on the Danish royal family. fore him there were. during The king heard the mass out. 1. Iiei—C7. the anniversary of his death was kept sacred throughout all the provinces . established. and Charles Swerkerson also turning his arms against him. are said to law of St. but only. At last. if we include He in the calculation. the archbishopric of Upsala. which the people continued to pay to his memory. procured a saint. Lmkbping. it appears that he also built a church at East Aros. marched against tlte enemy. however. mentioned as king of the Swedes and Goths ^ he is hkewise. wherefore " now called Old Upsala. ready possessed by his descent the strongest claim on the attachment of the West Goths. and the cathedral of Upsala still preserves his relics. and the rights of honour and housewifedoni. he whose piracies undertook a crusade. 273. and even broke open and plundered the sacred buildings . and if they refused to obey the summons. and finally abrogated. Charles Swerkerson the first whom we find . St. or the present Upsala. Eric. J A. Strengnas. Eric's death and character. the papacy. although a hundred years after informed of the homage his death. Magnus Henryson. although this is in all the heathen kings was himself the first " ' Saxo. had himself enacted that no man should be allowed in this way to dispose of his whole property. The latter is said to have held real possession of the government for two years before the death of St. or boiling water. to lock and first himself to com- daughter of the elder Ingo's son." appointed clerks for the ministry An old table of kings denominates him the Lawof Swedish matrons to the giver. s Chronica Erici Olai. are mentioned as suffragans of his see . and that he obtained a powerful native If we consider that he alparty of supporters. His sovereignty at first extended only over Sweden Proper . third of the property. The old accounts unanimously assign him he was therefoi-e raised to . at their own caprice or for money. red hot iron. Charles Swerkerson was made the seventh of his name among Swedish kings. of whose active Christianity history has preserved first bishop of in propagating accompanied the king on the first this expedition some record. who was •< From the account of his Life of St. and the Westgothic catalogue of kings mentions him as the fourteenth Christian sovereign of Sweden. once the objects of veneration. often ordained as priests runaway monks. 1160. as the law of Upland exhave been conferred by the presses it. was afterwards brought into question. who is charged with having been privy to the old king Swerker ^. and he was himself subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. Westeras. son of St. who bore the title Primate of Sweden. and his son again. the first Swedish king who bore the name of Charles. p. and shortly afterwards of Wexio and Abo. even at Upsala. He was not long allowed to remain in the enjoyment of his new dignity . claimed the throne as his inheritance in right of his mother.

" respecting employed by Olave Peterson these intestine troubles. for Swedish sovereign who is mentioned as having been crowned. Kol and Burislev. SUCCESSORS OF ST. says the Swedish chronicle. (The name Jutes. we are told. Eric. and succeeded to the government by his victory over his competitor. and that of eight won over a doubly superior number thousand men who marched fifty Charles SwERKERSoNjwho is said to have governed the realm sagaciously and with good intent. Although the king had previously to his death caused his subjects to pay homage to one of his sons as his successor elect *. of the main portidii that no part should be allowed to be alienated without their consent. sister of the fourth year of his reign (1200). pronounced Yotar. and reigned twenty-three years. A letter of this king of the year 1199. who chose his father to be king. The meengagement was long preserved. empowering the convent to receive from its vassals the royal share in the amercements fixed by law for offences. the chronicler. the Folkungers. and could not have. on the contrary. had on their side the East Goths. a daughter of the earl of Swedeland. it is said by the hands of his own kinsmen. 5 Celse. T. were put to death. 8 9 bring. where he obtained proIn the tection. Gothic records. was ^ slain in 1167 on the isle of Vising by Canute. " 2 ^ •> In the southern part of lake Wetter. 45. the neighbourhood of the field of battle it is were contracted and dissolved after the barbarous fashion of the Pagans. Swerker took refuge in Denmark. A Norwegian account represents the spirit of Odin as present (for the last time) in this conflict ^. that he had won Sweden with the sword. in these the bishops set the example. PajTnent of tithe was enjoined. j'ct forgotten . complained that she must climb on horseback. Goths. By her Swerker had two children. except one who -escaped by flight. made answer " Ye shall bring us no Jutish customs here ^. marriages in flee. Feud of Eljaras. and we find it introduced before the manded turning after some interval. essayed to invest liis office with new sanctity. Waldemar deficient in II. is called a good harvest-king. . c. 20. who returned from Norway after a likewise as one of a civil war. pron. representing the combat A civil war ensued. children's children. constructed water-mills. that they introduced horticulture. while the fourth fled. An old Danish ballad asserts that the preponderance of force was on the Swedish side. but from the end of the civil war. That he augmented the privileges of tlie clergy we learn from his charter he is the first to the monastei-y of Risberg in 1212. in which three years' exile. as in her father's country. Birger Brossa. Table of Kings in the Westgothic Law. he saw himself again compelled to mory and not of this bloody being in general use . which are for the most part the sources for the history of this peiiod. The Danish princess. In the Westgothic catalogue of kings it is said of Canute Ericson. son five and out of Denmark only returned. called the young or the pious. Or Olaus Petri. ever are not to be reckoned from the death of Charles Swerkerson. at which all the sons of Canute Ericson. in Gothland. has demonstrably an incorrect date. make only mention of the so-called massacre of Eljaras in West-Gothland. 45 the heirs dehe chose. and a Swedish chronicle informs us. in which the nearest kinsmen bore arms against each other. and the followers of Charles who opposed him. boiled salt. mere . of Danes. By a Swedish wife he had four sons. Yutar. See the popular song referred to this time in Peder Syv. Inge Bardson.A. who from the abundant harvests which marked the seven years of his peaceful reign.. 1167—1216 i if Renewal of the troubles. against Swerker. son of Charles." papal brief of 1208 contains an account of the event. D. sons of the brother of Charles. Helen (whose abduction from the convent of Vreta an old Swedish song describes). attest that the memory of These howking. in the autumn of the year llOS*. Swerker II. and pei'haps Such are the expresseveral other provinces. He tions*. Eric Canuteson had resided during his exile with his kinsmen in Norway. yet complaints were still made ]'232 that it was withheld by the peasants at The Christian ceremony of wedlock was defeat at Lena in West-Gothland in the year 1208. and opened To build bridges and level roads were mines. on account of the fate which had befallen the sons of king Canute '. p. Sweden was still of the conveniences of life which had already been introduced into Denmark. " one after the other to be were raised kings against Canute . whence he brought back an army to aid him in asserting his rights. that the Upper Swedes were animated by a profound haired of Swerker. and freed the estates of the church from all serUnder the year 1205. died in 1216. T. and the heathen practice of exposing children had not yet ceased. Juta. A reconciliation with Denmark was solemnized by a marriage between Eric and Rikissa. and fought many battles before he possessed the realm in quiet . Eric Canuteson. father's death. yet Swerker II. but re- Danish monarch. who was carried while a child at his father's death to Denmark. according to the most credible accounts. ERIC. It may certainly be presumed that Canute had with him the men of Upland. Monkish verses celebrate the victory as and looked upon as works beseeming good Christians. BuUarium. fi'om which the sons of Canute having revolted it appears that. short chronologies. The Swedish prelates and magnates now elected John son of Swerker. c Chronica Erici Olai. yet spoke of the deeds done that day. .) Saga of K. arrived on the coast of Sweden. . but fell in another battle which was fought atGestibren in the same province in the year 1210. 212. His second wife Ingrid was of this powerful family. seems to be n variation of Gtitar. the vices due to the crown. T. The gaining of the victory is ascribed to the peasants of Upland . which therefore lasted five years for king Canute Ericson died. and John. who at his father's death was still of tender years. succeeded in expelling the king from his throne. We observe too that the first monks tilled their fields with their own hands . three of them had lost their lives in one encounter. but after an utter end in pleasure. was now raised to the throne. Some writers denominate this transaction the "feud of Eljaras. bereft three kings of life. yet far from of the century. quoted by Lagerp." Eric Canuteson. afterwards he proved a good sions * of St. a car many A and a driver but the Swedish dames. his son Eric being born after the . this sovereign exempted the clergy from suit to the temporal courts. but he overcame and slew them both. Swerker held a high place in tlie popular affecHe made a fresh attempt to regain the crown.

The contests between the Gothic and Swedish ruling houses had gradually effaced the old generic among the population. the third year of his reign. demanded In the separation of the Chxrrch from the state ^. These privileges he confirmed iu 1219. After John. Dux Sveorum — dux Sveorum postea.' Against the election of the Swedes king Waldemar appealed to the papal chair. which. like a similar high officer among the Franks in former times. wliich are manifestly the same. — to fill the tlirone. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. won by the king's party after his return. speedily to usurp the power and place of the Canute Johanson. the young prince Eric. and transmitted it as a heritage to their children. the last of Swerker's lineage. appeared ^ inin the diets to plead as advocates for others . bishop of Sabina. and had held the rank of Earl of Sweden since the days of Birger Brossa. Their ancestry ascended into the heathen times . rex Sweorum. who was himself chosen by the voices of the faithful. Principes. who had repaired thither to settle The fii'st laws of the Swedish throne. Considering tiie frequent civil wars. to the bishop Skara. Rhyme to Chronicle. therein not at ail contravening the usages of elder Catholicism. d. . Church was thus more closely incorpoi-ated with the state. and with him. So late as 1248. ecclesiastical affairs. Old wTiters denominate him the 1 orderly and vicious lives. in 1234. This was forbidden under the penalty of excommunicaof by a brief of Pope Gregory IX. f Disorders of the clergy. " all the rout of the Fol- kungs . which only died away because the competitors were of too tender age to appear in person at the in head of their followers.. From the to be appointed to their fathers' office. ejusdem regni monarchiam. crown upon his rival's death. when the victory of Sparfatra (near Upsala). 37. by a special brief setting forth as his ground. it is impossible to suppose that in the so-called partition of the kingdom between the houses of Swerker and Eric. swelling in greatness. and thereby also in the government of the country. after the revolter Holmgeir (who is nevertheless reckoned among to any other compact between the parties than what might be extorted by arms. called the Long. and the conflict was brought to an end at this time partly through the mediation of the legate himself . dis- We had now become the chief office at coiu't. Sweden tiie priest was an officer of the people. Duke called Earl of the Swedes. filius Caroli regis. that in 1234 the junction of the smaller pai'ishes was For their privilege of contractiug decreed i. for this ancient princely dignity Church were framed in the republican spirit which reigned in the old political constitution. they were nearly related to all the three royal houses of the north. marriage the Swedish priesthood appealed to an " Celse. these in effect apply not less to the clergy themselves find the former as well as than to the laity. both from natural endowments and the alliances he had formed. While the upper pai't of the kingdom had too few churches. Disputatum est de illo canone acriter orum Proceres Svethia. scarcity of preachers. though he was still a child. that ' since our first father's transgression. all human memory is frail and perishable without the undying evidence of letters. of who is Swedes and Goths ^. ended the power of Eric recovered his the usurper with his life. is named in the public documents next in order after the king. tained great influence in affairs. member of this family. quod consensus honoratiin civitate requircndus et admittendus sit in electionibus episcoporum. Its holder.. their number in West-Gothland was already so large. At the same time they powerfully contributed to elevate the magnates of the country at the expense of the kingly power. that in papal briefs they are separately addressed as the lords and One family in particular atprinces of Sweden *. and was destined. On his coronation-day he freed the estates and property of the churches from contribution to the crown. entitles himself. In a Swedish charter of 1248. he took up arms. her members from this very cause took in times of violence a more prominent share iu the Theredisorders of the temporal commonwealth. that of the FolkUNGERS. So king Swerker II. fight of and he in effect filled the throne from the Alvastra" in 1229. before the hierarchy.H4. who had already been earl under his kinsman Canute. hereditario jure assecutus. This papal legate was the Cardinal William. who died in 1202 . Dei ] 2 gratia. however. 3 •• Aniiquiores canones habent. who were bound to keep aloof from the secular tribunals. was scarcely to prove a more tranquil possession. and written in characters of blood." w^as in fact raised to the Swedish saints). Magnates. stead of husbanding the property of the Church. espoused the king's sister. and inducted into his office by the king. 5 tion Celse. Earl of the of Sweden by the grace God *. to assert claims to the throne against a sovereign yet in his minority. had died in 1222. had been made prisoner and beheaded. Bullarium. ^ The records have Olustrom and Alvastrum.56. a papal legate who visited Sweden in that year speaks of intestine war between the king and the magnates as continuing. son of Canute. although the family which had so long struggled with his had now descended to the tomb. alleging the hereditary right of his nephew. >* Compare the Saga of Haco Hakanson. and retained the office under Eric. c. little strictness could be exercised in their selection." and granted to the bishops the right of levying all fines from the peasants holding land of the church. the latter charged with homicide. whence the sons of priests often made solicitation. . Bullarium. which compelled the flee into young king Denmark. { 1216 48. a sovereign. 259. 9 et Gothorum. " unfore. called "the halt and the lisper. fled preference to John '. elected by them with the consent of the bishop. they appropriated it to their own use. and held his ground against the king in the northern portion of the country. Holmgeir. there was Gestricland. although his influence in the government was really less than that of the Folkunger Ulf Fasi '. Papal legate aiipointed. the princes of Swerker's family style themselves in their letters hereditary kings of the dominion of Sweden 2. a. Priests. till 12. Folkunger king says the .46 Kric Ericson. and one circumstance which marks diversities their growing importance is. to the throne. when the popes make complaints of the tamed hardness" of the people of Sweden. and was powerful enough. Results of the civil war. Ego Swerco. On the other side. who But if the delivered to him the crosier and ring. outrages. ' Diplomatarium Suec. and with success. the young Eric Ericson.

are not the only memorials which this age The great Rhyme Chrohas transmitted to us. Measures of the legate. is The to the . which had been for a long time back disturbed by the frequent interference of the Vernielanders in the Norwegian troubles. we find the priests on the other hand entering into bonds to pay no obi'dience to their mandates. but above its level two privileged classes are created. 1250— 1303. who had relapsed into Paganism. of whom the numbers in Sweden were now augmented by the introduction of the Franciscans and Dominicans. writers. was manned to the sister of king Eric. had formerly been It is certain that the Swedes subject to Russia. cost of the people. He is alleged to have wounded Birger in the battle *. however. and the prebends endowed with revenues. Laws associated with such recollections. whose parents were the Folkunger Sune Folkerson. all laical interference being excluded. but they were driven back. perhaps his natural son Guttorm. may be inferred from the circumstance. Alexander Newsky. and usurping the place of the people in council and in accession of the powerful family now elevated throne betokens a new epoch. to of Finland were exposed. The Rhyme Chronicle asserts that TavastEric. After the synod of Skenninge. which was also attended by the earl and several temporal lords. that the . A hundred yeai-s after St. ordinance respecting chapters had had no results . these were. CHAPTER earl birger and his sons. 1248-50. but she gave her husband no heirs. To this end. As is generally the case. made an incursion into Russia shortly before or ^ during this war . say the old . hence an age of absoluteness for the powerful. that for a long time after the synod of Skenninge. is said to have been also pi'esent. the contests which formerly divided the peonow transferred to a higher grade. To him is ascribed the location of the Swedish colony in East Bothnia. also one of legislation for the' people. MAGNUS ERICSON WITH HIS SONS. taken literally. in 1248. Earl BiRGER the younger. with Eric Ericson *. the study of the canon law also was enjoined. THE FOLKUNGERS. old papal grace ^. D. Birger subdued the Tavasters. 1250 King Eric Ericson died on the 2nd February. elevated to this dignity and like his predecessor Ulf a Folkunger. and often annoying the Swedish coasts in conjunction with the Carelians and Esthonians. ^ . in all cathedral churches which did not already possess them. now become Christian. who had apostatized from Christianity. however. precipitate each other from its walls. Remonstrances were also made by the minor clergy as to the burden of the expensive episcopal visitations. and imposing penalties on those who should not make common cause with their colleagues in this respect. and abolished . a grave and righteous prince. THE FOLKUNGERS. the execution of the law did not correspond to its letter. as well for the authority of the crown as the power of the arisBoth gained increase of strength at the tocracy. Erie had been chosen king. or the so-called Gray and Black Friars. as that in Nyland is to St. that Those their priests should be allowed to mari'y. agreeing themselves in but one that of curbing the mass into obedience object. the provincial laws retained their enactments regarding inheritances by In consequence of sons of priests and bishojis. but little versed in martial exercises. of the clergy whose marriages were not connived at. He had been married since 1243 to Catherine. wherein the earl's son. law in their most important representatives. Earl of Sweden. and compelled them to embrace Christianity . 47 In the Scanian revolt of 1180. practising the most horrid cruelties against the Christians residing in that country. The earl next put himself at the head of a crusade against the Tavasters of Finland. his line upon the Swedish throne became extuict . capitular bodies were to be formed. this prohibition also a papal bull was issued. Ten years afterwards we still hear the complaint. and a Norse inroad thereby provoked. it was one of the demands of the peasants. by which the penalties against irregular connections of cler'gymen were mitigated. The pope's letters exhort to crusades as well against the Tavasters. How the prohibition of clerical marriages was obeyed. and a daughter of Swerker II. The king's death. The gi-eatness of his power is attested by the words of the " By him is this land wholly gopapal legate . measures verned. and after his death entered a cloister. IV. A. KING BIRGER AND HIS BROTHERS. as well as the disagreements between the for great anivarious classes of the spiritualty mosity prevailed among the secular priesthood against the monks. •1 whose assaults the Christians The pope alleged that he knew nothing of it. he also founded the castle of Tavasteborg. as the Russian annals tell us. time. and ple are waged between their legislators. by the grand duke land. the unbelieving Russians. when they have reared some lofty fabric. and in conformity to its rules every episcopal election was to be managed by the chapter. generally formed instead irregular connections and if the bishops were zealous against all this. as against 2 3 Compare Karamsin." for the restoration of harmony with were taken Norway. . gradually founded.A. These remind us of builders who. At the Synod convoked by the Cardinal at Skenninge in 1248. marriage was forbidden to the Swedish clergy on penalty of excommunication. Chronica Erici Olai. Synod of Skenninge. D. and transplanted Christian settlers into the country. Birger. This legislation. shows the old fedei'ative system confirmed by the kings. raised beyond the At the same the transaction of public affairs.

" Duke Frederic of Normandy. archbishop of Upsala. composed it is said for Philip the Fair of France. lastly. Revolt of liis kinsmen. 3 (Plogpenning. king." published in the Journal Iduna. whither he had conducted Birger's daughter to be the bride of king Haco's eldest son. for the ascendancy of the church in temporal affairs . with which the sagas of Norway agree. Leyden. who inhabited a particular house in that city bequeathed for their use. First published by the Joh. upon " the government of who with his brother was under the care of kings and princes ^. had to bear much blame ^. Discontent of Birger. and its antique character affords the best proof of the authenticity of the work. but Birger had them seized. It is the production of several writers nearly contemporary with the events it describes. . had died in 1254. The insurgent leaders crossed the bridge unarmed to hold a conference for the purpose of adjusting terms of agreement. where he had also chosen a wife for his son in the daughter of tain portions of the . the earl solicited and obtained permission from the pope to confer u]3on his other sons as well as demanded appoint a king wrath who it was that had dared to " That have I ? dared. manifested no small dissatisfiiction. Joannes Magnus Goth. was crowned at Linkoping in 1251. 1250—55. " As for example. This is the accoimt of the Rhyme Chronicle. greatest a preceptor. though for the most part unknown by name. 1630. and caused them to be immediately beheaded. sagas of the Norwegian kings inform us." The earl was silent for a while. contains instructions for the Swedes studying in Paris. . as is said. It was suddenly filled by the election of the earl's eldest son. and there are copies of some existing in the Swedish language. a powerful baron. ' A letter of John. Nos. orfi??ridinm. begins with the revolt of the I'olkungers against king Erie Ericson. by a daughter of another Philip. i nicle. In 1255. D. that great dissensions were produced in Svv'eden by the election which had been made. because there were sevei'al claimants who regarded themselves as having an equal title to the crown. the main source for the history of Sweden during the latter period of the middle age. His first consort. a child. were his own kinsmen. and probably under the minority of Magnus Ericson. mother of four sons. Dreading on his return home that he might fall a victim to the machinations of the earl. Sueonumque Rhyme ' Historia. who in the last days of Eric Ei'icson was already the real possessor of supreme power. where probably the greatest number of their partisans was to be found. 269. Tlie great GusTAvus Adolphus. number of our old popular ballads. whose dissensions broke out over their father's Birger contracted a grave. Its suppression. the Swedish Saga of Theodoric of Berne 8 Saga of K. and murdered king Eric Plowpenny ^. valued it so highly that he desired it to be used for the instruction of his daughter. the young and brave Charles Ulfson." Ivar replied. whose rivalry for'power the earl had really to dread. Waldemar Styrilse Konunga ock Hbfdinga. by whose order the book was first published. widow of the fratricide king Abel of Denmark. although his work has much that is peculiar to itself. when the throne became vacant.* - . he also threw the torch of discord into his own house. in 1291." was lord Ivar's answer . and proffered peace and reconcilement. c." was also composed under this The autlior. of whom the oldest lived about the year 1319. Haco Hakanson. They. brought about chiefly through the influence of the lord Ivar Bhi of Griineborg. j . the Folkungers were powerful for every ill deed. which. He is by no means zealous. to advocate a hereditary throne and a kingly power foi-tified by the law and the people. afforded him a model. yet Birger. whose father had been earl of Sweden before Birger. was absent on his crusade against the Finlanders. T. Chronicle. and made a descent on Upper Sweden. It was the age of knighthood in Sweden the romances of chivalry now found their way to the North. though himself in all likelihood a clergyman. second marriage with Matilda. whose object in this expedient seems to have been to avert a civil war. of which the German and French originals are lost '. we know right well where stands a king. although he took no part in the revolt of his kinsmen. In those times.The edition I have used. Peregimineprinripum. bably like many of his countrymen in this age studied at Paris '. where the dissertation of ALg\dius Romanus *. received a fund for their support from the tithes of the see of Upsala. 12mo. and seems to have learned from the dangers of an elective monarchy and the tyraimy of an unbridled oligarchy. adding that the earl. He seems to have written under a king who was still in childhood. who is imknown." With that earl Birger was fain to be content. Tidings of it were brought to Charles Ulfson in Norway. who was beheaded in 1248 by order of earl Birger . foreign assistance. son of the Folkunger Canute. had prodynasty. having returned with his army. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. 1634. These were all Folkungers. The best treatise of morals or politics which the Swedish middle age affords. young Waldemar. is published under the name of Thomas Aquinas. next with better fortune in Denmark and German}-. The language is admirable for its olden simplicity and force. So called. "a king might well enough be found at need. and roamed through the land with their armed The bands. overthrown under the former reign son of the powerful Magnus Brok. 9 and 10.48 Choice of Waldemar. To elevate Waldemar to the throne was to deliver the government into his father's hands . for this deed. as especial mention is made of the UpThe earl met them at landers in their army. and Waldemar. and Herrevad's Bridge in Westmanland. the chief king Eric Canuteson abettor of Holmgeir. first unsuccessfully in Norway. . The heads of the malcontents were Philip. it is said. Philip and Canute sought . " Under " Whom then would you have to be lung 1" this mantle of mine. His design in this was to exalt his family above all other competitors but while he succeeded in this. Earl Birger. had legally devolved upon him as duke of the Swedes. and designed to introduce it as a text book in the public From this age also have come down the schools. Thence they returned with levies of troops. and the poetical roraaunt. and the first-named two were also pretenders to the crown the last is termed the most powerful of Birger's enemies. he quitted the kingdom. "and if thou rest not content herewith. Waldemar (distinct from the Icelandic). yet in 6 Um the government of cerkingdom. man in Sweden dared to rise against earl Birger. Bureus. and at last exclaimed. and fell in a cruFrom this time no sade against the Lithuanians. like robbers rather than nobles '. 5 1 A. from ataxorgavel imposed by him upon every plougliland.

THE FOLKUNGERS. also With Lubeck and Hamburg reciprocal freedom of trade was established. a son. who had already brought him several heirs ^. of women. whose fief is not specified. in the Bennet. degraded him in the eyes of the people. appears to have been procured by Waldemar during this journey. Margaret. A his crown. also cance. Another daughter. 9 Namely. But the walls were of wood. The little island lying between the two outlets of lake Malar. the latter (of whose marriage a romantic tradition is preserved. The duke felt by no means inclined to restore the reins of power to the king on his reconference of all the four brothers took turn. the youngest. (a. Andrei Jaroslawitsch. of . I Foundation of Stockholm. a nun in the convent of Skenninge. 49 was distinguished for the beauty of his person. 1266. Suec. the queen scofted at her brothers-in-law. But he kept a far more splendid court than the king. and all the principal men of the realm ^. ' s E . B. they engaging to pay six thousand marks sOver. R. at which the youngest. was The foundation now fortified ' for defence against the piratical incursions of the Finns. Aerf. produced discord in his house. ^ " With towers and walls. 1274 '. although a settlement had been in progress upon this site since the destruction of Sigtuua by the Finnish pirates in 1187." By him was also introduced " it general land's-peace. was to be proclaimed throughout the kingdom as having lost his peace he forfeited all that he " above possessed ground. guilty intercourse with the king. Magnus and Eric concluded a league with to . Eai'l Birger. sect. 6 So king Magnus Ladulas expresses himself in the confirmation of his father's peace-laws. Magnus obtained Sudermania with the castle of Nykoe[iing . whom from his insignifi- intercession of the complainant. That he was obliged to expiate his offence by a pilgrimage to Rome is probable. as those were called who had voluntarily given themselves up to servitude. that a sister should . rer. earl Birger made the law. This was called "to inherit by the new law. Birger sought also to form connections with England. died on the 21st of October. and he afforded shelter in his court to a Russian grand duke *. of his actions during life. for the promotion of amity. says the Rhyme Chronicle. i. Waldemar now began really to reign. Celse." and was not allowed to atone for his transgression by fine without the . No letlers from Magnus with the kingly title are found of earlier date than the beginning of 1275. king Eric Glipping in Denmark. d." as the RhjTne Chronicle has it. duke of Finland and sought. of which a child was the fruit. f. which contained the first town. but he now also yielded up the provinces which his rights courts of justice. brother of Alexander Newsky. as were those with which the town was still encompassed i. during the reign of Magnus. did not receive the title before the accession of Magnus. In the renewed treaty wdth Lubeck.A J2G2 — 7y. 2. place in the summer of 1274. and the ordeal by interdiction of gift-thralls (gaftralar). It led to no salutary and in the following year intestine war broke out. 12). These were still so formidable in this age. its love-intrigue at length lost Waldemar His consort Sophia. as the bull of January 9. afterwards King of Poland. called Edsore. 2. and the women. and made the king's ear the receptacle of Magnus. Waldemar thought only of his own enjoyments . the another king in Sweden. In the disputes of Denmai-k and Norway his mediation was received with defei-ence. king without the name. Death of Earl Birger. consisting chiefly heritance. was. for before this time the daughter only inherited wlien there was no son in other cases the law said. p. in Waldemar's time he alone among the brothers bore the title of duke. and was now in liis twentieth year his nuptials with the Danish princess Sophia were solemnized with At this time great pomp at Jenkoeping in 12(52." By this covenant was guaranteed under sevei'e penalties. to express the preference given to males in the rights of in1 The royal ai'my. is styled. and died shortly afterwards. earliest author enumerates seven towns upon is the banks of that lake. and peace he had taken under his guard. he seems to have included in it his regency during the absence of Waldemar." EastGothland Law. . begone '. To earl Birger's legislation appertains also the abolition of the red-hot iron as a legal proof. Eric. 5G. received in 1 273 a visit from her sister Jutta. who entered year 1275. of whom the former married Duke Primislaus of Kalisch. who left her cloister and came to the Swedish court. and the rise of these attested by several commercial treaties. of whom the elder two were speedily at strife with the king. she nicknamed Good-for-nought. dignities in 1291. " fair as an angel from Her heaven. Compare Karamsin. though vainly. his brother's chancellor he was made . Count Rudolph of Diepholt.) lamented after his death. who was lean and darkcomplexioned." says Olave Peterson. S. s. Eric (an elder of the same name had died in 1268). the spiritual state. she called Tinker. whatever blame might have attached to last renounce his governments. because was confirmed by the oath of the king. whose inherit half as much as a brother *. BuUariuni. and two daughters. who assisted them with troops. " cap. and his numerous retainers excelled in all knightly exhis complaints. and the exercise of irregular father had allotted to his brothers. compare S. but as in a subsequent document he mentions the year 1285 as the twelfth of his reign. in 1284. Old and young. in 1317. it mourned for him. of the town of Stockholm has been ascribed to Birger. vainly offered German towns A result and most powerful of the earls of Sweden. said. Richissa and Marina. i. 5 The law of East-Gothland uses this form of words. reference is made to the alliance which had already subsisted between Sweden and the since king Canute Ericson's time. by which the pope forbids the choice of ercises. that a papal bull of the year 1259 exhorted the kings of Sweden and Denmark to make a joint effort to check the ravages of the Stockholm was a pirates on the Swedish coast. repaired to Noi'way. which the Law of East-Gothland more especially has pre- served. of churches. castle before the Malar. according to Eric Olaveson. with several other ordinances. Whosoever broke the pact. many is Dethronement of Waldemar. revenge was forbidden. to preserve harmony between his brothers. and died in the possession of these He was mild and well-beloved. Eric. which was not long afterwards extended to Riga. as is remarked in the Script. and drew down upon his head the censures of the church. prayed for his soul. come in the hood. for the power of the law did not yet extend further. bishop of Linkoeping two years afterwards. the peace of the domestic hearth. Edsore means oath.

made the king prisoner in the very castle of which the royal confidence had entrusted to him the custody. seized the king's father-in-law. and his renunciation. This \as the third and last insurrection of the Folkungers during three successive reigns. and a son three years old. but he soon gave up all for lost. D. 3 H. where the Here. Of that Magnus. when a blood-stained messenger announced the overthrow and flight of the army. according to which he was to be left iu Magnus was crowned possession of Gothland. he is styled duke in Norwegian records *. and could not again be revived in the form of diets. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and thereby deprived the people of their legislative rights. so long as the contests regarding religion and the throne continued. and Magnus. S i. His captivity. with his consort. who in 1279. Proper generally. made some endeavours to recover his dominions by Norwegian mediation. An old account In the year 1279. and endeavoured to mollify the revolters Letters and records of by caresses and promises. by Danish cooperation. Apparently they were not indisposed to replace Waldemar on the thi-one. his estates should be wasted and he should be declared to have lost his peace for ever. This seems to prove that it was latterly used oftenest as the appellation of a party. whither the archiepiscopal see had been removed from old Upsala. The favour and confidence wliich he lavished on foreigners in preference to his own countrymen. his son Eric was now also arrested. Whosoever. or in any other mode should give consent to such an union. and invited them to his manor of Galaquist near Skara. Magnus is said." especially among the nobility. The king slept. cepted their hospitality. that subsequently (a. of levies of country-people. Peter Porse. renewing more than once both liis claim to the throne. and became still more easy after the death of Magnus though prisonment dreaded name we no longer hear anything. 1278). and the more. moved by his love for a certain woman called Christina. was intolerable to the Upper Swedes. Waldemar died in prison in 1302 ^. in the ordinance of Skeiminge. that besides the branch which was elevated to the throne. and obliged to share his own lot. an appellation by which the Rhyme Chronicle designates the inhabitants of Sweden kingdom had had painful experience. between whom a slight- in error. after the cessation of civil discords. assassination of the king's favourite had taken place. was The Folkungers Magnus a Country. disappeared with the ancient sacrifices. they slew Ingemar Nilson (a. Waldemar with his court remained in the rear at Ramundeboda. had to quell one of these insurrections after the close of the war with Denmark. It is usually stated that king Magnus introduced diets of lords (herredagarna) for the transaction of public affairs. Ingemar Nilson. It is with some surprise we find the Roman law of treason adduced against the rebels on this occasion ^. 613.50 His brother Maijiius crowrieil kintr." subscribed his attestation to a rescript of short time before the latler's death. the king. bands of martial followers. * Those Siihm. Waldemar. many others also losing life and property. in the heart of the wood. though they relate rather to an order of society previously subsisting. d. 1. which was confined to mutual predatory inroads. in order to enforce payment of a debt which he claimed. were seized and thrown into prison. In legem Juliam niajestatis incidetunt. " Dominus Ericus Waldemari id. Count Gerard of Holstein. Letter of the king's brother Bennet. resorted to dissimulation. 1285). excited fresh disturbances. Waldemar delivered his says part of the kingdom into the hands of his brother : felt the danger of his position. and compelled the queen to take refuge in a convent. where four of the ringleaders were beheaded in 1280. 1279—90. 1282. another Danish knight whom the king favoured. that this partiality was not unfi-equently rewarded with ingratitude. Revolts of the FolkuiiKcrs. forbids under the severest penalties. Magnus had been first elevated to the throne by the Uplanders." relate to another person. in 1288. which had been exercised in the old general assemblies But these had for the most part (allsharjarting). at Upsala. took post at Hofva in West-Gothiaud. it is said. and abandoned himself to complete security. howevei'. as a deeply-rooted evil. all party associations or" secret confederacies. Amidst the disputes and counter-elections of opposite parties. to defend against them the entrance of the Tiwed forest. and when the king of Denmark embraced his party. by the statutes that were now passed. this time attest his seeming intimacy with Birger He acPhilipson. Afterthey wards they were removed to Stockholm. and consoled himself with a new mistress. the queen was playing chess. is worthy of remark. He in the signatures of the charter mentioned by Suhni. He returned. although it is known. ^ . by writing. who had come on a visit to his daughter. indeed. follow after the words which quondam who have are made him court-cba])laiii to Haeo Magnuson of Norway regis Sveorum filius. Waldemar. and resided for some time in Norway . as well as his father. to have remained as much attached to him as before. consigned to imin the castle of Nykoeping. July 2o. The words " Magister capellarum nostrarum. These perhaps have been regarded too much as the offspring of a legislation novel in its principles . and it is chiefiy in this point of view that they are instructive. R. was made prisoner. of which the It . s. d. History of Denmark xi. and made herself meri-y respecting duke Magnus. Magnus. and was in 1322 one of the councillors of king Magnus Ericson. These appear to have forgotten neither their former privilege of nominating and deposing kings. and obliged to submit to the conditions imposed by Magnus. the real power Surrounded by into the hands of the magnates. After this we find him deserting his wife for the arms of three successive paramours. 673. nevertheless. an exiled Dane who had won his good graces. other important members of the family had survived their last fatal disaster. and at last. and the struggles of rival ad already long j^assed dynasties. tor we find them taking up arms in evei-y rising of the Folkungers. I [ A. Proceeding from menace to violence. nor their old spirit of contentious turbulence. one of the insurgent chiefs. denoting tlie most powerful of those military leagues and factions which the long-continued civil wars had generated. Much light is thrown on the condition of the and had married to his the object of universal hatred. 27. was at no time rigurous^. unless the king's pardon were interposed. 2 kinswoman Helena. tied through the forests of Vermeland into Norway. Thereafter his son was released. and betook himself to Denmark. oath.

a spirit which shows itself so manifestly in all directions. the crown obtained in 1282 an exclusive right of possession over all mines. all fisheries in the great waters and streams of Sweden. that in future every man who offered violence to the person of a crowned king of Sweden. taxes. and the right of " with his legislation which he claimed to himself . 2. in virtue of which he took under his especial protection widows. in 1285. Claims of regalities proved to be unsound. T. In that age this was an imnor set down in it f". The decree of 1396. lays claim to no right of " property'' in the same on the part of the crown. But his age is incontestably distinguished by new and extended ideas of the rights and power of the sovereign. than if he had For there be been called a Roman emperor. when he obtained from the clergy assembled at the Synod of Telje in 1279. whereof no one had heard anything till in 1587 an individual. an honourable title. although common sometimes mentioned as be^. ' King Eirger Magnuson's ordinance of 1297. or exacting free quarters by intimidation. for was which enabled the king to give power new force to the laws. as may be seen from the proliibition by king Magnus of injurious expressions. that against this it ments upon unenclosed forests and lands. they employed their dependents in mutual feuds. and the rights of the proIf a pit was commenced upon ground liable to the prietor. a declaration. With regard to common forests a similar tenure prevailed. merly. all settle- by king Magnus for the preservation of general peace in every place where the king should come to hold a conference. herring. In the provincial laws these are said to be the property of tlie all who travel through the country. the crown could claim no dues upon the procedure. had themselves stained their hands with blood treacherously shed . Oppressions of the nobles. as for private persons ". 2 Common is spoken of as crown property in the Law of East-Gothland. A purveyor was provide sustenance for travellers upon payment being made. king Magnus acquired the surname of Ladulas (barn-locker). fabiicated in the same view. The memorial was laid before the Royal Chancery and Chamber of Accounts by one Paine Erifson (RosenThis person is styled strale). attained a kind of prescriptive credit in our history. the cessation of all deadly feud at the same time between individuals. as may be seen even in the time of the Folkungers. otherwise notorious for his striving after court favour. the crown still in execution." By these laws and the general strictness of his administration." and even the removal of all weapons of strife. "a and the memoir itself.) practice tainment. Bishops' and noblemen's mansions were freed from the obligation of enter? to be named for every village." '> Compare the edict of 1485. and issued edicts agamst exacting quarters from the peasants by force. being imputed to Magnus Ladulas with some appearance of This is the case with the so-called probability." " is says Clave Peterson in his Swedish Chronicle. was pronounced to be crown property. and was so deemed by the people. who can be styled barn-lock . is that of sorning. and seal fisheries. which is said to have served s These words are quoted from the ordinance of Skenninge Ordinance of Alsno in the same year.A D. from royal ordinances con(allraenning) also longing to the king common." It is rulers who enacted laws necessary not to forget." provement. and old men." if the ground were tax-free. which has conferred greater praise and fame on king j\Iaguus. which however cannot be sustained against inMines in Sweden were fordubitable evidence. tions issued " howsoever highly born they might be. found not many in the world. passed by his father for the maintenance of peace. who should (The offence of valdgastning above described. to at a folk-mote held was alleged to liave been agreed on Helgeand's Holm (or Isle) at Stockholm. although expenditure in general. and where no right of prothe crown naturally bestowed an perty existed. 51 ing word might cause a di. the proprietor was to pay "tithe and rate to the crown." '' So called because it crown might claim from mines. 1279 —90. that repartition of the ground. and appears not to have been put In the time of Charles IX. Touching the general assessment of the taxes. produced a memoir on the subject. statute of Helgeand's Holm *. possessed only a fourth part of the mine at Falun. on the ground that the estate ofUpsala was no longer adequate to the supply of the king's necessities and the public its This statement. Dangers of this kind threatened especially when the king convoked the men of his realm to a on which occasions likewise the multitude parley. barn-breaker has ever been more several is parishes. as long afterwards to allow of several ordinances. those in the great streams of Norrland '. especially those who had done service to him. gined information. is directed against the heirs of the high-steward Bo Jonson. and never be acknowledged as a legitimate sovereign. that both the great to secure the maintenance cerning the disposal of the waste tracts surrounding the upper portion of the Gulf of Bothnia. upon the dues which the e2 . According to this. respecting the tithes payable by the Helsingers from salmon. demand entertainment without paying and spend in a little while what the poor man has earned by the labour of a long time '. council and his good men (goda man)" in various cases which were "not guarded against bj' the law. J KING MAGNUS LADULAS. whereon a general assessment of taxes was asserted to have been ordered and carried into eff'ect. because he was a lock for " And this name of the peasant's barn. or with a greater retinue than the king. of men that was assembled and claimed to live at the king's charge produced delay and heavy exIt is thus we understand the strict injuncpense. of public peace in Sweden. authorized possession. > Enforcement of peace. example.'aJly strife. under penalty of thus is lo. should be placed under the ban of excommunication. demonstrably the property of So too were fisheries. by which the whole of the Kopparberg. a common in former ages in Scotland and Ireland. as heretofore hath been wont in the case of oiher mines. be they ever for so rich. " Paine Ericson's imacapital liar. it. as Magnus seems not to have reflected upon the transactions attending his own accession to the crown. in an inscription on the document in another hand. Ladulas. i. as now. No man could deTTiand a horse without the king's letters. and made use of their influence on the common people for the instigation of revolts. although there were instances in which property of this nature was held by our kings. or " that abuse which had long of property and perpetual banishment to be explained the prohibition against appearing on such an occasion without a summons. Egnas. with the exception of the portiim belonging to the bishop of Westeras. fatherless children. truth was doubted almost from the first. a flatterer of King John III.

granting a right of settling there. Whatever was paid above the usual fine for the life of a freeman was called in those cases thukkabot (shame-bote). that liability to taxation was generally incompatible with a full right of pi'operty in the soil. and hence these relations have but an external resemblance 3 As the coins were classed by the mark. was in time called terra regia. in South Helsingland. for its basis ^.' who. 1 Law of East-Gothland. f A. Drap. and probably wanted as little the will as the ability to shake off their due " share of taxation. « independent property to persons Edward Ehrensfen (councillor of state in 1683)." and which he " humbly for God's sake prays them indulgently to judge and to pardon. although the crown made attempts betimes to transform this commonable ground acquired by payments to the crown a public recognition of his right of property. but various contributions for the occasion. or like great baron. jure coronae. for the most part. nobiles. an opinion which has been asserted in Sweden. as it is clear that tributes already existed beforo his time. as we learn junctions of Magnus to his governors even (Lansmen). theortug. and the conclusion was thence drawn. by eighths (attingar). that the crown had always been the possessor of the soil although when the common previously belonged to a determinate parish.52 Taxation Freehold tenure of land. Maunus extended to their complete developemeiit the immunities and privileges of the Swedish clergy. majores in old letters. or that the latter always belonged to the receiver of the taxes . among to use the words of Magnus himself. 17G9. none but freeborn could attain to the distinction of being the ' king's comrade in arms . every new impost the consent of the people was in others requisite. not hereditary. wrote in the last years of Christina's reign the excellent "Proof tinguished from land granted in fief). HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. ' A whole parish. as old law cases in which the point was tried establish. ut non nobis hoc coram surami Jiidicis oeulis imputetur. though it is found also in Upper Sweden. i 1279—90. and gives assignments on their produce to furnish means for the rich endowments. men in his household '. Compare Diplomat. may be seen from the merely to higher value which the laws set upon the life of a courtier. partly to array in defence of the crown bands of warlike yeomen. in Eric Olaveson. without doubt. and granted to the secular nobility their first charter of exemption from taxation although . or his progresses of pleasure through the country . to those Footing of the old nobility. was formed in this way by a judgment given in 1343. wliose numbers had been augmented in the intestine troubles of the country. as it has also been triumphantly refuted ''. in the Law of East-Gothland. who distains at least forty serving against the Nobility's Claim of right to assessable Lands granted in fief. because it was to atone for the shame put upon the servitor's lord. older than all charters. at least. and the false view that the king originally possessed the whole land. The members of into a courtly or feudal nobility. from personal taxes. it is irreconcileable with the municipal law of Sweden.. Originally these were benevolences for the maintenance of the yearly sacrifices. who used their power as the measure of their freedom." there is an evident design. Even this king nevertheless looked upon the crown taxes as his private property. who main- (skatt) to the crown. * Quare vobis universis ac singulis humiliter in Domino supplicamus. defined no doubt more sharply under Magnus Ladulas. and powerful enough to be able to dispense with them. or crown-land. but with the full right of property in the soil. this old aristocracy. brtugland. B. anciently the rights of the so-called king's-men. which is a stranger to the ideas that in other countries sprang out of a feudal system founded upon conquest '. 9 Barones Sueciee. and for the warlike expeditions of the king. are styled in the records of those " free barons and nobles of times " the great *. was a method by which the new settler freed himself from the dependence in which he had stood towards that parish ^. I). but still denoting only the exemption from or liability to payment of taxes to the crown . I28. a bishop. bearing in remembrance on the other hand whatever good he might have effected in his day ''. which formerly for the most part took place every year. In itself. Exemption from tribute was. 8 Magnates. Suec." They were likewise. men of birth . et sic vestris de cordibus omnino dimittere. i. so the cultivated ground was reckoned by markland. This holds true especially of the distinction between free and unfree (Frtelse and Ofraelse). and therefore wei-e worthy of greater honour." "high and well-born men. but this nobility was which he beijueaths by monasteries. It was observed that from ancient times the settler on There was essentially personal. originally sprung from famihes either themselves of royal condition or allied with royal houses. in the service of whomsoever they might be ^. That the greater honour" which household service obtained was not confined the king's court. In the measure by which Magnus exempted from " all persons serving on horsepayment to the king back. which " of they had paid grace and not of obligation. which are found in otlier countries. Iviherra (overlords). acknowledged by general consent. quatinus in hoc velitis nobis parcere. 14." too were surrounded by martial retainers. the payment of gavel . the ore. . From this position there was but one step to another. hiid gradually assumed under dissimilar appellations in different For provinces the character of permanent taxes." printed at Stockholm. although in this respect many abuses from the in- this privilege was originally intended less to in- in these times existed." These the realm ^. which gave importance to the pretended statute of Helgeand's Holm. that of the Forest (Skog). 2 I Ordinance of Aslnii. the latter as well as the former being conjoined not only with personal freedom. is just as certainly older than the reign of Magnus Ladulas. his will to churches and It is an essentially false theory of the tenure of taxed lands in Sweden. insinuated itself into the English laws from the Norman couquest. 179. to the Helsingers for the demand of various extraordinary imposts. "attended him with rede and help. or to make the performance of service the condition of possessing its immunities.'i. Another division. accruing in some cases fi'om the soil. besides a nobility of birth. It may be properly described as an attempt to transfoi-m all nobility into the feudatory class. and from his own apologies not to levy gavel against the will of the commonalty. whether the person were in the service of an earl. Such a system was always foreign to Swedish institutions. tires. ? Thus the Folkland of the Anglo-Saxons (so called as dis- land. was followed chiefly in Gothland. * crease the power of the nobles than that of the crown.

