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following 7 groups of solutions: 1. 2. 3. 4. To renovate objectives, contents, curricula of education. To develop teaching staff, to renovate education methods; To renovate education management; To continue the improvement of the national education system and to develop the school network; 5. To increase the financial resources and infrastructure of education; 6. To strengthen social participation in education; 7. To strengthen international co-operation. Among the above-mentioned solutions, curricula renovation and development of teaching staff are the most important and education management renovation is the break-through solution. 5.1. To renovate objectives, contents, curricula of education: Objectives, contents, curricula of education are renovated toward standardization, modernization, with closer access to the advanced countries in the region and around the world; at the same time, should be relevant with the manpower demands of socio-economic sectors of the country, of the regions and localities; to follow the principle: learning is linked with doing, education is integrated with productive labour; theory is linked with practice, education in schools is coordinated with education in family and society. Attention is paid to physical education and to building up a learner¶s character. To modernize teaching-learning equipment, laboratories, practical base. To apply information technology as soon as possible in education in order to change education methods and management. a) General Education To enhance all-round education quality; to carry out the reduction of learning load, to design rational programme structure, ensuring basic standardized general knowledge, at the same time creating conditions to develop each student¶s ability, to increase thinking ability, practical skills, to consider the importance of social and humanity knowledge, to enrich the contents with the achievements of modern science and technology in accordance with the absorbing ability of students and accessing the general education level of developed countries in the region; to show full concern for virtue, morals, civil awareness, physical and aesthetic education for students. To create conditions for ethnic minority students to learn and master the country¶s official language at the same time to organize the learning of their own ethnic language. To give importance for providing and enhancing the knowledge of informatics and foreign languages of students. To teach foreign languages in the wide scale. From grade 6, the student can learn at least one foreign language continuously so that they will be able to use it when finishing upper secondary education. To make basic informatics knowledge universalized in
schools, special importance is given to the ability of accessing and using the information network. To carry out the new curricula and textbooks in the first grades of primary and lower secondary education from school year 2002-2003 and the first grade of upper secondary education from school year 2004-2005. In school year 2006-2007 to complete the realization of the new curricula and textbooks in general education. b) Professional Education To build up and to promulgate the nomenclature of training occupations; to innovate and to make contents, curricula standardized and flexible, to enhance the practical skills, the ability of selfemployment, the ability to adapt to the quick changes in technology and production, business, to link closely with the employment in the society, to transfer to other levels of education. To combine the provision of basic knowledge and skills at schools with the training at production and business places. To encourage the experts working in production and business to participate in curricula designing, teaching and training evaluation. To design curricula of vocational training at high level in the direction of closer access to the advanced level in the region and the world, with priority given to the fields of informatics, biology, new materials, machinery, autoimmunization and some other fields serving agriculture and rural development. c) Junior College, University and Postgraduate Education To carry out strong innovations of the higher education curricula in the direction of diversification, standardization, modernization, to create conditions for quick, selective adaptation of curricula of developed countries in the fields of science, technology, etc. closely satisfying country¶s requirements and practically serving the socio-economic development of country in general and different sectors and localities in particular. National universities, key universities, department training programmes in the spearhead fields of science-technology should act as the avant-garde in the renovation of objectives, contents, methods, and curricula of education. To design the bridging, multiphase programmes and to apply flexible training processes to create more opportunities for higher education for everyone, especially for people in rural, mountainous, isolated and remote areas. To promulgate the curriculum framework for undergraduate level in school year 2001-2002 and for master degree level in school year 2002-2003. To renovate examination systems, enrollment procedures to build up the methodology, procedures and systems for evaluating the quality of training, teaching staff, student achievements in an objective and exact manner; regard this as a basic measure to overcome the
