1. What is JavaServer Pages?

JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a technology for developing web pages that support dynamic content which helps developers insert java code in HTML pages by making use of special JSP tags, most of which start with <% and end with %>. A JavaServer Pages component is a type of Java servlet that is designed to fulfill the role of a user interface for a Java web application. Web developers write JSPs as text files that combine HTML or XHTML code, XML elements, and embedded JSP actions and commands. Using JSP, you can collect input from users through web page forms, present records from a database or another source, and create web pages dynamically. JSP tags can be used for a variety of purposes, such as retrieving information from a database or registering user preferences, accessing JavaBeans components, passing control between pages and sharing information between requests, pages etc. 2. Why Use JSP? JavaServer Pages often serve the same purpose as programs implemented using the Common Gateway Interface (CGI). But JSP offer several advantages in comparison with the CGI.
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Performance is significantly better because JSP allows embedding Dynamic Elements in HTML Pages itself instead of having a separate CGI files. JSP are always compiled before it's processed by the server unlike CGI/Perl which requires the server to load an interpreter and the target script each time the page is requested. JavaServer Pages are built on top of the Java Servlets API, so like Servlets, JSP also has access to all the powerful Enterprise Java APIs, including JDBC, JNDI, EJB, JAXP etc. JSP pages can be used in combination with servlets that handle the business logic, the model supported by Java servlet template engines.

Finally, JSP is an integral part of J2EE, a complete platform for enterprise class applications. This means that JSP can play a part in the simplest applications to the most complex and demanding. 3. Advantages of JSP: Following is the list of other advantages of using JSP over other technologies:
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vs. Active Server Pages (ASP): The advantages of JSP are twofold. First, the dynamic part is written in Java, not Visual Basic or other MS specific language, so it is more powerful and easier to use. Second, it is portable to other operating systems and non-Microsoft Web servers. vs. Pure Servlets: It is more convenient to write (and to modify!) regular HTML than to have plenty of println statements that generate the HTML.

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vs. Server-Side Includes (SSI): SSI is really only intended for simple inclusions, not for "real" programs that use form data, make database connections, and the like. vs. JavaScript: JavaScript can generate HTML dynamically on the client but can hardly interact with the web server to perform complex tasks like database access and image processing etc. vs. Static HTML: Regular HTML, of course, cannot contain dynamic information.

4. JSP Architecture The web server needs a JSP engine ie. container to process JSP pages. The JSP container is responsible for intercepting requests for JSP pages. This tutorial makes use of Apache which has built-in JSP container to support JSP pages development. A JSP container works with the Web server to provide the runtime environment and other services a JSP needs. It knows how to understand the special elements that are part of JSPs. Following diagram shows the position of JSP container and JSP files in a Web Application.

5. JSP Processing: The following steps explain how the web server creates the web page using JSP:
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As with a normal page, your browser sends an HTTP request to the web server. The web server recognizes that the HTTP request is for a JSP page and forwards it to a JSP engine. This is done by using the URL or JSP page which ends with .jsp instead of .html. The JSP engine loads the JSP page from disk and converts it into a servlet content. This conversion is very simple in which all template text is converted to println( ) statements and all JSP elements are converted to Java code that implements the corresponding dynamic behavior of the page. The JSP engine compiles the servlet into an executable class and forwards the original request to a servlet engine.

Except for the translation phase. So in a way. Finally web browser handles the dynamically generated HTML page inside the HTTP response exactly as if it were a static page.y y y A part of the web server called the servlet engine loads the Servlet class and executes it. the servlet produces an output in HTML format. the JSP container assumes that the JSP hasn't changed and that the generated servlet still matches the JSP's contents. This makes the process more efficient than with other scripting languages (such as PHP) and therefore faster. If the JSP is older than its generated servlet. the JSP engine checks to see whether a servlet for a JSP file already exists and whether the modification date on the JSP is older than the servlet. A JSP life cycle can be defined as the entire process from its creation till the destruction which is similar to a servlet life cycle with an additional step which is required to compile a JSP into servlet. The following are the paths followed by a JSP y y y y Compilation Initialization Execution Cleanup . JSP Life Cycle The key to understanding the low-level functionality of JSP is to understand the simple life cycle they follow. which the servlet engine passes to the web server inside an HTTP response. a JSP page is really just another way to write a servlet without having to be a Java programming wiz. a JSP page is handled exactly like a regular servlet 6. All the above mentioned steps can be shown below in the following diagram: Typically. During execution. The web server forwards the HTTP response to your browser in terms of static HTML content.