made tributary. Birger. which was framed in 1285. in 1237) had occasioned the crusade of earl Birger against the Tavasters. while the rest. for the delivei'ance of which a separate tithe was raised. the others that of duke. x. " things stood so well with Sweden. tion of well-born men. in 1276. for fraelsc't). we learn that he had made a vow of a crusade to the Holy Land. departure renounced their profession and persecuted the Christian teachers. by which the Swedes were placed in immediate contact with Russia." Birger. 8. His court was brilliant. but on its ' Algol. while Thorkel Canuteson assumed the functions of government. had not Three of his sons. benefacjustice tions to the church. with Helviga of Hol- who survived him. nuteson completed the work begun by St. The powerful family of the Algotsons. where her memory was of his whom several children. which in old Swedish means horse (hast). Of his daughters. that better days would scarcely come . according to Karamsin. Count of Holstein and Schauenburg. Ilikissa. bound themselves to furnish him with assistance wlien necessary. The Marshal (marsk) and the Steward (drots). Conrad. In public documents. at least in name ^. The word rus. Compare Magnus Ericson's ordinance of 1345 Sven means servant (swain). or death '. equipment and his testament.A. to succeed his father. For the security of the conquest Wiborg was founded. Pope Alexander III. hone-service of the nobles. had become in Sweden also a personal distinction for the nobility. the Carelians were . ! amounted to 200 marks (pounds weight) The Russians. the serving Both are included under the denominanobility '. in which the Germans of Wisby " appear on an equal footing of mdependence with the other parties. expiated ment. when but three years of age. that the holders of those dignities resembled in power and consequence the former jarls. and most severely in 1291. always engaged to eml)race Christianity. had been placed with great solemnities in the convent of St. which. and they alone are styled lords (herremen). and Valdemar. of whom the firstnamed bore the title of king during his father's life-time. he re-established the old Swedish rights of sovereignty over the island. renewing the prohibition against exporting arms to the Finns. recommended his children to their care. during his reign. his maiTiage. Eric and earl Birger in Finland. Knighthood. were one day to contend for the crown. and After the termination of the civil war and the with Denmark. was married to King Eric Menved. forfeited his freedom by neglecting to render his service *. and John. literally. in contradistinction to " paying taxes by which every man who served on horseback against the enemies of the kingdom. in 129G. which again was. while yet a child. and many of them actually did so gain it . furnished at his own cost. Such cruelties (see a brief of Gregory IX. and s Lying in the great lake Vetter. and again brought to Christianity.subdued. 3 In a letter of king Birger to Luheck and several Hanse is from * ' Adeliga rusftjenst. as was some years afterwards Landscrona. Thus was instituted the tenure tinguished themselves by . yet passed their childhood. founded by the marshal himself. KIjNG MAGNUS LADULAS. 53 more costly and brilliant partly. Magnus. In the quarrel between Nor" way and the Hanse Tow-ns. Magnus acted as arbiter. By stein. When Magnus felt end approaching. seemingly." But the peasant might acquire his freedom from tallage by the like service. In a crusade undertaken in 1293. Clara at Stockholm . and was interred in the burial which he had set apart for himself in the place Franciscan monastery at Stockholm. it is said that the Carelians spared neither sex. imprisonby force. according to Olave Pe- terson. By his regency." by Papal en- voys. He died in the isle of Wising*. who had been chosen in 1284. which Magnus was the first of the Swedish sovereigns to confer." yet it opened with a universal calamity. and containing one of the royal mansions. the knight. who had earned their freedom from taxes by horse-service. D. expressing his hope that "his memory might not die away with the sounds of the bells over his grave. officers of the household who are very anciently mentioned. according to the letter of the law. In effect this Finnish crusade also produced a war with the the course of which the Swedes took Russians. next the arm-bearers (vapnare) or squiresat-arms (svenar af vapen). from Dying wish of Magnus. December 18. checked the excesses of the nobles. at this time silver. Eric. age. during five years. remarks that the Finns. Gothland. famine and great mortality preThorkel Cavailing. the knights are always first. long affectionately cherished. not extended to the mere free proprietors or //-ae/sf. attained at this period so great influence. T. 121)0. was lagman of WestJoannes Magnus. on conditions which were more exactly defined in the sequel. whose whole classification at this time was formed upon the model of chivalry. after the bishops. . In bounty to the church he was surpassed by no one who ever sat on the Swedish throne. towns. the father of the culprit. nor rank. 6 The Margraves of Brandenburg. sum Tlie last-named received in consideration of this a yearly of 600 marks in money. 7 J Magnus' 1279— 90. Sweden yet possessed no code of laws collected marked by hideous m founded five monasteries. he called his grandees together. . T. and fortified Kexholin. as. which were of knightly exercises. This place however was again lost. and he had alliances with several German princes ^. to establish service generally as the condition of earning the privileges of " of knightnobility. whence the heathen Carelians continued on their devastating forays. This was called " to serve for a freehold" (tjena service 3. 3 He cruelties ^. that according to the Rhyme Chronicle. Magnus enjoyed a tranquil reign. establishing Christianity and Swedish dominion in the eastern part of the to issue country. and martyred their captives by flaying them alive and tearing out the entrails. when menaced by a hostile army. of whom one had carried off" a bride the offence by exile. gained exemption from taxation for himself and his estate. Ingeborg. ros. was now placed upon the throne. at the death of their father. whence he is sometimes called the Holy King Magnus. on the other hand. who with Gerard. and enlivened by the continual practice hostilities appointed tlie marshal Thorkel Canuteson guardian of his sons. By his neighbours he was held in great respect. in Denmark. maintain that they had previously baptized them in 1227.x. he had and dues as a peasant. one son and one daughter died in mfancy. the marshal won for himself so famous a memory. and having adjusted (in 1288) the disputes between the peasants of Gothland and the burghers of Wisby.

steward of . planks. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and then were sown those The discords which were to have so fatal an end." Thorkel Canuteson to continue in his service . earl Birger. and Magnus Ladulas. Provincial cotles. had informed him. a law-maker. were indeed generally confirmed by every king. See king Birger's confirmation of the Law of Upland. or given of the term flocks. and the princes were to enter upon possession of the dukedoms assigned to them by Magnus Ladulas. and the union of duke Waldemar with the Marshal's daughter. the explanation which has been " flakes. daughter of Otho IL. or ordinary progress of homage throughout the country . lag these were even earlier employed for short inscriptions on stone or wood. at Giira och framfora lagen." while we cannot ascribe to them any right to enact new rules of their own authority. "the king's true servant. Helviga. saying . when himself duke. 1206. and the joy of the people at the harmony prevailing between the three brothers universal. Revision of the of Upland. soothsayer (spaeman). As it is expressly stated to have been the function of the justiciaries "to make and promulgate the law ^. complaining that the justices " ' Comiiiled into a so-called edsores balk. after the introduction of Chris" " to reduce the law to writing (att komma tianity. which is the same word as our own. Thus was of Christ first came into our laws. refers not to the Runes." engraved with Runic characters. The law in its new form was proclaimed in the judicial motes. and a portion of UpWaldemar is named duke of Finland. continued influence of the marshal gave especial supplied matter for new legislation which occupied the first place . and four years subeducated at the Swedish court sequently. Particular alterations were also introduced by St. Hence. T. duke Eric. From this time they continued to be members of the royal council. wlien after his election at the ]Mora Stone he made his Eric's gait and (Eriksgata). or king's balk. given to the lagman in the act of confirmation. this may be so understood as that it belonged to them from the first. or lawiu writing. ratified by royal authority. " that he was sent out by Ingjald. appears to be erroneous. and the oldest law-giver was a judicial poet lagayrkir. Canute Ericson. Such was Wiger Spa in the days of heathenism *. and not The law is spoken a lagsaga. Schliiter. although i skrift). king of Sweden. from being men of the people. Balk. according to an observation obligingly communicated to me by Dr. ^ Birger Pederson of Finsta. " approved by all men. Of the same family afterwards called Brahe. Allen. But in the following year. Eric had been nominated in his father's lifetime duke of the Swedes (Svearnas earl. the preface to the law of Upland tells us . Eric.51 Functions of the Lawman. from of Swedish law being commenced with a code of the time of Ingjald lllrada. embodied in verses framed after the fashion then in use. with the aid of twelve assessors from all the three Folklands. in the Edinburgh Review (xxxiv. in the old text yet this interpolation has been the cause of the history . the end of the law-book. but to clothe them iu the form best adapted for recollection. The condition of the land was prosperous." is not found. the ordinances deriving therefrom became common to them all '. after his marriage with a countess of the German empire ^j seems to have (Kristnubalk. without any other arrangement than what the individual text-writer had applied to them for his own use. 8 9 • vates. Meanwhile tlie laws mostly remained in scattered collections '. catalogue of the justices of West-Gothland. See the article on the Ancient Laws of the Scandinavians. and declare them in such sijrt before the people." formed the so-called Christian or Church section Christianity itself umbrage to the clergy. . who had been betrothed to him from her childhood. the others placed their affairs under the management of the lord Ambiorn Sixtenson (Sparre). count of Ravensburg. The words of Eric Olaveson. which again comprise several flocks or collections. as the alliteration found in our ancient law language proves . 1302. The legal customs observed in the diiierent provinces. the partition of the laws into balks. to make yearly proclamation of them before the people 2. or Flocks. till in 1295 the law of Upland was revised and amended by the Justice of Tiundaland. Kyrkobalk) in the books. properly a beam. when the marshal laid down the guardianship. and with Legislatores regni annis singulis tenentur coram populo legem consuetudinis publicare. upon such occasions forbade death-bed bequests to the to be all this king 3 See the church without the consent of the heirs. Eric Ericson. the establishment of the Edsbre. It was late before tlie laws were transferred from the custody of memory to the records of ordinary scription since it is certain that what was called in the North. out of which our old provincial laws were formed. had now become the men of the king. the cost of maintaining several courts. for the West" through Christianity the name gothic code says. 184). The magnates arranged themselves in parties on either side. probably instead of spamadr. is all that we need look to. March fi. the coronation of the royal pair. Of Swerker U. had dethroned his brother Waldemar. or general land'speace. hertig). * is above stated. means also generally a division or section. as originally tablets. Letter of pope Innocent IIL to the Swedish bishops." and lastly it received the The style written confirmation of king Birger. 8 The statement concerning Wiger Spa in the preface to the printed law of Upland.) (From what Spa. Lagsaga made diction. not only to bear in remembrance beyond others the judiciary customs. The war with the Carelians and Russians. and never occurs in the sense supposed. In the year 1298 were celebrated the nuptials of king Birger with the Danish princess Martha. but the conservation of the laws was left to the personal care of the justiciaries." shows that these judges. Law 1291 -11319. " they began to recollect how their father. and forms the basis of the law of Upland ^. The common meaning of flock. a title corresponding to the former one of He possessed also his father's land besides. as the law of the heathen Lumb was adopted for the framework of that of West Gothland. In the earliest times these appear to have consisted of short rules for the aidance of the memory. probabl> by the late Mr. Therefore the earliest legislation was uttered by speech. and a collection of legal rules of this nature was distinguished by the name of Flock. his law is called Wigers Flockar. which means a collection (ov flock) of verses. but to the manner of writhe clergy. - duchy of Sudermania. whose duty it is stated to have been. ting now in use. or block. and took counsel thereupon The king prevailed upon with one another'. of which the marshal's. * So Wiger's law is called in the preface to the law of afterwards meant the circuit of a jurisUpland. the pomp and expense with which the marriages of the royal family had been solemnized. which was introduced by — "^ — .

of whom many served in the courts of The dukes were seized and all these princes. though they are styled bounteous and pranksome." Yet they seem to have been less disliked by the people than was the king. was guarnnteed. the marshal's daughter. Tlieir (reaclierous seizure liy tlie 55 Iving. her father having held the duke at the baptismal font. and never enter into any plot against him. or his children. who acknowledged their feudal superior. with glar- Scarcely had eight months passed away since the death of Thorkel Canuteson. In no long time therehis consort. was liberated in 1308. j Not long afterwards the misunderstandings with Norway. in cutting off". his live. king of half a mark. away in general disaggravated by failure of the crops and a pestilence. 5 " Jnst as were he an Aniblode. after they were called before the king . was divided. and also to persuade his brother to bear him company. the Gottlandthe Smaers on one occasion seized his person landers elected a prince of their own. heads of complaints were read. the king himself being present. whom Birger . caused his men to arm. and laid siege to the place. and exclaimed to Birger. that they caused all their people to take quarters in the town. his wife. His welcome by the king and queen appeared so cordial that he promised to visit them anew." says Eric Ohiveson in valry. in which the dukes were supported by Norway. the crown prince alone escaping in the arms of a faithful servant. under the pretext that they were within the bounds of spiritual affinity. carried him into Denmark." says the Rhyme Chro- . and so was dragged night and day to Stockholm. took his way to Nykoeping. and the king his engaged by a proclamation never to separate interests from those of the marshal. and ordered the dukes to be seized. firmed in 1296. amidst festivities of which the contemporary description recalls all the pomp of the age of chi'• Yet these dukes. Immediately on his release he repaired to his father-in law at the head of a Danish army. for the possession of North Halland. however. and sorely enraged. they remembered the game of Hatuna?" Thereupon they were thrown into the castle dungeon. lord king. entertained of incarcerating the prelates who proved refractory. king Birger. is in the ^ < mean time quarrelled with Haco. who were imprisoned in the town. and a treaty was concluded. Nevertheless. The marshal was seized in the presence of the king and " For this the dukes. where his head fell under the axe of the executioner on the sixth Duke Waldemar repudiated of February. before king Birger was On a friendly visit to the prisoner of his brothei's. obliging the peasant sometimes to pay thrice in a year a contribution to the amount of one mark each time (which was double the price of a cow *) . and declared himself satisfied to retain that portion of his kingdom of which the dukes might leave him the posses- who sion. in the law of Upland. the succession of who was still of tender age. frona which tlie clergy themselves were not. REIGN OF KING BIRGER. according to the usage. \ Fraternal dissensions. d. the three kings. with the consent of the dukes as well as of the bishops and nohles. upon which the king angrily bade him begone from his sight. " who his chronicle. the Swedish dukes. blessed the counsels of his queen. Towards the close bound under its belly. In 1304 The the brothers at length openly broke out. or to prefer the dissensions between any other to him. and placed him at the knee of king Eric Menved. There were othere who showed greater willingness. who had dukes. con- since fallen. and chains riveted upon their When the plunder taken from them and limbs. exportion even of the tithes was confis- brilliant. heavy with wine. by the intolerable sorning. and returning with ing eyes. were removed by the marriage of duke Eric with a daughter. where Birger usually held his court. ana that of Waldemar whb a niece of the Norwegian king 3. The Helsiugers expelled his bailiff. Birger's son Magnus. Of three Swedish knights who refused to execute the order. and assailed the In consequence of this. in the same year. Tlie legal value of a cow." and demanding of his " whether brothers. journeying from CEland to Stockholm. and the western provinces of the kingdom were plundered. but were otherwise to be independent in their several duchies. late in the night. and soon afterwards commanded both his brothers into banishment. Intestine war ensued. Eric was Several the only one who ventured to appear. he advanced to NykoeDuke Eric had ping. 1201 —1319. so long as you He was thrown upon a horse's back. or with a greater retinue than he should appoint. or rather hostile incursions of themselves and their companies of vagabond followers by the heaviest imposts. the royal mansion of Hatuna in Upland. the former ally of the The bishop of Westeras. all this had occasioned taxes. D. been meanwhile kept close prisoner in the castle of Nyktiping. the king clapped his hands as one in ecstasy '. violently grasped at dominion. Connected by a double tie of affinity with Birger. which had again broken out. while they themselves remained in the castle. having secretly brought with them a train of armed followers. brought manifold plagues upon the land by their j I dukes were obliged to give surety that they would not leave the kingdom without the royal permiswithout sion. although they were warned by the way not to deliver themselves together into the hands of the king. and several princes being present. Coniluct of ttie dulces. 1310). eventually succeeded Thus several years passed tress. foreigners for the most part. The dukes arrived. a reconciliation which Thorkel Canuteson was the sacrifice.A. shame will be your part. they fell upon the king and took him captive with his wife and children. their companions. nor appear in the king's presence summons. the Danish monarch made his cause his own. wherefore these lords. and the seeming warmth of their reception so totally removed every suspicion from their minds. . were so to the extreme misery of the poor. Next was effected. Norway. By this compact the kingdom was in fact divided between Birger and him indeed as his brothers. and the war had already commenced upon this side. Denmark. " bound. of 1317 duke Waldemar. and the king. but the value of the coin had Both were named Ingeborjr. of year. After they had betaken themselves to rest. two were themselves laid in fetters. when a conference was held at Ilelsingborg (a. been not the least the imposition of empted. — new A cated to the public necessities." feet being feuds and liarryings. ina design stigated by Thorkel Canuteson. Bii'ger. fled into Norway. but without any eruption of public hostilities between the brothers. 1306. marshal in his Finnish crusade.

1317). The survivor of these scenes of mutual destruction was a child of three years old. The cruel fate of these princes awakened the profoundest horror The ballad upon their througliout the north." Administrations were arranged in both kingdoms to conduct affairs during The Swedish government lasted till the minority. presented himself before the people assembled on the meadow by the Mora stone. It is related that Eric. and only their virtues have survived in the memory of men. d. and burgesses of the towns. and messengers of all the provinces.56 Tragical fate of the dukes. and afterwards in hundred. and towns of the realm. History Eric Olaveson. 3 . together with the justiciaries. the year 1333. after a valiant resistance in the castle of Stegeborg. In vain Birger endeavoured to win the clergy by the privileges he confered upon them. In a deed of the 18th April in the tives same year they . when to pass. Mora sten. VII. receiving at the same time the Norwegian crown. see note p. name of all Swedish men. 1318. although he was innocent of his father's misdeeds. Stockholm cl<jsed its gates against the king. But this Amblode is undoubtedly Saxo's Amlethus or Amblethus. as his inheritance from his maternal grandfather king Haco. the bishops. on biers outside the castle gate. in order to convince the besiegers that those for whom they fought were no longer alive. and shortly thereafter. Suhm. with two of his accomplices in the murder of the dukes. The crown prince Alagnus was obliged. ' " The of election. { 1319. the castle was taken. 28. and Norway prepared to afford them succour. imputes it to the treachery of the steward John Brunke. in his twentieth year. The voices of the magnates ^ had raised him in the past year to the office of Administi-ator i. beheaded and broken on the wheel at Norrmalm by Stockholm. on the death of his brother-in-law king Eric Menved. which Ihre has e. prescribes in the outset that. 21 of this volume. Matthew Ketilmundson. and extol. them. however.xplained by the context as frenzied. 2 Riksfbrestandare. to set them at liberty. who are now first mentioned as participating in the management of public affairs'. Upon the mode Magnus handed down The war with Denmark for Birger's sake ended in 1319. was made prisoner. the duchesses entitle themselves their relicts. are wont to resort. years subsequently (Oct. n. the nobility. T. having twelve stones. yet more exasperated by the revolt which was spreading on all sides. had eventually risen to be the leader of the ducal party. and the words quoted show how generally known in Sweden at this time the legend of this Danish prince was. and Iceland. and mes- Their testament is dated January 18. have I Choice of a king. it restored peace to the people ''. and exclaimed. in order to express assent to the elevation " in the of Magnus to the throne of that country. the magHates of the realm. the inhabitants of Sweden being about to elect a king. and to defend the crown by the troops brought by his son from Denmark. the orphan son of duke Eric. less fearful than the crime itself. he saw himself compelled. veral lords of the council ^ were despatched to Norway. the dukes remained about four months in prison ^. that since the settlement of Sweden a more miserable time had hardly been known than during the fraternal war which desolated the house of king Magnus Ladulas. to seek refuge. The Rhyme Chronicle does not name says. Justly do the old writers observe. Senot long before deceased without male issue. with his wife and two daughters '. At the first rumour of the imprisonment of the . covered with cloth of gold. so well known throughout Sweden. Olaus glorious constitution of our ancestors. of somewhat smaller size. the Hamlet whom Shakspeare has immortalized. together with four peasants from every Two Magnus Birgerson. death. and taking to flight. and at first even watched over the rights of the commonalty." Mora. chiefly by ai'istocratic asso- On the very day of the spiritual new king's election. and for a hundred years to come Sweden was governed ciations. After a short war. The deaths of the dukes must therefore have fallen between the 1 8th April and 6th May. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. nicle. and had received assurance Grief for this calamity of his life by compact. in a desperate attempt to relieve the prince. fixed in the ground in a circle. and the keys to be thrown into the stream. Contemporary accounts are full of their praises. and he now carried in his arms MAGiNUS. The inhabitants of several provinces revolted. and Wal- demar eleven. especially. the latter youngex*. prince successor to the throne. left his brothers to die of hunger. hand !" " Now Sweden in my From this came the middle of December (a. the beauty and knightly grace of the "gentle duke Eric. See also Chap. who had been beaten and wounded beforehand. John Brunke. of a Denmark. the designated dukes. lived but three days longer. shall be bound to assemble in Upsala. The steward. This had no other effect than that of still further incensing them . brought the fugitive king Birger to his grave in the Thus the revenge exacted was not following year. 6 who was proposed and elected king. which from the circumstance is to this day called Bruukeberg. Denmark. a knight who. Radsherrar. who was now acknowledged as the sovereign of two kingdoms. new A. The former was upwards of thirty years old. was executed by the sword at Stockholm. On Midsummer-day of the year 1319. their partisans took up arms. and razed to the ground. In effect. ' Agnes and Catherine. 7 *• On the meaning of the word sengers. and is highly lauded by the chronicles . The royal gan-ison of the castle exposed the dead bodies of the dukes. communities. until Birgeu. the senators and nobles. but were quieted by a peace in the same year. extended its bovmds by the redemption of Scania. on the sandhill. of Denmark. though still living are mentioned as capin another. caused the dungeon tower to be locked. or councillors of the realm. Stora. which was besieged. having signalized himself in the wars of the foregoing years by the most chivalrous valour. that their faults they have died with them. not far from which is a great fieldstone (lapis campeslris amplus). first in Gottland. marked on his side by new acts of perfidy. 1318. Some warlike movements took place on the Russian frontier in 1322. it strengthened the power of the magnates. entered into a bond to support with rede and deed the High Steward Matthew principal and temporal by successive ages and generations. to proceed to the election new king. the lords. met at Upsala." Posterity has not had the heart to blame those who were the victims of so fell a disaster have had this compensation. whither the aforesaid senators. to surrender to the enemy. and he was obliged to flee from Nykopiug. 1320). called by the inhabitants from immemorial time.

and contains an engagement mutually to counteract the influence of foreigners in public affairs. since the time of Magnus Ladulas. probably a clerical error for 1336 the rather as the conclusion of the king's marriage. and became of established authority. together with the councillors of Sweden and Norway. the defence or welfare of the state require a new it must be to the people by the tax. and the roving of ai'med bands for plunder throughout the country. The peasants of Scania. granted in 1346 exemption from the taxes to all who would return In one of the and again cultivate their fields. and the whole matter fell to the ground. and " for the repose of the souls of his father and uncle. or whosoever should be appointed in his stead to conduct the government until the king should be of age. and governed South Halland. who liad been raised by king Christopher II. Aristocratic league. in whom the king is said to have lost his best counsellor. that they might be able to answer it before God and the king. Hitherto the reign of Magnus had been one of almost unbroken tranquillity. 1332). the Swedish government was obliged to levy new taxes. and taken an active part in the intestine commotions of the country. that to procure it. that the arbitrary tallages by which some of the preceding kings and princes had violated the old liberties of the kingdom. and throne. ) J 1319 —43. should be no longer imposed. was du-ected especially against the partiality which the mother cherished for Canute Porse. it was to be collected by their commissioners with the aid of two peasants from every province. on the other hand. which took place in 1322. Renewed ordinances against the violation of the land's peace. The son assumed the arms of his mother's family of Oxenstierna. where king Magnus. which throws so much light on the nature of those older confederacies among the nobility. impatient of its yoke. thirty-five spiritual and temporal lords confederated to govern the realm in such a fashion. D. the younger son Magnus. Canute Jonson appointed to the He had before filled this office under king Birger. or threatened. that no man guided himself by his wishes. died Matthew Ketilmundson ". and was one of those who refused to take any part in the seizure of the dukes. in case it were approved. as well as for the pajTnent of other pressing debts. Countess of Namur. young king's a powerful foreigner. only to its declared purpose. the elder. the clergy entered their protest. Ketilmundson was concerned. Banished from the kingdom by a compact with the confederated lords. was proclaimed king of Norway. Magnus was crowned with his consort Blanch. which took place in 1335. and ajjplied and two years afterwards rode his Eric's Gait. Norway. assumed eighteen. the present reign is not destitute of memorials. that the clergy and laity had not been able to come to an agreement. and in 1327 it received the royal sanction for all its sections. personally the government in 133-3. Both parties for- another by this step all influence in Sweden. exhorted. and Scania. . formerly mentioned.A. king Waldemar of Denmark. to appropriate the tithes. This association. to the dominion of Sweden. upon which head it is I'emarked. in 1343. subscribed a similar engagement. for the honour of God and the Virgin Mary. that many foreigners had insinuated themselves into favour at court." that in future no one born of Christian parents should be or be called a slave. and death shoi'tly afterwards set bounds to the ambition feited of the duke. The same obstacle was encountered twenty years afterwards. Nevertheless the Land's Law of king Magnus Ericson. the law of Sodermanland was revised and amended. decease have 1326. yet the people were burdened with such oppressive imposts. produced chiefly by the circumstance. excepting the section on the Church. MAGNUS ERICSON. so considerable a sum was required. d.326. The true nature of these leagues is still more clearly explained by the union of Skara. reconcilement between the royalist and ducal parties*. as well as the complaints made by the king himself. Yet for the redemption of these provinces from the claims of Count John of Holstein. from which they were on no pretext to separate. submitted themselves. is remarkable in other It was an act of respects. Magnus Ericson. II acq. to the ducal rank. but twentythree barons. New general law. whether he prayed. acknowledging that many landowners had been obliged to abandon their estates. he nevertheless received her hand in the foUowmg year. in 1347. when the work of preparing a general code to replace the various provincial laws At the baronial was at length really completed. In respect to legislation. Bleking to Sweden was confirmed. is mentioned in the Rhyme Chronicle as the last public transaction in which Matt. and that all should be left in possession of their former Should rights. Nils Ambiornson ^ was named steward with authoNot only did the kmg himrity almost unlimited. who now styled himself king of Sweden. This latter condition. gradually obtained acceptation. and to mortgage a large share of the crown revenues. ' . and the strongest prop of his throne. In 1336. Eric's marriage. on which occasion he declared. diet of Orebro. self defend him and all his partisans. to which the duchess acceded in 1. that the king. * Both the old chronologies which state the year of his Son of the Steward Ambiorn Sixtenson Sparre. all this shows the independence assumed by the magnates. his successor upon the Swedish The annexation of Scania. Promises were made to the people. Influence of foreigners. that concerning donations and legacies to the Church excepted. The counts of Holstein at this time ruled with absolute sway in the internally divided and dissevered kingdom of Denmark. with the inhabitants of Bleking and South Halland '. forbidden by Magnus Ladulas under heavy penalties. * The northern part had been annexed to Sweden by duke Therefore find we now dignity of king's steward. proclaimed confederate lords . a man. and Eric. at the age of * At the congress of Warberg. as well as the king's sister Euphemia. and deputies from the newly acquired Swedish provinces were assembled. in order to escape from the weight of them. and in the same year. By this act. revolted. During the minority of the sovereign. and after what fashion they were accustomed to observe the laws that had been enacted. and slaying or expelling the Holsteiners (a. and Waldemar absolutely renounced all claims upon these terriof tories. They engaged to defend one like brethren. 57 Ketilmundson. to submit their mutual disputes to the judgment of the league. Halland. Congress of Warberg.

Script. and thereby became a duke. often breaking out anew in the same region throughout an entire century. The war terminated in the banishment foreign mercenaries who clamoured for tlieir pay. J public apologies isssued by him. when Denmark. It was otherwise generally designated as the great An ordinance of Magntis Ericson. Count Henry of person a crusade Swedish throne by the malcontent party. A war now broke out between the son and Holstein. that their beards had grown again . upon condition that the favourite should not be recalled. From the computation of the amount of these loans in silver made by tlie papal treasury ^see Celse. arid two Afteithe pestilence. King Waldemar. * Bengt Algotson was at this time slain. or rather between the former and Bennet Algotson. by the grant of kingdom. the very time when the rumour of this tran. who are still denominated heathens by the popes themselves. and Scania. as is related of that in the hundred of Eke. Bridget. d. apparently. and boils. 127). in 1348 to raise his in undertook of great magiutude and cost against Rus. whose crew had every man peinshed. the ally of Magnus. D ilS43— 59. i. drew down an excommunication the of the favourite. R. whom Magnus called his friend. ^ The Rhyme Chronicle says that both young and old spat upon him. xiii. Suec. but othei's were inclined to lay the blame rather upon his own carelessness which sufl'ered the crown to be robbed of its proper patrimony. A. in order to obtain its support. only a young said to In the mine-district of that man and two maidens are have survived. him His manners gave general scandal. when in on his head and now his dominions were about to be visited by that terrible pestilence. The great plague. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. The plague I'eached Western Russia in the spring of 1352. 3 Ibid. away by through this all sudden death. with his wife Beatrice of Brandenburg. along with the newly acquired provinces. he attributes this evil to the ransom of Scania . which town was so completely she was discovered.58 Crusade in Russia. Haco. it is added. so that he escaped with difficulty and great loss. plundered the country . in Vermeland. Hist.saction excited among the people the most bitter exasperation of forests. especially Siie preof his famous kinswoman St. and approaching Sweden with such virulence and speed that. Sweden was again visited in 1360. which still remained unpaid after the lapse of ten years. In it the king declares. 1. drought. S. 109. Rer. people fell dead in crowds. couched in very humble terms. after a long time churches were discovered in the midst ' alive. who grew up in solitude. History of Denmark. tating course. iv. This plague was brought from London to Bergen in Norway by a ship. The Rhyme Chronicle. Gottland was captured after the loss of three battles by the peasants of the country and the burghers of Wisby. fell victims to ** said. The king and his son at variance. it is Eric himself 1359 the latter suddenly died. the Icelandic annals again state that the prince. BuUarium. raging This year was marked by great lence in 1350. 29. Magmus was agam acknowledged as king. which was now running Norway and Halland. declared on his death-bed that he was conscious that he had been poisoned by his mother's hand . a considerable loan had been granted to sixth part of the inhabitants was left ^. and causing. where scarcely a third part of the population. which he was suspected of intending to cede to Denmark. scarcely the agamst their sovereign ^. for the purpose of making war upon the unbelieving Russians. 1.sia. dreams. 9 S. and in that depraved partiality to young favorites which procured hira the repulsive sui-uarae of the caresser (Smek). Halland. " > 29. vomition of blood. one little girl only excepted. which in the middle of this century. made demands to satisfy father. who all perished. were actually ceded to Denmark. fresh loans granted by the Church for the expenses of the war *. and sang lampoons upon him. upon a promise of supAt porting Magnus against the Swedish council. as the native of death Rhyme Chronicle declares. Ramus in his description of Norway (Norges Beskrivelse. we learn that a mark of silver at this time amounted to almost five marks of Swedish money. and the were not able to bui-y the dead. as well sinking reputation. who had found means likewise to insinuate himself into the good graces of the queen. mortality. and the next is likewise mentioned as being one of scarcity '. Oeland was ravaged by the Danish king. Norv. territorial who accom[)anied him. relates after an old tradition. pelted him with rotten cabbage. that the greater part of the inhabitants in the countries lying to the west had been swept j him from the tithes. 484. the cargo being imprudently landed. She was in time wedded. which he returned by calling her revelations. by the same or another pestilential disease which attacked the young more particularly ^. Suhm. and drew upon the reproaches of his contemporaries. ^ Vix sexta pars houilnum remansit. Amidst such calamities. prescribing days of public prayer and penance to be observed for deliverance from the plague. children. remained spread to Sweden. also broke into Scania. In Upland. Under his minority. coming from the uttermost bounds of India. saying that he was but a child in understanding. and was therefore called the child's death. In 1361 mention is again made of the plague in 166). and thence. '* . 240. the younger son of Magnus (a. and lier descendants were called the Ripa family. received the name of Rijia (the grouse). dicted the fate which would overtake him. 1350). and Magnus now relinquished to his son a portion of his dominions. This notwithstanding was done *. traversed the woi'ld in its devas. as was notorious. The malady discovered itself by spots on the breast. Many quarters were utterly desolated . i. and the most powerful man in the which he was obliged fiefs . yet remains. From Norway. as it did more than once in the rest of the north. personally assumed the goverment of the greatest part of Norway. But the Russians soon showed. and the war between the father and son was about to be rekindled. i. in 1300. one of the king's youthful favourites. in his profusion. killing both men and animals in a fearfully short time. wild as a bird. and Bleking. issued in 1350.inevv. that Justedale in the dio- cese of Bergen was now first settled by persons flying before the infection. as To fulfil this also by the Swedish Chronicles. the contagion there with extreme vio- Eric's death. offering the Russians the alteror the pope. and surrounded the king and his army. and at the same time his eldest brother Eric was raised living to the civil Magnus as. engagement. province. See Torfa?us. all whom he could lay hold of to cut oft' their beards and receive baptism.

)— ALBERT OF MECKLENBURG. and exhorting every man to return to his allegiance to the good and honourable lord. imposed a succession of The dotheir countrymen. and the loss as well theirs as ours. styled him Magnus the Good. By the prefer- ence which Albert showed for his counti-ymen of Germany. MARGARET AND ERIC OF POMERANIA. Historia de omnibus Gotho- rum Sueonumque regibus. appeared at his brother Olaus Rome in 1554. t. 8 First printed in S. and was drowned. in 1374. offered the crown of tlieir native country to Albert Duke of Mecklenburg.\tra- neous Goths.nST CHRISTIAN OF OLDENBURG. and concluded the marriage he had formerly resolved upon with Margaret.A . The narrative of the great Rhyme Eric Olaveson Chronicle becomes more copious in his Latin. however much he may have t. and for a long time after his death it was common to hear the people extol his government. or. The deposed sovereign had still during his captivity a strong party. no glimpse is to be perceived. 1359 65. now elected also king of Sweden. Thereupon where he arrived escorted by the Albert was chosen king in Stockon the 30th of November. in the Script. i-enouncing fealty and obedience to him as a perjurer and traitor. The chronicle of Laurentius Petri is a compilation from that of his brother. the guilt will be theirs. . following year he received the homage of his subBoth Magnus and his jects at the Mora Stone. THE UNION. which the king and those about him entertained respecting the serfdom of the common people appear to have awakened indignation. when they compared The fate of it with the tyranny of tlie foreigners. The fountains of history flow more plentifully in this troubled period. being driven by a storm on the Danish coast. omitting such passages as gave offence to Gustavus I. S:c.. especially. the place of the sovereign was now really vacant. Albert's victory over his rival did not leave him master of the kingdom.\cept some disturbances in 1339. and the magnates. in 1365. Rer. Hence external colligation produced division within.. Haco of Norway. excluded. and did not recover his liberty until the peace with Norway. and the union is only a great name which has passed away without a meaning. but which Olaus Petri. of Waldemar. ii.WARIA. foi'eign princes upon mination of the stranger made even such a king as Magnus Ericson to bo regretted. and military achievements of the e. king " If and to set him free from " will aid the councillors of the realm. in 1371. CHARLES CANUTESON AGAI. complaining of the oppressions and slavery they endured at the hands of king Albert and his Germans. and in the holm. sistence . and choose instead Elizabeth. '' a proclamation to the inhabitants of Gothland. us. the brothers Olave and Lawrence Peterson in their Swedish chronicles*. i. diod in 1486. D. sister of Count Henry of Holstein. favourites. it never recovered former pros- The Swedish council now induced the king's younfjer son. wliich is depicted with so much life Magnus. 1361). conditionibus. ii. Thus ended the power of the Folkunger family in Sweden. be consulted with profit. who could not endure that one of their own number should wear the crown. CHAPTER ALBERT OF MECKLENBURG. d. A. exiled lords. or of what it might become. In the Swedish commonwealth. was detained there. 9 Joannis Magni Gothorum Sueonumque Historia. UNTIL THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE STURES. if we e. earumque diversis statibus. and his lavish bounty to them. and they were unsuccessful in an attempt to assert their cause by arms. ' The Chronica Erici Olai. either among its founders or in any other quarter. captivity. D. repairing to Gennany. reconciled himself nevertheless with his father. They come down to the massacre of Stockholm in 1520. 13C5— 1470. The Norwegians. daughter so famous. Haco. among them general [ Joannes Magnus. who afterwards became I'et. of importance. in the neighbourhood of Bergen. and by such was the famous union a mere of the three northern kingdoms produced mcident. if with cauThe works of his brother Olaus Magnus are tion. sister of he set sail with a fleet king Magnus. losing the battle of Enkoping for Sweden. The bride. The name indeed was still retained. we will gladly pray their help . and adding the history of the kings. who was dean and professor of theology at Upsala. Subsequently he received certain revenues new which were allotted to him in Sweden for his subhe spent the residue of his days with his son. afford much valuable light for the explanation of the period of Even the union. to seize his person to break off' his own betrothal to Marga"(a." they add.. V. Magnus banished twenty-four of the most powerful among the Swedish barons. son were declared to have forfeited the crown. Suec. if not. 59 sacked. to the discontent of the king. 1363. which Johannes Magnus treated difTusely. which was in part their own." The foreign notions. as the title runs in the tirst edition. its Dislike to the German new king. . These. with reference to the knowledge of old nortliern manners ^. was. Tlie union ape. great disgusts were excited. while on her voyage to Sweden. Magnus was made prisoner. that perity. over whom he had reigned in peace. which bears some resemblance to a deBut of a consciousness of what such a union may for the annals of that which we are now approaching. moribus. under the revision of Magnus. R. or the dwellers below the great forest. EnGELBERT. the throne and the country was decided by the holders of power from the casual motives of temporary interest. CHRISTOPUEK OF B. a son of Euphemia. after which. for his consort. The Upper Swedes sent — sign. S. 1 5 Magnus dethroned. who pub- lished in the year following his own Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus. and mcreased their impatience of the overweening arrogance of the strangers. invented in his account of the more ancient period. &c. The author. and the governors of most of the castles continued faithful to him for several years. comes down to the year 146-i. FOREIGN KINGS.

and cut him down before the high altar. pretending that he wished to seize upon their patrimonies in order to bestow them upon his . il371— 89. In later times. with the right even of this inflicting capital punishment. a estates of the spiritual and temporal lords ^. by whom they should be bestowed only upon natives of Sweden. and pushing on to Stockholm. juridice exigebat. because the great plague had amassed extraordinary riches in the hands of a Sweden ever attained to greater few. T. In the compact made with the council. even on the part of so other sovereign as Albert. the disaffection generally prevalent among the Swedes found them adherents. from Norway and Denmark. he admits that the royal commanders had. rash a wholly incredible. After his death. The plenary grant by which he in 1369 appointed Bo Jonson Grip " his managing " over his court. having in vain endeavoured by negociation to obtain his father's release. died young in Norway regent in Denmark. August 9. Suec.) says. wherefore nobles being dissatisfied. in spring. 1371. D. but king Haco. In what excesses men such country as he could sometimes give loose to their passions. Matthew's diiy. that here the question concerned only property of right belonging to the crown for a contemporary account declares that " when Boece Jonson. the death of Jonson in 1 386 he ventured to come to an open rupture with the magnates. exercised many violences against men of every class in the realm. (. In West-Gothland. i. that this levelled. and to hosti- Unsuccessful attempts to reconquer Scania agnewgravated the king's necessities. having approthe said priated them during the wars . and thereby preparing the union of the three northern kingdoms. 2. ''j • Script. In this emergency Albert had no other resource than that of unreserved submission to the council. bishop of Linkbping. always ending on till after king's side on more absolute dependence. that he ruled the with his beck. though it gives the wrong year. Germans *. allegando quod rex patrimonia ipsorum vellet Script. 210. it may well seem futile to observe that in 1375 they confirmed anew with king Albert the covenant of land's-peace 2. bailiffs and servants. 14. and by his father and maternal grandfather king of both Norway and in 1387. contrai-y to anew into laid siege to the town. being in feud with baron Charles Nilson Faria. and queen regnant in the same year the executors of Jonson 's testament. The 24th February. in whose custody were the principal castles and strongholds of the kingdom. now so much the more powerful. pursued his antagonist into the Franciscan cliurch at Stockholm. at Bo Jonson's instance (Wisingsborg. Waldemar of Denmark had died in 1375. to the custody of the council. began to conspire against the king. and And the lands belonging to the Upsala estate. the last male scion of the royal line of the Folkungers. and it is also clear from the Rhyme literally. thus an old relation declares. entitled "a pleasant The great likeness of king Albert and Sweden i". his wishes. demand of revocation was especially. The steward Jonson. sibi rum dicti nobiles regni Chronologia xiv. Every third manor of their own property. Haco of Norway in 1380. and Jonson himself. St. he styles his executors in- variably executoribus. Margaret was named was against the heirs of the steward more m Denmark. bestowed upon nobleman the same powers in all these respects as were j)ossessed by the king himself. and diverted from their purposes by any scruples as to the want of any authority better than their own . number of Germans who are mentioned at that time as members of the council and in command of the rojal castles. and occasioned inroads on the property of the church. with the principal castles of the kingdom. that the baron Matthew Gustaveson in 1372 assassinated Gottskalk." made from the Latin into Swedish verse. . Clave. 1389. it is said. he held in pledge for loans which he had advanced to the crown the whole of Finland and the largest portion of Sweden. i. eo quod idem rex ab ipsis quandam partem honorum regalium. diripere ac Theutonicis suis elargiri. hi a quarrel respecting the title to certain estates. quod quidera praeindigne ferentes contra regem conspirare coeperunt. Margaret furnished them with supplies of war and auxiliary troops and Albert's fate was decided by the battle of fought on the 21st September. made an overture to her of the Swedish crown *. 1388. on the day of Matthew the aposlle. in harvest. Rer. in the old Swedish verBes. because he a certain required from them by authority of law and their portion of the crown estates which they forefathers had for a long time held. sufficiently indicate that these complaints were not unfounded. Thus the whole administration of affairs passed into the hands of the council.loaniies Magims also xxi. executors appointed under the and we now find the will of this powerful thane disposing of the Swedish crown. proceeding forthwith to exact by force compliance So mns the poetical account of with his demand. dissensions sprang up between the knights and nobles of the realm and king Albert. Margaret of Norway." It up by themselves. 6 find this versified translation attributed to Jonson himself. 2 3 ^ For three years. The vacated places in the council were also to be filled sources of information. Falkoeping . J A. the steward of Sweden. in virtue of w Inch descent he styled himself the rightful heir of Sweden. Matthias's usually stated as that of the battle but the Rhyme Chronicle names St. in 1381. which has been understood and explained as a confiscation by the crown of the third part of the spiritual and temBut such an attempt is poral freeholds (fralset). indeed. compelled indeed the foreign enemies to remain quiet. Such was the prevalent mood of men's minds while the kingdom was exposed at once to intestine war. with the domains appertaining to them. is day. it is said.fiO Crown grants revoked. made so little progress in Latin that in his which is written in Swedish. . Suec. we may learn from the circumstance. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. his reagent venues. 46. Rer. Chronicle. 45. No man opulence than the high steward Jonson. but it was sufficient to kindle a civil war. and no foreigners admitted to be members. quam ipsi a multis retroactis temporibus ac progenitores eorum tempore guerra- but he had will. usurpaverant. They were not . for which reason he now transferred all the castles and fortresses of the crown. 1672). When such were the manners of the possessors of power. Albert's allies. died. the powerful towns of the Hanseatic league. These again the gave rise to new compacts. houses and manors. broke hties Sweden. Besides enormous j)i'operty of his own. ^ His testament is to be found in Hadorph's edition of the " translation of the History of Alexander the Great. we occasionally Post cujus mortem milites et optiraates Sueciae cum rege Alberto discordare copperunt. and to apthird part of the propriate to himself. son of Haco by ISIargaret. i The crown oifered to her.