examination-oriented characteristic of current education, making the education process healthy, not only in higher education but in all levels of education. To show special concern to the innovation of training methods in teacher training institutions, firstly in the two key pedagogic universities in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City and to create favourable conditions for innovation of training and learning methods in general education schools. Striving to ensure that every school has a good library with continuously updated learning materials, references for students and lecturers. To modernize teaching, learning equipment, laboratories, and practical base. Whenever required, higher education institutions are allowed to organize training programmes that use foreign languages as the medium of instruction in some subjects. To ensure that after graduation students can use computers for collecting and processing information and can use one foreign language for work and communication, thus increasing the ability of international integration. 5.2. To develop teaching staff, to innovate education methods To ensure that teaching staff is sufficient in quality, rational in structure and standardized in qualification, meeting the demands of the increase of student enrollment, at the same time enhancement of education quality and effectiveness. To innovate and modernize the education methods. To change from passive knowledge transmission in which teachers lecture and learners are taking notes, to advising learners on the ways of active thinking and receiving knowledge, to teach students the methods of self-learning, systematic collection of information and of analytic and synthetic thinking; to develop ability of every individual; to increase the active, independent attitude of students in learning process and self-management activities in schools and social work. To innovate programmes of teacher training and upgrading; to give importance to the training, consolidating and increasing the virtues and morals of teachers. a) Pre-school education teachers To intensify the training of pre-school education teachers to meet the demands of public and non-public pre-school education institutions, to move towards the standardization of pre-school education teaching staff. To build up the policies for pre-school teachers, especially teachers working in rural, mountainous, isolated and remote areas. b) General education teachers To readjust the structure of general education teaching staff, increasing the number of teachers for music, painting, sport-gymnastic, housework, career orientation and vocational teachers in order to diversify learning and activities of students in the context when students will spend full day at school. To increase the percentage of primary education teachers-graduates from junior colleges. To strive to ensure that all teachers of lower secondary education will have the qualification at least of junior college level, among them the heads of subject groups have the university level by 2005. To increase the percentage of upper secondary education teachers with
master degree to 10%. Special importance is given to the building up teaching staff for mountainous provinces, isolated, remote areas and areas with ethnic minority groups of population. All teachers should have the opportunities to continuously take part in refreshment courses. c) Teachers of vocational and professional secondary education To train teachers of vocational and professional secondary education in accordance with uniform standards, to supply teachers for new fields of training. To carry out professional refreshment for teachers by rotation every five years. To increase the percentage of professional secondary education teachers with master degree to 10% by 2010. To increase visiting teachers including skilled workers, professionals with high qualifications from enterprises and lecturers from higher education and technology research institutions. d) Higher education teaching staff It is urgent to train, recruit and increase the qualifications for higher education teaching staff in order to reduce the current student/teacher ratio from 30 to 20, of which 10-15 for science and technology, 20-25 for social studies, humanities and economics, and to be in front of the development of higher education in coming years. To increase the quota of master and doctorate training in order to supplement highly qualified manpower for universities and colleges. To increase the percentage of lecturers with master degree to 40%, with doctor degree to 25% by 2010. To give importance to training of highly qualified female lecturers. To create the conditions for lecturers to access sources of new knowledge and achievements of world science and technology. To select excellent graduates to supplement teaching staff of universities, colleges and to train them further at higher levels. To give priority to send lecturers of higher education institutions abroad for learning and upgrading using state budget and other resources. To invite and to create favourable conditions for people with high science-technology qualifications and practical experiences working in research institutes, administration offices, enterprises and overseas Vietnamese scientists to participate in teaching at universities and colleges. e) To improve the labour norms, working regime, and benefit system for teachers. To gradually build up the salary system in accordance with teaching load and quality. To implement privileges for teachers and education managers working in socio-economic difficult areas, and working with disabled children. The State should promulgate salary privilege policies for teachers. To increase the recruitment of teacher lecturers on a long-term labour contract basis. g) To strengthen the training capability and to innovate the training programmes of teacher training universities, colleges and faculties, to establish new faculties of education, teacher