or if the JSP has been modified since it was last compiled. (3) JSP Execution: .. and create lookup tables in the jspInit method. If the page has never been compiled. Turning the JSP into a servlet.. } Typically initialization is performed only once and as with the servlet init method. If you need to perform JSP-specific initialization. open files. the JSP engine first checks to see whether it needs to compile the page. you generally initialize database connections. (2) JSP Initialization: When a container loads a JSP it invokes the jspInit() method before servicing any requests.The three major phases of JSP life cycle are very similar to Servlet Life Cycle and they are as follows: (1) JSP Compilation: When a browser asks for a JSP. 3. override the jspInit() method: public void jspInit(){ // Initialization code. Compiling the servlet. the JSP engine compiles the page. Parsing the JSP. The compilation process involves three steps: 1. 2.

. or expressions that are valid in the page scripting language. DELETE etc. GET. } The _jspService() method of a JSP is invoked once per a request and is responsible for generating the response for that request and this method is also responsible for generating responses to all seven of the HTTP methods ie. The _jspService() method takes an HttpServletResponse as its parameters as follows: void _jspService(HttpServletRequest request. HttpServletResponse response) { // Service handling code. variable or method declarations. (4) JSP Cleanup: The destruction phase of the JSP life cycle represents when a JSP is being removed from use by a container. such as releasing database connections or closing open files. Following is the syntax of Scriptlet: <% code fragment %> . POST. the JSP engine invokes the _jspService() method in the JSP. The jspDestroy() method has the following form: public void jspDestroy() { // Your cleanup code goes here. Override jspDestroy when you need to perform any cleanup.This phase of the JSP life cycle represents all interactions with requests until the JSP is destroyed. JSP Syntax The Scriptlet: A scriptlet can contain any number of JAVA language statements.. } an HttpServletRequest and 7. Whenever a browser requests a JSP and the page has been loaded and initialized. The jspDestroy() method is the JSP equivalent of the destroy method for servlets.

Following is the syntax of JSP Declarations: <%! declaration.0. ]+ . This would generate following result: JSP Declarations: A declaration declares one or more variables or methods that you can use in Java code later in the JSP file. Let us keep above code in JSP file hello.You can write XML equivalent of the above syntax as follows: <jsp:scriptlet> code fragment </jsp:scriptlet> Any text. HTML tags. or JSP elements you write must be outside the scriptlet. You must declare the variable or method before you use it in the JSP file.getRemoteAddr()). %> You can write XML equivalent of the above syntax as follows: .jsp.0.2 and your environment is setup as per environment setup tutorial. %> </body> </html> NOTE: Assuming that Apache Tomcat is installed in C:\apache-tomcat-7. Following is the simple and first example for JSP: <html> <head><title>Hello World</title></head> <body> Hello World!<br/> <% out.2\webapps\ROOT directory and try to browse it by giving URL http://localhost:8080/hello..println("Your IP address is " + request. [ declaration.jsp and put this file in C:\apache-tomcat7..

toLocaleString()%> </p> </body> </html> This would generate following result: Today's date: 11-Sep-2010 21:24:25 . The expression element can contain any expression that is valid according to the Java Language Specification but you cannot use a semicolon to end an expression. Following is the syntax of JSP Expression: <%= expression %> You can write XML equivalent of the above syntax as follows: <jsp:expression> expression </jsp:expression> Following is the simple example for JSP Expression: <html> <head><title>A Comment Test</title></head> <body> <p> Today's date: <%= (new java. %> JSP Expression: A JSP expression element contains a scripting language expression that is evaluated. converted to a String. in a JSP file. b.Date()). %> <%! int a. Because the value of an expression is converted to a String. and inserted where the expression appears in the JSP file. you can use an expression within a line of text.<jsp:declaration> code fragment </jsp:declaration> Following is the simple example for JSP Comments: <%! int i = 0.0). %> <%! Circle a = new Circle(2.util. whether or not it is tagged with HTML. c.