The towns of Wismar and Rostock. ting to Margaret personally. whom the nobility had made their vassals. July 20. his ' '' mother Mary. where the chief spiritual and temporal barons of Denmark. daughter of Henry. i. relieved Stockholm." says the necessary. d. 1396. embraced Albert's cause. 119. he was now also elected king of Sweden by the council. set a fool's cap on his head^. 277. at length they were shut up in an old building and consent of the Magnates. cap she caused set on his head. the burgomasters were at this time all Germans. that all the privileges of nobility. sister of Queen Margaret. and was now again produced and publicly read '. it now being settled that the occupiers. Olave Peterson. with the generous the last arrears were remitted upon the delivery of Stockholm into the hands of Margaret. was concluded that union which was for the future to combine the three kingdoms of the north under a common might easily find a hundred yeomen. Albert's son died in Gottland in 1397 he himself did not fully renounce his pretensions until 1 405. almost no other trace of a government being visible than The capital and the taxes imposed by Margaret. Here. 1397. a hostile outbreak of which king Albert had with difficulty averted. that the election of the king should in future be transacted conjointly. on St. as in 1391. though the authorities differ. and is said. and received the formal homage sacrifice of their jewels . duke of Pomerania. The latter states that Trans. for which the Hanse towns found security. the crops. All the estates of into their possession since burned alive. who together did not possess half a ton of barley or a load of The nobles fortified their houses. Several Swedish towns were laid in ashes . stipulated that peace and amity should thenceforth prevail between the kingdoms . was won by the high marshal of Sweden.000 marks of silver^. unless acquired on the tei'ms prescribed by law . should be revoked. S. and Ingeborg. should be destroyed. R. MARGARET AND ERIC. to quote the words of the complaint. where they remained for seven years. . duke of Mecklenburg. ' Letter of the chapter of Linkbping in this year. Margaret's day. and brother against broOther writers lament that the fields lay ther. each realm was to be governed according to its own laws fugitives from one country were not to be protected in another all were bound to take arms for the common defence. Eric Olaveson.A. some of them being tortured with carpenters' saws. erected within the above-mentioned period. Hatte fiinfzelin ellen in die weite. Albert Mary- -Wratislaus I Eric. In Stockholm an old grudge subsisted among the Germans and Swedes. the 20th of July (a. Eric Duke of Pomerania*. and that the land had well-nigh become Rhyme ' He is said by our later historians to have been of the family of Vasa but lie did not bear their arms. others with MarThe people also suffered from failures of garet. . many of the castles were in the hands of the Germans. had been drawn up twelve years before. These sea-robbers formed the original stock of the freebooters who long afterwards continued to infest the waters of the Baltic '. should again pay gavel to the crown. were to arrange their differences with the crown within a determinate time. Puke s Sie liess ihm audi eine cappe schneide. so lavishly bestowed by king Albert.. 6d. if such existed . 5 Each of 45 Lubeck shillings. including seventy of the principal Swedes. 1389—97 in } Captivity of Albert. 1. D. Treaty of Calmar. in presence of Margaret. receiving the town of Stockholm in pledge for the sum. and that all landed yeomen. Those of the selected victims who were still to be found were seized and laid in fetters. especially the heirs of Boece Jonson. Rer. 7. son against father. that the general demolition of these castles was afterwards found " In Sweden at this time. During this whole period Sweden was a prey to all the horrors of party hatreds and wars. Sweden was now sufficiently depressed to accept the conditions offered by Margaret. Margaret . unless exempted by special grace . The peak was nineteen good ells long. Peace was at length restored by a treaty which in 1395 set Albert and his son at liberty. and is called in the Diary of Vadstena. because they exercised their piracy under pretext of supplying Stockholm during its investment with provisions. They bound themselves to pay not less than 60. the crown that had " the war between king Magnus and the men of the realm began. A proscription list. S. about 3s. were made prisoners. c. so that one and Sweden assembled." The chief conditions. besides those relasceptre. and from these stations they made incursions in all directions through the country with plunder and conflagration." in 1363.) 9 In the council-chamber of the town.500. This victory. Part of the ransom was discharged of the people at the had full fruitlessly Mora Stone. and so many petty robber fortresses arose. . to have died in 1412. which threw open the kingdom to Margaret. That had full fifteen ells in breadth. Mecleburgiearum lib. (Mecklenburg Rhyme Chronicle in Behr. and gave protection in their harbours to every pirate who chose to seek plunder on the Swedish coast. on the 1 1th day of July. had been already declared the future sovereign of Denmark and Norway . hay 2. Chronicle." unfilled. 1397). and threw both father and son into the dungeon of Lundholm castle in Scania. It was likewise decreed that all new castles. brother of king Albert. sterling. His father was Wratislaus VII. and the little that sprung up was snatched away by robbers or forceful sorners. in revenge for the boastful and contemptuous sayings in which Albert had indulged himself at her expense. the sons of the sovereign being preferred. A These were called Vitalians or Victualling Brethren. 61 which he himself and his son Eric. received him with contumely. in the country some held with Albert. The coronation of the new sovereign took place in the following year at Calmar. Margaret. nor were the subjects of any of the three to pretend any right of not serving . T. as also the Duke of Mecklenburg. her grand-nephew. ii. Eric Kiellson^. 33. were resumed. Piracy in the Baltic. Norway. . Ingeborg Henry . a desert. and the Swedish burgesses were now German by the women of Mecklenburg. with several princes and knights. in which year. "there were enemies on all sides. at a conventicle of the German burgesses and soldiery. " Nothing grew upon the earth. ii. so that the ransom would be about £10. Der timpel wohl neunzehn ellen langk. What Albert attempted was now effected with come treacherously assaulted by the Teutonic faction.

when the king was compelled by the expenses which it entailed to (gardsriitt). laying the blame upon the exactions of the crown bailiffs and the expenses of wars. find the magnates raising individuals of this class to the rank of nobility for themselves and That the oppressions which protheir posterity '. she founded masses in memory of herself and him conjointly. a demand that Sweden should be correctly informed of the true purport of the Act of Union. latter. but loaded by our chroniclers with all that weight of hatred which was generated by the results of the union. the chief reason why the king thought it expedient to commit to foreigners the custody of the Swedish castles . count of Holstein. The king's exactions. Abraham Broderson. spared neither men's property nor maidens' honour. which the ruler of the north waged for nearly thirty years. which Albert had mortgaged to the knights of the Prussian order. in which. in which she humbly entreats forgiveness for the burdens she has been obliged to impose upon the people. from the time when by foreigners only. in the same year peace was made with the Vendish towns Hamburg. who sought to save him from his doom . She died. respecting the guardianship of his children. in fruitless endeavours to secure the succession for the ducal house of Pomerania. Yet. than because the knight had been unsuccessful in his siege of the castle of Sonderburg. and Wismar.s. a princess who brought him a rich dowry. the matter in dispute remained undetermined. as in the court of the sovereign. Margaret retained possession of the government . but her wedlock was childless and unhappy. She died in tlie con yen t of Wadstena married in 1406. apparently. iii. extolled by the Danes. betrothed in HOI. as he is styled. of England. during the war of Sleswick. in a vesssel before Flensburg. sacrificed the greatest part of his long reign. Such a right was exercised by Bo Jonson and Cliarles According Ulfson (Sparre) of Tofta. while she severed it from the dominion of Sweden. we learn. or absence of law. and Margaret now repurchased. some say of the plague. a new and extraordinary tax upon every hearth was levied for the redemption of the Isle of Gottland. Some years afterwards he married Philtppa of England*. although with frequent interruptions and negociatioiis. . from iove of justice. against the not very The former was. Notwithstanding the depreciation of the coins to which the king had recourse. of the Swedish kings. On this occasion a poi-tion of those extraordinary taxes which now appear under different is shown by the example of is praised indeed by the Chronicle (generally favourable to the noRhyme for his bravery and skill. AH affairs were left to the management of the its The mark to f' Holsteiners admitted the right of the king of Denfeudal superiority over Sleswick. who were chiefly foreigners. without success. powerful Counts of Holstein '. that the property of the taxpayers was often taken in pledge for a small part of real value. which in the nine last years had taken part with Holstein. or adventurers without a country. but the ordinary judicial offices were either left tenantless. for Eric was but in his sixteenth year when the union of Calmar was concluded. where these demeaned themFor the rest. these were so rare. and was distinguished by her gentleness no less than by her Her memory was cheintelligence and courage. Justice was no longer administered . Eric brought this nobleman. aiming The contest began after the at the possession of the duchy. Lunehurg. 1434 [isgr—li its limits. which in this year (a. patents issued by whom for this purpose are extant. and she was even perEric may be sonally maltreated by her husband. made him too formidable a subject. but whose tyranny.of the emoluments . 1652. 7 to king Magnus Ericson's household law which Margaret and Eric of Ponierania confirmed. and famous in Sweden for her sagacity. that the commanders of the royal castles. who for the most part perished miserably in captivity. not long afterwards. however. 1412) ravaged the north. occasioned continual levies of men. in 1430. however. but claimed the territory as a hereditary fief. selves as if in an enemy's teiTitory. Eric of Pomerania. Its real plain. granted letters of nobility with armorial shield. the same law. at the age of sixty. while Eric lay hidden in tiie monastery of Soroe. and in a war for the possession of Sleswick. introduced improvements in the coinage. rished in the popular affections. doubtless. quartering the soldiery with their horses about the surrounding district. both in Denmark and Sweden. Eric of Pomerania first. make a treaty with Adolphus. were not inflicted Daughter of Henry IV. contents were so little known in Sweden. and because the fiefs which he possessed. regarded as the co-regent of Margaret from the year 1401. and new taxes extremely oppressive. who Margaret also proappellations was remitted. not only the provincial diets and courts of inquisition had fallen into disuse. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. reigned in the manor-houses of the powerful nobles as in the In the former.62 beyond tlie Philippa of England. and did not long survive him. the privilege of private judicature over rewas exercised ^ . in order that their produce might be transmitted to Denmark. in 1410. She presided over the government in 1423. to trial and execution. Every town and mine-district was held responsible for a certain amount which the authorities did not blush to extort by means the most violent and inhuman. d. we even tainers and servants. 781. vexed the peasantry by arbitrary exaction of labour and imposition of tribute. He was the favourite of Margaret. the latter. Imrriediy drawn up it is subscribed by seventeen barons. that we find among the Swedish claims on Denmark." the peasants complain '. duced these complaints. death of Gerard of Holstein in 1404. during the king's foreign travel and i)ilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre. bility) we learn from various other accounts. This short aiui imperfect record terms of union. conducted with equal folly and obstinacy. and did not end before 14S5. and defended Copenhagen in 1428 against the combined squadrons of the Haiise Towns and Holstein. and " such right as they have had therewith. The above-mentioned letter of apology enables us to understand From it the incessant complaints of the people. and are acquainted only with the more recent forms it assumed in consequence of the alterations and renewals which the conditions underwent. in 1435. 9 Seethe remonstrances of the Swedish peasants in HvitI'eld's Danish Chronicle. the weight of which was felt the more severely as they were mostly levied in money. of is Our old chroniclers are entirely ignorant of the first convention. 6 ' he became sole king. mised the abolition of the rest in a proclamation two years afterwards. Copenhagen. or filled by foreigners for the sake. less however. such also have they shown to us. when he accomplished his Ericsgait in Sweden. which the latter refused.

count of later times. At Upsala. forces into three companies. and thither Engelbert summoned the surrounding nobility. 76. Dalecarlians next invaded Westmanland. More than twenty strongquarters of the kingdom all " bring. T. tlie people answering with blessings. but as the council confined themselves to admonitions. is charged with having tortured the peasants by hanging them up in smoke. and never again Engelbert replied." The men of his chose him for their leader. Engelbert replied. The Rhyme drowned him in the Bruar stream. but not before he had exhorted the Uplanders in a public letter. in Dalecarlia. they must look themselves to the security of their lives and properties. he explained the occasion and the object of his enterprise. the peasants of which province joined tlie insurgent force. The manuscripts regis ultinii. had broken his oath. in an immense assembly of the people. all the Dalesmen rose upon Midsummer's Day of 1434. Bishop Thomas of Strengnas i. use the English form instead of the Swedish Eugelbrekt. where he preferred a demand for justice against the tyranny of the governor. and himself set the castle on fire. one of rious pirates of that day. to pay true service and obedience to the council of the kingdom at Stockholm. Westeras speedily surrendered. he told them Sweden had been ruled by tyrants. and swore to drive the strangers out of the land. and threatened the bishops who acted as their spokesmen. Engelbert Engelbertson. the edition of the Chronicle of Olave Peterson in the and thereafter appointed land. who was regarded with dread. whose cliaraeter may be judged from the fact that. even when archbishop of Upsala. being filled uj) by a foreigner. and the governor would not consent to relinquish his office. Rer." The council indeed interposed its mediation. D 1434 :} Rising of Engelbert. Bergsinan may be rendered either miner or mountaineer. and to the bishopric of Skalholt in Iceenormities. the only one of the foreign commanders who was esteemed for his justness and mildness towards the people. Joannes Magnus. drag him out to as if he would treat likewise . the castles of the governors were razed to the ground by the peasants. it is said. appear in liis presence. proving the charges to be well-founded . A convention was entered into with the governors of Nykoping and Orebro. Rer. and was about to the people Bishop Sigge of Skara he made . that he would cast them out among the The council now showed themselves inpeople *. Speaking so loudly that his voice was heard throughout the whole multitude. For the town of Stockholm. and to stake his life against that of the accused. " Yet once more will I return. Script. He exhorted them to join liim in restoring the ancient rights and liberties of the kingdom since the times of the last king Magnus '. His letters and messengers traversed every district of the country. 74 p. lying upon an island in the Daltions. The council appealed to the oath they had taken to the sovereign. met the Swedish council his bannei'. At Vadstena. and for many years royal governor of Westmanland and Dalecarlia. ner. by name Engelbert Engelbertson 2. A worse knave was no priest of that day. by which these towns were to be surrendered if not relieved within six weeks. were found four of the most noto- In tliis trade. " like one man. a man of great spirit though of slight frame. have Magnus Smek (not Magnus Ladulas). and repaired to Denmark. was sent to the Swedish council. in case the A royal mandate latter should be found innocent. Suec. John Jerechini. Here. he asked them whether they would assist him in his endeavours to liberate the realm from the slavery in which it was held. before whom he urged the punishment of the offender with such boldness. having such skill in war as might be learned by one who had passed his youth in the households of great barons. An old Swedish ballad relates similar cruelties of the tyrannical feudatory of Fascaholm in Helsingland. See LagerTuneld. This person undertook to lay before king Eric the grievances of the Dalecarlians. clined to be pliable. there dwelt at this time a miner. Josse Ericson. and like him thrust upon the chapter." Throughout all the j)ro- viuces. on his way to the southern division of the kingdom. . 70. The NoiTlanders and East Bothnians took up arms under Eric Puk^ . born in Jutland. jot." says the Rhyme Chronicle. Engelbert now remitted a third part of the imposts.) for Magni used •* Eric Olaveson. his army at last amounted to a hundred thousand men holds and fortresses in and there are authorities ^. and with having yoked pregnant women to hay waggons. They But swift he caught them by the throat. T. and warning them that if they refused. The style he adopted in this " I communication with all my was. and immediately despatched by He now divided his Engelbert to Denmark. for both designations. a foreigner Uke the other. and allegiance to king Eric was subscribed upon the spot. fealty An absolute renunciation of The elf.A. 3 . and twice induced the Dalecarlians to return home. was stormed and burned to the ground. f. when at length he was removed. which in tliat writer's phraseology means a fraelsemaii or franklin." The castle of Borganas. Suec. not kings. after new stone about liis neck. among the commanders of the Swedish castles. • Arendt Clemens. but he. 32. With the assent of the nobles who were present. and he marched province with them against Westeras. eloquent and brave. A former archbishop. the people took up arms and streamed in If we may trust an actroops to his standard. " tlien he first Chronicle. engaging to deliver himself up for imprisonment. Engelbert." &c. (I was ' in trouble too. (of Linkbping). coadjutors. Engclbrekt Engelbrektson's Histuria. the Sudermanians stormed Gripsholm. the Uplanders came to join his banHere. and marched southwards. His meeting with the council. A Danish nobleman. wrath commanded him which was returning from Denmark. was shameless enough to participate. Engelbert lost no time in again repairing to the king. which adds. nay.3 foreign governors. Every man declared himself willing to follow Not far from the Kopparberg. agreeably to which an investigation was instituted. calling upon them to give their aid. a truce was concluded with the knight Hans Cropelin. p. grasped Bishop Canute 2 Ingenuus seu libertus. iv. the peasants tied a large Script. ERIC OF POMERANIA. In Vermeland and Dalecarlia. was deposed for his many notorious vices. whose detested governor took to flight. that Eric in to to be gone. for the capital had in the mean time passed over to his party. " nor stirred a said him . They pi-omised fidelity to him and to the popular cause. Eric Olaveson styles him. Erie's own chaplains '. which was held by Jiisse Ericson. But the governor continuing with impunity to enforce the paj-ment of his contribuand his place.

1434. the latter requested instructions for the discharge of his functions. son of his new pretended friend." swer to the representations addressed to him by the council was. and lying no great way from it '. and conferred a great bequest. at which an agreement was made. the peasants dragged him from his retreat and put to death. and among his new governors we find men who obtained a bad distinction by their Lidiumanities ^. and we have the evidence of a current proverb. that they should commit their disputes to award of the council. who remained for some time concealed in the monastery Two years after these occurrences. The high steward and marshal of Sweden were to be restored. at the end of April. At the election of The powerful barons generally opposed liim. Being at open feud with Engelbert.64 Engelbert's success. Halland besides was wrested from the Danes. Engelbert. called the attention of his companions to the circumstance. a new administrator. denly Magnus. in an expe dition towards the Danish frontier. e. forbidding any one to presume to molest the Thus criminal. that " he would not be their yea-lord. and left him weltering in his blood. Upon Engelbert replying that he knew of no unpeace betwixt them. carrying his wife and companions prisoners to the castle. and falling sick returned to Orebro. the cold. the new administrator. the quickness. beat in pieces the head of his victim. yeomanry were Assassination of Engelbert. the rather that the debility which still clung to him made travelling on horseback painful. Before the end of October. The valiant Broder Swenson was his brother in arms. an aged noble. Holm. A. which. He beckoned to the new comers with his Sudcrutch. moment the magnates gradually fell into the ranks Their differences with the of the royalist party. and being called to Stockholm by the council. to an island over against Bennet Stenson's castle of Goksholm. checked the tyranny of the new governors. " not to stretch the feet further than the coverlet reached . stuck the body full of arrows. The murderer. His administration. a powerful noble. and Thomas. It is still called Engelbert's to 7 See the account in the Rhyme Chronicle of the new nominate 1 governor of Stegeborg. certed in Halmstad. king were adjusted by a treaty which. by which Engelbert was From this unanimously chosen administrator. The strong castle of Goksholm was stormed by an exasperated force of the neighbouring yeomen. and vehemently demanded whether he was to have no peace in the land on his account. All this passed with incredible On the 16th of Augnst. of Vadstena. with the exception of Stockholm. 1436. Engelbert's memory was kept f' " Diary of Vadstena under the year 1430. he requested and obtained a safe-conduct to hold an in- terview. Nykoeping. that wood was the material of which many were constructed. died Engelbert. D. Engelhis guest. but the effects of individuals were left unmolested. and Halland to be restored to Denmark.Kcepting Josse Ericson. to cross lake homes. but the object of their pursuit eluded them. as a proof of the good will of its owner. and the murmurs of the so loud that Charles Canuteson found himself obliged to consent to a division of power with the former. but some of the noblest among them loved and honoured him. instituted by thirty barons. once more reduced Halland. Charles Canuteson obtained nearly Neither Engelbert nor Puk^ conall the votes. guaranteed by mutual sureties. placed under the charge of native gofief to Engelvernors. although the Danish govei'uor still held the castle." his an- When Hielmar on his route. In November the king came for a short time to Stockholm which occasioned the issue of a new summons to the peasants to march towards the capital. is said. and Engelbert. was ratified by the king in person upon his return to Stockholm in the autumn of the same year. that no man lost so much as the value of a fowl by Engelbert and his army. and a letter of protection was issued by Charles Canuteson. In the neighbourhood of this town dwelt Bennet Stenson *. pointing out a proper landing-place. being still severe. Christer Nilson Vasa. Another boat approached the island. Engelbert and Charles Canuteson now made themselves masters of the town of Stockholm. Repeated blows on the neck and head brought Engelbert to the ground. or to reproach him with the deed. the greater number of the castles and fortified places in the kingdom had been seized . first con. accordingly. Hence he was one of those whom the king intended to the office of steward. bishop of Strengnas. where it is said " a that this oppressor was special friend of the monastery. Goksholm. the taxes determined by the consent of the council. who on seeing believed that it brought hospitable invitation to it. an outrage for which they were The obliged to pay a large fine to the convent '^. lamented his death in verses which move our sympathies even at the present day. letter of renunciation to the king was drawn up in Vadstena. deter- mined. Everywliere the foreign prefects were expelled. Engelbert returned to Westeras. though none fell a victim to the popular vengeance. though the sick man tried to parry it with his crutch. { were taken and destroyed. Magnus Bennetson aimed at him a blow of his poleaxe. and the holding of a diet at Arboga in the opening of the year 1 435. and the more easily. and interred it in the church of Mallosa. Engelbert. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and the peasant army dismissed to their him cealed their discontent. was nominated high steward. the king bade him be guided by the proverb. and in the bert mean time live at peace with each now welcomed his enemy as it other. sprang out of the and day). at his proposal. and afterwards guaranteed by the councillors of Denmark and Norway. was made high marshal. . the most offices of m brilliant of the young nobles of Sweden. This happened on the 27th of April. who is said in a contemporary nar" to have ruled over Sweden for rative three yeare. and Calmar. the castles which had not been burned down were to be delivered up to the king. with the frenzy of a wild beast. Peasants who dwelt near the spot took up Engelbert's body. wounded him in the hand. Orebro was to be granted bert." On his return he himself plundered the Swedish coasts. and a partisan of King Eric '. Here Engelbert intended to pass the night. whence it was afterwards carried to Orebro. and only a few attendants were conveyed in two boats for a distance of a mile and a half. and judges again appointed throughout the country . his wife. and all of them. Charles Canuteson Bond^. In the evening." '> Of the family of Natt och Dag (nit. property of the crown was plundered. and caused a fire to be kindled.

and behalf. For his Swedish throne this king was so essentially indebted to the bishops. and carried to his fief. this was Charles Canuteson Bond^. Christopher. Christopher of Bavaria. ever conspii-uous for their zeal in support of that settlement. and therefore his followers did not desert him until he had deserted himself. and the pirates whose booty he was not ashamed to share. declared their attachment to Christopher. In Sweden. Eric passed ten offered no further hindrance. it was decided to adhere to the Union of Calmar. by the Danish council. for the This revolt was however suprecall of the king. Christopher of Bavaria was chosen. but in 1442. covertly incited the Dalecarlians and Vermelanders to fresh conmiotions. ' et diversa The Ilhvnie Chronicle. corpulent man. and the general cry was. son of John. comelier. that a foreigner should never again be called to the Swedish throne and at the elective diet on the 4th October. Diarium Vadstenense. and died of the plague. 65 sacred by the people. discontented at being passed over in the distribution of the fiefs. plots. which might not improperly be denominated the pastime of the Union age. . his dear son. F . again renewed. obedience to him for ever Sweden in his renounced fealty and 1439 the Norsemen same year an invasion of but were repulsed. which occa- pex'secuted the new regent with threats. where Eric. three kingdoms. Christopher also received the homage and crown of Norway. sometimes under that of the Hanse towns. that the diary of . and they believed that miracles were wrought at his tomb ^. now that all the castles had fallen into the hands of the administrator. and he was absolved from all responsibility on account of his administration. At a congi'ess of Danish and Swedish plenipotentiaries held in Jenkoping in the autumn of 1439. immediately opened negociations with the Swedish and Norwegian councils. Oeland was assigned to him fetidation of Finland in pledge of the satisfaction of his claims. the interest of the magnates in maintaining the policy followed by all the Swedish party it. without reckoning those in which the Swedish council alone was concerned. exhibiting at once the weakness of the bonds by which the confederation was held together (although it was solemnly renewed at Calniar in 1438). and confederated with Nils Stenson. In a baronial diet at Arboga. D. lie treacherously seized upon his im fortunate and caused his head to be struck off. we may observe within five years. who at first assumed only the title of guardian. popular disturbances. Denmark and Sweden attempted during the One who now sought to curb these j>o])ular movements had more than any other man reaped advantage from them. Diary of Vadstena. Meanwhile it was generally rumoured. the year of Engelbert's rising. Upon this occasion the clergy. by Eric's sister Catherine. during a conference for the settlement of their differences. From 1434. not its perdition. the movements of party fluctuated in their tendencies. The steward Christer Nilson." have raged over all Sweden. unsuspicious of danger. accustomed to style the guardian. brother-in-law of Charles. covenants. deferred. duke of the Upper Palatinate. after the executioner had dealt with him. in 1459. after a private negociation with Charles Canuteson had assured to the latter the possession of all that he calculated upon being He obtained the inable to gain for the present. an old intriguer. an object which curing the hereditary kingship he had vainly striven for in his other dominions. that a nun of . and declarations of war. sioned a sanguinary rising against the nobility in Zealand and Jutland. Plurimis coniscat miraciilis. pressed in 1438 in the year following. . This is a species of diplomacy. well as any other prince. excited an opposition to his measures at the baronial diet of Sdderkoping in 1436 he was arrested." Norway Here Eric had succeeded in prostill hesitated. this was but the l)ostponement of the crown. the steward. in allusion to which our annalists record a satirical " My uncle saying of his nephew and successor. must live. and leaders from the time of Charles Canuteson. accompanied by promises of privileges to the common people." Eventually he repaired to his native country Pomerania. and confederacies. had been called to the crown. a short. whose kinsman he was. held at Westeras in 1437. Eric had made vain endeavours to secure the succession for his cousin-german Bogislaus. Nils Stenson was made prisoner. Stockholm. duke of Pomerania. a baron and councillor of state. In a new descent upon Sweden from (Jottland. and to be called in return father. while the new marshal fled with the king back to Gottland ^. which 2 3 great reputation for sanctity had foretold to him that he should yet be its wearer. all relating to the conditions on which the king's readmission might be acceded to. until the close of even Eric's nominal reign. — petual congresses. which met in the beginning of 1440. the castle of Wiborg in Finlaud. and died in his seventy-fourth year at Riigenwald. of labouring for their own aggrandizement to all practicable lengths. appointed. in 1439 * is said to loca Christianitatis. formed sometimes under the mediation of Denmark and Norway. but at length. as that of one who had died a martyr to the freedom of his country.A. or popular favour. Swenson. who was all powerful with the peasants. who leant for support on the aristocratic inBroder terest. . In the means he employed. consoled himself for the loss of . the people observed that the lofty stature of the marshal overtopped the king. no fewer than ten guarantees. who walked ami in arm with '' the marshal is him. Oscillations of parties. and in the church of Vadstena a child had seen the diadem On the royal entry into glistening on his head. For Charles. so that the Danish peasants took up arms for this king after those of Sweden had expelled him. in 1 438. or upon both. and early on the following morning his body was found. he was far from being scrupulous. was surprised at his house. finally in . perdifferent associations. but even after the death of Engelbert he was not undisturbed by competitors. of the same year. all of which Charles Canuteson bore with for a long time . H36— 42 } Charles Caniiteson's administration CHRISTOPHER OF BAVARIA. shielding themselves in case of necessity behind the convenient screen of the For this purpose Eric served as federal royalty. now rival. in the society of his concubine. as we have seen. The fierce and turbulent Eric Puk^. and more worthy to wear the crowns woe to those who have ordered it thus *. Hence the Norsemen took up arms for a short time on his deposition. years in Gottland in the shamefid pursuit of piracy. whom Eric had lately nominated to the dignity of marshal. it was resolved.

Vadstena observes upon Iiis election . formerly known as the representative of the Swedish church at the council of Basle. Abo. Drawing together a considerable force. in common with every other domestic authority. was mistaken by them for the expected signal of assault. he appeared with a fleet before the Venedic seapoi'ts. and Swartsio. Among his many and powerful foes the first to move against him was Christer Nilson. On the other hand the eagerness of the Swedish magnates to obtain them was sliarpened. some of them relating to the life of the cloister. had repaired. the old steward. who on hearing the news of his death slied tears. and the Swedes are said government and fortified by him. the king is said to have abandoned it upon remonstrance being made *. A. and the office of high steward. compliance. obtained possession in perpetuity of the castle of Stacket. had declared before the monks various opinions. The archbishop of Upsala. Chronicle. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. he was forced to see himself excluded from the government to which the king. by which the king lost all that he had amassed during his stay in Sweden. D. secretly confederated with Christopher. and hastening to take arms. and ended on the return voyage in a shipwreck. Shortly afterwards linquish he was summoned by the king to Stockholm. at the same time confirming and augmenting the fiefs which he held. Christopher the bark-king. the ambassador of the Holy Virgin. in 1434. according to the RhvTne 1448. that these now gave their consent to a measure which for a hundred years they had obstructed. An expedition against Gottland was at the same time determined upon. than a peaceful visit of Christopher to his uncle. he renounced his errors. In general the king resoi-ted to every possible expedient to procure money in 1446 he caused a number of English and Dutch ships passmg through the Sound to be brought in as prizes. naked to the middle. who styled himself yet seen. in Brandenburg. with longing wishes for the return of those good times. was loud in his complaints of the wrongs he had sutt'ered." his Eric's-gait. thereby consigning himself to the flames if he should relapse into heresy. Oeland. and in the only case in which an attempt was made to place fiefs in the possession of a foreigner. carried a burning torch in his hand and a bundle of wood upon his back. 1442—48. with reservation of the inviolability of privileges. A conflagration.xca'cati. however. Ita ut infra unius anni circulum octo vel decern taliter coniparasseiit. the king. and the king availed himself of their rivalry. of heaven. Upon his death-bed ho is said to have declared that his treasury had only been filled by him in the intent to annex Lubeck to the Danish dominHe left no heirs. to which Charles was summoned from Finland. which broke out during the night. 7 Daughter of Margrave John. who were for the most part enemies of Charles .60 Cliarles Canuteson higli stewai-d. Christopher now desisted from his abortive attempt and repaired to Sweden. Nils Ragwaldson. 1445. and died on the 5tli January. — to jn'ocure mc^ney for his own fiefs were sold in his chancery to one who would pay the price of them. complaints were raised that every day five loads of corn were used for the horses of the royal household. Charles was compelled to rea portion of Finland. married in . own departure. foreign governors were now no longer appointed. committed affairs. to excite jealousies > Lubeck. he showed dispositions so favourable to the clergy. and purposes. a convention was formed with the Livonian knights for a joint assault upon Novogorod. of an imposthume. we are told. weakened by long fastHis ptiblic recantaing. Hastening to escape from the load of charges now poured upon him. while the common people were Hence the peasants styled obliged to eat bark. again visited Sweden. which. to which place meanwhile several German princes. Rostock is said to have consented. for which he received VViboi-g. as if on a friendly visit. This code accordingly received the royal sanction on the second of May. Ericus Olai. Design to surprise Lubeck. the adoption of the general land's-law. as the pirates commissioned by the old king continued from that station to annoy the coasts and trade of Sweden. whom the king at first gratified with the appellation of fathei". until. Nothing more came of this project. both clerical and laical. To him and his heirs. was planned by the king at this period. lamented. At his visit to the monastery of Vadstena. Karamsin. returned from exile. " it took God place conformably to the will of the prelates At his coronation and during grant. carrying with them a supply of arms concealed in wine casks. now vacant by the death of Christer Nilson. which now inbuilt stituted the first trial for heresy that Sweden had A simple peasant. and though he repaired thither with ten ships and five have subsequently participated in an irrupRussian frontier *. tlie alchyniist. tion was solemnized by a procession in which the sinner. and a few days after followed him to the " Hvitfeld. in 1446. which in Sweden was regarded as barren of good results. soon found himself superfluous at court. accompanied by Ins yoiuig bride Dorothea of Brandenburg '. for the ''. which was to attain mournful celebrity from its position during future internal commotions. This was composed of Swedish barons. having appointed to meet the council at Jenkoping. and when the king. caused himself to be admitted into the holy brotherhood. by no one except Archbishop Nils. At a baronial diet in Stockholm. were demanded from him and he was obliged in effect to surrender the first named place. Death of the king. they were discovered by the citizens and expelled from the town. and every the same often to several persons At this tinie the country was afflicted by scarcity and famine . unum feodum Adeo autem eraiit Sueci sua anibitione et mutua invidia e. Copenhagen. In Sweden he was ions. which occasioned an inquiry into the circumstances and the imprisonment of the accused. Tavasteborg. 1442. Jealousies of the Magnates. knows nothing of the Palatine account making him to have been poisoned. although his parade of devotion harmonized ill with his jovial temperament and the laxity of his manners. the honour of knighthood. 8 In 1448. who. upon his . among them. and their An enterprise of magnitude cargoes to be sold. The real design was to surprise hundred knights and squires. Charles Canuteson. demanding a free passage through their territory for himself and his followers. upon pretence of a pilgrimage to Wilsnach. He fell sick on the journey at Helsingborg. and called to mind the of Charles Canuteson. Wismar and Straisund to have refused also to tion across the .

It has been made matter of dispute King Christopher. Loss of Norway. but according to Eric Olaveson that of Charles Canuteson was prior. and for Magnus Gren both the island and the Swedish squadron. ibid. and at a conference held in Halmstad. the castle was the command of king Christian himself. although his recognition had been tardy. Now Christiania. and Christian's party speedily attained predominance in Norway. A vain attempt to besiege Opslo ". a purpose however which its heads soon renounced. for the maintenance of the common liberties of both king- who under held by his opponents. Epispopi. died in 1450. I ween. who had continued at the castle of Wiborg. Ibid. Meanwhile the plenipotentiaries of Charles himself renounced. knights and nobles. although the people. in Stockholm. and Romerige. She was (laughter of Charles Ormson. the commonalty added their assent upon by acclamation. and of the daughters. resolved that thenceforward. to reside Wisby burned. 67 Charles Canuteson. prfelati. whose good was more than suspected. Upon this Charles had cast eyes of hope. the more confidently that the Norsemen had already in 1441 concluded a separate alliance with Sweden ^. the Uplands. and in a short time the crown of Norway also disappeared. declared for Charles. things. he arrived. daughter of Thure Bielke. The Rhyme Chronicle. L. was an expedition against Gottland and the old king Eric. An easy reduction of the island and its town was followed by a long truce. and a few days after his consort Catharine was crowned by the new archbishop. were again bruited about. To the vacant office of archbishop was named the young Jens Bennetsou Oxenstierna. 3 The 9th February and 24th June. to which the council were highly averse. to the Danes. See Hadorph. especially in the northern portion of the country. < Son of Count Frederic of Oldenburg. who at the previous diet of Barons at Jenkoping had been named administrators. was never seen. with the franklins. by which Charles was designated as foredoomed to wear the Swedish crown. lective body of the Norwegian commonalty both Noi'th and South of the Dofre mountains. in the king. and crowned November 50. This lady. in ^ Hadorph. the second wife of Charles. May 3. The issue was as might be looked for. The tirst object to which the new sovereign's attention was directed. 1441. of which sixty-two fell Charles . 1450. the enemy of This powerful family is accused of havCharles. Gren. J a- A. ing aimed at the crown. milites. and set the town on fire. the brothers Bennet and Nils Jonson (Oxenstiema). 5 See the ditferent letters of the commons of Norway at FrostaTing. who had raised Christian The archbishop of of Oldenburg to the throne *. and the son lived and died in obscurity. Attempt on Gottland. the chief share in the government during the time of king Christopher. daughter of a captain in the castle of Roseborg. espoused Eric Ericson Gyllenstierna. Seventy chosen plenipotentiaries gave their votes in secret. is all that is related to have been done for the defence of the Norwegian crown . ' Non secundum formam 2 legisterii. for the maintenance of the Union. KING CHARLES CANUTESON. equally with his father and brother. Charles Ormson is mentioned in 1411 as Norwegian lieutenant of Jemteland. whom all the former died in their childhood. when at last it was agreed to proceed to the election of a new king. faith Prophecies of pereons who were regarded as saints. both countries should choose one common sovereign. and born in 1425. F 2 . Both factions provoked one another from the castle and from the town by the interchange of contumelious epithets. liberti. twelve Swedish and Danish barons. The settlement of the Danish crown upon him dates from He married Dorothy widow of the 1st September. whether the election of king took place earlier in Sweden or Denmark. the king's coronation was celebrated at TJpsala on the 29th of June . ceeding to blows. inasmuch as the kingdom for several years previously had been visited by contiinial drought. of Normother of four sons and five daughters. seeing that Sweden and Norway. 1448. in order to bring into play against the authority of the more powerful Charles the usual policy of the Union. and contributed by his connections to the king's election in Norway. remained in Finland four months after receiving intelligence of the king's With followers well armed and equipped death. Thus was Gottland won and lost. purpoi'ting that they would acknowledge neither him nor any other Dane or German as king of Norway. an ancient foe and new friend. to the last remained faithful in the cause of Charles. Of A fairer sure dames heart can wish. was never recognized as valid. Hedemark. had been summoned to a general diet ^. of wegian family. leta.several of the Norwegian council and the mass of the peasants^. and under the strictest personal responsibilities in case the stipulation was son he had by her. which had admitted a Danish garrison. in Voss. and had held. On his death-bed the king was married to Christinn. together with the deceased archbishop. May 1. Magdalene was married to Ivar Axelson Tott. which two kingdoms God had so closely joined together. and the circumstance of rain falling during his entry into the town was deemed by the people a presage of good. and the deputies of the peasants and the towns. and Christina. councillor of state. but had elected Charles to be their sovereign. and now showed little inclination to follow in the steps of the Danes. specially deputed on either part. now despatched a letter of renunciation to Christian. who was chosen 1449. sufficient to maintain what thus had been won were wanting. Af alia de Skal fruer man kan man all aldrig skonare quinna weta. Charles Canuteson was first wedded to Bridget. and Charles returned home by way of Jemteland. nobiles. the two administrators. ac rusticorum Ericus Olai. in order by this means to legitimate the Appendix to the Rhyme Chronicle. whither the bishops. wegian council were named to manage the government. et civitalum nuntii speciales. however. which however was not conducted in tlie ancient form enjoined by the land's-law ^. Drontheini with . the offspring of this marriage. artd not yielded without reluctance. 1449. and they were upon the point of pro- doms. he conferred the command on Magnus ' Energy and unanimity. T. which lasted until time was obtained for Eric to surrender the castle. prelates. and singularly enough. By this act the prelate gave a public proof that he acknowledged the new order of '' The colcathedral of the town. Charles took up his quarters with his followers in the body of the town . D. who had been consecrated in the interval. surprised the Swedish garrison of Wisby (by treachery. But this union. J A new election. on their own impulsion. After the usual homage had been offered at the Mora Stone. had from of old Two of the Norconsorted in harmony and love. as an old Swedish song complains).