training and refreshment centres in other universities and colleges. To focus on building 2 key pedagogic universities for high quality teacher training and to conduct education research at an advanced level. Priority is given to training teachers from ethnic minority groups and teachers with knowledge of ethnic languages for schools in the areas inhabited by ethnic groups. 5.3. To innovate education management To basically innovate education management thinking and modes in the direction of enhancement of the state management effectiveness, to implement a strong decentralization to increase the autonomy and accountability of local administration and education institutions in effectively solving their issues and preventing and overcoming current negative environment or situations. a) To increase the effectiveness of central steering of the Government in the implementation of the strategic plan for education. To innovate functions and operational modes of the National Council for Education chaired by the Prime Minister. The Council will assist him/her in steering the implementation of the education development strategic plan. The Council has the support unit in mobilizing a large number of highly respected scientists, educators, and socio-economic activists in different sectors to participate in the process of preparing and approving policies, development plans, evaluation of quality and effectiveness of education activities and the progress of strategic plan implementation. b) To innovate the mechanism and modes of education management in the direction of rational decentralization in order to liberate and bring into play the potential, creative ability, the autonomy and accountability of each administrative level in effectively solving the shortages of all education systems in development process. - The Ministry of Education and Training together with the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs should carry out the functions of state management in accordance with the Government¶s authorizations, focusing on accomplishing well three tasks: to build up the strategic plan, master plan and short-term plan of education development; to build up the mechanism, policies and regulations defining curricula and quality of education; to organize the control and inspection. Special importance is given to education inspection and quality assurance by organizing and steering the quality assurance process; the mechanism coordinating schools, families and society in the education management, the mechanism linking education with science-technology research and application through different forms of organization, integration policies at macro and micro levels. - To increase the quality of planning, regular forecasting and providing information about the needs of manpower in the society for different levels of administration and education institutions in order to regulate the enrollment, the structure of training fields and qualifications in accordance with the employment. - To strongly delegate managing authorities to different ministries, sectors, localities, to transfer the management powers in the areas of organization, personnel and finance to local education boards. To complete the regulations of managing activities of schools of different types. To give
more autonomy to universities, colleges so that they can be active, creative and effective in the implementation of education goals and at the same time to be more accountable before society and people. - To carry out the administration reform in education, and to renovate the mode of management in education. To institutionalize the role, functions, tasks, rights and accountability of education administration at all levels; to promulgate and to implement legal norms on education. c) To built up and to carry out the standardization of education managerial staff. To train and to regularly upgrade education administrators of different levels on management knowledge, skills, virtues and morals. To set the education management information system, to exploit the international education information sources for assisting the evaluation and decision making. To continue building and developing theory about Vietnam education oriented to socialism; to study, to supplement, to improve education guidance, Party and State policy, innovation of management and content, methodology of education, the dissemination the education knowledge in society. To evaluate regularly the impact of policy and solutions in education innovation. d) To increase the leadership of Party in education. Party Committees from central to local levels should guide and regularly control the implementation of education policies, especially of social participation in education, political and ideological education, the establishment of order, discipline, should consider the development and increase of education quality as an indicator in building the transparent and strong Party unit. To accept more Party members, to strengthen and consolidate Party organization, to make it the nuclear of leadership in schools. 5.4. To continue improving the structure of the national education system and to develop the network of schools, classes, education institutions To improve the structure of the national education system in the direction of diversification, standardization, transferability, linkage from general and vocational to college, university and postgraduate education. To organize the streaming of students after lower and upper secondary education. To develop the network of schools, classes, education institutions in the direction of overcoming the irrational structure of qualifications, training fields and localities, linking schools with society, training with science research and application. Priority is given to the development of technological junior colleges, the education institutions in ethnic minorities, isolated and remote areas. a) To restructure the education system to meet the needs of country in the period of industrialization and modernization; to selectively adapt international experiences on the organization of advanced education system in accordance with Vietnamese conditions. To restructure the training qualifications following international standards. To change the learning system, to renovate the entrance examinations, to diversify the modes of training, to build up the