Represents static %> literal. Ignored by the browser. A double quote in an attribute that uses double quotes. 8.This comment will not be visible in the page source --%> </body> </html> This would generate following result: A Test of Comments There are a small number of special constructs you can use in various cases to insert comments or characters that would otherwise be treated specially.JSP Comments: JSP comment marks text or statements that the JSP container should ignore. JSP Directives: . A JSP comment is useful when you want to hide or "comment out" part of your JSP page. Following is the syntax of JSP comments: <%-.comment --> <\% %###BOT_TEXT###gt;

###BOT_TEXT###quot; Purpose A JSP comment. Ignored by the JSP engine. Here's a summary: Syntax <%-. Represents static <% literal.This is JSP comment --%> Following is the simple example for JSP Comments: <html> <head><title>A Comment Test</title></head> <body> <h2>A Test of Comments</h2> <%-. A single quote in an attribute that uses single quotes.comment --%> <!-. An HTML comment.

containing custom actions. forward the user to another page. %> Description Defines page-dependent attributes. JSP Actions: JSP actions use constructs in XML syntax to control the behavior of the servlet engine. It usually has the following form: <%@ directive attribute="value" %> There are three types of directive tag: Directive <%@ page . or generate HTML for the Java plugin. You can dynamically insert a file. used in the page <%@ include .A JSP directive affects the overall structure of the servlet class. %> <%@ taglib .... Includes a file during the translation phase.. and buffering requirements.. reuse JavaBeans components. such as scripting language. There is only one syntax for the Action element. Declares a tag library. error page. %> 9. as it conforms to the XML standard: <jsp:action_name attribute="value" /> Action elements are basically predefined functions and there are following JSP actions available: Syntax jsp:include jsp:include jsp:useBean jsp:setProperty jsp:getProperty Purpose Includes a file at the time the page is requested Includes a file at the time the page is requested Finds or instantiates a JavaBean Sets the property of a JavaBean Inserts the property of a JavaBean into the output ..

This encapsulates use of server-specific features like higher performance JspWriters. Defines dynamically defined XML element's attribute. which are also called implicit objects.jsp:forward jsp:plugin Forwards the requester to a new page Generates browser-specific code that makes an OBJECT or EMBED tag for the Java plugin Defines XML elements dynamically. response out session application config pageContext . This is the HttpServletResponse object associated with the response to the client. This is the ServletContext object associated with application context. This is the HttpSession object associated with the request. Defines dynamically defined XML element's body. These variables are: Objects request Description This is the HttpServletRequest object associated with the request. This is the ServletConfig object associated with the page. jsp:element jsp:attribute jsp:body jsp:text 10. This is the PrintWriter object used to send output to the client. JSP Implicit Objects: JSP supports nine automatically defined variables. Use to write template text in JSP pages and documents.

loops etc..case block which has been written a bit differentlty usingout. Decision-Making Statements: The if..."). %> <html> <head><title>IF. but the Scriptlet is closed at each line with HTML text included between Scriptlet tags..else block starts out like an ordinary Scriptlet. Exception 11...ELSE Example</title></head> <body> <% if (day == 1 | day == 7) { %> <p> Today is weekend</p> <% } else { %> <p> Today is not weekend</p> <% } %> </body> </html> This would produce following result: Today is not weekend Now look at the following switch.println() and inside Scriptletas: <%! int day = 3. You can use all the APIs and building blocks of Java in your JSP programming including decision making statements.page This is simply a synonym for this. Control-Flow Statements: JSP provides full power of Java to be embeded in your web application. . %> <html> <head><title>SWITCH.println("It

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s Sunday..CASE Example</title></head> <body> <% switch(day) { case 0: out. <%! int day = 3. and is used to call the methods defined by the translated servlet class. The Exception object allows the exception data to be accessed by designated JSP..

case 3: out. case 5: out.")."). %> <html> <head><title>FOR LOOP Example</title></head> <body> <%for ( fontSize = 1. break. default: out.println("It

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s Thursday.and do while blocks in your JSP programming. fontSize++){ %> <font color="green" size="<%= fontSize %>"> JSP Tutorial </font><br /> <%}%> </body> </html> This would produce following result: .println("It's Saturday. fontSize <= 3.println("It

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s Tuesday. break.break.println("It

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s Friday.println("It

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s Monday. case 4: out. } %> </body> </html> This would produce following result: It's Wednesday. Let us look at the following for loop example: <%! int fontSize. while. break. break. case 1: out. case 2: out.println("It

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s Wednesday.")."). Loop Statements: You can also use three basic types of looping blocks in Java: for."). break.").