^-companied its march *.000 men died. tlieir same time those of Charles Canuteconduct towards Iheir own master. cousin-german of the king.nstad should again be found the same individual who had betrayed his cause in Gottland. and betrayed In rapacity his governors fell not at his interests. and the king's skill. at which Charles. a step which creates less surprise than the fact. was divided. was all that was accomplished by this great army. ' A. Christian was short of the foreigners whom they replaced. while the rest were again seemingly reconciled to The new congress at Calmar. " greater than had ever beiore been known to be raised in Vermeland and East-Gothland. both salaried. the plague which had public misei-y. indifferent what master they served so that men of humble station were soon the only class who knew what it was to have a country. where he entertained the guests on fourteen hundred sil- only be adjusted by arms. without any other loss than he sustained from the exasperated peasants in his march across the forest of Holwed. Astute and compliant in all save pecuniary matters 2. and subsequently at the marriage of Thord Bonde. and the castles fell into his hands in the course of the summei'. quarrel between himself and his competitor could The following years resembled in insecurity and disturbance that just described. carried oif 7000 men in Stockholm. Charles himself was without heart for his office. successfully defended the western frontiers of the Christian. in order to prevent the invasion of Ujjjier Sweden. rowly to his individual advantage. Although he has been by longing thereto. Olaus Magims. at the consecration of his daughter in the convent of Vadstena. force For this purpose the be extended to Bleking. was assailed by a Danish fleet. that among his commissioners at Hal'. Charles deprived several of the barons of their fiefs and ofHees. all the hostilities that occurred were confined to the exchange of a few shots. fulfilleil. and still more frequently had family connections in all the three kingdoms. he sought his ministers in men of mean condition who resembled himself in these qualities. and if he refused to confirm the article. Swedish campaign. without plan. A scarcity of at Stockholm alone 9000 men died. that the council should declare for king By even permitted in the autumn to retire unpnrsued from the interior." an old account dtscribes him. using the skates made of long curved wooden staves. 2 " Courteous. drawn upon sledges. alternated with proposals of peace which led to no result. Diary of Vadsteua. in which Charles displayed his pomp. In the castle of Stegeborg in 1440 fourteen charged with partiality. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES." Cannon. the first we find mentioned in any ver chargers. Under Engelbert's rising. or skate-runners. which the king soon quitted. for when in the following spring king Christian commenced his campaign by an incursion into West-Gothland. but it appears to have soon dispersed . as well as Swedes in that of Christian. his right to the Norway. as for example. . blames at the son. That this should be the case need not excite wonder if. defended by peasants. a ballad still [ireserved attests the popular griei and indignation produced by his murder. and in re- kingdom. The army was ])receded by skyrannare (skidlopare). his opulence. Sometimes these meetings were held amidst brilliant festivities. the country lay open befoi'e him. tary occurrences. or they sought their fortune by arms. of setting out his array. where the king himself. leaving ordei's that similar ravages should Within a year this brave nobleman was treacherously assassinated by a Dane who stood high in his service and confidence. acquired in foreign lands. his representation is by no means deficient in truth. the commanders of the Swedish shijjs were Danes". according to Karamsin. a. which out of fear he for the most part concealed. and incessant conferences of the councils of both kingdoms. At this time it was not uncommon to find Danes in the service of Charles. borated by other testimonies " Habebat pra'fectos ad omnem : nequitiam audacissimos et ad omneiu virtutem resque prsclaras imbellissimos." says Joannes Magnus. al^. but greedy. or a birds). in which the land and towns were laid waste by fire. who extols the justice of the governois imder Steno Sture the elder. quital. decked in his royal robes. guns are mentioned in the castle of Stockholm. and lasted nearly two years. that a security for the ()erformance of this should be required from king Charles at a new congress in Calniar.000 men. In the autumn of 14G1 the plague broke out anew. The valiant Thord Bonde alone. who had nominated him to the office of marshal. foi sliding over the surface of the snow. The secret was divulged. which dwells upon the were kept (called Fbglare. A devastatmg inroad into Scania in the depth of winter. raged five years before again broke out in Sweden. Towards the magnates he cherished a w^ell-grouuded mistrust. In Novogorod alone. and hostilities liad already been begun in the name of king Christian against to be assembled on the Scanian frontier. Public calamities. whicli were directed by German master gunner. his contemporary. though they plundered under the cloak of law Russia. but In some instances these possessed property. The number is variously stated at from 40. and thereby afforded to his secret enemies opportunities of openly injuring him. three years' duration engendered at the same time a more grievous famine than had ever happened For the rest. ^ Compare the character of Charles Canuteson as drawn Eric Olaveson. however. The Swedish squadron had been assembled at Stockholm and then sent ou when it retui-ned. a secret article it was provided that the ticf's should thereafter be distributed at the jileasure of the council. 1450—55. miliwithin the memory of man '. ^ Eric Olaveson. Charles indeed purposed ultimately to meet the enemy in the forest of Tiwed. 8 "Twenty carriage guns witli powder and stone-balls be7 48." says the Rhyme-Chronicle. and exceeded it in In 1455. or to suffer in its belialf. as we are told. which describes with complacency the declaration of war. indeed. Charles appealed to the pope. or his devotion . was recalled by the information that the capital. The town in 1431 had a master gunner and a cannon founder. sang the gospel before the altar. were previously used in the fortresses. all . Twenty pieces of cannon.G8 not Hostilities with Chiistiau of Denmark. who allowed their countrymen to plunder and burn on the Swedish coast with impunity. and contains a more apposite judgment than that of the Rhyme Chronicle. In the opening of 1452. kingdom of Danish incursion. D. during which it also desolated ' He is also corroprincely and glittering exterior of Charles. and from being a brilliant party leader had become a feeble king. suffi- ciently evinces their character. and wlio now publicly passed over to the Danish party. expired without reIt appeared no longer doubtful that the sults.000 to 80. looked too nar. the glancing banners. Charles caused an army Sweden'.

But Jens Bennetson repaired instead to the cathedral of Upsala. when lie attempted to revive the old contest regarding the liberty of testamentary bequests to the church. if not numerous. " that the archbishop and those of his party had undertaken ing the matter in such a way as that they intended to through. besurjirised ciplined. The former. before mentioned he afterwards did homage to Christian. the Danes complained that nothing was left for them to do. Flight of CliRrles and oliiiu'L. for the family of Gyllenstierna. June 19. in 1704. of Oldenburg was now chosen king of Sweden. Christian received homage as Duke and Count of Sleswick and Holstein. the royal governors in the various provinces.'fe. was said to have brought with him letters of that purport to the relatives and partisans of Charles back. of which they received nothing several of years. that of the "large treasure" which Charles carried with him. vernor of the castle j ielded up both the fortress. with were subjected to the * In 1451. whose members in that day were not seldom wont to bear the episcopal staff conjointly with the sword. 1457. and his uitfriends began to call him a bottomless pouch. and bought off the claims of the other in 14. Another part of liis treasure was concealed in the Dominican monastery at Stockholm. and the chancellor. and his inclination to Christian.58 to the payment. Christian I. and so came to Dautzic the third day afterwards. excepting only Gustavus " who ' at Carlson and others lost the use of their limbs. had once already been convicted of treason. although they had assisted the archbishop against Charles. and while Charles himself directed his march southwards. made pretenders. . and because he took all out of the land with him. cruellest torture by the rack. But a trader whom the archbishop caused to be imprisoned. laid whose memones Eiigelbert lived. and opposed to the disorderly crowd collected by the prelate a disreign.) The people. At the outset of 1457." The Swedish nobles whom fear of Charles had driven into exile now re-entered the country. so that some died. that when king Christian came before Stockholm with his fleet at Whitsunday. OF OLDENBURG. it is said. who had been entrusted to his charge. in were averse to Charles. confiding in his treasures and his stipendiary troops *. would not stand fast by his cause. His compeers. he drew on himself much ill-will throughout the kingdom.A. but he confiscated a number of its estates. affixed to the church door a declaration of war against his sove- in Albert's time had sustained a siege of seven years. and the clerical order were gratified by a complete confirmation of all their privileges. and said that he was a public spoiler. Charles not only demanded tliat restrictions should be laid upon bequests to the church. he disposed of his gold and silver. he fled to Stockholm. Investigations with a view to the reduction were prosecuted throughout the kingdom by his son-in-law. principal . To this the king paid no regard. who was a man of so whom. surrendered within a month to the Archbi. he lent a great town of Dantzic. 8 Olave Peterson. with Sigge bishop of Streiignas. and forfeited his fiefs. C. now that the country was adverse to him. But when he had reigned some years. and all who had any money were obliged to lend him large sums. only stipulating that no account shoidd be required from him of the monies which had (jassed through his hands.of C'liiislian. when the archbishop was the king's guest in the castle of Stockholm. the king's father-in-law. although he was otherwise a pious and good-natured man *. where he i-eceived safeconduct. Even the peasants. which and immediately commenced hciStilities. stoutly u])held his knightly houom'. for which end he gathered much money out of all his kingdoms. He had been reconciled to the kintr through the interposition of the council. which the Danes had seized. 1437. Olave Peterson remarks." town of Stockholm. alities were not forgotten for words. his position became the more critical from his want of the martial qualities which might have enabled him successfully to oppose an order. Holstein had become vacant in 1459 by the death of Duke Adolphus. and the children of his sovereign. army . the archbishop received a mandate to accelerate his preparations in the upper portion of the country. After a short conflict. he obtained their conjoint guarantee for the succession of his son. acquiesced in the arrangement which had been eff'ected. bnt he allowed himself with incomprehensible carelessness to be in Strengniis. King Charles XII. Of this loan. where he with ditticulty obtained admission. which is descended from Christina. " Son of Charles Ormson. 1457r-6. The intrigues of the archbishop Jens Bennetson and his party did not remain hidden from the king. Nicholas Ryting. Charles indeed hastened his retiu'n. ' February 2-). and his brother Count Gerdt. Dr. By reason of the burden of these tallages. christian I. and armour. but was betrayed by the monks to King Christian. "And because he saw. and to use the words of the chronicle. "he began to lay many new taxes upon tlie country. Oelaud. w ho now styled himself The goprince and administrator of the realm. and he also dreaded that the burghers of Stockholm." says Olave Peterson. of which he had great store. and abode for seven carry it He bought the land of Holstein from the Count of Schaumburg. girt on helmet. } Je:!:i":"l?^iK'a. At a baronial diet in Westeras he openly expressed his discontentment with the administration of Charles. daughter of Charles Canuteson. and insisted that no noble should be permitted to enter the spiritual order before he had sold his estates to his relatives. Eric Ericson Gyllenslierna." all followed the example set them with so much alacrity. wounded by an arrow. sum in gold to the Prussian lords. and depositing his priestly vestments on the high altar. By these steps deep hatred was excited against the archbishop. and at a congress of the councils of all three kingdoms held next year in Skara. and overwhelmed the Yet reclergy especially with scoffing eulogies. which proved ultimately to be unfounded. " it first went well with the land under the rule of king Christian. The the pretended letter-bearer. a rumour was spread that king Charles would return with an army to reassert his claims to the crown. but continued to hold a hostile tone. . against whose wishes he had been invited into the kingdom. was now the object . and each loudly upbraided the other with new grievances. whereupon. a summons was agaui issued for one of those fruitless campaigns which every year of this reign witnessed. sword. exacted and interest. and attacked the pi'operty and privileges of the clergy *. crowned at Upsala. the year following. when the clergy drew up a peremptory and detailed protest against his measures. 5 The Rhyme Chronicle. without stroke of sword. went secretly on board ship by night ''." In 14G3.

which is said to have formed one of the plans of the magnates at this time.Cliristian's 70 measures. to November. pots and kettles. imposed a new tax. who in tlie beginning of 1464. the king caused him to be apprehended. but were beaten back. the Charles Camiteson's recall anil death. The old king spent the last years of his life in external and intestine warfare. first over domestic revolt. to the windows. " the archbishop is a posted up. next over foreign aggression. counselling him at the same time never to strive after the regal title and ensigns ^. and numbers of them treacherously slaughtered in a conflict which acquired for the marshal Thure' Thureson Bielke'. king Charles back and not a captaincy nor a parsonage. alupon the prelate's Dalesmen and all the commonalty of Sweden. " And it wanted but little that he 3 Olave Peterson. D. his irreconcileable foe the archbishop died in exile. full of the most vehement denunciations of the king's government ^. manland. 5." Id. Shortly afterwards. allowed Charles to die in possession of his crown. so that the partikingdom into several petty sovereignties. " whomsomalignant and obdurate a nature. in so great poverty that he complains in his letters of being unable to pay fifty marks which he owed." The council was obliged to yield. .'' Vadstena. who attacked Sweden anew. against Christian. 2 See Memoirs relating to the History of Scandinavia (Handlingar rbrande Skandinavieiis Historia). it was his rival who now called him to account. and taking up arms. and at length enticed him into a tliick wood at Haraker's church in We. and there were them. the powerful Eric Axekon (Tott). and Charles was in effect recalled. Christian now again came to the defence of of the in the depth of winter. During nearly four years. a letter was drawn up. in his sixty-first year. 1464. Scarcely had the king quitted the capital. that they must have that Sweden was a kingdom. and in league with bishop Ketil. so that a the office of administrator. the king is said to have robbed the castle of Stockholm of all the ai-ticles of value it contained. Christian accused the archand bishop of having himself instigated the revolt. The peasants." Notwithstanding his threat of excom- though months by the archbishop *. he was bent upon ruining utterly. die than pay tax. and committed the levy of it to the archbishop. now let loose against him. bishop of Linkiiping. Joannes Magnus. " the therein supported chiefly by the Dalecarlians. while he himself proceeded upon an expedition to Finland against the Russians. brought a multitude of charges against him bearuig conduct towards Charles. { •1G3— 70. Maxime feroces et bellicosi. Vadsten. name Stockholm. in Finland. and the success of Nicholas and Steno Sture'. they obtained a promise from the archbishop for the remission of the tax. 1470. however. the water. hurried to Stockholm. bearing the words. traitor. spent at the castle of Raseborg. 1467i which the king. filling munication. was obliged to flee to Stockholm. Even in the council and among the burgesses the advei'saries of the archbishop had the preIn all the public places papers were ponderance. wildest and most warlike. the surname of peasant slayer *. we observe first bishop Ketil. protesting that they would rather any more illegal imposts. from the gilt spire surmounting the tower. when the insurrection broke out anew command of his kinsmaji Ketil Carlson under the Vasa). opposed to him." • contemporary letter indignantly reproaches hira with having ransacked for money three elements. and the earth. might soon have been tion of the accomplished •. until the name of the Sture' began to gather lustre in Dalecarlia. among the inhabitants of Sweden ^. but only to be again expelled after six . from January. to encounter the imaginary danger. as well as to have broken down walls. in the castle of Stockholm. A. Upon his return. assumed the title of administrator at Westeras. now a second time deposed. that ever he was wroth with. v. Before his departure. now regarding him as a martjT for the liberties of the realm. and against Eric Carlson (Vasa). 1467. perhaps the more readily. carryto ing off the archbishop with him a prisoner Denmark. who put himself at the head of an insurrection. " Then a sudden cry went among the peasants throughout the land. The Rhyme Chronicle. which the Dalecarlians kept besieged during the whole succeeding summer. He expired May 15. and even dragged the sea for hidden treasures . In King Christian came in person to Stockholm. that even peasants holding of the church were not exempted by the king from its operation. for which he had colappropriated a portion of the subsidy lately lected by a Papal legate in the north for a war The peasants refused the new against the Turks. but the Dalecarlians retired before him. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. then after his death the archbishop. ' I have been four who should govern castle of Stockholm by the king. Charles Canuteson was finally for the third time called to the throne upon the 13th of November. the air. dug in the ground. should have been obliged to beg grace of him. where he sustained a great overthrow. Revolts excited. and upon his deathbed transferred the government to Steno Sture. and after having been personally in danger. From this letter is taken the account of the dismantling of the "They vfould have divided the to kingdom into four parts." say the monks of ( The Rhyme ' Chronicle. and within a short time.

of whom n-iarried Elin Eric Axelson. feudatory of Gottland. but could not be king. that be endured in the land any longer ^. lords and Steno Sture's party All this was more than sufficient to hold the Danes in play through a whole summer. sons of Eric Axelson Tott in "! which had been designedly prohibited." marked out by many qualities as the man of the people. against whom in 146? Iwar Axelson 5 Denmark. and the sequestration of his fief. the spirits of the Danes accurately stated). King Christian himself now appeared before Stockholm with a fleet of seventy ships. To the arbitrement of commissioners chosen from the councils of all three kingdoms. and also the declaration in his fiivour by the new archbishop Jacob Ulfson. Steno Sture was careful to keep his movements secret. between the seceding Swedish the council. Steno Sture was chosen (May 1. and his friend in the first instance. m who were powerful both in Denmark and Sweden. profited by this state of things to win a throne yet his example proved that in Sweden at this time one might be all. until at length the jjcasants. whose name Nicholas assumed after his mother. daughter of Ake Axelson. With Sweden's commons grace and love were mine. The delivery into his tion. who. Cliai'les Canuteson. and free-minded lord. Nicholas Sture had betaken himself to Dalecarlia. in order again to dispute the crown with the expiring Chai'Ies the people had again risen to be a power in tlie state. according to one account. between the brothers Axelson and their legitimate king. and Trott^ Carlson. married Magdalene. of Eka. an alliance which had re-opened the throne to this king. and the axe of Christian II.) administrator at Arboga. but also with the concurrence of the greater number of the council. 71 CHAPTER VI. of the old archbishop's party had returned with ships and men from Denmark. although he may be all. The town of Stockholm and the Dalecarlians. drowned in blood even the name of the confedera . afterwards. was of another family. He was distinguished for great " sagacity no less than for valor. and urged the council of state to conclude upon some settlement among themselves." Thereupon. The council was divided as usual there was much . married Catherine. hands by Eric Axelson of the castles which he had held.1471. as to the maintenance of the Union. They were indeed put to flight by but the dissensions contiimed. as has been in- had declared war. and therewithal prosperous in his designs' . Though all the lords would not my banner join. and father of Nicholas (Nils) Sture. his family were brought into adverse relations with King Christian. . Eric Carlson Vasa. for in the environs of the capital the partisans of the Danes were most active. AND CHRISTIAN THE TYRANT. and it is not without grounds that the Rhyme-Chronicle makes him say. and as nothing was heard of him. D. twelve from every jirovince. 9 Olave Peterson. in conjunction with Nicholas Sture^. lie had saved the tottering throne of Charles Canuteson from overthrow in the last days of that sovereign. Proposals of accommodation were made upon both sides. still resting on the interest of the till all these false relations were magnates snapped asunder by a Danish war of conquest against Sweden. who could reap where he had not sowed. they said. D } 1471. Danish invasion. not without renewed hesitations. Hostile movements. Through the death of another brother. and now hostile to king Christian. STENO STURfi THE ELDER. KING JOHN. The administrator had repaired to East-Gothland . Eric Carlson Vasa and several exiled Swedish lords discussion Boece Stenson {Natt och Dag). councillor of state. although of the same name. Laurence Peterson.Steno the elder chosen A. Steiao Sture'. " such discords could nowise seeing. witliout being king. councillor Steno Sture. While from his career the chiefs of the house of Sture learned not to grasp at a diadem. had already induced the greater part of Upland to do homage to the The peasants were allured to the Danish king. Steno Sture himself was married to Ingeborg. yet influential also by his connexions. daughter of CharlesCanuteson. to assemble forces from the more remote provinces. which formed the main-stay of the power of the Sture's. then feudatory of Finland. Meanwhile the Union nominally survived. 8 There were nine brothers. and many remained under the royal standard. cautious. prinCanuteson. and to cleave with more sincerity to the people. between whom. assembled of their own authority in Upsala. The people were generally on his side. A. the import of by king Charles Canutesou's half-sister Bridget Bielke'. immediately acknowledged Steno Stur^ as administrator. a skilful. STENO STURfi THE YOUNGER. his foster-father. were to be referred the questions in dispute between Christian and Sweden. especially with the brothers Axelson ^. 1470—1520. daughter ot Steno Sture of Sleswick. SUANTO STURfi. doubtless mainly contributed to this result. camp by the cheap price of salt. J guaniiaii of the kingdom- ADMINISTRATION OF THE STURfiS. there now subsisted a special alliance. He had first borne arms in the rising of bishop Ketil Vasa against king Christian in 1464 . Neither Steno Sture nor his friends appeared before the commission upon the day appointed for its sitting. of the Danish house. and the kingdom remained nearly a year without any acluiowledged head. not sister. cipally by the voices of the peasants and burgesses. and Iwar Axelson. Sture (aunt of Steno. Through Engelbcrt doomed to experience how difficult it becomes for a party leader to rule. they on their side were . was son of the and knight Gustavus Anundson Stur^. for the only object seems to have been to gain time. called the elder. and the Union had become identified with foreign domination.

exists. they never would come to the succour and relief of the lords and councillors of Sweden it was accordingly abolished by a rescript of the administi-ator and the council *. and during the remaining ten years of his life he left it in peace. also divided his army into three portions. of which one was sent to make a circuit and fall upon the Danes at their ships. to distinguish themselves from those of their countrymen and brethren who fought in the ranks of the foe. with the iutrenchment in liis rear.72 Battle of Brunkebcrt!.sung by bridge. In the camp at Norrmahn king Christian had five thousand men well-equipped. by an attack upon the division of the Danish army posted beside the convent of St. Steno Sture was several times surrounded by the enemy. Clara . King Christian nought for in great silence visste. which were moored by the Cajmchins' (now Blase's) Holm. A retrenchment or sconce («kerma) had been ei-ected there." took post with the Danish banner on the eminence. in enticing part of the enemy's troops from their station on the hill. the third remained stationary at the ships. with the principal ladies of Stockholm. and to that knightly saint Steno Sture' afterwards dedicated an image. the Swedish country people. ministrator. Koimng Christian intet af Herr Sten Ty han for med stora tysste. to which are to be added thirteen hundred well appointed liorsemen of the town of Stockholm.) A Swedish ballad upon this battle still of the lord Steno knew. He himself quitted Sweden never to return. perished in the battle. of king Christian be it said. Christian. 1471. with his whole army. and caused food and alms to be distributed to the poor of the town ^. 1474. whose chief arms were still the bow and the northern battleaxe *. they declared.) states that the . but now levelled and built over. else. 2 The Uhyme Chronicle. viewed the battle from the castle walls. among them that Trotte' Carlson. The succeeding years were the happiest that the The leaders kingdom had known for a long time. having notified the cessation of the truce. was now resumed in Cultivation many tracts wherein the granges during the commotions had gone to waste.battle was joined at the Brunkeberg. (Dahlman (History of Denmark. The arrival of Nicholas Sture' decided the victory. exhibits many characteristic features of old manners. and On his side superior in discipline and equipment. approached on the north with combined forces for the relief of the capital. under the command of Nicholas Sture. who was now allowed to devote himself to the cares which peace demanded. 1 Called the Swedish poleaxe in some old verses of the union age. said to have been consecrated by Pojie Honorius for King Waldemar 11. As they marched to the •attack they chanted St. Steno Sture'. heard prayers and made confession in the morning before going into action." his soldiers vaunted of the shames they would put upon tlie burghers of StockMeanwhile the Sture's luihn. A ~:i 1J71 rose proportionably i. King Christian wounded. and cleared a path for him The consort of the adwith a huge broadsword.shield coated with leather hung in the cathedral of Upsala imtil the conflagration of 1702. that the delay in his arrival almost caused the loss oi the battle. his array was probably not very unequal in numbers to the other. then separated from Norrmahn (the North suburb) by water.\teen knights. Linkiipings Bibliotheks Handl. To prevent . now so populous. Ditmarsers in 1500. as the burghers during the fight had sawn through the wooden This battle. During this attack the wooden retrenchment on the mount was set in flames. «hich was not won until the general had succeeded. which may still be 1 Swedish town-law. which for that day was numerous. Heretofore one half of the burgomasters and councilloi-s in the towns had been Germans. .. and retaken on their subjugation by the Danes in 1559. 231. whose wooden . and 2000 slain. i. below the hill at the convent of St. the burgesses and peasants demanded the alteration of this provision of the less cruelty. and many of the fugitives were drowned. UO. ran during the whole battle before his horse. he prevented this usemany Swedes and caused them to be liberated. and upon the 11th October. who met with so many obstacles from marshes and woods in one of the cpiarters of Norrmahn. long celebrated and . having been taken by the burghers in a sally from the town. as appears from the ordinances issued upon the subject ^. Steno Sture'.3. Danebrog. fell into tlie enemy's hands this was a white cross upon a red ground. states that si. hid himself in the woods . The strength of Steno Sture's army is stated at about ten thousand men. though still keeping the name it derived from the punishment of the inhuman Brunke' it had been " with some new invenfortified by khig Christian tions. . The was waged around the two chief town of Stockholm. on he drew. in the library of Linkiiping (of the year 1519). and provided with an Inartillery. seen in ^ His defeat. round which lay live hundred dead bodies. with difficulty escaped to the ships. the Danes wished to sacrifice them to their To the honour fury and throw them into the sea. This was a sandy height then lying without the the high fiercest conflict church of Stockholm. Four times did Steno Sture storm the Brunkeberg. and their wives. who led the sally from the town . upon his crusade It was again taken Ijy the against the Esthonians in 121U. or Danish standard. with 614 men. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. All his men set badges of straw or green boughs in their "many Brunkeberg was more important consequences than remarkable from tlie forces engaged. who was himself wounded. across which the Danes had cast a bridge of poles order to maintain the communication with theu" fleet. well known since the daj's of paganism. King Christian wounded with his own hand Canute Posse. and planted with . helmets and caps. Christian called him "a lad wlio being about to be chastised with the rod. After the fight of Bi'unkeberg. and the levies raised by the Swedish lords of Christian's party. banners . 1470. Internal tranquillity. cluding that part of the army which remamed with the ships. Clara. George's song as their lay of battle. T. The survivors among the Sv^-edes who fought on the king's side fled to the ships . The infantry The battle of from its A m consisted for the most part of peasants. A poor peasant named Starke Biorn (the strong bear). to defend it against a sally which was apprehended from the second division of the army was planted town. King Christian himself great cannon." as it is expressed. were taken 3 A manuscript prisoners. of the opposition were reconciled to the administrator. 6 See the llecess of Calmar. s Of October 14.

the plenipotentiaries of the three kingdoms agreed upon the following. The king. a nobleman might hold crown estates in pledge. Their right was now confirmed by the pope. p. or Hans as he is commonly called. Nicholas' church. would procure for both the full cesan schools of the kingdom to pursue their studies* . was to conduct the government by good men. vol. Non-fullilment of the treaty. unless he were allowed to nominate the teachers. not setting over them persons of mean birth . for the support of which provision was made out of the tithes. 2. Archbishop Jacob Ulfson having in that year discussed the subject with the Swedish clergy at the synod of Arboga. Chronicle extols the years crowned with plenty. natives of the country. although more tranquil than Sweden. for now many a good ship sailed to the Swedish havens. 73 the subdivision of the ancient yardlands. was founded at Upsala in 1 438. from the battle of Brunkeberg to the death of Christian. In the general prosperity there was now time to give ear to the claims of learning and knowledge. and the Arclibishop Joannes Jerechini. 3 •» 171)8. i. with the privilege of conferring degrees. and it became a proverb. under the house of Oldeu' found necessary no new member was to be received without the consent of the rest. That family soon became naturalized in the kingdom from its possessions as well as the genius of its members. in the Celse. than to the Swedes and Norsemen. because exhausted by the struggles of its middle age. uri— ST. 1 In studiis privilegiatis. of his and moderate who is reckoned among the good sovereigns that have religious. Apparatus ad Hist. Union of Calmar renewed. without service or burden .) Compare Hvitfeld. who was to be guided generally by his council. or acquiring hypothecary possession of it ." papal brief A had empowered king Eric of Pomerania to erect a university in the North. 2." it is said. the incumbent of which was bound annually to hold " in the manner which a master uses to l)relections follow in chartered seminaries'. of May. the cheapness of all commodities. of Paris. MS. bound to give an account. and was to reside one year in each of the kingdoms alternately. and more majestical successors . in 1 48. i. a papal charter for the old school connected with St." Such is the Danish judgment of his character^ . and might refuse the king access to them. one year before that of after the administrator and estates of Copenhagen. which had previously been done by the minister and the burgesses. medicine and philosophy. The council was to be composed of nobles of the realm. and Meanwhile. On the demise of Christian. Steno Sturi!: kept his governors under strict supervision . The school-house was burned down. an envoy was despatched to Rome. and a like permission was granted to king Christian for Denmark. the Norwegian council transmitted to that of " that in grievances. and we accoivling to a papal brief of the year 1250. a loving and friendly alliance between Sweden and Norway. on the other hand. the store of salt. and foreign wares. my (Samlingar i Svenska Histnrien. For the teacher. 1. Hadorph. had full liberty to fortify their houses. while they might afford an asylum to those who had incurred the ScliefTer. to be expelled with disgrace . R. in disposition pious. than any larger. whereas its foreign predecessors in the monarchy of the Union were no more acceptable to the Danes. now received the crown of Sweden. who resided in the district in which the appointment was to be made. it was enacted that the oldest cultivator and inhabitant sliould possess the right of redeeming the allotment of the other heirs. A seminary had been founded by the earl Birger in the archiepiscopal see of Upsala. sufficiently evince by what interest the Union was really upheld. 83. the warrant of the bishops and the administrator Charles Canuteson in the Collections for the History of Sweden. shortly after the latter event. which strengthened in proportion as Denmark. died on " 1481. that the Sture' would rather risk his life than allow a peasant The Rhyme to be deprived of a sheep unjustly '. . p 2. a variety of negoeiations had been in progress between Denmark and Sweden. stronger. and although often broken off prosperity *. The burgesses of Stockholm received in library of Upsala. ] ^'''\lnndid!\^7T''^ ADMINISTRATION OF THE STURES. one academic professorship. refused permission to rebuild it. during his had gained power and advantages .. in Sweden his memory has shared those feelings of hatred cherished towards the Union. Even Norway. After a solemn recognition of all the privileges of the church. the nobility .3. time. s 9 Memorabilia Suet. Gentis. enjoyment of their freedom. a salary was found out of the tithes formerly See on this subject allocated to the hospital of Enkoping. find that scholars were sent thither from the dio- burg. The conditions on which that monarch's son John. on his visit to Rome in 1474. An example is mentioned in 1468. in stature taller. since that arrangement had hitherto led to no good result . ruled the kingdom of Denmark. of evil repute. foreigners far greater than ever before Sweden a long list of Norway. in a renewal of the Union by the treaty of Calmar. S. their rights. authorizing the establishment at Upsala of a general seminary of instruction in theology. adding. Appendix to the Rhyme Chronicle. 1470. and responsible for their safe custody. among other terms of settlement. began now to be more disquieted than heretofore by the predominance of Denmark in the Union. that the article respecting the perpetual Union of the three kingdoms should be better considei'ed. and obtained a brief from Pope Sixtus IV. The union the versity of Upsala was solemnly consecrated 21st of September.A. 1477. not only against them but lord liimself. and every one who separated himself from his colleagues. canon and civil law. tender-hearted. Sveo-Goth. D. . Magister Andreas Bondonis. when redress for wi-ong was sought by legal means. " a prince. appeared more dangerous for the liberties of the north. on the other hand. 2 Given February 28. The king was precluded from buying any noble's estate." Pursuant to this end. the keys of the register and treasury of each kingdom were to be committed to four councillors. in the distribution of castles and fiefs. he was bound to have regard to the opinion of those members of his council. they resulted. S. mild. the reatin had granted to the new institution the without issue. and as many of the clergy as should be same privileges as were possessed by that the 22nd King Christian I. for a beginning. on which account the Swedish delegates to the council of Constance were commissioned to bring with them on their return home some learned men who might instruct the Swedish youth in the seminary of Upsala. 3. Upsala. he allowed judicial seutences their due course. and thereby contribute to remove from the clergy the reproach of ignorance ^. hops.

the conlastly. king Hans by treaty. The Dalecarlians despatched letters to the Westmanlanders. and this was made one of the charges against Steno Sture. and a renewal of the ravages of the plague. he kept his attention so immoveably fi-xed on his rivals in Sweden. the Uplanders. by which Canute have destroyed 60. contrary to his promise. died in 1495. and was put off From all the profrom one meeting to another. he relinquished the command to Suanto. and Engelbert. that the latter in 1487 ceded the isle of Gottland to king John. Its functions were in tlieir very nature indefinite. not to his brother-in-law the administrator. While Canute Possti with admirable courage defended Wiborg. This vacillation was especially shown in the war with Russia. in 1405. letter. terrible storms. and himself sought refuge in This domestic quarrel revealed the Denmark. though we are told that the Russians Iiad in this siefre amazingly large cannons of * drought and failure of crops. while Finland was left defenceless . pedum). and the ambiguity of his position could scarcely fail to exercise an infiuence on his public conduct. partly because the debts of king Christian were still unpaid. and left ultimately without support in Finland. gave his enemies a new pretext for their opposition. which had joined the administrator out of enmity to Christian. its next possessor was his brother Iwar. posals of the Swedes. is spoken of by no contemporary. Dorothy of Brandenburg.. 1483—97. which trator. D. soon showed the former that their support was not to be counted upon. and to annul the . and the confusion also of public affairs was increased by the competition of several foreign princes for the Swedish The is to Sweden at the inviSteno Sture betook himself threatened to become a second into Dalecarlia. excepting in such" cases And as concerned the rights of the sovereign. to whom Charles Canuteson gave his daughter in marriage. whether of the clergy or laity. He was accused of having needlessly intermeddled in the quarrels of Livonia '. who maintained that he had been wTonged in various points. he left the Finnish castles. though Sweden (to make use of the words of Olave Peterson) was promised and secui-ed to royal displeasure. was delayed to so late a period of the autumn. in the hope thereby to reannex Gottland But this potent Danish to the Swedish crown. because the Swedes were not In these fourteen years clined to the measure. that peace might be made and king Hans might obtain Sweden. Lastly." The Calmar Recess of 1483. twenty-four feet in length (hombardas et machinas magnas et mirabiles aliquas in longitudine xxiv. peror's son Maximilian. after several preluding disturbances. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Upon the demise of Eric Axelson. John of Denmark invited to Sweden. against the Grand Master of Livonia. With respect to the fulfilment of its more innnediate object. and seal. the end towards which the efforts of the nobles were directed. marks the highest and shows point of aristocratic power in Sweden. and the peasantry of all Norrland. Steno Sture assembled an army. To king Hans By giving in his f* war assistance to the Archbishop of Riga in 1485. and that their retreat was occasioned by miracles. it is laid down that every good man. By king Christian it had been pledged to Olave Axclson Tott . placing himself at its head under the banner of St. it was easy to perceive that they wanted Christian. and transported to Finland in the autumn of the same year. A." to avert injury and perpetual ruin from their country. I. broke out between the two Stures. Posse said to cajttain. crossed the gulf in the summer of 14!)6 to Narva. else inclination and good-will to king would they not so long have deferred the matter. brother of King John. who took possession of the land on their own account.74 War with Russia. of which the end was. their dear lord and crown ^. and when the administrator at length reached Abo. interval. which now renounced fealty and obedience to his authority. although not long ago. first of Christopher. but these preparations were fruitless. and called him a runaway from the banner of having designed to introduce of the kingdom peasants into the government. which. and computed at more than forty thousand in number. istrator. while the administrator and the council were secretly watching one another. well inpartly also. Indecisive movements. dispositions of the magnates towards the adminis- by preventing new members from being chosen in the places of those who had gone out . he had made a solemn covenant with the council council for its execution. of having hindered the fulfilment of vention of Calmar. the burning of Stockholm. and also the emDuke Frederic. family. the Russians in vain besieged during three months *. many prolonged conferences were held between the nobles of both kingdoms. he thence carried on a negotiation with the council. and he himself more than once offered to abdicate his office.000 Russians at once. great Already in 1484 it had been proposed to deprive him of power. according to Olave Peterson. and took and destroyed Ivangorod. who held Finland in fief. though these were hard terms. especially as animosities now Suanto Sture. who had sent an envoy and great presents to Lord Sleno. Hastening to shut himself up in the castle of Stockholm. ^ The standard was lost in the present campaign. son of Nicholas Sturg. abandoned the army of his own authoHe was soon followed by the incensed adminrity. King John now repaired tation of the council. yet king Hans he would promised with oath. which was brought with great solemnity from the But the passage of the army cathedral of Upsala. " and their own hearths. who." Among the subjects of dispute between Denmark and Sweden.' Steno Sture' well under" For stood how to interijose hindrance and delays. of having withheld from Suanto Stur^ his inheritance. that the Russians were allowed to After a short devastate Finland with impunity. was the isle of Gottland. A papal excommunication issued against the guardian. that hold by them. calling on them to join in "loving brotherhood. in 1494. the wife and afterwards of Christian 9 . that great part of it perished by tempests and cold. the greatest that Sweden had seen in his time. became really formidable by the Russian invasion of Finland. Calamities of different kinds had darkened the last years of the government of Steno Sture. A new army was raised in Sweden. yet full fourteen years passed before he obtained possession of it. should be king over his own peasants. but the matter made very slow progress. Ei-ic ^. From this cause a feud at length arose between Steno Sture and Iwar. but to his brothers Lawrence and Iwar. so called explosion of Wiborg. because he withheld the revenues claimed by the Danish queen dowager ' in respect of her dower in Sweden.

(The text has fourteen years. concluded in ] 4fJ3. Towards the end of his administration he was not popular with the 7 burghers of Stockholm. iu January. at the head of his levies of peasants. H97 by the burning of the suburbs. who began to take the side of the He was cut of his in own means obliged to promise that he would replace all the damage that had been caused from 1. Sturd's plan was that the Daleearlians should attack the hill. you have raised to be lords. The king to accommodate by the expenditure of money. a . for knights only were at this time called lords. Olave Peterson. and eight years after his death. that the council were obliged to despatch letters into all the provinces. armed with a papal brief. the archbishop. the largest ever possessed by any Swedish subject excepting Boece Jonson.000 in number.shed to enslave the peasants. Charges <^galnst Steno Stiir6. attacked the archbishop. he was obliged also to cede the greater portion of Finland. and obtained entrance into the castle by a secret door. H is scheme was upon the enemy in the rear. and would never submit themselves to his authority. was like- before the capital in the Danish fleet. but by the king only.A 1497 — 1501. and when the victorious army of Danes returned with Swedish banners flying. famous at this time in the service of several whose strength is diiTerently stated from 3000 to 6000 men. Swartsiii. . that in 1497 at the diet of Funen. whilst he himself. in order t(j jjrove that he had already set his name to that act fourteen years before. Steno. but this must be • ] Of Saxony. chiefly consisting of common people in his cause. complaints are made in the year H92. Steno Sture wasstill formidable from the devotion partial a admission of the charges brought against him . Notwithstanding the acquittal he had obtained from all responsibility.slip of the pen. the magistrates caused all the property he had left in the town of Stockholm to be sequestered for the payment of Ilia debts. 3 A Danish account says. marshal. for it is they who have brewed and baked here. and receive the investiture of fiefs of immense extent '. who had long played the waverer. The Hanse Towns. 30. with Faering's isle. the king was crowned in Stockholm. That mercenary troops. and this dignity. laments that the gold chain began. and had in 1497 been acknowledged as his successor.500. marched out to meet fell knights were ci-eated from among the The Rhyme Chronicle asserts that the desire of the Swedish ladies to see their husbands bearing tlie title of lords contributed not a little to open to John the path to the throne . king John produced evidence against Steno Sture's accusation that he wi. ADMINISTRATION OF THE of the STURfiS. sallying from the wise conveyed Sture' should have acknowledged king John seemed a thing so inci'edible to the people generally. and on arriving at the castle. Suanto. council. Sudermania. an augmentation of power which he after- wards voluntarily relinciuished to the king. 1497. attended by his consort Christina^ and his eldest son Christian. Sture pointing to the Swedish nobles standing behind the king. of which a golden chain round the neck was the badge *. the rest of the bishops also. now in league with the administrator. and encamped anew on the Brunkeberg. This happened on the 28th of OcA reconciliation was soon effected tober. 1497). "That you will hear best nominated high chamberlain. containing " or princes. on condition that the former should be discharged from all responsibility for his administration. although it was in Zealand. whose alliance with the Russian czar at the very time when Finland was burning and bleeding from the cruelty of the Muscovites. that man^' of them clamc)ured for his death with a virulence that was blamed by the endeavoured their disputes even letter of agree- A Danes themselves. Hostility of Stur6. created by God to be slaves. an extract from which is among the Nordin manuscripts in the library at Upsala. preferred com]ilaints of violences committed by the guardian's order. them. On the 25th November (a. married in 1478. the Swedes could not forgive. To pacify the Daleearlians. daughter of the elector Ernest. in spite of their defeat. could not be conferred by the administrator. but was now shut up in his castle of Stacket with some of the council.) 2 The whole of Finland with Norrbotten and Aland. and to j)ledge his honour never Sture'. ment was subscribed by Steno against Sture. who was now in his eighteenth year. mistaking them for his own men. The exasperation of the domestic party which was hostile to Steno Sture was by no means yet appeased.sustained during the late discords . though himself a Steno Sture was knight. with copies of the convention of Calmar. fanned the existing disaffection against the king. at the very time when he was an exporter himself. The peasantry marched against Stockholm. would not retire from before Stockholm. repaired to Denmark. Serfage was not yet introduced in Funen. The peasants." So uncontrollable was the anger of the magnates . They made their entry arm in arm together into Stockholm. from these. and there are undoubtedly instances of wrong either commanded or permitted by Steno Sture in those troublous times '. as their wives nobility. by the Danish account betrayed. and his head would perhaps have fallen if bishop Cordt of Strengness had not interceded in his favour *. In the beginning of next year he retm-ned. he employed his personal influence. and those who should be lords you would degrade to be thralls ^. between Stur^ and the king. on which occasion town. replied. T. while the royal army. that Lord Steno had forbidden the export of grain on penalty of death. J Reconcilement. insisted on receiving compensation for all the losses which his see had . and the estate of Gotala in West-Gothland. " Lord Steno. and would have been made prisoner had he not thrown himself from his horse into the Norrstrom. Homage was now solemnly rendered to him in that capacity by the justiciary and twelve men of every province. 75 they declared they were all opposed. the king is said to have jestingly inquired whether he had made all things pi-operly ready for him. you have bequeathed to me an ill legacy in Sweden the peasants. to be the common ornament of the nobles. The king was also accompanied by the so-called great Saxon guard. ' Hvitfeld. 1498. who. as had been done five and twenty years before '. were first surprised and defeated at Rotebro. whose suburbs he had caused to be burned. Steno Sture. •* In the court-book of the townof Stockholm. with Suanto Sture' and the council." To this the king observed. however. d. and thej' submitted to the king only on condition that Steno Sture should thenceforward be governor over Westmanland and Dalecarlia. and the former was one of the four councillors to whom the government was committed when the king. many new only were ladies.