rules of transference between different levels, different education institutions and to carry out other measures for adjustment of education system structure. b) To open more pre-school education institutions, especially in rural and difficult areas. To encourage the development of non-public pre-school education institutions and pre-school education institutions in business and enterprises. c) To develop the system of general education schools expanding throughout the country. To build in each commune (or each group of communes in sparsely - populated areas) at least one primary and one lower secondary school up to the national standards. To build in each province at least one key upper secondary school. To consolidate and to establish more ethnic minority boarding schools. To link general education schools with polytechnical centres, career orientation centres and vocational education institutions at localities in order to increase student access while they attend full day classes. d) To carry out branching in upper secondary education on the basis of ensuring standardized, general, basic, all-round and career-oriented education provided for all students and increased content in some disciplines in order to develop the ability and to meet the aspirations of students. To improve the model of specialized upper secondary schools in provinces or at universities in order to nurture talented students in the fields of science, literature, fine arts, gymnastics and sports. To study, to pilot and step by step to establish the general technical schools in the fields of agriculture, forestry, fishery and services in accordance with socio-economic peculiarities of populated areas. e) To consolidate and to establish more vocational training institutions, especially the institutions closely attached to populated areas, to train in the fields meeting the local labour needs. By the year of 2005 in each province will be at least one local vocational school and in each district one short-term vocational training, training and employment consulting centre. To develop vocational training at enterprises, apprenticeships, transferring of skills at craft villages, and private vocational training; to consolidate long-term vocational training schools; to strive to complete the construction of 25 key schools by 2005, 40 schools by 2010. To build up the master plan of professional secondary schools. g) To implement the master plan of universities, junior colleges. To focus investment on the construction and development of key institutions including the Hanoi National University and the Ho Chi Minh City National University, 2 key Pedagogic Universities and some other universities. As required there will be some higher education institutions in line with the master plan and will have full conditions. To complete the model of piloting community colleges and to develop colleges of this type in localities having full conditions. To build universities and colleges as the centres of training and at the same time the centres of science research, application and technology transfer.
To build strong science-technology research institutes, centres, departments in universities. To merge some research institutes, with priority on fundamental sciences, into universities. To be active in finding forms, mechanisms closely linking training, research and practical application, to take effectiveness of practical application for the direction, to link training with research, to make training and research suitable to market mechanisms, contributing directly to the increase of competitiveness of Vietnamese goods. h) To consolidate and to establish more continuing education institutions such as continuing education centres, community learning centres, supplementary education schools meeting the continuous learning needs of everyone, in every age and at every level. To strengthen two Open Universities in the aspects of media, equipment, learning materials in order to expand distance education. 5.5. To strengthen financial resources, infrastructure for education To increase the investment from the state budget, to mobilize all resources in society for education development; to innovate the mechanism of financial management. To standardize and modernize education institutions, teaching, learning and research equipment. a) The state budget is the main financial resource of education. The State should give priority to investment in education compared with other sectors. To increase the percentage of state budget for education from 15% in 2000 to at least 18% by 2005, 20% by 2010; to gain the loans with privileged interest for education from World Bank, Asian Development Bank, from other international organizations and foreign countries. The state budget is focused mostly on universal levels of education, to rural and mountainous areas, to training at high qualification, for study fields, which is difficult to attract the investment outside of state budget. To promulgate policy-ensuring learning conditions for children of meritorious people and policy target groups, creating learning opportunities for children of poor families. During the period 2001 - 2005 the Government annually allocates a certain sum and mobilizes other resources in order to send 400 - 500 learners to study in foreign countries with advanced science and technology. To mobilize many financial resources, to combine resources within and outside the country and social contribution for education development. b) To innovate the financial management mechanism in the direction to transfer the financial autonomy parallel with the implementation of transparent financial system and auditing system in order to increase the effectiveness of utilization of financial resources invested to education. To improve mechanism, policies of education credit. c) Local administration has the detailed plans of school construction in order to accelerate the universalization of lower secondary education, to increase the percentage of students learning full day at school to 70%, to increase the percentage of standardized schools to 50% by 2010. To