%> <html> <head><title>WHILE LOOP Example</title></head> <body> <%while ( fontSize <= 3){ %> <font color="green" size="<%= fontSize %>"> JSP Tutorial </font><br /> <%fontSize++. Within an expression.. (dot operator) ++ . those with the lowest appear at the bottom.%> <%}%> </body> </html> This would also produce following result: JSP Tutorial JSP Tutorial JSP Tutorial JSP Operators: JSP supports all the logical and arithmatic operators supported by Java.JSP Tutorial JSP Tutorial JSP Tutorial Above example can be written using while loop as follows: <%! int fontSize. higher precedenace operators will be evaluated first. Category Postfix Unary Multiplicative Additive Operator () [] .! ~ */% +Associativity Left to right Right to left Left to right Left to right . Following table give a list of all the operators with the highest precedence appear at the top of the table.

telling it how to handle certain aspects of JSP processing. It usually has the following form: <%@ directive attribute="value" %> . and \ is escaped as \.Shift Relational Equality Bitwise AND Bitwise XOR Bitwise OR Logical AND Logical OR Conditional Assignment Comma >> >>> << > >= < <= == != & ^ | && || ?: = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= |= . " is escaped as ###BOT_TEXT###quot;. A JSP directive affects the overall structure of the servlet class. Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Right to left Right to left Left to right JSP Literals: The JSP expression language defines the following literals: y y y y y Boolean: true and false Integer: as in Java Floating point: as in Java String: with single and double quotes. Null: null JSP Directives JSP directives provide directions and instructions to the container. ' is escaped as

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Following is the basic syntax of page directive: <%@ page attribute="value" %> You can write XML equivalent of the above syntax as follows: <jsp:directive.. .. page directives are coded at the top of the JSP page. Declares a tag library. There are three types of directive tag: Directive <%@ page . and buffering requirements. containing custom actions. Controls the behavior of the servlet output buffer.. You may code page directives anywhere in your JSP page. The blanks between the @ symbol and the directive name. By convention. such as scripting language.page attribute="value" /> Attributes: Following is the list of attributes associated with page directive: Attribute buffer autoFlush Purpose Specifies a buffering model for the output stream. error page. %> The page Directive: The page directive is used to provide instructions to the container that pertain to the current JSP page..Directives can have a number of attributes which you can list down as key-value pairs and separated by commas.. %> <%@ taglib .. %> Description Defines page-dependent attributes. used in the page <%@ include . and between the last attribute and the closing %>. Includes a file during the translation phase. are optional.

Defines the URL of another JSP that reports on Java unchecked runtime exceptions.contentType errorPage Defines the character encoding scheme. You may code include directives anywhere in your JSP page. Defines a string that can be accessed with the servlet's getServletInfo() method. Defines the threading model for the generated servlet. Specifies a superclass that the generated servlet must extend Specifies a list of packages or classes for use in the JSP as the Java import statement does for Java classes. This directive tells the container to merge the content of other external files with the current JSP during the translation phase. Determines if scripting elements are allowed for use. Specifies whether or not the JSP page participates in HTTP sessions Specifies whether or not EL expression within the JSP page will be ignored. The general usage form of this directive is as follows: <%@ include file="relative url" > . Defines the programming language used in the JSP page. isErrorPage extends import info isThreadSafe language session isELIgnored isScriptingEnabled Check more detail related to all the above attributes at Page Directive. Indicates if this JSP page is a URL specified by another JSP page's errorPage attribute. The include Directive: The include directive is used to includes a file during the translation phase.

identifies the location of the library.include file="relative url" /> Check more detail related to include directive at Include Directive. There is only one syntax for the Action element. The taglib Directive: The JavaServer Pages API allows you to define custom JSP tags that look like HTML or XML tags and a tag library is a set of user-defined tags that implement custom behavior. The taglib directive follows the following syntax: <%@ taglib uri="uri" prefix="prefixOfTag" > Where the uri attribute value resolves to a location the container understands and the prefixattribute informs a container what bits of markup are custom actions. You can dynamically insert a file. forward the user to another page. If you just specify a filename with no associated path. reuse JavaBeans components. You can write XML equivalent of the above syntax as follows: <jsp:directive. and provides a means for identifying the custom tags in your JSP page. as it conforms to the XML standard: <jsp:action_name attribute="value" /> Action elements are basically predefined functions and there are following JSP actions available: Syntax Purpose . the JSP compiler assumes that the file is in the same directory as your JSP.The filename in the include directive is actually a relative URL. You can write XML equivalent of the above syntax as follows: <jsp:directive.taglib uri="uri" prefix="prefixOfTag" /> 12. The taglib directive declares that your JSP page uses a set of custom tags. or generate HTML for the Java plugin. JSP Actions JSP actions use constructs in XML syntax to control the behavior of the servlet engine.