took up arms. the last alone remained to be won *. Orebro. During the remainder of the journey. not observed. as having looked chiefly to the weal of the soldiery. and Canute Alfson. and forbade his decease to be made known on pain of death. but in which the flower of the nobility of Denmark and Holstein fell in conflict witli an army of peasants inconsiderable in numbers.requested by reason of the prevailing distress. Hemming Gadd caused one of the train to personate the he evaded Steno Sture. the mistress of Suanto Sture. 1503. the ancient comrade in arms of the deceased administrator. as appears. common cause with the now united Stures and Hemming Gadd. Gustavus I. wife of the Norwegian knight Canute Alfson. took the command at the investment of Stockholm. made himself remarkable by the outrages cominitted under his sanction. who had been deprived of the salmon fishery at Elfkarleby. It was said of him proverbially. The people ascribed the public calamities to the circumstances of the time. Carl. 1501. among administrator. complaining that the Recess of Calmar was too Steno Christerson Oxenstierna. that upon his way The peasantry attributed to capitulate. against the will of the commonalty. The prince made an attack on West-Gothland. but the castle stood a siege of eight months. not only Hemming Gadd himself. Thus passed away the eighteen months following the surrender of the castle of Stockholm. But the misfortunes experienced by the king in the war for the subjection of the Ditmarshers. Suanto Sture was a valiant warrior. of poison 'J. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. a of no good reputation. Norway too revolted . that it was laws and customs of the land *. and put to death one of the royal governors." may be set aside as indifferent. greeted the owner. an assertion for which the chronicler incurred the severest displeasure of king whom were men sevei'al Swedish knights. lieutenant of Aggerhus. as had been . When John. n. burned Liidose. in a letter of Hyy. in the Sture. John. of What is said of his the family of Natt och Dag." as the words of his declaration run. Olave Peterson relates that the peasants gave him their votes for a cargo of German beer. . where the latter was elected guardian. January 21. again set foot on its territory. and when the queen at length surrendered it. Steno Sture' was buried in the monastery of Gripsholm. and was slain by the peasants. but no agreement with the king was late alteration in his Ibrtunes the With the Swedish magnates had now abandoned John. and even the archbishop was forced by necessity to yield to the The rest of the prelates also made. were placed under the ban of the church the first because he had allowed him. undertaken in 1500. this disaster to Eric Ericson (Gyllenstiern). not. the Siianto made guardian. In 1501 he had been elected apud bishop of Linkiiping. yet in the sequel this was one of the complaints urged against the king. as Botin says. . His cliaracler. Suanto was son of Nicholas Sture. Ake Johanson. and fled for refuge to the castle of Stockholm. took Oresten and Elfsborg. jjutting the garrisons to the sword. general voice. whom they had so lately persecuted. but his government was one of almost incessant war. wegian nobles. Among the Danish governors Jens Falster. eff'ected. in 1501. became the ally of Steno. Captain of Orebro. again to instigate the common people to disorders. that no one was admitted into his service who was observed to wink before the blow of a battle-axe. who was ofl'ered entrusted with the defence of the castles. was released and escorted to the frontier by Steno On his return he fell sick and died. who with several of the councillors came to the capital. placed themselves in movement. distrust had already taken such deep root in his mind. . ^ Hemming Gadd . but the two Stures. who had allotted the revenues of the bishopric to a Spanish cardinal hence in 1506. and Calmar. since his title merely imported that he was now the most powerful man in the kingdom. with such higli-raised expectations of success. and against the pope's order. and cut him down. because he had received small recompence for having " assisted his grace to the crown. Negotiations were indeed set on foot and conferences held with the former guai-dian. stipulating security of life and goods for herself and her defenders. against the will of the chapter. and lady in 1504 liis second wife. but by the chapter. sat with them at the same table. Suanto Sture' declared war against the king upon his own account. The town speedily opened its gates.. Steno Sture was again chosen administrator at The peasantry anew Vadstena. and began again to rally around Sture. awakened Swedish auxiliary force sent by Norway was unsuccessful.self to be ' 2 thirty years. but was obliged to retii-e without accomplishing his object. lived till 1536. and inquired after their aff'airs with good-natured His assistant in the govenmient was courtesy. after which prince Christian quenched the rebellion in the blood of the Nor^ The council had in 149S consented that the places named should be entrusted to Danish commanders. sought to cover him by interposing his own body. on entering the cot of a peasant. attended but by a small retinue. with a grasp of the hand. although Steno's general. Three days after the capitulation. His only son IMaurice had died in 1493 .War 7G witli Kiri{. until in conjunction with Su. Death of Steno. a nun in the convent of Vadstena. although Steno was now dead. the bishop elect of Linkoping. who had meanwhile I'ound a refuge in the convent of Vadstena. J I A. and among these hardly ten wei'e unwounded.\NTO Sture he had secured the castle of Stockholm. Physician of the Danish queen. where king John had left his consort Christina of Saxony with a promise of hastening to her relief. neighbourhood of Jenkoping. December 13. Even of Steno the elder. Cubicularium nostrum et Vice-Regis et regni SueciEe nos oratorem constitutum. He had been Steno Sture's agent in Rome for nearly Pope Alexander VI. Of the three castles which had been occupied by royal garrisons. of a bounteous and cheerful disposition. but was treacherously nnu'dered at a conference with the Danes. Stockholm. " not conformable to the old election. 1501— U. which he had founded. and gratefully remembered on the other hand how the administrator. but seventy out of a garrison of one thousand were found alive. and his children. who had lately returned from Rome. king John with his fleet appeared before Stockholm to succour the queen. July 29. a priest by vocation and leax-n- Joannes Magnus. Other accounts accuse Martha Iwarsdotter. although tliey had administrator to A dangerous recollections in Sweden. after which period the Danish queen. and at the command of Alexander VI. who had come forth to meet him. 9 The Rhyme Chronicle imputes this to Dr. his wife. one daughter Bridget. according to the Rhyme Chronicle. 1504. styles him. and that he would rather strip himself of his clothes than suffer a He is censured fellow-soldier to go unrewarded.

calling upon them to acknowledge his son.A. the intervals between them filled up with ne- government. 1509—13 \ ADMINISTRATION OF THE STURES. lurked among the sand-banks of Jutland for the spoils of shipwreck. s c " claim to chosen. the exaspelength the council ration of men's minds was so great.000 Stockholm marks. the young Steno Sture. and eventually to capture. with continual blasphemies on their tongue. and having. after their alliance with Steno Sture. who appealed to the emperor. carried on by yearly predatory expeditions. a learned " nobleman. and gathered upon their islands a scum of all nations. who was confirmed by Eric Malmb. Their as conjoint. 1512. the council had denied investiture in the bisliopric. namely. and were not inclined to send any sura of money out of the kingdom as acknowledgment. at least. by his first marriage*. until the king or his son were again admitted into But Suanto Sture and Hemming the kingdom. ment when the country was without a king binding themselves therewithal to restore harmony with Denmark. in revenge for the desolation of Finland and the burnuig of Abo by the Danes. in which we find even the In 1509. make us acquainted with the persons who stood at the head of the peace party in gotiations already besieged for six years. and concluded a peace to last for sixty years. because they had promoted the choice. Abrahamson (Lejonhufvud). ii. and obtained a declaration of outlawry against liis Swedish foes. and in 1510. 153. at lent. West Gothland was devastated by prince Christian. Ocland and Borkholm were also recovered by him. whose slayer was rewarded by king John with letters of nobility. Rer. and authoof old according to the rity. secured by his partisans that of Stockholm likewise. 1512 . . During this Proposals were continually made for a new recognition of king John.'th gave up all inexperience. surnamed the younger. which. sectio posterior. agreed that Sweden should pay yearly 13. before the news of the death of their beloved chief had spread abroad. <>. his death occurring suddenly at Westeras. Hemming Gadd. subsisting on the trade of piracy ^. D. if little else is to bo learned from them. 77 ing. p. that the feast with which the election of Steno Sture' was cele. even by the testimony of Swedish writers. and to fill the Baltic with privateers. in which he gave vent to all his hate against the Danes. With the support of Lubeck he was now able to blockade by sea. but endeavouring to entice the prince into the forest of Tived. on condition of paying a yearly income to the above-mentioned cardinal. Next year Bishop John lirask was In the pope. transfixed with his sword another noble who was present. from valiant Sweden. which had been chnsen. protested against this " because the commonalty. and oftener seen at the head of an army or a fleet than at the altar . Danish faction. Peace with Russia. that he showed himself more fit for the priesthood than for the functions of secular government ^. which had already concluded a Both parties repeace with the Hanse towns mained in arms against each other. year. in consequence of this. ambassadors from Russia came to Stockholm. of which twelve and a half were reckoned equal to one mark of silver. Script. a pious -I With Iliana Giidda. These. younger barons appear also to have been favourable to him. and when at was obliged to yield. and reproached the king that he continued with his sworn brothers the Russians to In the following plot mischief against Sweden. the deceased Steno Sture included. fell the Acho Johanson. and was driven back by the peasantry. with a great proportion of the council and all the bishops excepthig Hemming Gadd. not risking a battle. See the letter of Gustavus to his sons Eric and John. warlike turmoil Suanto Sture' expired on the 2nd January. 1513 . and congresses." The principal lords who attended entered into a covenant. did not pass over without the spilling of blood ^ King John died on the 21st of February. Gadd. Steno the younger. assembled miners immediately made themselves masters of the castle of Westeras. An event of more importance was the intervention of the Hanse towns in the struggle. was an uninterrupted war with Denmark." They also took notice that notliing was determined respecting the restitution of Gottland. who did not the others with carryscrujile publicly to reproach ing Danish hearts under the mantle of Swedish Norway these . with their adherents. April 23. envoys of Lubeck in the Swedish council with a long oration. the castle of Calmar. by voice and hands uplifted. Steno. designated to the crosier. brated in the castle of Stockholm. describing them as a nation of robbers. who belonged to the Joannes Magnus. antl his only surviving child. while their elder compeers and the council were zealous for Eric TroUe'. the lord Eric TroUe. well experienced in state affairs. had for a time composed their differences with the king. Suec. bishops. who. who marched against Among we observe him. the latter. but never its actual possessor. was regarded with great love by the people. had renounced king Hans and all his descendants. declared war Hemming Gadd received the against Denmark. called by the Danes the key of Sweden. to resist with all their strength those who designed to strip the council of state of that privilege. guardian. power. through the names of the managers. belonging to it from laws of Sweden. for the rest. they immediately despatched a letter in the name of the deceased to all the inof the realm. 3 it in 1512. nor was he deterred by an age of seventy years from taking part in the cruise of the Hanseatic squadron against the Danish islands. although flatterers sometimes abused his youthful " run. or by liis ecclesiastical office from plundering and threatening with conflagration the monasteries of Laland. for the alleviation of whose burdens he often The employed his influence with his father. of regulating the govern- which they confirmed by oath. the administrator." as the words compact. while a consultation was proceeding The relative to a silver mine newly discovered. but not in his manner or character. remarks. son of Suanto. but as he continued olistinateiy to shut them out from all commercial intercourse with Sweden. they renewed their alliance with Suanto Sture. plenipotentiaries of the Swedish council in CopenIiagen. and ardent in hate towards the Danish for we may speak of it name. the noblest and most chivalrous of his family. In an incursion into Halland and Scania. as his habitants successor. Christian however turned aside to East Gothland. concerning the chronicle of Olave Peterson. to wliom. of whom Gustavus I. plundered trading vessels sailing through the Sound.

But at this very moment Christian had resolved that the blood of the chief men of Sweden should be shed. who was now restored to his office.78 Papal b»n and Interdict on the Swedes. fought at the Brenn-kirk. and displaying on all hands tokens of affection'. had promoted his election to the archbishopric. Arvid TrolM. i. and was very merry and pleasant in his demeanour. people. all government Sweden was dissolved . Christian II." Christian however procured the execution of the sentence to be committed to himself. He was subject to attacks of moody and savage caprice. . to which he was once elected. clapping his hands. tnici vultu comitate contegat. whereby the truce concluded with Denmark was several times renewed. and who insolently boasted. in an appendix lo his Scandia. and the mother of four children still of tender age. he once more confirmed by oath and reception of the sacrament the securities he had given. Februai'y 3. by Bogesund. and a retaking Christian in Sweden. corpore sed quem in congressibus praecipua amplo. This prelate sprung from a family linked with the Union interest by its large possessions in Denmark.. and the whole king- and refused to accede to the convention ratified with the Danish generals at a baronial diet convoked in Upsala. The heroical Christina Gyllenstierna alone. laid claim also to the Swedish throne. to bring about a reconciliation. and was crowned in Stockholm. cut to pieces the troojis stationed there. 1523. and Paul in Hvitfeld. The country-people gathered in the view of attempting a stand against the enemy. although he himself " appeared friendly to all. Being afterwards sent as a hostage to the Danish fleet on occasion of a pei'sonal interview which the king requested with the administrator. the magnates indeed held but no one had courage to command. had fruitlessly endeavoured to relieve him. after a life spent in struggling against Danish domination. j Laxman. . formerly a barber. and not exact vengeance for what had These engagements were personally conpassed. was unanimously declared at the diet of Arboga to have forfeited his office. but died in his sledge upon the ice of Lake Malar. in Stiernman. but from want of a leader were soon dispersed by the foreign soldiery. &c. after he had so treacherously broken off the negociations which he had himself commenced. he hastened to Stockholm. who caused the papal ban to be affixed to all the churches upon the march. and whose administration in Norway had already been stained with blood. and were already on their march to Upland. Acts of Diets and Conventions (Riksdags och Miitens Beslut). after a Danish fleet cide and conflagration. and was inherited in too great measure by his son. T. and which for two geneAn rations back had been inimical to the Sture's. and others with embraces. whose track was marked by liomiin forgave a past wrong. smiling. although against the wish of the burghers. produced by the intestine commotions which the new archbishop Gustavus Trolle excited. the administrator with all his adherents was excommunicated. In this battle.'s Invasion. himself accomplished a landing in the neighbourhood of Stockholm. aud honest man '. . By the papal command. firmed by the king upon arriving with his fleet before Stockholm. and wlio now succeeded his father in that country as in Denmark. that the measures adopted against Gustavus Trolle. July 22. respecting the tyrannical government of counts. she continued to defend Stockholm. had surrounded the entrenchment in the forest of Tived. though occasionally violent and cruel. I A. vol. an investigation was instituted into the charges which the deposed archbishop had brought against Steno. Being conveyed to Strenguess. in West-Gothland . The Swedes." The instigator of this resolution was all same promises were repeated Theodoric Slaghoek. See the Relations of Andrew the secretary. at the see of of Rome. and in the beginning of 1520. 1520. and his fortified castle of Next year Christian Stacket was demolislicd. which sometimes irritated him to frenzy. Tyrannus est statura justa. Thither Christian also returned. Christian ll. the Danish army wjis placed under an interdict '. 8 9 Olave Peterson. D. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. along with Hemming Gadd and four other Swedish nobles. real or fancied. should be forgotten and forgiven. When the king in the autunni returned to Sweden. or will to obey. the issue of which was decided bj' this disaster. widow of Steno. See Proclamation of the Council of State (Ricksens Rads Utskrifveisc.). and obliged to be carried out of the conflict. attempt had already been made by one faction to set up his grandfathei". Steno encountered the invaders on the ice of lake Asunden. 11513—20. by which Christian was acknowledged king. Collecting the remains of his strength. It was Christian's manner thus to conceal his designs. in the spring 7. called in Sweden the ungentle. Archbishop of Lund. on condition that he should govern confonnably to tlie laws of Sweden and the treaty of Calmar. A spiritual court commenced its sittings in Denmark . and celebrated in a popular ballad. that they would not care although in . the war broke out anew. when Hemming Gadd. consultations. By his death. New taxes were imposed levies were made in various countries . although the administrator liimself. but suffered a complete overthrow from Steno Stur^. with the express addition. and the whole of the year 1519 was spent in making preparations. This Gustavus Trolls was of a temper that never also the tyrant. while his father Eric Trolle' had lost the government by the election of the younger Sture. he was carried off prisoner to Denmark. he was wounded in the opening of the battle. as the murder of his secretary and chancellor proves". contrary to the pledged faith of the former. completely disarmed the resistance still kept up by the These assurances were again renewed. In 1516. and being seconded by the efforts of the prelates and nobility. 1518. Their animosities now led to open war. did not lose heart . Strengness. who describes the massacre of Stockholm after contemporary ac. and commenced negociations. in consequence whereof Gustavus Trolle. in the the provinces. The king's letter to dom " " did not in the least I'egard this ban and interdict.Tune 6. now appeared in his old age as its advocate. caressing some with hypocritical kisses. the Swedish banner was borne by the young Gustavus Ericson Vasa. he soon received intelligence that the Danes. to whom a Swedish nobleman * pointed out the way." says Olave Peterson. The above named Eric Abrahamson. broke into Sweden under their general Otho Krumpen.Sweden it should rain peasants from heaven. against Steno the elder. ' of 151 "^ ' Proclaimed by Birger. are the words of Jacob Ziegler. and by the weight of his influence at length induced Christina Gyllenstierna to surrender Stockholm.

lie The south suburb. which she had tact enough to preserve At this bishop Vincent raised his voice. and bystanders were also pulled into the circle by the headsmen. at Finland. prelates. really directed against Steno Sture. and lastly. where November 9. and eventually achieved it by the aid of " and Sweden's Commonalty ^" God. the question was proposed to them. Several of the captives during his whole reign *. Me vidente ac trepidante. Dahlmann's History of Denmark. morning. the king despatched letters to all the provinces ". fleeing before the emissaries of the tyrant. fallen before he quitted the Swedish territory. During the night. saying that the archbishop Gustavus TrolliJ had thrice adjured the king upon his knees to suffer that this punishment should overtake the led forth . but was unmercifully thrust back again. where his defection Matthias. and that he would hereafter govern the kingdom in peace after the laws of St. Such of these as were now present. spoke to the people. a of her daughter khig's Dutch huckster. whose great soul was already meditating the salvation of his country. the remainder were confined over night in the Next castle. was torn from the grave and cast upon the funeral pile. Cruelties of the king. whether it were not heresy to confederate and conspire against the holy see of Rome. whereby Gustavus Trolls was unanimously declared to have forfeited his dignity. which they were conThis was strained to answer in the affirmative. The king's whole progress from Stockholm continued to be marked by the same cruelties. exclaiming that nothing of it was true. — — the begmning of 1521 ^. was preserved by Providence. placed under the ban of the church. . D. who by tlie beauty had gaiued an ascendant over the mind. the consolations of religion being denied them. question of punishment and compensation must be referred to Rome. where he kept his Christmas. and wisest men of Sweden. He was for which he now demanded satisfaction. 5 Charge by the archbishop. and the women outraged. upon the block. Olave Peterson. B-shop Hans Brask of Linkdping. scrambled out. In all the towns through which the king's route lay. uiJOU the keenest torments. most of them councillors of state. All were beheaded . because they had con. and exhorted them not to be alarmed at what was about to happen. While these horrors were being acted. sometimes under fallen trees. 348—9. who had laboured more to advance the Danish party than any other man in Sweden. says himself. a young active man. before they were carried out of the Steno Sture''s town. according to the sentence of the bishops. or in cellars and mines. bishop of Strengness. with many of the burgesses. after public proclamation of peace and security had enticed new victims from their retreat. probably himself ignorant of the atrocities. Handicraftsmen were dragged from their work to the slaughter . and the archbishop Gustavus Trolle came into the king's presence. His departure. the houses of the killed were plundered. Vincent. were immediately seized and thrown into prison * . purporting that he had caused Steno Sturm's chief abettors to be punished as notorious heretics. Olaus Magnus saw ninety-four persons beheaded" others were hanged or butchered with . Nicholas Lycke. mid-day the burghers were summoned to the great which the captives were now market-place. as we may conclude from a strument. was left free. at the age of eighty. and that the king was a traitor against the Swedes. contemporary account. the king caused the abbot and five monks to be bound and thrown into the water. heard to say. stood up and appealed to the resolution of the estates. bishop of Skai'a. and burned at Sodermalm '. Massacre of Stockholm. St. because they had been seen to weep. his widow Christina Gyi. gibbets were erected before his arrival in the market-place so in LinkdIn the monastery of ping. 79 tive of Sigbrit. Meauwhile the massacre.A. was made. The brothers Olave and Laurence Peterson escaped a tli(i like fate only from circumstance that a in German who had known them Wittenberg protested that they were not Swedes. with that of one of his children. Catherine's churcli now stands. at the hands of the deceased administrator. that the Swedish peasants might thenceforth 1817. (Some of Christian's retinue were ' Device of Gustavus . Eric. but were silenced by the executioners. Before the massacre had terminated. the clergy in a separate chamber. regarded as a delivery of sentence and condemOn the same morning public proclamation nation. 8 9 cealed a portion of their stores in the woods the abbot.lenstier.) I. who had secretly placed a protest under the seal with which he had ratified the above named act. but the king negatived his proposal. DANISH DOMINATION. to have maintained that the began to call out to the same effect. The assassinations were continued for a second and third day. body. 1520. 6 7 follow the plough with one hand and a wooden leg. * 6. 1520. declaring tliat the matter should be adjudiAs the prelate's charges were cated forthwith. was e. and hidden from his pursuers.\tended to Hemming Gadd was not saved by from laying his head. to complain of the violences and injuries suffered by himself and the archiepiscopal see of Upsala. The corpses lay for three days on the market-place. iii. •< Memoirs iii for the History of Scandinavia. who had supported the archbishop in his accusation. > 1520. Stockholm. Nydala. that the inhabitants of Stockholm should not quit their houses before the signal was given. sometimes in a rick of straw. Bishop of Westeras. a noble youth. T. not even the innocence of childhood More than six hundred heads had being spared. a Danish knight. On the third day of the solemnities which followed the coronation. twelve temporal lords. Towards It was the eighth of November. who did their bloody office upon them. as was Otho. and which the principal spiritual and secular lords had subscribed under an express obligation to common responsibility. for the of which he was to be used as an mperpetration He is said. the burgomasters and council of Stockholm. and among them two bishops. the gates of the castle of Stockholm were unexpectedly barred. wandering in the forests of Dalecarlia. in conformity with his command.

turies ' (whence the name hundari or hnerad^). every Land. MANNERS. But the employment of the judicial office in the Lagmen as a sort of tribunate. Europe suffered severely and of the calamities which its own excesses brought upon tliemselves. extended but in a small degree to this region . LAND AND PEOPLE DURING THE CATHOLIC PERIOD. which in some provinces is still called sinrhundrade. noble was also applied to the prin- fierdingar. To us. and probably a defensive expedient on the popular side against the rising pretensions of the court-men. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. an association of the various provinces or nations (as they were still called in the fifteenth century) under the Upsala king. For the name of king. the chief of the Hundred as well as the sovereign . Har. lu Sweden both were securely established. in the complaints of a desolated world. was an arrangement peculiar to the north. we should refer this to a hundred-court. singulis ex plebe comites. or quarter-man. among the peasants. and imparted. and if full of confusion. powerful and flourishing cities. many admu-able which distinguished our Pagan ancestors. New relations of this compact were continually un2 Or more accurately. exhibited in the rest of Europe during those times. hundreds on the coast were formerly and are still partially called skepps-lag. Htrrad was the term Edda says. THE YEOMAN AND IIIS RIGHTS. POWER OF THE CROWN. more narrow sense a number of the Edda. The division by hundreds is found. . THE SWEDISH FEDERATIVE SYSTEM. To be in this fashion the king's man became. He was called Folk-king *. from being a condition of dependence. though the name and office of fierdlngs-man. The division into huncalled skire. and the realm itself. i Thiod-konungr. an authority which might easily become dangerous to the rights of the commons. according to usual in Gothland hundari in Swedeland as may be seen from the old laws. tinction imagination. princely. of which the simplest elements were the family on the one side. who besides remarks that the army was arranged clan-wise. attempt to comprehend and to appreciate. by companies of one hundred and twenty. an association of certain Hundreds united under a common law . But no one can deny that the people of Sweden best withstood that trial . the English shire. in Tacitus Icenteni ex singulis pagis. TRADE. both as regards the name and the fact. The tignar-name. as the family was one primary and formed after nature. MINES. LAW AND JUDICATURE. and protectors of the people against such as bore titles. after they were reduced to seek their fields of battle in civil wars at home. the annals of the northern middle age furnish abundant proof. every Hundred a league between the free householders. the witness of the reality. archy. a social union founded upon compact. if we refuse to hear. army. TAXES. dignity prowas at first the same. or long hundred. even during peace. counterbalancing the nobility. the elected judges and speakers of the vai-ious provinces. THE CHURCH. sprang a confederacy for mutual jirotection during peace. 12. feudalism. and sharing wiih them the dangers of the field and importance at home. According to northern ideas. and the Hundred on the From the arrangement of battle by cenother. Sweden's middle age and which fasciniites the Whatever of pomp and grandeur the hiereye. neither the old excellence nor the new corruptions are fairly apparent. and have been replaced in great part by new vices and errors of belief. We may not are tributary. whence the Jierdings-ting. may be thence derived. as lord para- qualities. namnde-man is (or assessor in the court) had the supervision. idque ipsum inter suos vocantur). or what dignity until the tignar-name cipal officers of the court. In adsunt. folded. THE BURGESSES. '' Tign means honour. the call quitates. CULTIVATION. or every province within boundaries pointed out by nature. In the gloom of Paganism there is ample scope for the play of faith in and at the end of the heathen period. an honour. in a one hundred. The judicatory power is as old as the social union. when such was to be its reThis struggle of our middle age we will here sult. THE NOBILITY. BOUNDARIES OF THE KINGDOM. perly a regal. the whole polity wears the appearance of a confederation . and Denmark the freedom of its people. for our forefathers reckoned ten dozen to the hundred. tliemselves yeomen without titles*. and in their place appear the Justiciaries or Lagmen. both repartition and cultivation are more recent. . a jurisdiction exercised by elected judges in conjunction with the Hundred ap])ears to have subsisted ^. that part of a hundred over which a Tacitus says of the judges among the Germans. and this issue is sufficient to awaken interest for an age which had not laboured in vain. fourths. or warriors bound by personal service to the kings. mount. a name recalling the original military import of the whole General character of this period. Beyond The land. destitute of that splendour we put common assertions. Genn. was long borne in common by the shepherds of the people. the smaller as well as in which Norway lost its political independence. by way of disfrom many others who at first shared his power. From the so-called energy of the Northmen. or quartercourt spoken of in the laws. after brilliant achievements. ' them Folk-kings who . ' the Westgothic law. Tlie monarchy a federation. the manager of the common sacrifices. The hccrads were again divided into . appears to have formed the groundwork of the social structure among our ancestors. properly denoting high birth in general. Thus was created from the court. Cevleni consilium simul et aucloritas. is COINAGE. means . until at length the sub-kings disappeared from the country (though recurring at sea and in warfare). Among the ancient Germans. CHAPTER VII. Repartition according to ties of kindred and companionship in war. Nee fortuita conglohatio turmam aut cumeum facit sed familias et propin- the greater. but this arrangement is now obsolete. must have perished with heathenism. is dreds still used throughout all that part of the country that stream and in Norr- extending to the Dal-elf.

Eskill). They shall ordain him crown and the kingship. SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. on the other side the Upper Swedes. 1 The inhabitants of Nerike and Westmanland. In the letter ? Lawman Upsala to of Upland it belongs. although the kingship originally went by inheritance. to conflict under Gustavus Vasa to introduced through foreign influence*. under E. . closer examination that here popular power bore as great a part in public affairs as kingly domination . of the Suthermen. ported earlier into Denmark than into the other countries of the north. pare Collins and Schlyter on the law of East-Gothland. and violently united by Harald the Fair-haired.strength of the popular element. or such as approximated to that condition. which constituted a separate jurisdiction. especially in Norway. nor wished to be transformed into a mere nobility of vassalage. with slight modification. which now became But let us hear the law itself speak general. this warlike household of the kings became afterwards the root whence by the hereditary descent of the fiefs. run as follows I. the leaders lie slain. while the north-eastern portion was subject to the justiciary of East-Gothland. the aspect of democracy. and even when it was contested by rival as by those of Eric and Swerker. the three first chapters of the section relating to the crown (Konungabalken). conflict arose between the rival each claiming to nominate the sovereign of races. The aristocracy then sought a bulwark for their power in the Union. and tynes away as stillness reigns upon a field of at their close . first the West-Goths. these lands behove to choose a king. Within the We from one state to the other is formed by the royalty of the Folkungers. the sovereignty of the Upsala kings formed the key-stone of the old Swedish federative system. then shall the three Folklands first take him . or the inhabitants of Upland. when residing in the country. The transition country in intestine strife. Mofle of election. with the consequences thence flowing both for king and . even according to the earliest account (that of Tacitus). of the Ten Hundreds ". but stripped of its former vitality. dynasty of Upsala. of the northern countries in this age. remarked in the legislation of that age According to the law. which never afterwards wholly battle. with frequent changes of dynasty. 399. To Scandinavia this system. and a regal authority which rested upon their supjwrt. 8 What has produced a greater change in the course of government among our ancestors than this.'" says Tyge Rothe of Denmark. the whole realm. whose older history is entirely made up of such struggles. strengthen the law and sway Then is the estate of Upkeep peace in the land. ii. Com- The well-known Comitatus of " Tacitus. first to doom him at be king . Attundaland. a land disjointed by nature. at length becoming Christians. the recollection so much the longer survived. the bond which had linked together the separate provincial confederaAfter the extinction of the tions was dissolved. untameable race of uidependent chiefs. sala to be awarded to him. perished. both at its commencement and its end. 269. ! eldest son This unity was betimes so conspicuous. until the of foreign oppression appeased the rivalries danger of provinces and races. and among the Germanic peoples domiciled by conquest. the Neri- and the Westmen •. and confirmed by him in 129G. that the government struck the first distant observers as a monarchy. and was first extended in the age of the Folkungers to delegates of the other provinces in elective diets. The Kricsgait. appealed to their hereditary right." Ibid. driven from the sea. 2 An old place of sacrifice for the SuthermanUnders or Siidermanians (locus idolorum in the legend of now the town of Strengnas (or Strengness). ever i-emained unknown for in Denmark alone. of the law. From Upsala they shall accompany him to Strengianess ^. This antagonism lasted long. let him give laws to them and swear peace. 248. give hostages and swear oaths . which we give. and supplied the germ of a political unity. With the fall of the old religion. The right of election belonged primarily to the Folklands. " The feudal system was imPolity of the North. and the elective and hereditary The principles were afterwards intermingled. ! victory. then all the Lawmen one after another.ngelbert and the Stures. under the influence of the chm'ch and the nobility. G . how little is all this to be aristocracy. which we have already described as leagued with the church and the nobility. that he may bear and govern the realm. in its full developement. and Fiadhundraland. Sweden was an elective monarchy. St. the old state of things continued. embracing It was discovered on several commonwealths. II. that the ancient royalty had been a manysee in effect the old and headed polycracy. who neither constituted a feudal nobility. they shall attend upon him. to the ride his Ericsgait . Now hath he to kers. that the people gradually lost their freedom . the ancient confederation was again renewed. The contests of the Swedish middle age are characterized. 81 in arms with the king '. although in dissimilar shapes.son. wasting their own forces and those of the people. after them the East-Goths . In the law of Upland. In older times it was not unusual for two brothers to reign conjointly. when commonly followed his father upon the throne. as nobility of birth had arisen out of kindred with the king (for all nobility by companionship springs out of the royal house) . in " Now when their ancient form. and the hereditary right appears generally to have been attached rather to the family than to the per. the kings showed greater solicitude for the performance of homage to their sons during their own lifetime. assumed to them. Among the powerful families. but with Christumity as a new subject of dissension. were placed in a condition again to vindicate the pi'erogatives which they had possessed under the old form of society. both sides houses. although. by enhanced activity of popular influence. were fiefs hereditarily descendible. and hence the same constitution which to the teachers of Christianity had appeared : monarchical at a distance. and was eventually overthrown by their joint encroachments. In proportion as the elective scheme obtained preponderance. Reposing on tiie religion established by Odin. . these are TiundaTo the laud. limits of the peninsula itself. until the Swedes. This is pre-eminently tlie monarchy of the Swedish middle age many of its features were borrowed from the feudal monarchy it is in fact characterized by the ascendency of the And yet. the first nobility of service. of the West-Goths. amended by king Birger. that feudal monarchy grew up which once governed Europe. and called forth the Swedish people united by adversity. the earliest to embrace Christianity. There shall the 9 Tiohffirad was the south-eastern part of Smaland. of the East-Goths.

" have the it is said. Orebro. in the midst of the forest Kolmord. he shall swear truly to all the Goths that he will 3 * the rest of the provinces during the Ericsgait. Jiinkijping. and accompany him througli their land." and Westmanland. Eric. If he be a good king. Now belong to him the estate of Upsala. and so There shall the Westto the bridge of Uphoga *. Then shall the king give peace to three men. 6 Over the Opboga or Arboga stream. the new form." since e in composition means all. the price of blood. ject country with hostages into East-Gothland. It is also mentioned that Magnus rode his Ericsgait in 1335. The place is now called Bodarne. and also to reHe shall pass from the upper the king. was the subject of so many contests. with twelve "intelligent and skilled men. Then shall he despatch messengers to the parliament of Then shall the Lawman appoint all the Goths ^. in Swedish. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. The author is indebted for this observation. and attend him with greet^ There shall the ings and hostages to Swintuna*. and Then shall the Upattend him to Eastbridge ^. God grant him long life. is properly derived from 1319 (if not in point of fact still older). had already been used in king Jlagnus Ericson's election. According to the Edda and Heimskringla. being such as have committed no shameful crime." This royal progress. the opinion of those who derive the Ericsgait from that prince appears to carry no weight. when king Ragwald Curthead came to their parliament." The older law of West-Gothland speaks only of Swedes and Goths. It was confirmed in the law of Upland after it had lost from the power of the magnates almost all importance. peace. is adopted in the second chapter of the section " on the crown." Such was the strict order taken in old days. but when the law of Upland was revised. also remarkable as indicating the ancient extent of the kingdom. Domestic legends and popular songs in the first king Eric. kingdom in right royal fashion *. only with the addition of the council sharing therein. They shall meet him at the stream of Juna. Goths and Gottthen hath he landers '. So the provincial diet of the WestGoths was called. according to what is stated in a manuscript of the Sudermanian law." with the remark that king Magnus had been thus elected in 1319. men meet him with greetings and hostages. be consecrated to the crown in the church of Upsala by the archbishop and the under-bishops. Schlyter. It was this right of the Upper Swedes to dispose of the crown. and all the Smalanders . As this event belongs to a period earlier than that of St. Rik was the first in northern lands who took the' title of king. German Legal Anti- Grud or grid. * In the Legend of St. and attend him to Ramundaboda '. Here in Catholic times was a monastery in the middle of the wood. Then may he give fiefs to those who do him service. slew liim " by reason of the disparagement he had " offered to all the community. and probably the manuscript is not much more recent. Here that regulation. and been confirmed by him. Hence perhaps Eriksgata in the sense of king's way. not wrest the right law of our land. There shall the Smalanders meet him. right to accept. 1 Gutar. remained unchanged. and follow him to the stream There shall the West-Goths meet him of Jima*'. Suthermen take it up. 237. and Westeras.) A similar royal progress is mentioned both among the Franks Sweden name A history of the Swedish constitution in the older times was . Then shall the Nerikers meet him and accompany him through their land. The oaths were to be taken in Strengness. without having received the appointed hostages. which still forms the boundary hetween East-Gothland and Smaland. 9 Over the Sag at Nyquarn. and for which the hundred paid the fine. Then hath the king come lawfully to his land and realm with Uplauders and Suthermen. landers meet him.82 Elective Customs of the West-Gotl\s. for the conjoint participation of all the justiciaries and commissioners from the various provinces. confirmed in 1327. as at Krokek in the Kolmord. Linkiiping. p. that the Lawmen. although it is ex" that he fared all round his pressly related of him. Now let the parliament of all the Goths be convened to meet him. Compare Grimm. the justiciaries had been already received into the council. is kingdom. and the provision first enacted in king Magnus Ericson's Land's Law of 1347. ' In the forest of Tived. 3 Aldra Gota Ting. should take part in the election at the Mora Ting. Hence it is plain that although the old form of election is still adopted in the Sudermanian law of 1327. 5 Hohveden. with the participation of the provincial deputies. When he arrives at the Ting." king by the province was conducted. The formername was applied to murder of which the perpetrator could not be discovered. for good example. as he himself efTected. 5 Krokek. says. until the middle of the forest Holawidh ^. and follow him to Upsala. 2 Dulgadrapanddana-arf. after the introduction of Christianity. preserved in the Royal Library at Copenhagen. The law of the Suthermen. unless with Ihre we explain the word as " a progress round all the kingdom. that "all the council of Sweden " shall take part with the Folklands in the election . although the fomi and oath of election were not made public in the law-book before his In the same days. two from the southern and two from the northern part of the land. The East-Gothland shall attend him thither and bear witness hostages that he has been received among them as their law prescribes. to Dr. and the heritage of the stranger 2. although the inmiber of provinces entitled to vote at the election of the king increased in process of time. but informs us more exactly of the manner in which the reception of the new " The Swedes. The latter means the property of foreigners who died in the kingdom without from every province. that the king upon these occasions should only enter the province " as the law enjoins. East-Goths meet him with their hostages. manuscript a more detailed description of the Erics-gait is given than in any other source. Then shall the Lawman first adjudge him to be king. Now hath he to duly ridden his Ericsgait. the chain of wood-covered hilis. and tliereafter the others whom he shall command. Then hath he right to be king and to wear the crown. Privilege of tlie Upper Swedes. hostages. as well as generally for many important illustrations of the subject. safe basis for the a heirs. The law of Upland still limits the strict right of election to the Folklands. but it was soon expressly extended to the other provinces. with greetings and hostages. (/?. and shall send with them four other men of the country. was before observed at the election of this king in 1319 ^ and in Germany. whose decision in the matter was only communicated to III. at the east end of the forest of Kaglan. which. s A river runnuig into lake Vetter at Jonkoping. in the form in which it is found in the general codes of Magnus Ericson and Christopher. Skara. security./•. for tlieir confirmation. inherited from the days of paganism. the frontier between Upland Now all The enactment in Magnus Ericson's Land's Law. quities." that the West-Goths. Eric.

to the relatives notion of testamentary bequests. 2 Neither could the estate be mortgaged. and by this were bound both young and old. we might clude beforehand that pi-ivate right. to the justiciaries and the people took their oath king. 1623. " to ride romid his realm with the smi (rattsyles). or as the Dale Law says. that his father. other person. and lifting up his hand. and esIn like manner the pecially by his royal love. the demand for the individual confirmation of these latter was no longer made. 1 1. was laid at or near the old Mora Stone. that in the election to the crown preference should be given to the Hence king's sons. and as a family possession could not be diminished or alienated without the consent of the This held good of the king as of every kindred." chosen with the assent of all the resident inhabitants of the circuit The voices of these deputies and the (lagsaga). with an inscription stating the time of the elecThis. was one of the soldiers who in the time of old king Gustavus searched inscriptions for the for the real 1 Mora stone. as well he. the steward or some other member of council. . so long as a Swedish elective diet was known. whence it would seem that the whole resembled the old judicial rings Law of the East-Goths. One method of keeping property from the legal heirs otherwise than by a testament. was the purchase open to every man . consisted in the person giving himself to be the thrall of another. since upon that To his principle his whole substance depended. while Dalecarlia and Westinanland had the same judge. it is best for brethren to dwell together . whence the assembly itself man for himself. 83 Newly added justiciaries are. was a large round stone. friend and unfriend. it was long subject to the Lawman of Upland. dated May 21. only a third even of purchased ground. gave instead and received the same oath which had at first been reciAlthough procally sworn at the Mora Stone. accordtion. with the laid by the careful and excellent editions of the old laws by Collins and Schlyter. 1434. in the Suderraanian law. responsible in the eye of the law for his own. The Land's Law of King Christopher adds. but rather to augment it by every good work. which was afterwards extended. I Eghna C-2 Sal. In the time of Gustavus I. From this document we learn that for every new king a new stone. freedom he was born by his descent (asttborin). which he had himself accepted. in which point the law of Upland so far favours the youngest. And so accordingly we find the fact to be. " Now if the king will sell his own. or laid out exactly (domare-ringar). his property following therewith. only when there was no son. or Vasa. and an old record states that the Idng immediately after his election was It was now mcumbent on raised upon the stone '*. the Lawman of Vermeland. restricted in exercise. could never with all its influence procure that legacies for the soul's weal. Thereupon the king swore to the peo- men m when landed property was taken a fine. and by no means to break it. however. " indeed. a right." who wished to part might enforce his yet any one choice against the other . Lawman constituted the votes of the province." holy relics the oath embodied in the law. his Erics-gait. as was at first the case. This was called to swear by or at jMora Stone. 1 Around were placed twelve smaller stones. that he " next to the sun. as the peasant. was no less adequately secured as the root of the tree is less exposed than its crown to the storm.The yeoman and rights. from which the former had emanated. the " Law of inheritance. which therefore was called the property he was born to as his old birth. before it had been offered to the relatives. but the king on his journey through the shires. with the bishop of Abo." the Land's Law sanctions the old custom. The true prop and lifespring of the Swedish constitution was the odalbond ." that might take his allotment on the east and south. or yeoman. If the law thus sedulously guarded ancient conliberty in matters of public right. ence of foreigners. every one attended by twelve " discreet and well skilled. one mile ' from Upsala. which See Attestation of a Notary Public as to the writing is found at the Mora Stone. the old still remain on the spot. The justiciaries " on the book with his hands '. in the Land's Law those of Oeland." After the general code had replaced the provincial laws. mother hers of the his heritage. in satisfaction of a right was reserved father to redeem . which in disputes as to property between the sovereign and the peasant allows more weight to the word of the latter. in the manner before mentioned. lirst 8 ' most part obliterated by the weather. that in case the sovereign could not himself go to Finland. promised to keep to God and his people what he had sworn. was no doubt likewise an expedient to prevent the subdivision of the family estate. to those of the which introduced the and the church. 6 For Norrland. so supported as to be raised a little above the ground. for every bye or hamlet is. 7 Six English miles and a half." That the daughter inherited. (according to Earl Birger's new laAv of inheritance) received only half the brother's share. or as it is called in the Land's Law. and for the same end the eldest son had also the privilege of redeeming It is said his brothers' portion of the heritage ^. Some of the smaller stones only. as to his odal-ground. A man might alienate what he had himself acquired. the living and the yet unborn. August 6. Only when the kindred did not redeem the birth-ground upon proffer made *. the absent as well as tlie present. that even was called the Mora Ting. lOS). the king to ride. should be unconditionally acknowledged valid without the consent of the heirs. This was forbidden by Earl Birger. was to be sun-split (solskiftad). " then is the purse Odalsman. Tr. but could not find it. Birth-riglits. were to repair thither. down to the days of Gustavus ple. according to the additions to the law of the West-Goths (iii. which was formerly regarded as a kind of conditional sale. Here also we find a more complete account of the mode of election. first by the power of the and then during the Union by the influmagnates.right (byrd). f. To this end precautions so jealous were generally taken. This was held on the meadow of Mora. with North and South Finland ^. he shall offer it to his kinsmen. then the their order. Mora Stone had already been removed. related. as we find by the in the Palmskold Collections: "Anders following note Nilson of Edby. but otherwise naturally respecting every hereditary right i. in order that the influence of the powerful may not lessen the odal-ground. 3 The relics of saints. towards the authorities and his equals acknowledging only reciprocal obligations. when they affected the patrimonial groimd. parish of Denmark. touching the election of Eric of Pomerania to be king of Sweden." freeholder of his gx'ound. ing to the account of Olaus Magnus. who dwelt in the same grange. might take and receive the oath in his stead. in Hadorph's Additions to the Rhyme Chronicle. The rest in justiciary of Upland voted first. yet. his SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. the old federative system legally subsisted in this form." says the Law of the East-Goths.

for breaking the . 22. and a memorial of the fact nmst be erected at the spot '. called the oath of parity. that " he may hide himself from his enemies as well as he can^ . Hence it was said of the man who * 111 sought to atone for his crime by bote. or as they express it. his father. if the father lay slain. Whosoever broke the homeif . although piracy was no longer followed as a vocation. he was to be publicly proclaimed infamous (niding). corresponding to the oath of surety ". (tomt ar tegs moder). when the offender was In other cases. nidiiig. and bad.Skara.self be content under This was like circumstances with an equal bote. 13." the spousal presents could not be demanded back". and the prosecutor. as not being match. the peasant had not abandoned the old custom of sending off his sons to sea. 5 in respect to yEtt(ir~bof. must himself in But for to kill secretly was murder it publicity and an infamous crime. where he might offer a price in atonement of his offence. until at length homicide. whose right to personal revenge was more and more limited. which seems at first to have been paid only wlien he gave judg- ment in person.' With the criminal himself. for in the olden time. 13. and confessed his crime. With the extension of the royal power the kin-bote gradually ceased '. he will offer botes and amend his fault-'. besides. Manh. obliged to flee ' . to 8 It avenging himself or of accepting the fine . was capitally punished. peace gave them security. or was left " with his deeds. B. ed. Arf B. only certain times or places consecrated to ''. f. in the ordinance of . f 5. SO. and makes his entry into the province then may he grant peace to three men *. obliged to flee the neighbourliood of inhabited places and retire to forests and wildernesses. 7 Such a mark was (Niding is our word. order that revenge might not continually generate new revenge. So late as the thirteenth century. son. rides his Ericsgait. it is said. peace obliged to pay fines to the king and the hundred. by which all further revenge was renounced. nor take oath. hence it is said to have been paid " to all men. and to take an oath before twelve men. by the cardinal points that he must "ransom himself from the wood. '' the homicide shall never regain his peace until the lawful heir of the slain man entreats for him. T. Law Law of the East-Goths. f. in old times. and partly to the kindred of the man by that of the slayer '. she was obliged to restore the spousal presents." and was probably of older standing than that of the king." as well fields and meadows as forests." should render himself to do battle with the man he had insulted. v. that the law of Gottland declared him who accepted it at the first offer. 5. Drap B. To the prosecutor was left open the alternative of give . than when she was sought by him and betrothed." Yet to this peace they were not admitted before the heirs were appeased by the payment of the mulct." that whosoever upljraided " a man's anothei'. and was killed in his assault within the curtilege. which is thus shown to have formed a union for the maintenance of the public tranThe share of the hundred in the fine quillity. If the person who spoke tlie woiils came not. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. " that she now knew of no more defects or vices in her former wooer and his family. Law of the East-Goths. This outlawry was in fact intended less as a punishment than as a means of safety for the accused. and a it was at once the right acknowledged by law dearest heritage ". Good name and repute were so narrowly looked to. and the fine went in three parts. Meanwhile. 6 Jamnader-ed. or nearest relatives were. c. the bride took back her word." and after the ordinary wearing of arms was forbidden. that when. An insult must be wiped out by blood. nor a man in his heart. the law essayed its earliest exercise of authority in reconcilement. or whosoever speaks his doom in Sweden. niderling. represents that of the people . 4. if he was not taken in the fact. in the best and in the worst. called Nidstang. The offender was besides required to swear with twelve men of his family. after a previous legal betrothment (which the families thereby connected treated as an affair of high importance).84 Protection of privaie character.nor walk without a crutch (kroklokarl.) In the laws of the Gothlands and Helsingland we find it retained. lay unavenged. Homicides outlawed. at a spot where three ways met. Law of the Hel- the division of landed property the laws required that the ground should be measured by the site of the courtilege. Revenge for blood was a sacred obligation. hereditary feud. B." But on the other side it is said. no doubt in the view that each might have his lot near hand. Even the severe Magnus Ladulas says of the man who flees from revenge. the son could not inherit until he had avenged him. then must he needs be such a one as he hath been called. In a legal division it was also a general maxim that all should share alike " in good croft " 3 » ' Ordinance of Skenninge. King Magnus Ericson's ordinance of IS. The inan-l)0te. that he would him. The homicide. and afterwards to appear in the court under safeeonduct. was at first so rare. If the person against whom the words had been spoken came not to the meeting. to pay a fine of three marks." The compensation was nearest heirs. brother. the perpetrator was an outlaw without peace and right. 7 . Dale Law. unless excused by imminent danger to life. Arf.S5. except when the king is newly-elected. to the king. trator came before the king. 9 15. Law 2 of Gottland. that he might gain skill and substance upon the waters. to be a shameless person. and can never again bear valid testimony. was called vig-arf. if the perpecaught in the fact. and the law of Upland quotes " of the old law which was used in as a provisiiin the heathen time. on slain whom at first paid partly to the tiie exaction of revenge was incumbent. 1285. and the condition of every other. Tryghder Compare Law of Scania. and it was first entirely abolished by king Magnus Ericson. the hundred. one in such circumstances was still allowed " to carry full arms for his defence. For the murder of a man who was so old that he could not come to the court. f of Westmanland. crutchman). even after the expiration of a year. kin-bote. however. The slayer was. " the homestead is the mother of the singers. Drap B. the latter. or else in the households of the great Life and honour as well as property were placed under the common protection of the kindred. he was still permitted by the Land's Law of 1442. *." The same law ordained that " if the man's liking changed.^S. and for the murder of a woman. peace of any man. a double mulct was paid. f. He was bound to give himself up before night-fall*.