show special concern to building the permanent or semi-permanent schools in the areas suffering natural disasters. To carry out the privileged regime of using lands, giving loans for investment to education infrastructure. d) To increase and to modernize equipment, serving the innovation of education programmes, contents and methods. By 2010, 60% of general education schools and 100% universities and junior colleges will be connected to Internet. To connect the higher education system directly to the Internet. e) To build school libraries. By 2010 all general education schools will have a school library. To build up the electronic library system linked between higher education institutions in each locality and after that in the whole country, in the region and the world. g) To build some national laboratories in national and key universities. To build practical basis on technology in some junior colleges. 5.6. To push up social participation in education To encourage, to mobilize and to create conditions for the whole society to participate in education development. To create opportunities for all people, at every age, every level to learn continuously, life long, to go forwards to a learning society. a) To improve the theoretic and practical base, mechanism, policy and measures of social participation in education, to create the high agreement in the society about the understan- ding and implementation; to supplement and to improve the legal rules, the macro policies strongly encouraging socio-economic organizations and individuals to invest in education development; to create conditions to expand the enrollment as well as to increase the training quality of non-public education institutions system, (nonformal) education and community education centres b) To develop non-public education institutions To change some public institutions to non-public ones when suitable conditions exist. To consolidate and to increase the education quality of non-public institutions. To increase the percentage of students of non-public vocational training schools (long-term and short-term) to 70% by 2010, of students of non-public higher education institutions to 30% by 2010. Priority is given to non-public institutions in land rent and receiving credit for building schools. Schools, teaching staff, students of non-public education institutions are equal to those of public ones. To improve and to promulgate policies and mechanism assisting non-public education institutions. c) To enlarge the learning promotion fund, education patron¶s fund, to encourage individuals and collectives to invest in education development; to innovate the tuition fees system of public and non-public higher education institutions to make it relevant to education services provided by
institutions and to paying ability of learners, at the same time to reduce or exempt fees for learners from families of policy target groups, of meritorious people and the poor. d) To expand and to strengthen the relations between education institutions and different sectors, localities, offices, enterprises, socio-economic organizations, to create conditions for the society to contribute to the building of infrastructure, to participate in developing of master plans of institutions, to adjusting the training fields, qualification structure, to sponsoring learners and accepting graduates, to controlling education activities and creating healthy education environment. e) To make the education institutions become cultural centres with healthy education environments, implementing all-round education on moral, intellectual, physical and aesthetic aspects. To bring into play the tradition of respecting teachers and doctrine, to show the virtues of teachers, to do well the work of the political and ideological education, every teacher strives to become exemplary in all aspects, the mirror for students to look at. To do well the work of Party, Youth Union, Students Association in schools, to eliminate determinably the social evils, the negative aspects in teaching and learning. g) To increase the awareness, to strengthen the leadership of Party organizations, the control of People¶s Councils, the management of People¶s Committees at different levels; to bring into play the role of Trade Union, Women¶s Association, Youth Union, Pioneers¶ Association, Students Association, Student Parents¶ Association, Learning Promotion Association and other social organizations in the mobilization of social resources for education development. 5.7. To push up international co-operation in education To encourage the expansion and increase of cooperating relations in training, research with universities, research institutes of prestige and high quality on the world for exchanging good experiences, suitable to Vietnam conditions and increasing resources for education development. a) To mobilize the resources from international co-operation to increase the equipment, to build infrastructure for general education, especially in the areas with difficult socio-economic conditions. b) To increase the number of projects based on financial aid or loans in order to train technical skilled workers to meet the changes in labour structure and of labour export. c) To cooperate in investment to establish some high-tech centres in higher education institutions; to import the advanced research equipment in order to increase the effectiveness of training and research. d) To develop the cooperating projects in the field of science research generally and education research particularly of higher education institutions, research institutes, centres specialized in education; to exchange information, to organize workshops, international conferences; to participate in the activities of United Nations organizations, the organizations of French speaking countries, the organizations of Asia Pacific region, Asia-Europe organizations and others.
e) To encourage the foreign business people with experience, potential, tradition and high qualification to establish education institutions with 100% foreign capital or joint ventures with Vietnamese partners in higher education, vocational training, distance education, to organize in Vietnam short-term refreshment courses at regional and international level following Vietnamese legal system. g) To build up the mechanism and policies that encourage, create favourable conditions and supervise self-sufficient learning abroad.
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