Defines dynamically defined XML element's body. Use to write template text in JSP pages and documents. (b)request. jsp:element jsp:attribute jsp:body jsp:text Common Attributes: There are two attributes that are common to all Action elements: the id attribute and the scopeattribute. as the scope attribute determines the lifespan of the object associated with the id. Defines dynamically defined XML element's attribute. and allows the action to be referenced inside the JSP page. The <jsp:include> Action This action lets you insert files into the page being generated. and (d) application. The syntax looks like this: <jsp:include page="relative URL" flush="true" /> . The id attribute and the scope attribute are directly related. (c)session.jsp:include jsp:include jsp:useBean jsp:setProperty jsp:getProperty jsp:forward jsp:plugin Includes a file at the time the page is requested Includes a file at the time the page is requested Finds or instantiates a JavaBean Sets the property of a JavaBean Inserts the property of a JavaBean into the output Forwards the requester to a new page Generates browser-specific code that makes an OBJECT or EMBED tag for the Java plugin Defines XML elements dynamically. y y Id attribute: The id attribute uniquely identifies the Action element. If the Action creates an instance of an object the id value can be used to reference it through the implicit object PageContext Scope attribute: This attribute identifies the lifecycle of the Action element. The scope attribute has four possible values: (a) page.

jsp. which inserts the file at the time the JSP page is translated into a servlet.jsp file: <html> <head> <title>The include Action Example</title> </head> <body> <center> <h2>The include action Example</h2> <jsp:include page="date.jsp as follows: Following is the content of date.Date()).Unlike the include directive. Following is the list of attributes associated with include action: Attribute page flush Description The relative URL of the page to be included.jsp file: <p> Today's date: <%= (new java. This would display result something like this: The include action Example Today's date: 12-Sep-2010 14:54:22 The <jsp:useBean> Action .jsp" flush="true" /> </center> </body> </html> Now let us keep all these files in root directory and try to access main. this action inserts the file at the time the page is requested. The boolean attribute determines whether the included resource has its buffer flushed before it is included.util.jps and (b) main. Example: Let us define following two files (a)date.toLocaleString()%> </p> Here is the content of main.

.The useBean action is quite versatile.beans. Gives the name of the bean as specified by the instantiate () method of the java. a jsp:useBean element. but outside of.. The Bean must have been previously defined before this action.class" /> Once a bean class is loaded. as below: <jsp:useBean id="myName" . /> .. Following is the list of attributes associated with useBean action: Attribute class type beanName Description Designates the full package name of the bean... Specifies the type of the variable that will refer to the object. There are two basic ways to use the setProperty action: You can use jsp:setProperty after. Let us discuss about jsp:setProperty and jsp:getProperty actions before giving a valid example related to these actions. you can use jsp:setProperty and jsp:getProperty actions to modify and retrieve bean properties. The <jsp:setProperty> Action The setProperty action sets the properties of a Bean.Beans class. <jsp:setProperty name="myName" property="someProperty" . the jsp:setProperty is executed regardless of whether a new bean was instantiated or an existing bean was found.. It first searches for an existing object utilizing the id and scope variables.. If an object is not found./> In this case. it then tries to create the specified object. > .. The simplest way to load a bean is as follows: <jsp:useBean id="name" class="package. as below: <jsp:useBean id="myName" . A second context in which jsp:setProperty can appear is inside the body of a jsp:useBean element.