Diplomatar. informs ns of the alteration we have just mentioned. in causes where its assistance was deemed needful. 3. provided it were not done " within homestead and doorposts . This exhortation may be found in the Celsian manuIts progress to this result script 5 collections. after complaint made to him of the denial of right. may arise cannot be set down in a law-book. but not a nsemd for every proof. 85 n ransom himself from banishment. character. if the prosecutor were content. and the court publicly appointed persons for the purpose of appraising the fines. to submit to the oath. though their opinion man) only holds good against tiie judge's when all the as. only one. That this body should make its authority more and more felt. But no methi. " Because. It was afterwards ordained that the king's inquest (Rajfst) should be held at least once a year in every province by the sovereign himself. Yet in some places the oldest of the liaenulemen is still called haeradsdomare (demster of tlie hundred). and the appeal from the judge of the hundred to the lawman is expressly particularized under Magnus Ladulas '. except the outlaw. the matter was to be referred to the king's judgment. Judicial causes in which the first method of proof was followed. although no further mention of it It is merely alis made in the Swedish laws." says the Law of West-Gothland. the controversy regarding the former relation between the Judge and the Nsemd. and the lagman as judge of the By the provincial laws of Sweden Proi)er there province. the king had no share in any fines. 2 " The shall choose.d of proof was more extensively used than the oath . those of 9 were two judges (domare) in each hundred. as in the declaration of the law itself. the king people 2. and receive his peace. sants. noniicated to the judicial office one of three men whom the hundred or the province thereto projudge was considered necessary for posed. f. Gradually the the bounds separating functions fi'om those of the judge were obliteand it has finally remained a constituent rated.era(ls-hbfding as judge of the hundred. and not to the execution of sentences. own hands. Judicial office rnid power. first abolished by Earl Birger. and interceded for him. either the same jurj^ approved by the disputants themselves. in reference We judicial compurgators (edgardsmen. This was called Rsfsta B. after the institution had assumed per" all cases which maneuc}'.5. The h.The ordeals. men must borrow their decisions from that natural law which God hath implanted in our hearts and brains. !!. i. SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. confinned again by oath. B. and made it a check on the compurgators when brought in support of a party. luded to in that of Upland as a Pagan custom.sessors are unanimous. " it so came " to pass that Afterwards. . general the legal forms wei-e these either the prosecutor might prove by witnesses (vittna)." for every man. 35." it is said. Svea 2. 10. Konunga B. Tingmals B. or twelve other impartial men whom the judge or the king's prefect (Lansman) selected From the law of East-Gothland •'. tised in Sweden is clear from the papal prohibition issued against it. f. . says Tacitus of the Germans. with God's all the the second kind. are phrases which Oath was in the books have the same meaning. was a result entirely conformable to its Its composition ensured impartiality." tions of the Land's sits 1 the third.s. other than those in levying which he had himself assisted. 46. Suec. namely the hundred-courtman. Drap. 3 and ' legally. compurgators. damal maybe remarked in the direcLaw Touching the uaemd. were called witnismal (witness causes). and the usage so long preserved in Swedish judicial procedure. In earlier times the judge was elected by the According to the Land's Law. Another class of these appeals was the ordeal by red-hot iron. ntemd became permanent ^ its personal distraint was forbidden. No. or a jury (nsemd) usually of twelve men. in whom both parties placed confidence. Mulci. hence at first it was only chosen for the occasion. but if any one was mulcted and refused to pay. and so do that ye may be held for honourable counsellors. Wherefore take heed for the weal of your souls. according to later determinations. oath-guarders). Compare Law of Upland. the prosecutor was originally empowered himself to take ^ the required amount from the moveable goods of the culprit . let the jury of the hundred examine this. 25. Observations on (jury causes). might investigate the cii'cumstances and his deliver their opinion i. 591. to an oath taken on one side as being true and lawful ". In the time of king Canute Ericson for trifling jesters*. therefore the law-book saith in sit who the twelve pea- in tlie many places touching doubtful questions." remark. the king takes whether he is by or not. their disputes could often be adjusted only by an appeal to what was called God's doom." it is said in the charge addressed by an ancient judge to a naemd. and now instead appeared In as legitimate auxiliaries with their evidence. Miscellanea in 4to. and the accused deny (dylia) by his own oath and those of ting who swore . in times foregone. likewise shows how long the influence of family and friends was in a certain measure allowed by the law for originally these compurgators no doubt consisted of persons who would else have been ready to grasp their arms in the cause of the accused. A every sentence. Compurgalors. but where no written law is to be found. Library of Upsala. the same slowly augmenting influence of public authority. of admit- Swedish courts throughout the country with the justice of a province (Lagor a hundred. or the person mto whose hands — 8 Deum "That adesse bellantibus credunt." Comof the denial of right gave occasion for plaints contested matters from a lower court to removing a higher. towards the close of the twelfth century. And still Thus slowly did the due sway over the judicial authority assert its litigants before the tribunals. f. b^ those of Githland. and to submit to the law. but permitted nevertheless by the law of Helsingland down to 1320. . are the representatives of natural equity in the tribunal. which thereto. those who beforehand swore had sworn both truly Law of the East-Goths. That the fines fixed by law mio-ht be realized. In the beginning these had taken the law into their wherefore. as the Land's Law also directs. f. 6 ^ lagman yeomen help. naemCompare Scblyter. it seems that so late as the time of Canute Ericson. dulsmal (denial causes) . of which the duel among nations of the same stock with ourselves That this was also pracfurnishes one example '. when the king in person. portion of the tribunal. which had sentenced the offender. Nam (nim). had peace in his own house.

enemy. 4. way and bridge. that " the like the woman should make compensation for offences man. non admittet. former was the royal court of the province. in a letter of 1218. 3 * Ihriilbarja. It was chiefly by the efforts of the church that " were the so-called " judgments of God abolished. occasion thus arose for the developement of its rules. and to be in the "yeoman-law" (bondelag) implied a participation in the rights and privileges of the people. fire was kindled on heights appointed for the purpose." says the law of the West. in a letter to the Swedish bishops. or the master of the house. and nidingswork was the name applied by the laws to the gravest offences against the safety of the person. on the other hand. With extended rights. de Gentibus Septentrionalibus. says Pope Alexander II." or a public to from a lock. and sent round in haste. women were also subjected to legal responsibility. All these could not be atoned for by a pecuniary mulct. or in a house." or the female slave. xiv. B. in 1491. which. "To beat one like a slave*. Christian had been already forbidden by the law of Upland. and the inhabitants were conjointly obliged to keep a "road for carl and king. as slaying in places of sanctuary. . 5 We may conclude from the governing maxim of all our old provincial laws. the rasttare-ting (or court of error) the extraordinary tribunal." without any property of their own to For every hunrisk ^. it is said. or hired servants. Personal revenge was discountenanced . and to adduce in proof the evidence of irreproachable witnesses. which through the exhortations of the clergy were viewed as works of " for the soul's sake." which. 51." Christian piety. under the presidency of the king. were consecrated to peace. When outrage or robbery was committed. They were of different natures the : the same occasion thraldom was abolished. and by this expedient Magnus Ladulas enjoined those from whom entertainment was extorted by the armed hand to procure themselves On the invasion of the country by an help 2. Ferventis aquae vel candentis ferri judieiuTi). Corporal punishment was confined to those in thraldom. by which all the surrounding inhabitants were called upon to render assistance. phrases still used among the common people on entering a house. with (for Influence of the church. for which assessors or naemdemen were chosen out of thelagsaga the latter. children so born were thralls {" das kind folgt der argern hand.summons was despatched. going in a warship to rob on the seas. This was called vii. This was called God's halidom (helgd) or peace. who were beyond the pale of law. sowing and harvest. bearing arms against one's coimtry. Serfdom early aliolislied. and periods of some length at the great festivals. a staff of summons (budkafle) was cut. Other seasons were also sacred to peace. sive duellum. uidess he had previously sued before the court of the hundred. dred there was a fixed court-stead. in so far as they were not of purely spiritual concernment. with certain marks. f. ' Olaus Magnus. so to say. "pestis coiitraria omni juri. nedum contra episcopum. killing with cruelties or torments. and the staff of . were made As a multitude of causes were brought before the episcopal courts. in which the king's judgment wait delivered. The law was made for freemen. This was a short bat or stick. for a sign. was a court appointed for a specific case." not vagabonds. might speak in the court.8G Measures of police. To steal the laws to break God's Through the influence of the church the field is called in condition of women was improved . in a church. a custom not yet wholly disused in the beginning of the sixteenth century ^ All the members of the hundred were bound interchangeto offices of succour. or the lawman. Catholica Ecclesia. contra quemlibet eliam. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. and manumissions." On The punishment known to the old of a freeman by death was imlaws. that if either of the parents was free. denounces the malpractices to which compurgation gave rise even among the clergy " Unde contigit. this regulation was for a long time . which last prohibition shows that Christian morals were by this time in course of dissemination. if he were present in his court and although Steno Sture the elder. In Denmark the offspring of a female slave were thralls. which in Sweden seems to have existed anciently in a mild form *. p. burned at one end. are expressions found in the laws. hence also the thief was doomed to death or slavery." let the bairn go to the better half) while in Germany and France. But geuei'ally it was by no means considered necessary that a cause should first have been before an inferior tribunal in order to come before a higher. and the sister was permitted to inherit with the brothers. when committed under circumstances of treachery. The disgraced man was branded with the epithet of infamous (niding). 17. ut eis debeant in similibus : 6 opportuno tempore respondere. Honorius VII. the if Olaus Magnus. as those of — afterwards not observed. or shire . anciently under the open sky. quod quandoque ad purgationem suam sui similes criminosos adducunt. ." the child follows the worse hand en formariage le pire emporte le bon). that whoever neglected to forward it without delay. and was therefore. hence its eradication was effected here much The sale of a earlier than in other countries. Drap. and public child also was ("gangin barn a bsettras halvo. 9 Law of East-Gothland. the namd of which was taken from the same hundred wherein the court was held. . or him 8 The raefst was the ordinary. issued an edict enjoining that no one should bring his plea before tlie king or the administrator. let feud between men be ever so great. must be adjudicated with relation to prevailing foiTus of law. whom one shared food and drink. or a woman " she hath peace at fair and market. leading hue and cry. or the burgomasters. Nothing hindered the plaintiff from both instituting and terminating his suit before the superior judge. a royal hundred-court. killing a sleeper or one imable to defend himself. especially those touching life. should be hanged or have his house burned ^." it behoved the priesthood to abolish. For the developement of notions of legality and the amelioration of manners the church exerted a powerful influence. In general such offences were deemed to deserve the severest penalties as were committed in a cowardly and malicious mode . and with a loop fastened at the other. 3. and was an infamous crime committed upon a freeman and causing his death. Only " "yeomen and indwellers. the wife received her legal share of the chattels. all holidays.Goths). the abuse of compurgators restricted ^. A fire-rate is ordered to ably be levied within the hundi'ed by the law of EastGothland. so that king Magnus Ericson in his Eric's-gait of 1335 made a general ordinance. Punisliraent of offences." "to have as little right as the scourged house-girl. 2 See before. he had deputed his judgment *. except for such offences as involved dishonour. quod monomachia dicitur. and not as usual of the lawman.

The ancioit usage.) Hence in the provincial laws the We province was termed. Thus the Calmar Recess 1417. which they had in the upper country. buyers and sellers with one surety. whom both parties had called in. that the justiciary should every year make known to the people the consuetudinal law (legem consuetudinis) **. Catalogue So the general peace proclaimed on the king's visit to a clerical privileges. of the councillors of Sweden. yet good and sufticient men. Nevertheless. Tiuf. that this is so ordained. 3 Uggla. of whom the people and the parties before the court approved." was also taken by "all the chief men of the realm. corresponded to the Articles of War of later times. that for the homicide of a household-man. iv. as in the Law of East-Gothland. and symbolical acts for tokens.Social customs and observances.'' The West-Goths state that they adopted it at the accession of Hadorph. and half of retainers. chancellors were regularly selected from their ^ as well as. The transfer of ground sold. order . was added in course of time one relating to the sovereign and his rights. landish law shall be brought into the realm to the detriment of the people. Changes of greater importance are discerned in particular ordinances. 14. According to Christian L's cliarter of (bishop's delegate). of the civil and canon jurispimdence on Swedish laws. though the king's court-law (gardsriitt) was also commonly enforced in the households of the great. not embodied in the law. from which that confirmed by king Christopher in 1442 differs little. Handtakiug in their presence formed a legal sign of the conclusion of a purchase '. although another century passed away before the royal confirmation was imparted. See Note G. October 28. 5 Namely. " all men's law. whence in Swedish documents of the middle age. c. who introduced this oath. &c. that of the councillor of state. as well as that of the church. the right of private jurisdiction . 77. and by the introduction of the Edsoere. or oath of assur'ance. which is common to all the later provincial codes. 1457. and flogging. to those of the bishops in spiritual causes. a separate compensation was likewise to be paid to the person in whose service the slain man had been ^. As the " king's oath. whence we find it ordered that no servitor shall be a juryman unless by assent of the peasants and the judge of the hundred '. of tlie church and its rights. SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. J peasants. These court laws. obeyed by the warlike retainers of the great. became a for all the rest. the nobles did not obtain. the observance of the king's peace. Land's Law. iii. 15. the sometimes introduced as speaking in his own person. which however was so far altered.). Fifty years afterwards the general Land's Law was drawn up. ill fact r'eigned conjointly with the magnates. Court-Laws." justiciary of West-Gothland. is man bote double. granted. was made by circuit. Gustavus Magnusson. in presence of a good man. S. Instead of the written word. Magnus Ericson's Land's Law of 1347. Stadgar. more particularly a horseman. the ntemd in the king's court of inquisition might consist half of first model record of memory. 1 March 10. B. 42. Of these the oldest was embodied in a written I'ecord in 1319." it seems to follow that the Folkungers." as it was formerly called. unless we consider it as such. where it is said. For this reason. he was to be elected by the commonalty. prosecutors in crimes against personal safety ." Earl Birger raised the latter fine to tlie same amount with that payable for an ordinary homicide so as to make the Law of the West-Goths. and debts paid. E. besides the ordinary botes. and its ^ authority was gi-adually admitted . furnished them with a new means The royal of making their services indispensable. be transferred by the gi-antor casting a turf into the lap of the grantee. that both in their form and contents what was national was studiously preserved . imprisonment with bread and water. 8 have already mentioned that it was the duty of the " to make and (See Law promulgate the law. was Royal procurators *. all such misdeeds were declared offences This officer was called in matters of episcopal jurisdiction biskops-socknare (bishop's proctor) or biskops-laensman. 6 For the homicide of a " king's man. called Edsosret. " with friend and witnesses." By extending ideas of law and legal authority. were to discharge the functions of public soon appointed. that according to the Land's Law. a custom analogous to the Eric's-gait by which the king took the realm into Thus too property in land might also possession. through them. is in several respects conYet so deeply rooted wei'e these latter siderable. or laensmen. bargains were to be struck. and are distinguished from the common law of the laud by rigorous punishments. and is undoubtedly that " law of Sweden. Probably also those of portions of the laws which affect the privileges the church were first recorded iu writing by the before care of the clergy. < Konungs-soknare. is 2 Land's Law. and all the landowners of the hamlet walking round the fields and meadows. Diplomat. viii. of Revelstad." that is. and after the introduction of the equestrian tenure. the laws discover their jealousy of those living in such a state of personal dependence . men had the living against the peace which the king had sworn to his To the section of the law which treated subjects. as those touching life and limbs. with two witnesses. «7 prosecutors appointed'. wherefoi'e the Land's Law "that no outspecially requires the king to see. which here as everywhere else was the To restrain the enfoi'cedisciple of the former. Otherwise. is by the testimony of the church itself of older standing tlian any attempt made by the clergy to I'egister the laws ". a court-man means a soldier by profession. Ancient Ordinances (Ganila queen Margaret. . the church laboured in the cause of temporal authority. as chancellor to Eric of Pomerania. But every great household bore in old days a military character. yeomen. in the memory and manners of the people. 1206. But a long time elapsed this method was generally considered necessary for the knowledge and preservation of legal customs. The amended law of Upland was the first statute- book publicly confirmed. In the latter. and although binding only on the foremost province of the kingdom. like the clergy. The only exception former came gradually into use. In those days the ability of the clergy as penmen. similar speedily enjoined *. no exceptions are made with respect to the nobility . Suec. and so back to the homestead . and the influence of the clergy." 9 Compare the letter of Innocent IIL to the archbishop of lagman is Upsala. "now bear in mind. whence the ecclesiastical sections of the provincial laws throw much light on the subject of legal procedure. though its substance existed in a period much more remote. or pledged. Notwithstanding the protest of the clergy in the old dispute respecting the liberty of bequests to the church. who mentioned in '' . ment of personal revenge.

or the principal and secular officers on their journeys. 33.s." Payments from certain forests ' are also mentioned among the royal revenues from the middle of the thirteenth century. in the covenant made by them at Skara *. levied from all resident inhabitants. the nobles of such entertainment for themselves and their train during their journeys. at the age of twenty Certain a man became liable to all assessments '. every hundred received from those who established themselves on their commons. the names of so many Swedish towns. since the old odal-class had lost. B. Uplands L. 5. and in all German burghers were so numerous. 15. of which the oldest example in Sweden is the socalled Bi6r¥6aralt. since armed bands of their own retainers plundered throughout the country with impunity. and as it is demonstrable that the kings formerly possessed private woodlands. By degrees it became usual to pay the yearly contributions required for these purposes when the king remained at home." mentioned under the heathendom . appears in the Law of Upland. Yet Eric Olaveson mentions. mean hindrance. in 1332. Tingm. in be king over his own dependents. since the justiciaries had been seated in the king's council. manifold abuses were thereby created. neither arbitrai'y sovereign. were spiritual Tribute was called gengard (sustentation tax ^). yet history shows all the more plainly that tiiey felt themselves to be raised above its behests . lit. instead of the old representation of the people by provinces. f. and the burden of the taxes weighed more oppressively on the rest . {Na'fejdid comes from ntpf. that down to 1470 one half of the town magistrates were taken from among them. so that we may view it as a kind of return to legal order when the councillors of state. properly laming. For although the letter of the law did not recognize the power of the magnates. tenance of the king and his court. were of small importance. i. For the towns. in Gottland." r W. "that every good laic. also given in H70. perhaps the same with that " all men's called in the Law of West-Gothland " pence" and in the towns all men's tax *. but they appear Conti-ibutions for the mainalso under others. the Stures revived against these baronial leagues the old associations of yeomanry. noble. B. the tax must have been paid for the use of these by persons cutting timber or making In like manner the community of settlements. T. T.Goths. 507. but might rather have been called a German than a Swedish town. As in general the fiefs (Isenen) consisted simply in grants of certain crown revenues to the royal governors in the various districts. East-Gothic Law. Hadorph. nel) or nose. in the widest sense. or to take his pleasure '. this tax was called inlandning. was to . Towns and burgesses. opposed to land skyld. 4. and from King Walrtemar's Account Book. Crown revenues. 12. and franklins (frtclsemen). c. sorning by violence. a right also granted to the church. f Allmfennings cere. II. and girild. In the demand by (veitzla). f. Suec. which otherwise during the Catholic period was confined to prelates. K. and the affairs of the realm began to be managed at baronial diets . engaged to submit their individual disBy putes to the decision of their colleagues. many of the conditions required for their prosperity were wanting.53 Compare Diploni. had little influence 8 The first Swedish taxes. Suec. B. and the common yeomanry '. fair or market. they are called in the Ynglinga1 have the king's first entry into a province during his Eric's-gait. so that he whose seed-corn and cattle reached a certain amount paid the full tax. allmaenningsgia'ld. originally voluntary donations ^. forbidden by Magnus Ladulas. clerks. burghers w ere summoned to and in the writs issued during the elective diet the Union are mentioned " bishops. followed in the time of Magnus Ericson by one of gi'eater detail. the Law of AVestmanland. In tlie Rhyme 9 Chronicle. In the Law of Helsingland it is called va^dsia D. K. except matters which by the law are committed to the By this. when any obstacle * prevented the warlike or peaceful assemblage from being held. also n(uljb. To these signs of their potency it may be added. 9 nose-scot. chiefly consisted the otfence of On saga. arose from the custom of yearly following the king on his warlike expeditions (ledung). imposts were from the first of a personal kind . formed on foreign models. one " for in support of the sacrifices. which in other countries of Europe supplied a counterpoise to the power of In the inthe nobility. that so early as 1319. which properly means a feast." the elements whence. v. over its estates and tenants. place. witii various clianges of order and composition. however. certain revenues. ndfs/iritt. of 1483 says. i. but complained of long after his time. tribute-gifts. 3 * c. f. others with less land and He who did not possess a cattle only the half." power nor private jnrisdiction was meant. is every nose. where it is reuemtio expt'ditionis. selling. f. the West. and of entertaining him with liis train when he made progress througli the country to hold courts. Olave. See the king's '• receipts from the noble and good land of <5 Lama appears to Tingslama. to the Law of Upland in Hence the termination ka'pinft. the first example of including the inferior clergy in the writ of convocation. Steno the elder is said to Especially under the Stures. burghers. with the meaning of tax. but only the concession of right to levy the king's share of legal fines. its most substantial members. where they sprang up on the sites of ancient fairs'. clerical Seats of trade. or at episcopal seats. was Sweden governed for a until Engelbert and hundred years afterwards similar confederacies . Saga of St.) Skopaskyld. be developed. and in this way the payments became permanent. terior of the country. K. and thereby restored the people to political influence. that the fraternal wars of Earl Birger's family had long converted the kingdom into a field of was paid wlien no expedition took the Law of Westmanland. the later plan of representation by estates.was for a long time rich and powerful. f 10. According was paid in money. debt the modern term used by Proftssor Geijer is . Both objects were combined.l or beyond its own limits. slia'. which in 6. Wisby. B.8« Jurifdiction of the nobility. That the leduiis'sla'. The borough law. man. L. . Hence the names ledungslama (laming of the war) and tingslama (laming of the court) for those taxes. is manift'st from 12. dwelling paid for his person . and as the Land's Law speaks of the " king's parks" (parker). Pijilomal. An aid for provisioning rendered. was called skeppsvist. and a so-called nose-tax (Nsefgjald) is mentioned in the testament of Magnus Ladulas. of ships a part * Pactum confccderationis et eoncordiae. from the extension of the privileges of nobility through the equestrian tenure. denotes a hiiirirancc or interruption of the court. when Magnus Ericson was raised to the throne. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. 2 Skatlriiafr.

that the isle of Gottland was We . and six yeomeu. That the Lubeckers liad betimes acquired a share in the mine is shown by the letter of Magnus Eric- The oldest mining charters ' . Then the provement of the estate of Upsala. may besides observe regarding its boundaries under the Catholic period. bonde). of the inroad by the Norwegian — — king Haco Hacoson into its early settled western portion. and in nothing to lessen these for any other king. in fact possessed from tithes. The church. as to tlie uses of the chapter and the maintenance of students. submitted to Norway. sessed to the crown-taxes.Taxation. SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. German Hanse. cwt. 89 which the Land's Law ordained that a third bhcaild be allotted to the crown. which still constitutes one of their chief sources of support. in such wise that their payments should not be raised by reason of any excess above the standard. regulating the obligations reciprocally affecting the labourer who tilled another's fields and the landowner. But the king. Kojal domain. confirming to them all the property and revenues which they possessed there " by ancient right ^. There was then no regular rate of assessment on landed^ property. as the southern coasts. in Sweden which have been preserved are those of Magnus Ericson. . of Iron Mines and copper. Oresland. Suec. Tithes. Documentary History edited by J. (Eleven skeppunds are nearly 30 See the Latin deed in 378. says the Land's Law. 100 about 13 tons. Iron furnaces existed in Gothland in the thirteenth the charters for the mining districts of century Norberg and Nerike. or finally when he required an aid for his gait. as Vermeland. that " no yeoman shall thenceforward take into his hands more assessable estate than in the judgment of twelve unbiassed men is sufficient for his establishment . that by yeomen purchas" the taxes and revenues ing two or more granges. remained longest in their original wildness. or when he rode his Eric's. With the thirteenth century tithes were introduced and what other impost so burdensome ? in the face of strong opposition. as Dalecarlia and Norrland. complains in an ordinance of 1459. while tlie account in the Heimskringla. the bishop. and the yearly legal taxes of his realm. mention them in middle Sweden. wei'e to deliberate " what among themselves supportable aid the commonalty might and should pay to their sovereign. the provinces of Scania. " it befits to live from the estate of Upsala. but refer to others which had preceded and the antiquity of mining is attested by the circumstance. bishop and judge of each province.'' liable To the same penalty a nobleman became by the Land's Law. which enumerates the churches subject to the bishopric of Skara. nor lay any new burdens on his land. though they contituied dependent on the see of Upsala that Finland was annexed to the dominions of the crown by three eminent chiefs. mentions every where granges and hamlets which subsist at the present day. and bequests. which mining districts were afterwards formed. Various provisions are to be found in the law. for then the men of the realm were bound to follow the king in his expediSouth Helsingland. and Bleking. Definitions casually occurring in the laws vindicate who were to be regarded as full-stead yeomen (fullsuten All these were taxed in like propoi-tion." but lessened in the measure of their short coming and especial care seems to have been taken to pre- . yet Boundaries. embracing Swedelaud and Gothland. Eric. The remainder in part belonged to Denmark. earl Birger. by the advice of his well-beloved councillors. On the other hand the yeomen had at first the rigfit to withhold that proportion of the for after the priest tithe which went to tiie poor . Thus the law of West-Gothland. buildings. and the suppoi't of hospitals and poor although this last share was gradually diverted to other purposes. sometimes for the reconquest of the Holy Land from the infidels." Only in the four following cases might an extraordinary aid be demanded . or on other occasions. as well as the grant of temporal fiefs to the prelates. and Medelpad paid thus long have the inhabitants of these provinces practised weaving.) 3 of the rise of the ii. Sartorius. Those portions of the midlost to . The Law of Upland enacts that poor and infirm men shall be carried from hamlet to Sweden mider Albert. On the other side. and remained disunited for two hundred and fifty years and that under Magnus Ericson. king Albert pledged to the counts of Ilolstein. that in 1268 an estate was sold at that place for eleven skeppunds of copper^. might lead us so to conjecture. donations. Those of the copper mines at Falun are of 1347. for the repair of his houses. though not contributing to the public . ' The Law of West-Gothland forbids the iron-blasters to sell iron of bad quality. between the ])arish church. excessive parcelling out of such land was forbidden. does not mention one in all East Vermeland." wherefore he enjoins. in part was not settled until a later day. . had received habited. with six household-men. and though tlie like. on the breaking out of war. the residue was divided into three equal parts. Thus too the name of the mining district Skinskatteberg shows that here the taxes were paid in the skins of animals. that Jemteland and Herjedale." In 1367. Angermanland." in case of disobedience he should pay agreeably to the Calmar Recess of " the 1474. forty marks. were both won and lost. M. Nor did they leave indigence unrelieved to its fate. in the time of Ingi the younger. or the im- own consent dren . gi-eater revenues than the crown itself. 2CS. without including what the papal agents drew from the kingdom. Not the least important conquests were those made by cultivation and in the time of the lastnamed sovereign began the settlement of Upper Norrland above Umea. St. aldivision into Markland. Halland. necessities. in part was subject alternately to Sweden and Norway. from the crown-lands. On this account Christian I. serve the old number of substantial yeomen undiminished. which therefore in that day was thinly indle territory in his third.. as the Law of the Helsingers orders for Ujjper Norrland '*. hamlet. tions. of the crown are much niinished and wasted . and Thorkel Canuteson .i. their taxes partly in linen . . with Smaland. its not beyond the frontiers without their on the marriage of one of his chilon his coronation. Lappenberg. in 1340 and 1350. who acquired ground as- The ancient compass of the kingdom is shown by the Eric's-gait. some- times for indulgences. and be called king's full thief. every peasant being bound to keep him for one night. from the crown's proportion of 2 9 Diplomat. on the other hand. son in 1344.

others advanced along the course of the Duna into Russia. whose inhabitants undoubtedly to carry two cheeses. in bi-ewing not only hops but the wild myrtle were used ^. and hops were cultivated . which seems to mark this grain. or to pay a yearly tribute instead. The different species of grain cultivated are That of West-Gothland mentioned in the laws. 201. Flax. submitted themselves in spiritual matters to the bishop of Linkoping. although the laws of Upland and Sudermania mention them. occupied the island of Dago. and at the reapers' feast the marriages of the year were arranged. three lispunds (about lbs. a papal letter of 14GG. that the insular traders should be restrained by the authority of the church. on the coast of Esthonia . that after the Varangians had become the rulers of Muscovy. the rye of Swedeland was held the best . That the copper mines of Gar- penberg also were worked by them appears from the fact.'i ^ casks of beer. which they long continued to collect by their own commissioners on the spot. generally assisting each other in the labours of the field. hemp. 8. Speaking of the entertainment of a bishop on his progress. 96. four sheep. Swed. and it may be conjectured. according to same account. as at Tuna. 90. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. ripening within six weeks ''. was apparticularly to barley. was procured from abroad .). windmills and watermills are Hard and thin bread was used then as now. who soon increasing in numbers were common to all. was sown in fine Tauri (about the llth May. among other artiIn 1295 the Law cles. O. Bee-hives supplied important articles of produce. " new and unheard-of above the forest of Kolas mord.) of butter. it is said that winter-rj'e was sown at the end of the dog-days. Traffic. which might be kept for several years. the thresher. they possessed. and became Christians upon the visit of St. 9 Olaus Magnus xiii. Fruit trees were first introduced into southern Sweden by the clergy. . tion is made of older silver mines. in the middle portion of the kingdom. therefore the middle of August. The Gottlanders. Celse Bullarium. in various districts show that the clergy also engaged in mining. a considerable trade. barley. The principal places of the mining tracts were asylums for offenders. in 1229. to the bishop of Strengness. Spring shortly before rye. the Yule bread was soft and made very large. . or heath myrtle. it was raised on land cleared by fire. although the word properly an arrogant bragging fellow. Sweden three centuries ago later than at present. two flitches of bacon. as the Wheat and rye are mentioned in first introduced. the houses were lighted by wood fires and pine torches. that Garp was a name formerly given in German. or wild rosemary. and orders a tun of wheat and rye-bread. peas. we are told in the supplement to the Law of Gottland. for the Sudermanian law of 1327 allows the bishop at the consecration of a church a train of twelve men and fourteen horses. In these days. on a traffic with the Russians. the copper mines. and are said to have received land from the Greek emperor. King Eric of Pomerania. four stockfish. The husbandmen sowed in the beginning of May." and to be made titheable without delay '. though a term plied more obliged to seek for new dwelling-places. and vegetables. and this privilege was called the mine-peace. in the same year also lie took the iron mines of Vermeland under liis protection." With other classes candles of wax or tallow were rare luxuries . as they are called. which is noxious. the peasants promised themThe winter seems to have selves a plentiful crop. although Gotxland was long the seat of a very extensive trade. and three •• Langetek. however. Otlier testimonies." In the anciently rye. the foes of Christianity. In chapter iii. the summer hotter than in later times. assassins. clergy. and oats. with wheat. Ibid. turnips. Of this however the Swedish archives afford no more ancient evidence than the injunction of Pope Gregory IX. to which Christian Yet menthe Second sent a hundred Fiulanders. The Gottlanders. The myrica gale. Salt. This fertile island had received its inhabitants from Sweden in a remote age. ordains tithe to be taken of wheat. Handmills were used for grinding grain mill . old style.90 Cultivation. Yet the bishop of Strengness was unquestionably better informed. While yet heathens. the silver mine of Sala apparently not before the time of Suanto Sture'. both in spring and winter. in the also mentioned. with one of which in his hand. rye. and reaped in the middle of August '. Some. s Actordins to Olaus Magnus it still does so in Norrland. who acknowledged the superiority of the Upsala king. Sweden could not be said to possess any commerce. trying to gain the attachment of the Swedish peasants. and not less by the use of mead. The bishop's mines. a tun of barley bread. about 1510°. encouraged by the demand for wax tapers by the church. Compare the Glossary of Collins and Schlyter. excluding however traitors. and confirmed the charters granted by Under Steno Sture' the elder queen Margaret. the iron mmes of Danemora were discovered . the Law of West-Goth" let him drink mead with all his land says. means rje is proved by the old Latin notes to the Law ? 6 of West-Gothland. speak both of the antiquity of this intercourse. one hundred skeppunds of copper yearly. and thieves. and engaged to accompany the king of Sweden in his expeditions with seven ships. by the distribution of a supply we find Christian II. of Upland. Corn. from holding intercourse with the Muscovites. and generally the differences of the seasons more strongly marked. the Gottlanders profited by the connections which those adventurers the long maintained with the country of their descent. to ply the was the work of the female slave in the house. to be pi-epared for his use *. barley. to the bishop of Linkoping and the Cistercian abbot of Gottland. been longer and more rigorous. in 1413. of Upland orders tithe to be taken from wheat and " as the manner had been. Law a condiment indispensable to man. time of Olaus Magnus. on the Norwegian mines. or even later. . five pounds of wax. and reaped in corde Leonis Seedtime was thus in middle (about the Cth August). > Pors. Wika. betook himself to the barn in the early harvest morn. 140. I March beer was held the best. and of the early settlement of German traders on Gottland. in past times as now. Eric. Ex segetibus tritico et siligine That siliso here supra Kolmordiam novis et insolitis. S. When much snow fell. with some kinds of oats. 143. not the ledum palustre (wildpors). At this time the bailiffs of the mines and the masters of the works were Germans *. Besides this. eight hens. with hay and oats for the horses. and Lofasen in Dalecarlia. granted to all those who would settle as miners at Atvidabei'g in East-Goth- Sweden to a signifies land the same privileges granted to tliose of the Kopparberg in Dalecarlia . beans.

whole and half oertugs. they might stay at See the document itself in Sartorius. whereof three to an oere. the most ancient guildstatute of which. with the ex- him for their renewal. find Magnus Ericson ordering that all traders bringing specie into the country should carry to the mint. a few only have here and there been met with. Rostock. Towards the end of the Catholic period." they had observed what advantage and pi'ofit the realm obtained at the time when the Germans had licence to trade in the country. Wismar. There was a time when Wisby itself excited the jealousy of Lubeck. regarded of the more importance. preserved in the archives of Lubeck (Sartorius ii. power of the Germans was shown in the authority they exercised in the Swedish towns. ii. and of transporting them from the Baltic. and the Grand Duke of Smolensko. who in the guild of Novogorod were subordinate to the 2 3 In 1476. Some attempts were made to abridge the commercial immunities of the Germans. ii. vol. These privileges were afterwards extended to Hamburg. and Their clerks generally to all the Hanse towns. In Sweden all trade. and Anund Jacob. Soderkoping. of which in Gothland sixteen. both internal and foreign. we learn that this toll to was paid on all goods imported. which may safely be The coinage pronounced of domestic mintage ". although even these appear to have been Coins of the struck by Enghsh mint-masters. enumerating their 8 9 MS. in the Library of Upsala. which are referred by modern inquirers.) where both natives and foreigners This was might freely traffic with each other. money corresponded to a mark of silver. The little silver coins which our elder antiquaries circles. xiii. a course that had led only to confusion and the gain of the Danish towns. but they soon became so widely distinct in value. as they were called. one mark of silver. Coinage. but its power was broken by the invasion and sack of the Danish king Waldemar. amounting more than ten marks in value. but that the restrictions imposed did not answer their purpose is manifest from the ordinance of the council at Telge in 1491. 52). » See the letter of the Dalecarlians. For this i-eason free markets were now appointed to be held every year for six weeks. themselves buying up in the places of staple the wares. The island was soon entirely severed in 1361. at Calmar. to the former. Appendix Rhyme Chronicle. were it is plain never available for them. or apprentices. were the chief trading towns. regarding the trade on the Duna. that upon perusing the register of the kingdom. abuse prevailing in several of the staples among those charged with the collection of the tolls. is said plication was made to to have replied. but these had no other effect than that of temporarily interrupting Charles Canuteson indeed. Trade and piracy brought the precious metals and foreign coins into the kingdom. by J. SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. oertugs. we rency. of Upland speaks of stamped certugs. of which eight went to a mark . was abolished an ception of provisions ^. deducting half a mark. ceres. Even under the reign of Christian I. that capital were hardly one was left for a Swede. unless he chose to be a beadle or a gravedigger *.Privileges of tlie Germans. if they thought fit. as th. Among a multitude of foreign coins found in the earth. Sveni means servants (svenar). v. to the Hadorph. for every forty marks value of goods. the same in which the Pope forbade the bishop of Linkoping the Russian trade. not Sueci. and pence. through a convention was formed in Gottland between the traders of Wisby and Riga. and receive in return five of coined money. from which the wares were conveyed overland to the From this treaty we learn that the Dnieper. as we read in several copies. ascribed to heathen kings are all more recent ^. . Riga. From the minutebook of the town of Calmar for 1384. The German commercial association on the island was so powerful. of receiving beer instead of silver ". Historj-. Stralsund. with smaller change. a mark of silver was equal to eight and a half marks curFor the restoration of the standard. Schroder. when apthe traffic. and the charter refers to others which the town had enjoyed since the end of the preceding century. in Swedeland Originally a mark of eight. went to an oertug '. principal means of rectifying the Sweden did not possess a coinage until a late If the goods of the buyer and seller were period. Russians also traded from Gottland to Lubeck. Termed Sveni in the original charter granted by Earl Birger. The first commercial privileges of Lubeck were granted by Earl Birger about 1250. of selling salt and travelling with their wares through the One consequence of the commercial interior.e toll formed one of the coinage. from Swedish dominion. although not unanimously. the difference was made up by pieces of gold or silver of the size required on the occasion. (which with Stockholm and Abo. On the other hand. the year 1229. usually shaped into larger or smaller marks such as are often found in the soil with of abrasion. shows traces of Swedish influence *. 6 7 The Law masters. 290. in Transactions of the Academy of Science. and Gottland. and Antiquities. complaints against Christian I. by the land road aci'oss Sweden to the North Sea. the corresponding rights which were stipulated for Swedish traders in the treaties with the Hanse towns. answering to the knapar. not of equal value. avenues of commerce Early in tlie thirteenth century was founded from Gottland the great commercial settlement of Novogorod. that even the league of the Hanse towns appears (from recent investigations) to have sprung mainly out of the connexions formed in Gottland between the traders of the different cities. Olave the lap-king. 5 Compare Observations on the oldest Swedish Coins. and the time of king Canute. 91 threw open with Russia. was divided into marks. which then there was no need to carry abroad. continued for a long time to be a haunt for pirates. in Memoirs for the History of Scandinavia. complaints were made that all the municipal offices of the so crowded with Germans. and New Lodose. that about the middle of the fifteenth century. that if the Hanse association would not come to Sweden. II. was confined to the Germans. in which they " declare. in the many Swedish terms it In contains. and in their tyranny in Stockholm. vol. whose maritime law had furnished a model to Northern Europe. in the time of king Albert. and agents ^ obtained the right of settling in Sweden and living under the Swedish laws. 16. even that printed in Swedish Diplomatarium. Folkunger kings are fomid. of importing their wares toll-free. were the only pieces struck in Sweden. to the first Chiistian sovereigns of Sweden. its depreciation. home .

until their . and roamed the heath unconfined. in year. since there was a fine for blaming it during the compotation •. the fair of Disting in Upsala Magnus states. 5 property.'' This mode of exi>ression refers to the powers of regulation and taxation various suits respecting the Norrland fisheries shov/ that tliey were considered in the middle ages as private . The Helsingers had an old privilege of travelling with their wares between the different places of and more particularly frequented. In Tornea. West-Gothland. among whom the most important was the . Bridget. organist and trumpeters. three neats' tongues. Hence there were few of which the clergy were not members. religious exercises and works of charity with the entertainments of the table '. arising from donations and bequests. Vermeland. there were purchased the half of an ox. rebuking the clergy for laxity. 38) ' Compare Muhrberg. without however being effectually . Even the guild feasts were opened with divine worship. fection was in jjrogress the musicians of the guild played. and other articles of the kind. with many Russians and Norwegians. as the miners exchanged their iron and cop]>er for grain. two hams. The country people bartered The of their own. boxes.92 Produce. lected in spring at the brothers . Canute in Denmark and Scania. or Finns. in memory of whom the cup was drained. The guests ate what each had prepared for himself. from which towns afterwards arose. poisoned at the synod of Westeras in 1461. Of that in the islets of Bohusof salmon and herring. Among their objects mutual protection was one of the most important during tlie earlier period of their existence they avenged conjointly homicide or outrage done upon any of the brethren of the lodge. and Fant. especially and often held large revenues. did not universally set an edifying example of continence hence St. The guiidliall was decked with fresh bouglis and fragrant flowers. two sheep. Norrlanders and Eastlanders. iv.) For a — i banquet given to this guild by its aldermen in 1513. S. and marten skins. 2 For tbese fisheries were framed the Harbour Rules (Hamne-skra) of King Charles Canuteson. the floor strewed with pine sprigs and grass. Nor were the clergy exempt from the land we hear less. at Midsummer the concourse was large. From Olaus Magnus we learn that the country people of the hundreds of Mark and Kind in West-Gothland were already during the ' Bishop Olave Gunnarson was general corruption. were yearly exported to Germany they were hardy. lutanists are also society was governed by an alderman and stool- were largely productive. fiC. to carry "merchants' wares" as well as "peasants' wares. The principal guilds had halls teentli Scai)(linavian Memoirs. most powerful guilds. afterwards encouraged their employment in this way. even in the winter season. The monasteries. large quantities of which were sold for export. I (xiii. as that of St. The herring fishery on the coast of Scania was pursued chiefly on account of the Hanse Towns. most of all. fifers. occasioned citations to Rome and before the council of Basle. drimmicrs. Fisheries. Disseriatio Stockholm. and the whole of Norrland.xen were used in some places for tillage and winter-carriage. after that of Scania had declined. were accustomed from the earHest times to bring the produce of their herds. the people derived their chief support from their Hocks and herds. Acad. of which. the incorporations of craftsmen have yet the same origin. especially among the possessors of power. which must be tasted Vjeforehand. In several provinces. R. " for those who use to fish in the king's common fishing-ground. at determinate times. exercised with the consent of the ci'own even in capital causes." From the Rules of the Guild of our Lord's Body. was procui-ed by the joint contributions of both brethren and sisters. mentioned as serving in the Guild of the Body of Christ in Stockholm. '-. and assumed a jurisdiction over their own members. Among the civic customs of the middle age was the institution of guilds. The . de Conviviis sacris in Suecia. as is still Olaus the case. though of small size. ation of monks and nuns in the Bridgetine convents. which was followed by the drinking of toiists. sufficient examples have been already adduced. He speaks also of a nobler stock. of which the number ultimately rose to about sixty. in her zeal. forty pounds of smoked beef. and on the outside of the doors While the relarge leafy branches were ])laced. and two casks of beer with spices. for Gustavus I. witli which they procured themselves other necessary articles. compares such cloisters. which the . until in the latter half of the six- century it became uncommonly abundant. a part of East-Gothland. ermine. and blending. their wares. vol. on the Guild of our Lord's Body . that in his days Swedish horses trade. because he had zealously denounced the immoralities of the priesthood ^. whose exwas forbidden Oeland was remarkable portation thii-d . regularly every year visited these fishing stations^. and although princes and nobles joined these fraternities. more than one hundred are said to have existed not only in the towns. Iiistitulion (if guilds. to houses of ill fame. ii. Transac. i 178. Daisland. In the gulf of Bothnia the fisheries. Elk-hides were shipped by the thousand. with minever. Pity that those founded upon her own rule soon exposed themselves to a like reThe disorders arising from the consocipreach. Of the lengths to which the vengeance of the great occasionally proceeded. These were societies founded in honour of some saint or relic. S. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Gottland was famous for its breed of sheep. at which only fourteen of the brethren were present. of which the motive is to be sought in the devotional services and masses celebrated by these societies for the souls of their deceased brethren. yet not generally. the chase. but throughout the country. Persons from Stockholm and other towns of Sweden and Finland. tymballers. (Convivium corporis Christi. < " NuUus cerevisiam culpet bil)ant honeste sine contencione et blasphemia. The chase yielded a rich return of furs and skins. . bringing to the board not more than two or three di-shes beer. Smaland. for its singularly small race of ponies . in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The peasants sometimes abused the opportunities of this inland trade. bowls. O. with hymns of praise to the saint. admitting pei^ons of both sexes under certain obligations and rules. Diary of Vadstetia. at middle ages noted as turners and hawkers of platters." which was forbidden by the Calniar Recess of U74. Fishermen and buyers from different quarters colmouths of the great streams of Norrland. Times of violence and fierce tempers generated heinous crimes and licentious manners. eighteen pounds of butter. highly prized in war. and fisheries to Stockhohn and the lower country. The statutes were called skra. a word also signifying the guild itself.

" or Baron . was the Both distinguished by virtuous lives. up at this festival for a appeared at Rome in 1677. and intellect higher than the ordinary standard. Referring to the Carthusian order. inceptus et Compare Appendix v.Morals of llie people. Brigida.s native country from the earliest times to the year In the monastic and cathedi-al schools. which canonized her in 13917 Whatever learning was to be found in those days was almost entirely confined to the clergy if laymen are sometimes extolled on this ground. while a multitude of the present conveniences of life were unknown. for he that first reached home. by whom she had eight children. was one of the few who are said to have known the Greek. and speak to extraordinary men in the echo of their own breasts. The Orazioni di S. As old observances book having been printed in 1483 *. The term in the text is still used in some parts of Scotland. The wreath beforetime. the brethren and sisters of other religious houses would amend their life. Her conventual rules were sanctioned hy the pope in 1370. and In the strongly attached to their old customs. ibidem diversa instrumenta pro impresConflagraverunt ' Birger Person of Finsta. . as now. as also to the children of persons of rank. which was held in February at Candlemas tide. in Arabic and Italian.) ' In 1493 Baron Hans Akeson was shot with an arrow through the window in the roof of his own housg. as Baron Charles Ulfson Sparre'. 7 Bridfjet was the daughter of the Lawman of Upland. . until their military education commenced in a royal or baronial household. causing books to be printed couraged at her own expense. realiter aptata el jam per medium annum in usum ^ habita. would first reap the harvest of the year . Bridget. and collecting a library in the " the fires kindled in some provinces on May Day Even. whether to denote the obligation of the mistress of the house to take part in its defence. son of the latter. According to the temper of their time. offered Under Catholicism prayers were . attracted. (See note p. the race from the church on the day after Christmas . of the same family which afterwards assumed the name of Brahe she was married to the Lawman of Nerike. stroyed by fire in 1495 '. but of yore there were found minds in the North. dish wife was sometimes called upon to partake this duty . the first still subsisting may be mentioned. morgengabe. professor of tlieology. we do not pretend to deterIt is certain that in the middle age a Swemine. to the Diary quoted. R. S. St. as is proved by scandalous nar- ratives still preserved ''. The new University of Upsala has no name of mark to show save Eric Olaveson. Iinpressus per Johannem Snell. and the women of the hundred of Verend in Smaland. garb. as we may call Swedenborg. who in the absence of their husbands once repulsed a hostile attack. munere Dei finitus est anno Domini MccccLXxxiii. the councillors of state declared in 1491. Ger. and filled with tarred linen or parchment instead of So highly valued was the latter material. only the bride-torches are disused. such cases are but rare exceptions. &c. from the night and fogs of earth into " that other light. aged seventy. a custom still not uncommon fifty years ago in certain districts. Vadsten. glass. they were often turbulent. A printing-house at Vadstena was deFrom scarcity of paper. 3 Tradition places this occurrence in the heathen period. the murderer having first made an opening. cramped though they be by the bonds of prejudice. scanty instruction was doled out to such youths as devoted themselves to the ministry. m corrected thereby. Catharine. afterwards canonized. Morgongafva. as well as the wrestling games of the youth on the tops of the barrows. splints or rind of the birch tree were sometimes used for writing. Diar. an ordinary dress with damsels of condition." Of science and art scarcely aught is to be said . Introduction of printing. Typography reached Sweden early. State of kiiowletlije. Domestic manners. more than other men. both circled by the dance . The feasts of the chief men were distinguished by pomp of costume and abundance of meats. consort of the administrator Steno the elder. Eric Trolle. hardnatured. artis impressoriae magistrum good harvest doubtless a memorial of the Pagan midwinter sacrifice for a plentiful year. Of these we will content oui-selves with observing. other- was. are yet not rejected by the catholic church. on the morals of the Bridgetine convent at Dantzic. bride on the though » it is probably less ancient. reverence for age. in Stockholm. per. haps the only Swedish book. who composed the first detailed history of hi. and the parent cloister was founded at Vadsteiia. Archbishop Gustavus. among them one daughter. Bridget died at Rome in 1373. Carthusian monastery foimded by her husband at Marisefrcd ^. enthe new art. Diar. The revelations of St. inscribed Ingeborg quondam uxor Sten Sture. which lie at the foundation of national morality. and the rich girdle. " Frowe 9 Some of the books. a 1464. and have long preserved at their marriages various military fashions and distinctions ^. Vad. There was a to elect her son Israel Birgerson to the throne after proposal the deposition of Magnus Ericson. in 1506. s Dialogus Creaturarum optime moralizatus. and judicial sentences thus recorded are still spoken of by the common people. 43. albeit afterwards brought into ornament of the wise it stainless bride at the altar. our ancestors cannot be accused of setting at nought. sura librorum. their hope *' that by the example of this order. present made to the morning after the marriage day. of Protestantism. Ingeborg." are in the Library of Upsala. which has been translated into Arabic." as even heathenism beforetime called the supernal world. The two princi]iles. in modern days. and the May-poles at Midsummer. and the sanctity of wedlock. with the ample veil. . In noble families a spear formed part of the inor^ rowing-gift to the bride. videlicet torcular cum litteris stanneis. and the grace of the blessed virgin. which had been newly introduced. SWEDEN IN THE MIDDLE AGE. Her revelations were recorded by her confessor she herself wrote down her Prayers. country nuptial usages are still nearly the same with those described by Olaus Magnus three hundred years ago . which on the day of marliage was thrown out of the window. whom the Rhyme Chronicle declares to have been skilled " in the seven bookish arts and in all the laws. thatcontrastedly they show how the unsubstantial may take the image. still enjoy for that reason the privilege of inheriting equal portions w'ith their brothers. Ulf Gudmarson. T. remarkable in the annals of the human soul. mensis Decembris in vigilia Thomse. question at the coimcil of Basle. and colour of different ages. i. especially in the border provinces . S. At the end. and observe their rules with better faith and constancy than they had hitherto used. it was * thought. Bridget is the seer of Catholicism. Even in houses of the better class the window was sometimes in the roof. they appeal to revelations and visions.

and still amidst the perils of foreign oppression. Attachment to liberty. that the whidows of the castle of Stockholm ai-e said to have beeu carried oft' by the Danes under Christian I. 8 Gud ma egit fadernesland. the boy. ii.94 Education of youth. Magnus. Therefore did all price. And God may The bird So comfort send thee. and freedom above be noted in conclusion as the leading feature of old northei-n religion. sub fin. 7 5 nisi sagitta prius teti. now hold thee fast. xv. Swa gbra oc all willena djur i Nu Var mjerk hwat tik btir gora. was descended from the days of heathenism. v. tudes. we are told. 'Gainst wile and fetch defend thee . The while life's gifts are teeming. of which the wolves were the most formid. tik triist val siinda. on the other hand. 9 See the poem in S. Ut non panis pueris exhibeatur. To x-escue thine own father land. When he had reached an age wliieh admitted of his defending himself against violence. R. Youth was trained to hardy and martial habits . with an exhortation never again to submit to one without resenting it '. heller frij an annars tral A medan tu kant tik rora). thus sing : Thou noble Swede. the men of Sweden cherished the hope of a coming deliverance. unarmed. Stiernhnek (de jure Sueonum vetusto). Then mark what is beseeming Thee sense of truth and right God gave. Tu lat tik ej omvanda Tu vaga tin hals oc swa tina At fralsa tit hand. tu statt nu fast. belief in various elemental spirits. North. 1 gerint metam. ply well thy brand. as stated on his grave-stone at Strengness. The Gothlanders and Finlanders were regarded as the most expert bowmen the battle-axe and spear were regarded as the chief weapons of the inhabitants of Sweden Proper. according to end of the statement of Olaus at the En fogil han wiir sin egin bur. if only on account of the wild beasts. Gage thou thy neck. must earn his morning's meal by hitting the mark with the arrow *'. in his elegy on the death of Engelbert ^. the peasant seldom quitted his house. Despite the prohibition of the general use of arms. he received a blow on the among life in her vast and savage solithe forests and mountains of the back. verses quoted. / . . (The Gud hawer tik giwit sinn oc skal. munings with nature. does the wild beast guard his lair. even for the church. battra thet. Mend what was Sometimes the length of the distance and the the country prevented him from repairing thither more than once or twice in the year *. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. Relics of the catholic period are still found here and there among the country people in isolated superstitious usages and broken Latin prayers. . Bishop Thomas died in 1443. On such occasions the weapons were deposited in the porch. his brood-nest tends with care. not too highly. To value may bishop Thomas of Strengness. som forra brast. This consciousness of their rights no dominant power had been able to extinguish. difficulties of faulty in the past. says that this was only in the case of sons of nobles. whicli still bears from this able. Olaus Magnus. slightly modernized in the spelling by Professor Geijer. are as follows : O Och edla Svensk. unless we suppose that the manifold legends of such beings are ever genex'ated anew by com- circumstance the name of A Be rather free than other's slave. the weapon-house. So it was in certain districts of Vermeland the fifteenth century. S.

40. Line of Ivar and Sigurd. Ivar Widfamne." all he called Illrada (the bad ruler). 71). but he renounced the apUpsala (Saga 43.CATALOGUE OF KINGS. spoken of as kings at the same period by Adam of Bremen. The death-year of neither is known. Agne. c. married. the first teacher of Christianity. QEsten SWERKER^ Eric* Charles SwERKERSON ^ Canute Ericson ^ Swerker Carlson Eric Canuteson St. visited Sweden for the second time. ViSBUR. c. in 829 Fiolner. that Ingiald Ynglingasaga. whom . The year of his death is the rich. 195. Sons of Stenkil. Called also Eric the Lawgiver. " After Ingiald the Upsala power was taken from the Ynglings. BioRN Ironside. Dyggve. were both chosen and driven out. III. I Harald Hildetand. Eric. the old. 2 Lists of kings which do not agree. 1250. 1210. Dag. appears as king. IV. Stenkil's death intestine war. 1. The Upsala kings were the highest kings in Suilhiod. When Anskar. Ragnar Lodbrok. Chronicles of the kings. and assumed that of Swede king Auda (Sveakonung). Edmund and BioRN of the Hill' Eric Edmundson * BioRN Ericson Eric the Victorious ^ Olave the Lap-king 6 Anund Jacob The Odin. StenkilS + 1066 '. put to death twelve kings. 1229— . the tenth over-king of his family in of St. 3 First elected 1 by the East-Goths." c. Haco the Red ^. Eric Biornson and Refil. prinoes. Gods. 1216. DOMAR. at the time when there were many kings of hundreds. and after his death in 1134. son of Olave Naskcnung. 6 The first Christian He styles himself in the king. . likewise the catalogue of kings appended to the law of West-Gothland. Sigurd Ring. Eric. HuGLEIK. Frey.) One Ring and his son Eric are till the death of the latter. Yngwe Frey. the Folkunger Canute Johanson. ^ By some placed before Stenkil. 1234. Ottar. 1160. SWEGDER. + + + + + + + Yngwar. Olave. Yngwe and Alf. Ynglingasaga.b. 9 ' " Heathen counter-king. c. reckon as king. Kol and Burislef. Egil. +1 John Swerkerson II. 7 Counter-king. s The first who is named king of the Swedes He overcame the murderer of St. c. ' After Two kings Eric." " It is a saying of men. but had no lands. JoRUND and Eric. and greatest part of Suithiod. King of Swedeland in 1150. SiGURD Ring. son of The Ynglings. 7 Reigned but a short time. lb.. Eric Refilson ^. Ingiald Illrada •. a. Thereafter the sons of Stenkil. Eric slew Charles Swerkerson. Braut Anund. Ane. Randwer. + 885 + 935 + 993 + 1024 + 1052 Edmund the old ^. who chose the Danish prince Magnus Nilson. son to a daughter of Inge the elder. 45. 1222. Blot Swen in his old age became a Christian. other counter-kings. pellation of Upsala king. DOMALD. Lines of Swerker and St. who . 5 Reigned conjointly with his brother Olave. unknown. with two and Goths. as well as some others. Line of Stenkil. Ragwald.. 1168. Olave Niiskonung is mentioned in several old catalogues at the same time. Inge the elder and Halstan Philip (+ 1118) and Inge the younger 3. in 853. refer to a continued partition of the kingdom under several contemporary Many sea-kings. NiORD. •* by fraud therefore was he was king over the . Alrek and Eric. Eric Ericson ? 1155. were for some time without a king. (Segersall. to Radbert. 3 Anskar. 6 Son of St. Vanland. 8 Son of the West-Gothic Earl Ragwald Ulfson. a king Olave was ruler in Birca. He was slain by the West-Goths.. : to RoREK I 2. Adils. the Danish prince Magnus Henrickson. then his son Eric. 34. After the death of Inge the younger. Freya. who ruled over a great war-force. who afterwards reigned. Sons of Halstan.

has embraced the care and burden of setting us free. • Pomerania* (dethroned) Christopher of Bavaria ^ Christian I. Hadorph. D. 1459. 1) Waldemar * (dethroned) ^ * . the younger son. qui vocantur Dalakarla. 1471—97. Captive 1389. renounced the Norwegian crown in 1450. Magnus Ericson 2 (dethroned) VI. 1319 . . S. 1362. . Administrator. Foreign and Union-Kings. Stexo Suanteson Sture. Eric Axelson (Tott). ' — . Dux et Princeps qui tribus annis regnavit et postea Interfectus est. King of Sweden 1520. 1464. B. 1434 + 143G 143(i. 1290. + + + + 1412. A. 1374. again king 1407. 1350 1359. 1448. 1448. . July on the Rhyme Chronicle. Admmistra• + 1481. + ''" Charles Canuteson 2 King Archbisliop Jens Bennetson (Oxenstierna)^. Diarium Vadstenense. of the Council of State. 3 " The worthy Lord and Father in God. Administrator. 8 His father. + Bennet and Nicholas Jonson (Oxenstierna). GO. man — Chosen in Sweden 1388. Rusticorum. ' Chosen in Sweden 1396. . 1412. 9 Revolted against his brotlier VValderaar in 1275. — 1441. King of Sweden 1457. 67. Chosen in Sweden 1483. dethroned 1521 flees from his dominions 1523. 1559. . chosen in Sweden. regent till his death in 1266 bestows dukedoms on his other sons. is expelled. is compelled to share his kingdom with them in 1310. by his brotliers the dukes Eric and Waldemar. 1520. King of Norway. 11. Eric. in same year king of Norway. dethroned along with his father in 1363. imprisoned them and cut them off 1512. and the most influential Counter-kings. 3 Sister's son to King Magnus Erieson. Administrator. Kettil Carlson (Wase). A. dethroned 1464. 151. . chosen king in his third year. VII. Administrators. 1457. R. . King of Swedeland 1276. . The Folkungers. S. guardian till 1303. Stockholm. Haco. 1512. of Oldenburg' (dethroned in Sweden) John * (dethroned in Sweden) Christian II. King 1363. by hunger - in 131S. .. eldest son of Magnus. * ' in 1497 deposed in 1501. 1504 + + + 1503. 1321. Prince and Governor . flees to Dantzic in recalled 1464 dethroned anew 1465 1457." Assurance . Magnus Ladulas + + ^ BiRGER Magnusson (dethroned) 1302. Co-regent with Margaret. dethroned by Engelbert in 1434. the Tyrant " (dethroned) . Became possessed of the throne . by God's help and St. of the whole realm 1279. Swedish Regents under the Union. 1501 Suanto Nilson Sture. from the slavery and ruin into which King Charles had brought us all. 65. Steno Sture the elder.. King Birger imprisoned in 1306. Albert h^Ric of of Mecklenliurg^ (dethroned) ^. 1512 " ^ 8 first Chosen King of Sweden 1440. administrator in Sweden during the vacancy of the throne. 1 The High Marshal Thorkel Canuteson. . Eric's. 2 Chosen King in Sweden 1448. of Sweden. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. . jNIargaret founds tlie Union in 13!)7 . Matts Ketilmundson.95 V. A. . in Norway. Bisliop 1457. Administrator. 1.. 1466. . Jens Archbishop of Upsala. tor. Engelbert Engelbertson ^ Charles Canuteson (Bonde) Administrator. Son of Duke the Eric. 1449. Liberated 1395. + 1470. Again acknowledged dethroned in all the three kingdoms in 1439. Earl Birger. . . during the minority till 1333. 3 Acknowledged as heir of his father on the Swedish thronein 1499.

it is said that. FROM DENMARK.I GUSTAVUS VASA. or those of 1497 and 1496. . he played the king." but in his younger days his temper was uncontrollably violent. if we may trust the unanimous assurances of the more recent historians." and. Peter Brahe *. The latter possessed was married to lady Cecilia of Eka. which differ little from each other. patted him on the head. whence the family is also called Stormwase. 7 in 1529. is not more trustworthy than the account of those same chronicles. or fish taken in his waters by any poor peasants. he would not on 1 His oldest seal bears the arms. from the family arms ^. is better known than the twelfth of May. THE LIBERATION. John. ROUT OF BRUNNEBURN. CHOSEN CAPTAIN OF THE DALES. which had already given members to the council of state for two centuries ^. letter to his wife. to 1330. saying. promises that he will in a short time set the crown on her head. like Cyrus of old. but Gustavus having given it the yellow colour. during one of his latest visits to Sweden '. that Chris- tina Gyllenstienia. who aimed at the Acquisition of supreme power for himself. The old hostility of the Vasas. he lord the latter appears to be the cori'ect one. Bengt Jenson (Oxenher son was the archstierna). however. with justice be called his majesty's own v/ork. STATE OF SWEDEN UNDER THE DANISH HIS CAPTIVITY IN DENMARK AND ESCAPE. and others. and to engage that in case of wood being cut in his forests. in the Library of bpsala. seemed slumbering. the tv being pronounced as v. This family was raised to high consideration by the Steward Christer Nilson." Of all the years stated. was born on the manor of Lindholra in Roslagen. In 1490. who fell fighting for ChrisI. '- and Genealogy wase. CONDUCT OF THE BISHOPS AND CLERGY. who was likewise of a family which had shed its blood for the Danish domination in Sweden*.) 3 The husband of his daughter. are uncertain as to the year of his birth. grandsons on the male side were Ketil Carlson. John Christerson. The name of Wasa. or approached attainment^. allied himself with the family of the administrator. (they were followed by Tegel. that " he would yet be a man remarkable in his days. by a marriage with his sister Brita. or treat them like senseless beasts. A. Other old manuscript chronicles of the reign of king Gustavus. Compare Peringskbld. REVOLT OF THE DALESMEN. was obliged to sue forgiveness for different acts of outrage he had committed. a younger brother. the only one in which this feast fiills upon that day is 149G. GENERAL INSURRECTION. supposes that he was born in nephew Tegel father. as he was called and wrote himself before he became king. even such as were nearmost to Gustavus himself. if he lived. occurs in Chaucer. 5 Extract from the Minute-book of the town of Stockholm. with additions and emendations. administrator in 1457 and 14C5. councillor and knight. of Rasmus Ludvicit " So that may son's Chronicle. the instant " place them in irons. in the 1495. but for some time also both their influence and their activity. after the chronicles. died unmarried known.) give either the la. to Gustavus Adolphus. GUSTAVUS VASA. Monumenta (JEttartal). in a Linkbping. King Charles IX.. 97 CHAPTER YOUTH OF GUSTAVUS.stnamed year. took his designation from tian cil from 1322 70. the son of this powerful noble. 8 In his manuscript Chronicle of King Gustavus. although he himself gives 1490 as the year. 1 In 1499 or 1501. 1?20— 1523. then belonging to his grandmother Sigrid IJaner. as consort of Steno Sture the younger. • She was daughter of Magnus Carlson of Eka. This date. the eldest son of his parents ^. The first of this family who is known with certainty is tlie knight Ketll Carlson. The Swedish orthography of the name is Wasa. which reconciled the patriotic party to a family that had hitherto zealously embraced the interest of the Union. its law 5. of which nor his father. She was yet a child in the house of her mother. where that date is found. who himself revised the history of Eric Johanson 7. Therefore the wase in the arms was originally black. properly a copy. John. Uplandica. it is asserted. who actually possessed it. in the year 1490. Gustavus was only a few years old when king . 1511. brother of . D. The day of his birth. was administrator in 1448 His bisliop Jens Bengtson. who claim to Icnow more than their predecessors . FLIGHT OF CHRISTIAN II. IT . with more probability. Gostaf Ericson. and now generally retained only in proper names." Tegel says in the dedication of his History of Gustavus I. Sigrid Baner. assigns to his Rhyme Chronicle composed by himan age greater by two yeai's. " \vhich then was year it was the our Lord's Ascension Day 3. 6 Magnus. Ei-ic Johanson. DISTURBANCES. meaning bundle. in the battle of Brunkeberg. Neither the grandfather of Gustavus. ADVENTURES OF GUSTAVUS IN GOVERNORS. member of the coun- John. in A Rydboholm. (Wase. such as is used for filling up ditches. GUSTAVUS CHOSEN KING. and is otherwise un- the sense of wisp. SIEGE OF STOCKHOLM. Trans. as the story goes. suniames not being yet in use among the Swedish nobility. with the inscription. 9 So Tegel. was present among the elderly dames at the birth. bishop of administrator in 1464 his brother Eric. which some derive from the estate of Wasa in Upland. Steno Sture the Elder. was borne neither by himself nor his forefathers. much weight Eric Johanson is styled " a merry and facetious . it has since been taken for a wlieatsheaf. however. and the explanation to which this points is borne out by several other cu-cumstances. of Gustavus. self. and here properly a fagot. DALECARLIA. END OF THE UNION. GUSTAVUS ADMINISTRATOR. at an agreement with the town of Stockholm in the council-chamber. and had a son-in-law and three grandsons. for these. in public affairs. and we have ourselves compared several of them. in the Nordiii Collections. was descended from an old Swedish family. kept the boy Trotte Carlson." Gustavus. VIII. but allow them their rights in GuSTAVUs Ericson. saw him at play with others of his age . a brave warrior. THE LIBERATION. and was married November 11.

and gave Gustavus Master Ivar. disguising himself. latter was informed that his young pupil had on " See what I will do I will some occasion said. To the charge of having broken his oath Gustavus made this answer : He was harsh to all. he thrust it through his Curtius. was lord Gustavus Ericson seized with anguish bej^ond measure. he heard them. he stayed eight months. opened negociadrance." it is said. and made no scruple in sending six of his followers as hostages. and passed on his way with such speed that on the first day he is said to have ! sistance himself kirk. and reached Lubeck in A Here safety on the last day of September. sour bread. and German soldiers. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. its return was cut off' they were seized. this time. to gain time. For it is known that he was in fact placed in the grammar- Gustavus was committed to the custody of Baron Eric Bauer. . for which new taxes were imposed. amount he had amassed by the sale of indulgences in Sweden ^. was in truth not very palatable. By such . he . and is spoken of at that time as distinguished among his comrades for valour. Danes. get out the Dalesmen. where he spent upwards of a year in a captivity that would have been tolerable in other respects. say the chronicles. Steno Sture himself supplied his tions for peace. when Christian arrived with his fleet before Stockholm." say they. that he was early taken from his studies to military service and court life " a noble youth. . go to Dalecarlia. and tell how he had been at a wolf-chase hunting merrily. With the winter of 1520 the campaign was to begin for the paths across the Holwed and the Tiwed. on board. treacherously carried off" to Denmark. with provisions he was even with difliculty dissuaded from going on board. a thrashing. long enough to hear that Steno Sture had fallen. and a joj'ous temperament." Gustavus sufi'ered his schoolflogging . Famine had already wasted their camp. hence the Danes considered that a war against Sweden was These preparations best carried on in winter *. and sums of money besides collected by loans or Even a papal legate was robbed of the plunder. others as a pilgrim. Escapes to Lubeck. . and caused the agents of the legate who conveyed it to be drowned. persuasive eloquence. afterwards. whence Gustavus is said to have sent warning to his father and others of the Swedish His former host and keeper soon repaired nobles. English. a fact which confirms the view we have taken as to the year usually given for his birili being erroneous. most of them say) received into the household of Steno Sture' the the remark often younger . chronicles protiably reckon by the old Swedish Forest-miles. 3 This was not all in money. All accounts agree that the young Gustavus was placed in the seminary of Upsala in 1509 . The winter of this year too was severe." He first bore arms in the feud of Steno Sture' the younger against the archbishop Gustavus TroUe. he effected his escape. in aftertimc one of the props of his throne. in his train. gave themselves up to the generosity of the enemy. and the sails been meanwhile swelled by a favourable having wind. his kinsman. now spoke only of the great military preparations against Sweden. being held responsible in a heavy sum by the king for his safe custody. His sleep was neither quiet nor delectable. His early exploits.98 School-days of Gusfavus. * " " that lakes. were still at that time more dangerous to traverse in summer than in winter . while jesting among themselves. Notes. and knock the Danes on the head. the children of were termed wolf-cubs by the Sweden's nobles sea. listened in his youth. At the table of his host he heard the young warriors vaunt that they would play St. conbeer. in the early morning. When the boat which carried them had reached the open averted from the child the danger which afterwards overtook the youth. But Steno the Elder. exported on the legate's account. two of which go to one of the modern scale. Peter's game with the Swedes. A prisoner in Jutland. [1520- and wished to carry him to Deumark. which served as the pretext of the war . and was subjected to personal chastisement The while there by the Danish schoolmaster 2. and Lawrence Siggeson. he defeated the Danish force sent to the prelate's as. ready-witted. black sisting of salt meat. Gustavus was among the number and with hi in doctor Hemming Gadd. governor of the castle of Kalloe. cast lots for " Swedish lands and Swedish damsels. The consequences which were to follow to all The king. that he had nothing to fear. but consisted partly of iron. Copenhagen was crowded with French. Scottish. aiipreheiiding the king to be more bent on procuring a hostage than a foster-son. were permitted to return home without hinand travelled twelve miles s. some say as an ox-herd. Christian confiscated the cargo in Elsinore. even if he had been better furnished than he was '. and rancid herring. so mean Six Swedish miles on foot in one day (which may here a day and a night) is in any case considerable. ice. and that Sweden was subdued. taken by a Danish shi]) of war. the Swedish leaders were already predicted in Lubeck. butter." After the elevation of his former scholar he fled from the country. fi'om the improbability that this step should not have occurred until his nineteenth year. with his playmates. when Christian pretended a desire to pay him a visit. with which corresponds made by the chroniclers. in North Jutland. who said Micolaus Bothniensis. in the summer of 1517. by which alone an army could advance to the interior of the country. which was detained by conportion of the troops voluntarily trary winds. and became yet more fatal in the fleet. and quitted the school A hundred years with a malison never to return. which displeased Gustavus. comely. contumelies. who was then lord feudatory of Aland. if the fate which threatened his native land had allowed him quiet by day or For tlirough all the country men sleep by night. to whose lessons he had fleet . it is said. so that neither " meat nor drink might savour pleasantly to him. for he could think of nothing else than how he might find opi^ortunity to extricate himself from the un" just captivity in which he was held At length. Old narrators are also unanimous that in 1514 he was (his eighteenth year. 1519. At Dufveness. thither and demanded his captive from the council of Lubeck. then drawing out his little sword. Gustavus was sent to his At father. up for the salvation of his native country. and prompt " whom God had stirred in action. the country people could point out the places in the neighbourhood of Upsala he frequented school. formed the common subjects of discourse among those by whom Gustavus was surrounded. alluding to the papal interdict. " The Hvitfeld. and other wares. streams. and carried the Swedish banner in the combat at Brennwhich forced the Danes to retreat. 5 and marshes were covered with strong His fare. in the following year.

Steno. " " Yet would this has brought into bondage ^ " have little helped. and the merchant-ship from Warnemunde which took But him on board was bound to Stockholm. and. without danger or hindrance. Being with diflBculty protected by the burgesses. while before Calmar lay a detachment of the Danish fleet. GUSTAVUS VASA. we are command. and whom neither obligation. He which he had been repelled Gustavus defended himself against the charge of having broken his vford drawn upon him by flight the appointed to Eric Baner. 85. Many such were at this time issued for the chief men. letter and seal. A revolt of the EastGoths was already quelled the West-Goths and the Vermelanders. burgomaster of Lubeck. dated Calmar 3. for who knew what he might effect ?" Stockholm and Calmar were the only strong places in Sweden which the enemy had not yet won. already summoned to the coronation ^. and there lived for some time under He made himself known to the old ai'chhiding. His father. the rather For that that he was now also lord of Sweden. lord many ways the helpers of their oppressors and enemies. that king Christian would take order that there should be no scarcity either of herrings or salt in the country and some shot bolts and arrows at him. and had given him no pledge there." Letter to Magnus Goye. after which surrender the king. nor law. told. specially cited to the coronation. ii." The Smalanders showed anxiety for their own safety in the first place. a price having been already set upon his head *. retired to the hilly district of Smalaiid. of the different provinces." continues the Chronicle. iv. who gladly saw them slandering. should be called prisoners. protection. He had already received the king's 2 ^ any proof. of the refractoriness and insolence with repaired to Stockholm. although we hear that he so allegeth without at Calmar. and to Christian himself*^ the castle was held by Anne Bielke. over- For with what justice can reached. " so that the letter was of more power than the sword *. whether barons or yeomen. who had hitherto held defended by women. to remain there. was the son whom and ruining one another. as well as for others of our friends. and in his hatred of the Danes. how it had been the purpose of king Christian to oppress the Vendish towns. a promontory in the vicinity of Calmar. nor justice. THE LIBERATION. his widow. an(l "We lay not penalty. Scandinavian Memoirs. and who Hence it befits not we those were that took us. where he found his brother-in-law. Bengt Ericson of Scaelsness. in Sudermania. for not many know wliere you are It can go no worse with me than with all stead. who with other good lords. Let one appear who may prove fairly and in truth. deceiving. in the parish of Hult. and deceived. under Severiu Norby. Scondia. had submitted to the king Upper Sweden alone was disturbed." " I am if Danes who had instigated him to the commission of the deed. and " warned them against the banquet which was now prepared for the Swedes. and the German garrison in the castle was so ill-disposed. . convoked the coronation diet for the 1st November. '^. which Christian in fact demanded. Rhyme ' Chronicle. and perished in the massacre. bt-en tutor in the son's family. Hadorph on the Even after his elevation to the throne. but men surprised. my companions.He 1523. hundred of South Wedbo. who traversed the country and distributed letters of protection from the king. Joachim Brahe. • Narrative of Clement Rensel. has . Register in the State Archives for 1529. the Swedish lords who are already gathered about the king. " were so dull and blinded. he be called a captive that never merited captivity." Gustavus sometimes appeared in assemblages of the peasants. he said " . ^ Tills summons could not have been issued before the of Stockholm on the 7th September. >* Joannes Magnus. Messenius. for the Swedes. They took also the oath of fidelity to the envoy of Christian. that I am a captive and not a hostage. and proceeded to the town. and had concluded a league with their neighbours of the then Danish province of Bleking. for he was an accomplice in the homicide. John Magnusson. With you the matter stands quite otherwise. May 1520. they were both Gustavus had wished to offer his services to Christina Gyllenstierna." he says. for peaceful intercourse and mutual defence against all acts of violence which might be attempted by either of the two kingdoms. who had 'He complains Sound. to bid Eric Ericson desist from such words as stain the king's honour and good repute. as we learn from his proposal to a nobleman of Smaland to accompany him thither ^. Olave Peterson. and Gustavus from the first determined to repair to Dalecarlia. '• This shall no honourable man establish on any good grounds. and *". that they threatened him with death when he exhorted them to a valiant defence. for the courage of the burghers had sunk. H 2 . among some peasants who held land " of his fatlier. it is said. in his Chronicle. Pursued. the be-rt.] repairs to Calmar."' Their usual answer was. . " as a captive. reason they deemed it was better to dismiss this Gustavus Ericson to his own country ." In this prudent mood the baron departed. singularly enough. Christian had already blockaded the capital by sea and land. in a letter to the West-Goths. and the principal men of the council I remembered. returning for a short time to Denmark. upon his oath and promise. calumniating. and wandering mostly in lonely tracks. . he quitted the town on the same day on which it was summoned by Severin Norby. as also the Smalanders. After visiting his brother-in-law and his sister Margaret. what would then become of my wife and children ? Perhaps ill might even come of it for her and your parents. Gustavus landed secretly at Stensoe. I should remain absent. Gustavus repaired to his father's estate of Rajfsness. The son of Joachim Brahe. came to the king of Denmark according to his own — found the whole country filled with discords and mutual treachery . had not Master Nicholas Broms. and was at last incited by anguish of conscience to an attempt on his own life Magnusson had lately refused admittance with contumely but he was now dead. that they became in wish. disguised. to meet in their company au unexpected death. in what skirmish and fight we were made prisoners. To her Gustavus repaired and found but a comfortless welcome . sacrificed to his remorseful vengeance several acquainted us with his father's answer. where he concealed himself during a great portion of this summer is unknown but in the month of September he arrived without money or clothes at the manor of Tarna. Attempts to raise tlie „_ •'' Smalanders. and in vain entreated him not to obey the call. of the assassin of Engelhe resembled both in his untameable passions. that we should again return back to our chief.

explained the law of Sweden to the estates. on tirst penetrating. way to Dalecarlia." rapid progress liad been made with the fortifications of Stockholm. [1520- who had sought refuge in the neighbouring cloister of Maricfred. Dr. The capitulation of Stockholm is subscribed by the archbishop Gustavus TroUe. lUGS. ibid. or intendaiit. V. was declared hereditary king of Sweden ^. See the old Dale song in the Svenska Folkvisor (Swedish Popular Songs). though Celsius has of the latter term a rentniaster. Eric. April 5. The town was well suj)plied with military stores. The old archbishop advised Gustavus likewise to submit to the present order of things. informing him that he was already included in the amnesty which had been stipulated at the surrender of Stockholm 2. So had the imperial legate. while Hvitfeld. The old defensive works had been improved or reconstructed. against the will of the commonalty ^. desired that the state of insecurity and confusion which had so long subsisted should be terminated . as well as that enactment of the Land's Law. who had allowed themselves to be employed by the king as intriguers. accompanied by a single servant. though from a peasantry left without leaders.hich have so long raged in this realm. and received bishop. the truth plainly is. imparted the first tidings of the massacre of Stockholm. The terrible news was soon confirmed. and Gustavus ])repared for flight. the royal forces had suffered The Dalesmen had taken part in this great loss. viho generally follows his authority in Swedish affairs witli literal closeness. s The battle took place on Good-Friday. He reckons the peasants slain on this occasion at some hundreds. with the estates at tlic diet of Arboga in 1517. transmitted to his majesty (Charles John) from Munich. in Hvitfeld. who robbed and deserted him Gustavus took his at crossing Kolsund's Ferry.'' barn in the hamlet of Isala''. wliich Gustavus threshed at Rankhytta. and not that of election. The archbishop was dumb from koping was besieged by the East-Gothlandcrs . where the common people . and worked for daily hire in this quarter. See the document . whose simplicity and good-will they used for their own purposes in the name of the * country !" These expressions of the bishop f(jund many who assented to them. whence their first answer to Gustavus when he attempted to rouse them was. bishop Brask of Lin- there were some that raised themselves to the power of kings and chiefs. that their source and commencement were the dissensions prevailing among the barons . " the real cause of those pernicious troidjles v. Once after such a conversation. « Hadorph. . letter of April 26. rising . while the infliction of the crudest penalties on those who had ventured to stir up the peasants discovered the lengths to which his vengeMost of those who possessed ance might extend. September 29. Hadorph on the Rhyme ' Half a mile east of Westeras." m The clergy at this juncture saw more distinctly than any other class.still remember with pride. 8. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. stripping the council of its legitimate authority. exceptArvid of Abo. the bishops Matthias of Strengness and Otho of Westeras." said bishop Matthias of Strengness to the peasants of Nerike. and Hemming Gadd was well-nigh slain when he ventured to speak of the capitulation of Stockholm. Jacob Ulfson. all of wliom. ii. Jens Beldenacke. that the king's sons should have preference In the election wherefore. any rank or consequence in the country at this time. Jacob Ulfson had been himself surprised in his manor of Arnus . and rather by sighs and tears than words. needed. was made prisoner by the peasants of Nei'lke. where the enemy. and others double the number. The place is still called they had no such leaders as they greatly Olave Peterson. 2 In support of this nomination were alleged the pretended descent of Christian from St. and now in Cbristiania. who had pointed ovit to the enemy the road aci-oss the Tiwed. is pre" a state monument ^ as are also the served as . News of the massacre. Eric Abrahamson. . and the barons. Royal 6 King Charles XI. and yeomanrj' of Nerike. made 5 He is called the Goodman (gubbe) of Trannevick. and the still bloodier action fought shortly after at Upsala. and the king. gave it u]) for lost if it were not reduced before the winter. were of the Danish ing bisltop faction. and the father of Gustavus himself. Exasperation against the prelates. wliich niight have been changed into a victory. and among them Gustavus's father. and have stored up in their me- The barn in mories his adventures and perils. inquire. had not the peasants dispersed to plunder'.. peasant's dress. as Christian was the sole surviving son of his father. liad occasioned tumults and violence in some places. . the principle of hereditary right. and offered his mediation with the king.100 Clergy and nobles favour the Danes. makes them ten thuusand. "rather to die sword in hand than to submit to king Christian. Since tlie resolution taken by Steno Stur^ the younger. had been met by a stout resistance. and Stockholm was given " up by the nobles in the town. Flight ol'Gustavus. Assurance of the burgesses of Orebro. and a similar judgment was often passed upon the Sture's. In the conflict of Balundsas ^. from him a detail of the state of things in tliis part of the country. 1520. Joachim Brahe's farmer or renter. with this inscription." war. bishop Otlio of Westeras was seized in his own cathedral. " " Because Chronicle. of whom ^ horror. 3 His name is found in the letter of protection to Christina Gyllenstierna. who had besieged it throughout the summer. The originals are in the archives of Christian Sept. and arrived at the Kopparberg He was now clad in a at the end of the month. It is now marked " Here by a monument of porphyry. Olave Peterson. composed after popular legends. and the Danish bishop. in conjunction with the remaining barons of the kingdom. on the 30th October preceding his coronation. and after his death for his queen and son on the side of the both are dated burghers a similar guarantee was given 1520. when Jacob Ulfson had emvain. So discrepant are the historical accounts of this Jute-bog. that Gustavus plied axe and flail among their forefathers. This the Swedish barons in his camp procured. 1520. as also by twelve of the councillors present. that they well remembered Good-Friday at Upsala *. visited it in 1C84. set his seal to the act by which Christian. The king rewarded all submission with the most gracious promises. tliat the fate of the union must now be decided once for all. where he likewise II. It was on the 25th November that he rode av»'ay secretly from the house at Raifsness. In this they engage to hold the castle for king Christian. and wished to soften the impending eruption by dexterous ma" If we nagement. should be applied. it happened that an ployed his eloquence old servant of Joacliim Bralie presented himself at the castle of Gripsholm *. Suckot. and by lying discourses and rumours crept into favour with the commons of Sweden.