. Following is the list of attributes associated with setProperty action: Attribute name Description Designates the bean whose property will be set. property value param The <jsp:getProperty> Action The getProperty action is used to retrieve the value of a given property and converts it to a string. Indicates the property you want to set. <jsp:setProperty name="myName" property="someProperty" . <jsp:getProperty name="myName" property="someProperty" .... The param attribute is the name of the request parameter whose value the property is to receive. not if an existing one was found. /> . You can't use both value and param.. The getProperty action has only two attributes. the setProperty action is ignored. A value of "*" means that all request parameters whose names match bean property names will be passed to the appropriate setter methods. both of which are required ans simple syntax is as follows: <jsp:useBean id="myName" . The value that is to be assigned to the given property./> Following is the list of required attributes associated with setProperty action: Attribute Description .../> </jsp:useBean> Here. or the parameter does not exist. the jsp:setProperty is executed only if a new object was instantiated.. and finally inserts it into the output. The the parameter's value is null.... but it is permissible to use neither. The Bean must have been previously defined.

message = message.java */ package action.class in C:\apache-tomcat-7.0.class file and make sure that you copied TestBean." /> <p>Got message.</p> . } public void setMessage(String message) { this. property Example: Let us define a test bean which we will use in our example: /* File: TestBean. The Bean must have been previously defined..jsp file which loads the bean and sets/gets a simple String parameter: <html> <head> <title>Using JavaBeans in JSP</title> </head> <body> <center> <h2>Using JavaBeans in JSP</h2> <jsp:useBean id="test" class="action....TestBean" /> <jsp:setProperty name="test" property="message" value="Hello JSP. } } Compile above code to generated TestBean. public class TestBean { private String message = "No message specified".2\webapps\WEB-INF\classes\action folder and CLASSPATH variable should also be set to this folder: Now use the following code in main. public String getMessage() { return(message).name The name of the Bean that has a property to be retrieved.. The property attribute is the name of the Bean property to be retrieved.

util. or a Java Servlet..jsp file: <html> .. another JSP page.toLocaleString()%> </p> Here is the content of main. The <jsp:forward> Action The forward action terminates the action of the current page and forwards the request to another resource such as a static page.. another JSP page.<jsp:getProperty name="test" property="message" /> </center> </body> </html> Now try to access main. it would display following result: Using JavaBeans in JSP Got message.jsp as follows: Following is the content of date. or a Java Servlet. Hello JSP.jsp file: <p> Today's date: <%= (new java. Example: Let us reuse following two files (a) date.Date()).jps and (b) main. The simple syntax of this action is as follows: <jsp:forward page="Relative URL" /> Following is the list of required attributes associated with forward action: Attribute page Description Should consist of a relative URL of another resource such as a static page.jsp...

can be used to specify an error string to be sent to the user in case the component fails.<head> <title>The include Action Example</title> </head> <body> <center> <h2>The include action Example</h2> <jsp:forward page="date.class" width="60" height="80"> <jsp:param name="fontcolor" value="red" /> <jsp:param name="background" value="black" /> <jsp:fallback> Unable to initialize Java Plugin </jsp:fallback> </jsp:plugin> You can try this action using some applet if you are interested. A new element. If the needed plugin is not present. .jsp" /> </center> </body> </html> Now let us keep all these files in root directory and try to access main. This would display result something like as below. The <param> element can also be used to send parameters to the Applet or Bean. Here it discarded content from main page and displayed content from forwarded page only. it downloads the plugin and then executes the Java component.jsp. The Java component can be either an Applet or a JavaBean. It determines the type of browser and inserts the <object> or <embed> tags as needed. the <fallback> element. Today's date: 12-Sep-2010 14:54:22 The <jsp:plugin> Action The plugin action is used to insert Java components into a JSP page. The plugin action has several attributes that correspond to common HTML tags used to format Java components. Following is the typical syntax of using plugin action: <jsp:plugin type="applet" codebase="dirname" code="MyApplet.

Following is a simple example to define XML elements dynamically: <%@page language="java" contentType="text/html"%> <html xmlns="http://www.w3c. lt.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:jsp="http://java.jsp:attribute> and <jsp:body> actions are used to define XML elements dynamically.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:jsp="http://java. The word dynamically is important.sun. Following is the simple syntax for this action: .com/JSP/Page"> <head><title>Generate XML Element</title></head> <body> <jsp:element name="xmlElement"> <jsp:attribute name="xmlElementAttr"> Value for the attribute </jsp:attribute> <jsp:body> Body for XML element </jsp:body> </jsp:element> </body> </html> This would produce following HTML code at run time: <html xmlns="http://www. because it means that the XML elements can be generated at request time rather than statically at compile time.com/JSP/Page"> <head><title>Generate XML Element</title></head> <body> <xmlElement xmlElementAttr="Value for the attribute"> Body for XML element </xmlElement> </body> </html> The <jsp:text> Action The <jsp:text> action can be used to write template text in JSP pages and documents.w3c.sun.The <jsp:element> Action The <jsp:attribute> Action The <jsp:body> Action The <jsp:element>.