The rumour of Arendt. which are as little likely to be forgotten. the king's bailiff in whom next morning he retm-ned. nor did they know this stranger who spoke to them. carlia had now become notorious. and its noblest blood had been shed . towards the upper coimtry . Meantime. formerly a soldier with Steno Sture. but selected by Providence to be the saviour of the country. a great concourse of people assembled as was their wont on occasions of conmion peril. had discovered the distinguished thresher to a maid-servant at the latter place. the honour-loving nobles." than to be spared and survive them . but now a resident in Dalecarlia. The place in sympathy the forest at Harness '. a stick in the hand would be the only weapon allowed them for the future . then would he be- come. who had sought refuge. the priest of Swierdsio. which long afterwards shewed marks of the Dalesmen's aiTows. under-bailiff in Dalecarlia. Agitation against tlie Danes. hastened The wnd blew to the church and rang the bells. ou Asby moor'. Rasmus the -Jute. of Christian's cruelties had yet hardly penetrated to these distant quartei's. all the arms of the Swedish peasants would be wrested from them and consumed ^. or the good faith of Sweno Elfsox. as the treachery of Arendt Person.spoke to the people at the church of Rettwick. by God's help. The peasants of Rettwick declared their sympathy. being concealed in a load of straw. " take himself off king Christian. and afterwards' at Mora in Christmastide. . owner of the estate of Orness. sought there a refuge. which also served him for some time as a place of refuge that cellar in the hamlet of Utraedland '. sition. 2 Such is said to have been the answer of lord Eric Johan- worked as a thresher Gustavus Ericson. Meanwhile the Dalesmen came to a better dispoShortly after Gustavus quitted Rettwick. several of the Swedish nobles of the Danish faction arrived there with the view of securing his person. So. might they now show themselves men wlio wished to guard their native land from slavery. Among those whom Henry of Mellen. raised this memorial. ^ In the parish of Leksand it is still called King's Hill. Nor must we decline to state. . deserted by all others. They surprised the bailiff at his official Some peasants who saw them coming in with about a hundred horse on the ice of lake Silian." In the last days of 1520. '' son. partly in the priest's house. the remembrance neither of Josse Ericson's oppressions. men of Mora he received at this time an answer no wise favourable . gallows and wheel . His descendant in the sixth generation. and the strangers. 3 This was actually done upon the king's journey from Stockholm. they said that they were resolved to remain true to the homage they had sworn to Dales. where he hid from his pursuers the spot where he harangued the peasants all these are of the Dales. and how they themselves had suffered and ventured for the freedom of the realm . Arendt Person. with . who kept him concealed in the It was ou this journey that Gustavus was forest. ran his discourse matter was yet too new for the peasants of the . had despatched to this province " to seize or kill him. which Tegel has not here followed exactly. but would undertake nothing unless after From the deliberation with the other parishes. ' So the Manuscript Chronicles. ! i | Bennet Branson. and shortly after a nobleman of Upland named John Michelson." was Nicholas the West-Goth. a captain of great experience in the service of Steno Sture the younger. The of their search had however disappeared its object failure was owing to Barbara Stigsdotter. still shown by the descendants of those who for- merly shared his dangers. who. wounded. had yet died away in the Dales . woollen jerkin. by the church of Mora laboured. and partly in the tower. 101 tlie house at Orness. pursued by the foes of the realm. attended by twenty men. and risk life and welfare for their freedom and the deliverance of the but the realm. as the Rhyme Chronicle says. now granted shelter to the persecuted fugitive." The barn still belongs to the family of Sweno Elfson. the rich miner Anders Person. Suspecting treachery in him. which the emissaries of the bailift' were searching with and he would have been betrayed by their spears the blood dropping on the snow. whence the peasants. and the young to inform themselves. said. They drew so lively a picture of the massacre in Stockholm. in 1787. it is said. it is said. as an example both of the dangers and manners of that time. that Gustavus in his fugitive condition was obliged for his own His arrival in Dalesafety even to shed blood. that tlie bystanders were affected to tears. and slew him *. under the liytta. as well as the latter-named individual. by which he escaped to Master Jon..] Daleearlla. and the peasants the hillock surrounded by brought him food marshes. on which the master of the house. and him with a horse. and afterwards accompanied him to his friends. called him king Stock. . He bade the old to consider well. Erics-gait of the king. sledge. of cutting his horse in the foot. much . In the parish of Swaerdsice. what manner of tyranny foreigners had set up in Sweden. and if theLr limbs were left unmutilated. Gustavus continued his flight over the wilderness which separates East from West Dalecarlia. and his eighth successor received a medal from Gustavus III. had not the faithful ranger taken the precaution. nor of . Peter and Matthew Olson of Marness. and (as Gustavus first . and guide. GUSTAVUS VASA. The former was a nobleman. THE LIBERATION. a Dane. and who. had joined Gustavus. she had warned Gustavus in the night. their chief. but went on the very Engelbert's heroism. " rather with his associhis own father had chosen ates. they his way would be marked by abode in Mora. and received him now with friendly words and assurances of welcome . when Christian offered him his life. had been the school companion of Gustavus at Upsala. the wife same day to the district. when unobserved. the imposition of a new tax 3 In the parish of Mora. could only ransom their lives by the assurance that they would do no harm to Gustavus. in God's name to die *. with his wife. or at least do him prejudice with the Dalesmen. where he lay three days concealed under a fallen fir-tree. so that it bled. Sweden was now trampled underfoot by the Danes. Gustavus III. whither Gustavus proceeded from RankA gold-embroidered shirt-collar. About the new year there arrived at Mora Lawrence Olaveson. furnished .His wanderings in 1523. refused to harbour him any longer. . the king's lieutenant in the castle of Westeras. who thus incurred the irreconcileable enmity of her husband. was at hand The . In this neighbourhood dwelt the king's ranger Swen Elfson. to seize his guest. where his life was more than once the case) was saved l>y the and decision of a woman. and bade him whither he could.

Chronicle complains that it was rigorously exacted. He had been bishop of Odense." When Gustavus had begun the siege of Stockholm. ibid. plained that they . namely. as was Jens Beldenacke first the hundred men in the early part of February 1521. made himself Streugness ." wherefore they begged them to give their help for the sake of the brotherly league by which. i victory of his followers. " The 1 redde fast thertill. from this small beginning . the former an accomplice. and comhad allowed Gustavus Ericson to In this. Ten years afterwards. The Rhyme troops. viously to the election in Vadstena. had been appointed the king's lieutenant in Sweden. where the principal and most influential yeomen of all the parishes in the eastern and western Dales elected him to be " lord and chieftain over them and the commons of the realm of Sweden ^. whose hatred is said to have cost many of the Swedish burgesses their lives >. even after the death of her daughter Divika. preserved all her influence over Christian. Thus the Dalesmen swore fidelity to Gustavus. had done wrong such a noble leader they stood much ill need of many a worthy Swedish warrior daily expected *. Gustavus placed them amidst a ring of peasants to tell their story. Sweden with the tears and shrieks of widows and orphans . the commonalty of both countries had been united. and a kinsman of the huckster Sigbrit. a fugitive in the forests. ." f* This year the great silver-tax. and now the miners likewise swore fidelity to his cause. in chapmanhede to sway. Gustavus again appeared at the head of fifteen hundred Dalesmen. The Dalecarlians now sent off runners on snow. (Troil." says Olave Peterson. and although spoke to the assembled people from the barrow on the royal domain of Norrala. He was also inducted into the see of Skara. the"lord Gustavus Ericson. in the upper part of the parish of Lima." Some scholars who had arrived from Westeras. Those cruelties which king Christian had already exercised on the best in the land. was levied in Sweden. Troil.) It was therefore the election of an administrator undertaken on their own It is also clear that Gustavus bore that title preauthority. until Sweden should receive from God a the mining districts and the Dalesmen wrote to the commons of Helsingland. called in Sweden. requesting that the Helsingers might bear themselves like true Swedish men against the overbearing violence and tyranny of the Danes. there took prisoner his enemy Christopher Olson ". while the Danes and their abettors in Stockholm long contmued to speak of him and his party as a band of robbers in the woods. if they would take arms and show themselves to be stout-hearted up men. Theodoric Slagheck '. Yet at first they hesitated to embrace the cause. showed at this time Gorius great zeal for the cause of king Christian. is still known by that name. where a numerous people. who would never submit to the domination of the Danes. and answer the questions of the crowd. " whatever evils might befall them from the oppression of foreign or native masters. Here the rumour reached him. that they had received a friendly answer to the request which their accredited messengers had preferred on that occasion. vacant by the murder of its " into that of bishop. " as they well proved by their actions. Rhyme fast plans lay. (who made their first standard from the silk stuffs there taken. He spoke to the people after divine service. "strange men for such an office. of the upper parishes on both arms of the Dal-elf. on a Sunday. Or as he was I Memoirs for the His- tory of the Swedish Reformation. swore fidelity to him in the name of the whole province.) and then returned to the Not long afterwards.) Chronicle of the massacre of Stockholm. distributed both tlie money and goods among his men." They administered public affairs from their station in the capital. in conjunction with those of the Swedish councillors whom the axe of the executioner had spared. the principal instigator of the Stockholm massacre. " Jens Anderson. iv. living amidst wild yet grand natural scenery. for the payment of the Hvitfeld. " which was an old token to them. Thence he proceeded to Gestricland. and bring him back. whom he would willingly put hazard his life and welfare. Apathy of the Helsingers. Gustavus came to the Kopparberg with several holm had already prepared men's minds. since early times. and that their neighbours the Helsingers had promised to stand by them as one man.356. formerly a barber. and soon received an accotmt of . Swinhufvud (Swinehead)^ brother of Otho. [1520- maintenance of the foreign troops was The people inurmured. He returned in their company to Mora." Sixteen active peasants were appointed to be his body-guard . The ma- master of the money collected for the crown dues. for to would soon reach every man's door. . and of the wares of the Danish traders on the spot. there was now good hope of victory and triumph under a praiseworthy captain. " Thereupon the commonalty of In another letter to the Helsingers. but lead a free life so long as he might. whence he intended to seek a path across the mountains to captain and chief. was now wandering like themselves. so called from his baldness. their new guests told them they depart. all and fill the houses of of the knightly blood of Sweden .skates to seek out Gustavus day and night. Gustavus himself went among them. now gistrates of Stockholm. 5 So the Dalecarlians express themselves in a subsequent letter regarding this election. and commissioners from several jjarishes. who. They found him in the liamlet of Seln. that as often as Gustavus discoursed to them the north wind always blew. the powerful warden of the mines. or who did not blush with such names to associate their own. He was by birth a Hollander. the Dalecarlians recall the ^. that the Dalecarlians had already suffered a defeat he hastened back. bishop of (Thereto the Germans Alone says the Westeras. where fugitives from Stockfact The chronicles reckon his reign his foot-goers. brought with them new accounts of the tyranny of Christian.102 for the Rising of the Dalesmen. the latter well-nigh a victim in the massacre. and hardened by privations. Hoist and Clans Boye. The burghers of Gefle. whom God had preserved as a drop they said. the inhabitants. when Dales. the people of the Kopparberg were at church. and two hundred more youths who joined him were called Norway. . Slaghoek. • under the influence of the Danish garrison and the Germans of the town. every third man of the Helsingers in fact marched thither to strengthen his army. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. that God would grant them good success. Old men represented it as a comfortable sign for the people. Tyske Som ene ville regera kopmansspill.

with dancirg and other revelry. let us leave this The story makes the Danes hereupon place !" : prepare for breaking up their encampment. Falivilom. 16. much less any one else brethren." Gustavus Trolls. by a circuit. however. For when the Dalesmen and miners heard the letter. and these of little weight. Claus Boye escaped the massacre from the circumstance of his corpulence hindering the soldiers in their hurry from pulling him through the prison-doors. a powerful miner. And sad they grieved that Christian's self Had not like fortune found. where so many mouths might obtain sustenance ? To this it was replied. warned the people to avoid all participation in the revolt. he prepared for an expedition into the lower country. full twenty thousand men. with might and main. who had begun to take arms for Gustavus. brook. camp observed how the Dalesmen shot their arrows across the stream. which were obstructed by the fishers and peasants of the islets. GUSTAVUS VASA. and Henry of Mellen. ocksa bred. He assembled his troops at Hedemora. to deprive "Gustavus Ericson and his company of malefactors of all opportunity of quitting the country. 90. Trans. His course lay through districts which bore traces yet fresh of the enemy's passage. Brunback's elf ar va! djup.) now marched with six thousand men of horse and foot towards the Dal river. However this may be. Headlong the Jutes tumbled in Brunneback's elf. 'Twill hardly better mell. " they wrote to him that some disturbance had been excited by Gustavus Ericson. (where they had recently been assembled with commissioners from the magistracy of Stockholm. from a remote period. pondere et numero pensaretur. or five feet. and. He caused monetary tokens to be struck. it is certain that Peter Swenson. Memoirs of the Academy. 5. and sought to inure them to habits of order and obedience by military exercises. guarded this frontier of their country. similar to those introduced by the king.) "how great a force the tract above the Long Wood (the forest on the boundary between Westnianland and Dalecarlia) could furnish at the utmost ?" Answer was made Yet further to him.) 6 Olaus Magnus. 2 Gorius Hoist. the latter sometimes throwGustavus instructed ing pieces of red-hot iron ^. Rout of Brunneburn. Gustavus broke up from his quarters. since. arrows laid cross-wise. and knew little of discipline . iv. whom Gustavus had appointed their When those in the Danish captain in his absence. So early as the tenth of February. Canute Bennetson above-named. as it was said. surprised the camp. that the people were not used to dainty meats. Christiern den bloderacken ock Skull iiigalunda battre ga. even leather money is mentioned ^. thereupon in the minute-book of the town of Stockholm. crossed the Dal secretly. 86.1523. of Helsingland The Dale peasant had no fire-arms. and Canute Bennetson (Sparre) of Engsoe. answers as Brunneburn. Sa togo de Jutar nu alle The peasantry till rose fiykt . at Utsund's Ferry. (to use the words of the chronicles. i See Der sankte vi sa p. by which. 12. as burgomasters of the town. variata. Special admonitory letters were de- could be satisfied with bark-bread. if need were. mange Jutar Falivilom. bishop Beldenacke is said to have inquired of the Swedish lords present. additions were made to the fortifications of the capital. T. after his return to the Dales." but really to keep the approaches on the side of the sea open. . While the waters purled merrily round . in order to insure himself against leaving foes in his rear . An old lay of the Dales still sings : — spatched to Helsingland and Dalecarlia. Relief was supplicated from the king . (The termination back.] Attempt to quell the revolt. So now the Jutes ran all Loud raising this pitiful dirge The fiend or he the porse-beer * might drain.^ nCd. gave the king a great banSee his own note quet. c. 1521. an expedient which seems to have been not uncommon in Sweden. That was brewed in the Dale-carl's forge ^. is smedjan vid Dalkarlens stad. Falivilivilivora. Siioskrafvorna och Furufnatten Val Dalpilen rakar uppa. vii. while the town was yet reeking with the blood of the leading inhabitants. which were sent over the whole kingdom. with three crowns. his father Eric TroUe. with the Dalesmen. in order. since it consisted of only tiiree ^ Fir-hoppers and ptarmigans in the tree. The coins now struck at Hedemora were of copper. Gustavus had himself dealt with the inhabitants and Gestricland. trad Sa kdrde de Dansken ur Sverige. n. "men who eat wood and drink water the devil himself could not overcome. his men to fashion their arrows in a more effective and increased the length of the spear by four shape. signed by Gustavus Trolle. under the command of Peter Swenson of Viderboda. say the chronicles. c. Han der tillika omkom. the foe of the free. THE LIBERATION. the roj'al cause was rather " damaged than strengthened. the bow. . the Danish bishops. Then Beldenacke declared. the king's lieutenant at Westerns. De sorjde derbfwer att Christiern sjelf ej Coriaria pecunia certis argenteis punctis. ^ ** to burn in English. and encamped at the ferry of On the other side the Dalecarlians Brunback. they said it was manifest to them that the council at this time was but small and thin. with a small admixture of silver. and. In another old ballad on the same affair it Brunneback's elf is said — ." Letters of the magistracy of Stockholm. Sa kiirde de Jutar i Brunneback's Sa vattnet dem porlade om. on one side was the impress of an armed man. and put the foe to the I'out. and called Christian's Mippings. with a view to repel the attacks of cavalry'. 3 * deep and broad. 1. quoted by Muhrberg. on the other. men. Squirrels. With bloodhound Christian. Ibid. by bishop Otho.and marched across the Long Wood into Westmanland. 103 vied in ardour for him. and the sling . Beer supposed 5 to be flavoured with wild rosemary. With drowning Jutes its waves we load So from Sweden the Danes were chased out. med elf. They drunk for the most part nothing but water. Och Hin I leto slikt bmkeligt quad ma mer dricka det Porsbl de bryggt. quibus valor in Ibid. the pike. his weapons were the axe. The Dale-arrow hits right well . and maintained an active correspondence with tlie king 2. sloops and barks were equipped. he asked. styling themselves the council of the realm of Sweden. which it might be feared would extend to several provinces.

to show his contempt of such caused a banquet to be set out in the open foes. 1 G. St. another detachment reduced Honiingsholm in Sudermania . archbishop's bailiff. The number army at anew. Siege was accordingly laid to Stegeborg. under the command of their justiciary. when news reached him that his young soldiers were already at blows with tlieir adversaries. and possessed himself of the enemy's artillei-y in the market-place. The liberation of Sweden by Gustavus Vasa is a history written by the peoand they counted neither themselves nor their ple. reinforced from the 9 Some thousands. seated themselves round the vats. dancing. He drew up the c. Gustavus caused all the stores of spirituous liquors to be destroyed. the foe was put to ail utter rout. son. rallied Combats of Westeras and Upsala. while Lawrence Ericson pushed into the town by a circuitous road. tlie latter where six years afterwards. the 23d of the church of Roniis stated by the chronicles at from fifteen to twenty thousand men ". tending to defer the attack till the following day. but instead of this he was informed that Peter Ugla. He was however killed by the relatives of the slain from Germany script in the * men for the service of Gustavus. See the annotations of Lawrence Siggeson Sparre. When the garrison of the castle observed this. again into the town. approached the town. The army was now divided vmder the two generals. between the larger and smaller episcopal manor-houses of that day *. who were posted in their rear. Nykoping. so that lie tumbled in his wolf-skin coat from the wall into the stream. He expected here to be met by the peasants of the western mining district from Lin- from its influence on public opinion. with the followers he had kept about him. one of those entrusted with the performance of this duty. yet on the correctness of this little reliance can be placed. Gustavus was often subsequently to exWherever the tidings of his victory perience. after a renewal of the confiict. which alleged that he had brought 4000 spearmen By the Danish lieutenant Anders Person. he mustered his fertuna. and their arrows to the hail of the storm-cloud. . and burned the greatest part of the town. who. had allowed himself to be surprised at Koping. The miners and peasants dispersed to extinguish the Hanies or to plunder. Little was gained by the conquest of the town. The Danish account says Narrative of Clement Rensel. On the other hand. and magnifying the advantages gained. and singing. not outlandish men. tidings arrived that the peasants on Wermd isle had i-evolted. The Dalecarlians opposed their long pikes to the onset of the cavalry with such effect.104 Successes of the patriot force. with field-pieces. The letters conveying the news. object^. On April. so long as the castle held out . had received from the leaders the answer. where. Howbeit. Theodoric Slagheck. Chris- governors in Vermeland and Dalsland were the people of the former province. which then connected the bishop's districts of in the forest of . and made themselves masters of two of his ships. in order to be able to use his cavalry without impediment against the insurgent peasants. on the 29th April. and liow miserviceable a force of peasants was for a siege. castle. Lawrence Olaveson and Lawrence Ericfoes. Gustavus next issued his declaration of war against Christian. men lieutenant in West-Gothland. and cut to pieces with his whole force '. he caused the people of several . He caused all the fences of the neighbourhood to be broken down. . they set five to the houses by shooting their combustibles. nothing else is told than that they . furlough to his Dalesmen about seed-time and to supply tlieir place. space. several thousand peasants from Nerike marched across the Tiwed with tlie same and Gustavus. fight of Westeras. 5000. A division of the Vermelanders. jwssessed themgoods selves of the stock of wine in the cathedral and the council-house. marched against shot the councillor Canute Bennetson (Sparre). An assault was expected for a deputation of four priests and two burgesses. between fire and sword. exercising power with barbarous cruelty and outrage. 1500 Vener. however. drank and sang. entered that district. who had interdicted his men from engaging in a contest with the enemy. had himself taken the command of the castle of Westeras. both practised warriors. they were driven back on the infantry. before the eyes of the people. who afterwards gave up the castle of (irehro. and. and finding it beset by the enemy. ilany cast away their arms. Both horsemen and foot. in- them . where. to whom Slagheck transferred the command. bartered with one another the of the traders in the booths. Gustavus caused to be read aloud to his followers ^. June Hvitfeld. and to invest the castles of several provinces. slain a band of Christian's men in the church itself. The former where the Exercise House. he made himself and his fellows merry till late in the night with drinking. even if we do not absolutely class this account with those which compare the multitude of Dalesmen in the fight of Brunneback to the sands on the sea-shore and the leaves of the forest. in Sudermania. and compelled to flee along with them. and a great confluence of people was present at the fair. the king's tian's slain . and beat in the winecasks with his own hand. the council of Sweden say in their Rescript on the tyrannical government of king Christian in Gustavus had been obliged to grant a. came. they attempted to escape by a concealed passage. and he was already enabled to divide his power. who should bear the shrine of holy Eric. 2 Sweden. It was St. and marched to Westeras. with the peasants of Rekarne. letter. took up arms . prepared for an attack upon the councillor Tliurd Jonson. that it must be Swedes. into the waters. and he hastened to their assistance. sent from Upsala to the forest. Roused from a late sleep by an assault on the gates of the fortified house. The Danes. 152:J. was employed in beof whose exleaguering the castle of Westeras ploits. and threw themselves. and received a letter of peace from Gustavus. who had already taken the oath of fidelity to him through his deputies . Upland to be summoned to assemble Rymningen. that more than four hundred horses having perished in the assault. The desberg and Nora. Eric's upon day (May 18th). [1520— as he advanced. the people revolted. half a mile from the town. and Orebro. and that they would come to take their Bennet Bjugg (Barley). 3 1. acquired greater impoi'tance than of itself it would have possessed. was still at Balundsas. the part in the festival. and the victory would undoubtedly have been changed into an overthrow. crossing Lake In Dalsland. at QDresundsbro from which point his two captains essayed an attack the archbishop of Upsala. had not Gustavus sent Lawrence Olaveson. MauuUpsala Library. George's Day. the Academy of Gustavus now stands. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES.

and great and though he wanted not for intrepidity. the crown. enjoyed not much repose or many pleasant days. . he received by a messenger from Guswho had himself come to Upsala at Whittavus. before Gustavus received intelligence of his approach. of which the proprietors adhered to the Danish party. GUSTAVUS VASA. whom Clement Rensel. for the peasants had returned to their homes. saying that he would carry the answer himself. and it was grievous to give this answer. and encamped under the Brunkeberg. in which the flames soon bm-st forth. attested the character of the government in the on his capital. He made a hasty retreat. about six in the morning. The bailiff escaped with a wound ft'om an arrow. and Thure Jenson (Roos) in WestGothland. and had come within half a mile of Upsala. of the nobility in favour of Gustavus and his cause . were still arms for Christian. 105 house with the cathedral. had returned from a journey to Helsingland. brought from Dantzic in July. and even the bishop received him as a friend. Here a young Finnish noble who was next to him. although his life is in itself Thus began. This the latter did not at first credit. but remained expecting an answer to his overture of negociation until. was of a kind before which the mere warrior must vail liis crest. Arwid the West-Goth. have deprived events of then* original The path of Gustavus was not in general colours. they swore fealty and . and the admiration which men so willingly render to exertions in the cause of freedom. foot of the garrison of Stockholm. amidst difficulties little thought of now-a-days. The building was laid in ashes. that they no longer dared to provoke either king Christian or bishop Hans Brask. The scantiness of the means of attack may be discovered from the circumstance. stocked with the corpses of Swedish inhabitants. w^hich was to deprive the besieged of provisions. and peril. and sliot fire-arrows at tlie roof of the episcopal residence. the siege of Stockholm." In the month of August. So likewiise his pain was not small when he had but little in his money-chest. after the lapse of ages. He broke up immediately with 500 German horse and lately mained blockaded throughout a whole year. undertaken in order to retain this part of his diocese in its allegiance to the king. fear. of 1521. for the service of Gustavus. but was overtaken by Trolle's horsemen at the ford of Laby. were regarded as a reinforcement of the highest importance. although in this he experienced dfiiculties. so that the weapon pierced his neighbour. and there were many fortified mansions. Great part of the garrison perished. These difficulties were the most formidable where. Gustavus now betook liimself to the fn-est of Rymningen. so that they might not be surprised through heedlessness and laches. THE LIBERATION. with some bui'ghers of Upsala. the spot where he afterwards Ijuilt a royal castle. and had even begun to take homage for Gusta\Tas from the people of his province. therefore." say the Chronicles. because he would otherwise have stood in danger of a hostile visitation. only by bending downwards horse. was master. crept out of its cellars. escaping the spear of . What formerly been done in Upland . in which they had taken refuge. he saw the archbishop marching across the King's Mead (Kungsiing) to^^•ards the town. But the peasants set fire to this passage. such as Nils Boson (Grip). a burgher of Stockholm. here called Upland. Therefore he stayed not many days in the same place. access was open by the sea. though sometimes neglecting this duty when pressed by the cares or necessities of their own families. On the 24th of August. in the confusion rode down his horse in the midst of the stream and he would have been lost. effect strong endurance. Shortly afterwards. raised the peasantry of the adjoming districts. " At this " Lord Gustave time. The archbishop detained the messenger. when the folk cried for stipend. suntide. with the Danish squadron. who drew off in another direction. he arrived at Stegeborg. Gustavus now convoked a diet of barons at Vadstena. a letter exhorting him to embrace the cause of his country. The pei'sonal presence of Gustavus decided the waverers. to which his chapter had been persuaded to annex a memorial to the same effect. Chronicles. the preceding year. which was to last full two years. as at Stockholm. being on horseback upon the sand-hill near Upsala. Hence the object of these investments. and brouglit back to Stockholm hardly a sixth part of his army. which he refused to accept. but travelled day and night between the camj)s. of wliich Severin Norby. All the remaining movements of the war of liberation consist in sieges of the various castles and fortresses of the country. one of glittering feats. Gustavus followed close after with his collected force. and a small number of horse with him. which was of wood. which was attended by seventy Swedish gentlemen of noble farail}'. which was now besieged by his general. 3000 Lawrence Olaveson. obedience to him as Administrator of the kingdom : " " as had " in like add the manner. He was nevertheless overtaken and attacked. as that of Wik in Upland. The EastGoths declared that they had been so chastised for their attack on the bishop's castle at LiukopLng. although the greatest barons in this division of the kingdom. Holger Carlson in he accomplished was the sagacity . That the first- named noble- . as to make them desist from the pursuit. whose detachments relieved each other. of which he died after rejoining his master in Stockholm. could only be imperfectly attained. undertaken as opportunity offered. as we often find it in the Chronicles of the This was the first public declaration middle age. and by many other persons of all These made him a tender of classes in Gothland. and next day the females of the household. archbishop Gustavus TroUe. at Midsummer one grand achievement." whence they seem to have assumed that he had aU'eady been acknowledged as such in Upper Sweden. and sent out the young men under his best cajttains to surprise the archbishop on his return. of (Gere).\ J 523. it Election of Adniinistralor. with levies of the peasantry. when he his people in so many campings and investkept ments since he bore for them all great anxiety. The remains of cattle slaughtered on the road betraj'ed the ambush to the prelate. who had recently repulsed with great bravery Severin Norby's attempt to relieve the castle. that sixty German spearmen. liad not the rest of his followers turned upon the enemy with such effect.] Siege of Stockholm begun. Four gibbets on this eminence. himself a narrator of these events. how he might lend them help in their need. all three councillors of state. which re- This prelate. Gusta

Related Interests

us had but two hundred of his so-called foot-goers.

in an attempt to relieve Stockholm. and by help of the reinforcement which they received at the beginning of 1522. entitled. concerning the cruel oppression of king Christian." together with a subsequent letter of April 29. by his personal instances with the king.) 9 See the letter in Hvitfeld. and all Christian princes^. for the most part Germans. the seat of the war was removed to Finland. purchased Swedish iron and copper for klippings. but of footmen and gunners in the castle there were now 850 men. 7 See Hadorph on the Rhyme Chronicle. he was ena. where the letter. perhaps a brother of Theodoric. and the chief part of his own moveable property. who had in vain tempted his fidelity. in order. joined Thomas. the often promised relief for the besieged garrison of Stockholm." The governor of the castle of Stockholm informs the king in a re" port on the military occurrences of the winter. in the month of June. with which worthless coins they came well provided. as being an indignity. and put faith in no assurances. they did not forget their profit on the arms. equivalent to our lord or squire. Nils Boson was slain in 1525 by the peasants of Wingaker. wrote thence to Christian ^. and exacted a dear price for their men. pursuant to a convention with Lubeck. occasion of a second." had again filled three camps around Stockholm with Dalesmen and Norrlanders and when. or as others assert of the plague. Paper in the Archives of king Christian II. eighth. we know from his letter of thanks. while Gustavus. but were still more fearful of the king's vengeance. ij With a bast rope. that his men had compelled him to consent to an increase of pay on account of the successes they had gained that he had expelled from the town. although upon the proffered secuThis occurred on rity of two of the royal castles. as was also the archbishop Gustavus He had repaired to Denmark two years order to obtain. that they might rather guard their necks like warriors. and for a whole month afterwards no Swedish force was seen before the walls of Stockholm. (Junker * Sweden. He expressed great disgust at the method of his execution. as well as Abo in Finland. fire . than be slaughtered But in Abo a new massacre was like chickens. but instead of complying with it. whom the king. until the news of Christian's fate. now the Zoological Gardens. the enemy were again able to resume the offensive. . in After Severin Norby had relieved the capital. Arvid. fell with all his ships into the hands of Gustavus. who could be counted on for the king's service. my most gracious Lord . and Norway. 1522. in spite of the entreaties of his consort. '' . to put to death all the Swedes of distinction who had fallen The Chronicles say that Severin into their hands. then covering little more than the island which still contains the town properly so called. [1520— man joined the party of Gustavus before the end of the year. as dungeon. either by violence. Junker was a title given to the sons of noblemen. Langholm. the Gothlanders acknowledged the authority of the administrator. had been connected by float-bridges. directed to the Pope. refusing even. as he expressed it. had already sent his plate. but was received with coldness and reproaches. . master Gotschalk Ericson. . from Henrik Slagheck. The assistance of the Lubeckers it was true was given only by halves. as those of Westeras and Orebro. Gustavus himself complains in his letter of 1522. the peasants were indeed weary of the war. but incorrectly. to supply Gustavus with two pieces of cannon at a decisive moment. 1523. and his grace could then punish the Dalecarlians and Helsingers. wards. it is said. Sodermalm. T. ' I Published by Fant de Historicis Gustavi I. the suspected Swedish burghers that the peasants would rather be hanged on their own hearths than longer endui'e the burdens of the war that Gustavus. with many noble persons of both sexes. and the port closed with block-houses and chains. i permitted the escape of many noblemen. before. in which Gustavus styles himself governor (gubernator) of Ssveden. and destroyed. and military stores. to be enemies of the realm ^. he received thence. yet stood out. attempt made by Norby to relieve Stockholm . At length. who in this letter is styled "a forest thief and robber. an auxiliary force of ten ships. were razed to the ground Stockholm and by the exasperated peasantry. ships. Calmar. Christian himself added to the detestation with which he was regarded in Sweden by new ci'uelties. " Schedule of Articles to the King's Majesty of Denmark. who first stirred up these troubles. and from selfish motives . dated February 22. the principal castles of the interior had fallen into the hands of Gustavus. if a sufficient force were sent. and some. to a priest in Helsingland he (the governor) also transmitted an inventory of the goods of the decapitated nobles ^" But by the end of one month Gustavus. " that there were but eighty of the burghers. Holder Carlson reconciled himself in 1524 with Gustavus. a number that was afterwards augmented. bled to dispense with tlie greatest portion of his peasants. The wives and children of the most distinguished among the barons beheaded in Stockholm had been conveyed to Denmark. and retained about him only those who were young and unmarried. the camp of Gustavus was set on TroUd. and the Danes having been driven out of West-Gothland and Smaland. By the commencement of next year. through the Danish admiral. Cruelty of the king. 2 Then called Munklider (monk's shed or barn). Waldemar's island. After the baronial diet of Vadstena. is dated the 2flth December. Both the latter were proclaimed in 1523. pushed his three camps by degrees close to the town. who afterwards did homage to Gustavus at Vadstena. who afterThomas. . threw into a Here they died. The besiegers of Abo were likewise driven off. perished at sea. the emperor. the place was invested on all sides. whence the country could only be reduced to obedience by violent methods . and the chief adherents of Gustavus being obliged to flee from Finland. An order had also been recently issued by the king to his commandei-s in Sweden. bishop of Abo. and thirteenth of April. despite the losses which he sustained by sallies. and among them the mother and two sisters of Gustavus. perpetrated at the beginning of next year by lord the royalist commander there. and was hanged upon an oak in Tynnels island *. for a fief of which he received the investiture ^. after Kingsholm ^. Relief and capture of Stockholm. Sodermanland. Norby had received this order so early as the summer of 1521. By sallies from the beleagured capital on the seventh. well furnished with all . and Upland would submit to the kmg. Yet it held out through the winter.100 Progress of the war. in which he was only saved from ruin by the reMeanfusal of the admiral of Lubeck to attack. Severin Norby. the secretai-y. or imprisoned. and this time unsuccessful. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. East-Gothland.

and obtain assistance from the emperor in his quarrel with duke Frederic of Holstein. and called Carlstadt to Copenhagen. both last pub- may keep her mouth closed. break the commercial power of the Hanse Towns. The inhabitants of the southern portion declared. forbids the wicked. which happened on the 7th June. not dare to trust either his subjects or his soldiers. schools. Jan.. if possible. the multiplied undertakings he commenced and abandoned in a career so often stained with blood. abandoned. and embraced all methods as legitimate. demanding that in accordance with the stipulations of the Union of Calmar he might be acknowledged king in Sweden also. Falster. wrote to the estates of Sweden. awakened alternately the fear or pity of the beholders.1523. his uncle by the father's side. Deserting his kingdom. Lolland. Thus was tlie Union dissolved. the . made application to the pope for the canonization of two saints the same who raised his favourite. that he soon evoked from these schemes so many weapons which might be turned against himself. In an in- . to rule with absolute sway he wished to effect all this by laws*. who maligned the nobility of the realm as rogues and traitors. 141 not on the sixth. tossed hither and thither between all the various currents of his time without central consistence. pernicious and destructive law.. and. conquer Sweden. May 26. king Christian acquaints his (jueen with the renunciation of the council. unchristian custom which had hitherto prevailed in Zealand. as is correctly stated in bishop Brask's correspondence.] Proceedings of Christian. woman's influence was may be seen from a dated Copenhagen. THE LIBERATION. GUSTAVUS VASA. and good men had lest the spirit for further resistance. this law was publicly burned by the council at the provincial diet of " as a Viborg. and who. took an oath of fidelity to his cause. 1824. in which they informed him. by the leviiy with which he passed from one extreme to another. One year after this revolting attempt to rid himself of the imputation. his consort and child. after having caused so much bloodshed in Sweden. completely free from all responsibility in this respect. above all. with the treasiu-e and crown jewels. ^ In a letter of February 5. Christian. in the course of this jom-ney. duke of Holstein. when an investigation into the murders m Stockholm was threatened from Rome. 20. thereafter taken down. 6 9 Dominica This first letter of renunciation is dated Viborg." The crown was offered to Frederic. not done." Hvitfeld. It was to the celebrated Erasmus that he declared. Jutland. Gustavus king. in which he embarked the public records. and Funen. the most powerful agents are always those which shake the whole body ^. who. "that they had elected Gustavus Ericson to be Sweden's king.. annex Holstein. after it had lasted one hundred and twenty-six years. of selling the peasants like creatures devoid of reason. wherefore they disclaimed homage and fealty him. That monarch. 5 He was led up some steps to the gallows. as the peasants in Scania. his feebleness. "men accomplish nothing by gentle means. "He had some intention also with respect to the law-book of Sweden if time had sutfered. This took place Jan. 1523. same own doors by the instigation of that bad Sigbrit '. when the Swedes under Thure Jenson Roos and Lawrence Siggesou Sparre had peneclosed note he speaks of the universal dissatisfaction with mother Sigbrit. There are men who. Frederic I. who was chosen to succeed him in Deimiark. and with a violence only exceeded. as the contriver of the massacre '. 453. the universally abhorred Didrik Slagheck. and the impetuosity with which he commenced. lost their lives His flight. and also the nobles of He did Scania. and requests the queen to receive her into her time. 8 The third chapter of Christian's Geistlige Lov. they dreaded fate should at length be brought home " woman Such was the number and variety of tlie designs with which he was generally occupied. and his adviser Sigbrit. in public rescript which he declares that Sigbrit Willems had accounted completely for the customs and finances of the realm. 1523. and wished to introduce the Reformation in Denmark the same who maintained a correspondence with Luther. where it is said that the law-book should be amended. the emperor Charles V. then resumed them. he sailed away in the face of the whole population of Copenhagen. given provisionally. Thus ended the reign of Christian II. in the Netherlands. 1523^. to elevate the burghers and peasants. 1522 (" with consent of our dear lieges. Collection of old Danish Laws. It was in vain that the people of Zealand. After the dethronement of Christian in Denmark. or that misery of many years by which he was to expiate a short and ill-used tenure of power. It is possible that Gustavus alludes to this in the Articles of Vadstena of 1 524 (Stiernman. his audacity. collected twenty ships." c. knights. 1522. though this incorrect date appears in Stiemman's Resolutions. this year . especially seeing that foreign mercenaries were again called into the kingto their without law or right. against good policy and government. that she own abode How great this by Kolderup Rosenvinge. and thrown alive into the fire. Resolutions. and afterwards caused him to be put to death by the gallows and ." Olave Peterson. 1533. Norway wavered at this critical moment. and was at the castle. 1522. who accepted it. 24. fetters of serfage *. 4 vols. who was concealed in a chest. appear in history as foretokens of the approaching outbreak of great convulsions. deprived the garrison of all where so many bishops. and the Hanse Towns. just as he was on the point of imposing a fresh tax for the payment of his newly levied soldiery. received a letter of renunciation from the Danish council ^. and is generally received. and concluded a league with the Hanse Towns. 34). 1523. They replied. executions. had made a splendid visit to liis brotlier-in-law. See Christian II. to solicit the arrears of his queen's dowry. 141^. 's so-called Geistlige Lev (Ecclesiastical Law). stake. as also 3 '' what had been done in Stockholm. infra octavam corporis Christi. i. Basle. fraud and arms at once. the council of the realm"). p." That event came to pass at tlie diet of Strengness. 1521 ("until our dear lieges the general council of the kingdom of Denmark shall come together. in the presence of a papal legate. that having taken into consideration the rigorous and dangerous government which had been used in his June the seventh. Erasmi Epistolae. as was before resolved upon this however was lished . like the storm-birds before the tempest. to be archbishop of Lund. 107 to the pangs of hunger. and Mben. April the 20th. and gives them the right of leaving their master's service if he dealt with them dishonestly. dom to . where Christian had lightened . Copenhagen. a king in whom one knows not which most rivets the attention. December 29." He wished to crush the power of the clergy and nobility. Of such a nature was Christian. Scandinavian Memoirs xvii. and his ordinance or Verldslige Lov (Civic Law). It was the same Christian who made a papal bull the pretext for' his cruelty in Sweden. given January 6.

as the Law-book declared. LUBECK AND DENMARK. not laid down. were considering how to burghers. we learn from the letters of Gustavus himself. to consider this period generally as one of great opSuch it was no doubt at intervals pression. > Articles of Vadstena. to enforce the old claims of Sweden to Scania and Halland.) 5 " Never have we heard that the good lords of the council of state were subject to any other burden than to attend for the service of the realm with their followers. (Opslo 2 is now Clu'istiania. This was shown on the one hand. 3 Letters to the trading towns. and the castle on the 7th July. with few exceptions. too. 1523. DISTURBANCES IN M^EST-GOTHLAND. and Lubeck was an ally whoso demands made it more troublesome than it would have been as an enemy. 1524—1543. although all the conditions there demanded were not granted in tlie capitulation. and it terminated in a tyranny but it was still more a period of great license. (Lebu. however. 1535. and thus wore an aspect menacing to The fortunes of Charles Canuteson all authority. Stockholm having surrendered on the 20th June. by the independence of the magnates. hind dissolved. before the end of the year Finland also was reduced to obedience. Hence. one of the first questions put by Gus' See the letter from Thnre Jenson to bishop Brask. and had left bewould be an error. which was sometimes openly urged. THEIR SUPPRESSION. and could look well to his atfairs. one half of the houses were empty. without ill will * ?" The possessors of these levied the revenues of the crown. is the same word as loan.several prinunder dift'ereut rulers. and that they still constituted what was called the Council of the Realm. he issued an invitation to the burghers in other towns to settle there. and Gustavus souglit. ii. trated into their country as far as Opslo. AND DEATH.4- commons.) I5y an undated instrument in the archives of Christian with the title " (Artichle oc bewillinsje.. of July 14. RELATIONS OF GUSTAVUS WITH THE COUNTRY.) Articles and Agreement which the King sends to Stockholm. tavus to the council was. and so forth. 1523. A. of parcelling the kingdom into . it is said in the latter. was democratic in the hands of the Stures. . of October 22. but internal foes still remained ." says bishop Brask in a letter to Thuve But a summons of this kind Jenson. in which also they were generally by their own possessions the most important perHence the distribution of those fiefs (so sonages. In the capital. WAR WITH LUBECK. of April 23. and never was it said of any sovereign with more justice. Gustavus made his public entry on Midsummer's Eve . which they exercised in such a maimer." we see that the king had consented to its surrender. CHAPTER STATE OF IX. The town of Cahnar was taken on the 27th May. fief. which men sought a refuge against anarchy. as to be in fact sovereigns within the limits of their own feudatory prefectures (Ian). and of every other person who adhered to the cause of Christian ^. that they would unite with Sweden if they might rely upon its support ^ Bolmsland was subdued. Swed. during the latter period of the Union. AngloSax. GUSTAVUS VASA. It . II. at least during the latter days of the Union. of governing in the absence of the king. in foreigner. At the call of Engelbert they had taken up arms. for the kings. in which the council is thus designated according to the provinces. . The Lubeck to Stockholm a town where one might reap a good harvest. with pretensions more or less openly put forth . a summons which he was obliged twelve years afterwards to " renew. On the other hand. INVASION OF NORWAY DIET OF WESTERAS. THE DACKE FEUD. whether a native or a The power of the Administrator. PROGRESS AND ESHIS DEFEAT BY CHRISTIAN. during the Union. but like- wise involved in perpetual war against foi-eign and domestic enemies. and Scot. and the contests arising therefrom drove Charles Canuteson twice from the throne. BEGINNINGS OF RELIGIOUS REFORMATION. or more particularly the council in Upland. that the throne to which he had been elevated was more diflficult to Hence the scheme. West or East-Gothland. flourishing under Gustavus I. HISTORY OF THE SWEDES. 1524. TEMPER OF THE PEOPLE AND THE CLERGY. find these provincial magnates still eflTect. durmg its course. &c. seeing that Stockholm had not yet revived from the days of king Christian ^. on condition of the fi'ee departure of the garrison with their property and arms." The spectacle which here met his eyes was a type of the condition of the whole kingdom. or in the power reit The Union was now ruins. TABLISHMENT OF THE REFORMATION. INSURRECTIONS OF THE DALESMEN. and applied them to their own use '. D. October. for the service of the Union kings did not take place. Finland. and of the population scarcely a fourth part remained. 1524. and of necessity lawles