<jsp:text><![CDATA[<br>]]></jsp:text> If you need to include a DOCTYPE declaration. such as ${whatever gt 0} or an alternative is to embed the value in a CDATA section. for instance for XHTML.<jsp:text>Template data</jsp:text> The body fo the template cannot contain other elements. .0 Strict//EN" "DTD/xhtml1-strict. Instead. because the greater than signs are illegal. use the gt form. you must also use the <jsp:text> element as follows: <jsp:text><![CDATA[<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1. Note that in XML files. you cannot use expressions such as ${whatever > 0}.dtd">]]> </jsp:text> <head><title>jsp:text action</title></head> <body> <books><book><jsp:text> Welcome to JSP Programming </jsp:text></book></books> </body> </html> Try above example with and without <jsp:text> action. it can only contain text and EL expressions ( Note: EL expressions are explained in subsequent chapter).

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###BOT_TEXT###quot; Purpose A JSP comment. Ignored by the JSP engine. Here's a summary: Syntax <%-. Represents static <% literal.This is JSP comment --%> Following is the simple example for JSP Comments: <html> <head><title>A Comment Test</title></head> <body> <h2>A Test of Comments</h2> <%-. A single quote in an attribute that uses single quotes.comment --%> <!-. An HTML comment.

containing custom actions. forward the user to another page. %> Description Defines page-dependent attributes. JSP Actions: JSP actions use constructs in XML syntax to control the behavior of the servlet engine. It usually has the following form: <%@ directive attribute="value" %> There are three types of directive tag: Directive <%@ page . or generate HTML for the Java plugin. You can dynamically insert a file. used in the page <%@ include .A JSP directive affects the overall structure of the servlet class. %> <%@ taglib .... Includes a file during the translation phase.. and buffering requirements.. reuse JavaBeans components. such as scripting language. There is only one syntax for the Action element. Declares a tag library. error page. %> 9. as it conforms to the XML standard: <jsp:action_name attribute="value" /> Action elements are basically predefined functions and there are following JSP actions available: Syntax jsp:include jsp:include jsp:useBean jsp:setProperty jsp:getProperty Purpose Includes a file at the time the page is requested Includes a file at the time the page is requested Finds or instantiates a JavaBean Sets the property of a JavaBean Inserts the property of a JavaBean into the output ..

This encapsulates use of server-specific features like higher performance JspWriters. Defines dynamically defined XML element's attribute. which are also called implicit objects.jsp:forward jsp:plugin Forwards the requester to a new page Generates browser-specific code that makes an OBJECT or EMBED tag for the Java plugin Defines XML elements dynamically. response out session application config pageContext . This is the HttpServletResponse object associated with the response to the client. This is the ServletContext object associated with application context. This is the HttpSession object associated with the request. Defines dynamically defined XML element's body. These variables are: Objects request Description This is the HttpServletRequest object associated with the request. This is the ServletConfig object associated with the page. jsp:element jsp:attribute jsp:body jsp:text 10. This is the PrintWriter object used to send output to the client. JSP Implicit Objects: JSP supports nine automatically defined variables. Use to write template text in JSP pages and documents.

loops etc..case block which has been written a bit differentlty usingout. Decision-Making Statements: The if..."). %> <html> <head><title>IF. but the Scriptlet is closed at each line with HTML text included between Scriptlet tags..else block starts out like an ordinary Scriptlet. Exception 11...ELSE Example</title></head> <body> <% if (day == 1 | day == 7) { %> <p> Today is weekend</p> <% } else { %> <p> Today is not weekend</p> <% } %> </body> </html> This would produce following result: Today is not weekend Now look at the following switch.println() and inside Scriptletas: <%! int day = 3. You can use all the APIs and building blocks of Java in your JSP programming including decision making statements.page This is simply a synonym for this. Control-Flow Statements: JSP provides full power of Java to be embeded in your web application. . %> <html> 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