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Homework 7 Solution

Prof. Ali Shakouri

Second Edition ( 2001 McGraw-Hill)

Chapter 7

7.1 Relative permittivity and polarizability

a. Show that the local field is given by ε + 2 Eloc = E r 3

Local field

b. Amorphous selenium (a-Se) is a high resistivity semiconductor that has a density of approximately 4.3 g cm-3 and an atomic number and mass of 34 and 78.96 g/mol respectively. Its relative permittivity at 1 kHz has been measured to be 6.7. Calculate the relative magnitude of the local field in a-Se. Calculate the polarizability per Se atom in the structure. What type of polarization is this? How will εr depend on the frequency? c. If the electronic polarizability of an isolated atom is given by

αe ≈ 4πεoro3

where ro is the radius of the atom, then calculate the electronic polarizability of an isolated Se atom, which has r0 = 0.12 nm, and compare your result with that for an atom in a-Se. Why is there a difference?

Solution

a The polarization, P, is given by:

**P = (ε o [ε r − 1]) E where E is the electric field. The local field Eloc is given by:
**

Eloc = E + Substitute for P:

∴ Eloc = E +

P 3ε o

(ε [ε

o

r

− 1]) E

3ε o

(ε − 1) 3 + ε r − 1 E = = 1 + r E 3 3

ε + 2 E Eloc = r 3

b The relative magnitude of the local field refers to the local field compared to the applied field, i.e.: Eloc / E. Therefore, with εr = 6.7: Eloc ε r + 2 6.7 + 2 = 2.9 = = 3 3 E

**If D is the density then the concentration of Se atoms N is
**

7.1

09 2.8 1. Plot the polarizability from part b against the bandgap energy. b. Ali Shakouri N= 3 3 23 −1 DNA (4.09 190 75.8 times greater than the polarizability of the isolated Se atom. Calculate the polarizability per atom in each crystal and then plot polarizability against the elastic modulus Y (Young's modulus).76 α e′ 1. When does this relationship hold and when does it fail? e.96 × 10 −3 kg/mol ) = 3.7 + 2 ) αe = 5.12 × 10-9 m)3 ∴ αe′ ≈ 1. Substituting into the given equation: αe′ ≈ 4πεoro3 = 4π(8.92 × 10-40 F m2 Comparing this value and our previous value: α e 5.5 n 2.67 .42 3.2 αe Y (GPa) 827 Eg (eV) 5. In the solid.7 − 1) 3ε o (ε r − 1) 3(8. bandgap and refractive index Diamond.30 × 10 −40 F m2 = = 2.8 12 3. and germanium are covalent solids with the same crystal structure. Eg.31 × 10-40 F m2 This would be a type of electronic polarization. as Se is a covalent solid. Explain why εr increases from diamond to germanium.279 × 1028 m-3 αe: The Clausius-Mossotti equation relates the relative permittivity to the electronic polarizability. Would your conclusions apply to ionic crystals such as NaCl? Table 7Q2-1 Properties of diamond. and Ge Density Mat εr (g cm-3) Diamon 5.61 5. bond strength.022 × 10 mol ) = Mat (78. Si.45 4.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution Prof. 7. a.279 × 10 m )(6.2 Relative permittivity. εr − 1 N = α ε r + 2 3ε o e ∴ ∴ −12 F/m ) 6.854 × 10-9 F/m)(0.854 × 10 ( αe = = 28 −3 N (ε r + 2 ) (3.33 Ge 16 72.52 d Si 11. Is there a relationship? d. εr is flat up to optical frequencies.92 × 10 −40 F m 2 The observed polarizability per Se atom in the solid is 2. valence electrons are involved in bonding and these electrons contribute to electronic bond polarization (the field can displace these electrons). Their relative permittivities are shown in Table 7Q2-1.12 nm. Show that the refractive index n is √εr. silicon.32 7.12 0. c The Se atom has a radius of about ro = 0.9 28.3 × 10 kg/m )(6. Should there be a correlation? c.

170 × 10-40 F m2 5. Si and Ge N (m-3) Diamond Si Ge 1.995 × 1028 m-3 4.00 × 10 -40 2.00 × 10 -40 0 0 200 400 600 800 Young's modulus (GPa) 1000 α = 5.00 × 10 -40 4.766 × 10 m )(5.00 × 10 -40 1.00 × 10 -40 3. Ali Shakouri Solution a In diamond.8 + 2) αe = 9. and are summarized in Table 7Q2-2: Table 7Q2-2 Polarizability values for diamond. Si. the polarization mechanism is electronic (bond). b For diamond.412 × 1028 m-3 αe (F m2) 9.00 × 10 -40 5. Secondly.017 × 10-40 F m2 6. 7. First is the number of electrons available for displacement and the ease with which the field can displace the electrons. There are two factors that increase the polarization.256 × 10-41 F m2 4.022 × 10 ( N= = −3 Mat (12 × 10 kg/mol) 3 3 23 mol−1 ) = 1.327 × 10 -43)Y Correlation coefficient = 0. and most importantly.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution Prof.766 × 1029 m-3 The polarizability can then be found from the Clausius-Mossotti equation: εr − 1 N = α ε r + 2 3ε o e ∴ ∴ αe = −12 F/m ) 5.256 × 10-41 F m2 The polarizability for Si and Ge can be found similarly.(5.854 × 10 ( = 29 −3 N (ε r + 2 ) (1.311 × 10 -40 . The number of electrons in the core shells increases from diamond to Ge.9969 Figure 7Q2-1 Plot of polarizability per atom versus Young’s modulus.3 . and Ge. atomic concentration N is: DNA (3. the bond strength per atom decreases from diamond to Ge.52 × 10 kg/m ) 6.8 − 1) 3ε o (ε r − 1) 3(8. making it easier for valence electrons in the bonds to be displaced.766 × 1029 m-3 4.

00 × 10 -40 5. There indeed seems to be a linear relationship between polarizability and bandgap energy. The refractive index n is an optical property that represents the speed of a light wave.02070) ≈ 1. the displacement of electrons in the covalent bonds depends on the flexibility or elasticity of these bonds and hence also depends on the elastic modulus. Eg (eV) 6 α = 5.0435 × 10 -41)Eg Correlation coefficient = 0. εr 20 Figure 7Q2-3 Logarithmic plot of refractive index versus relative permittivity. we can plot a graph of refractive index. εr. n and polarizability (or εr) will be related if the polarization can follow the field oscillations at this frequency (ƒoptical). Ali Shakouri As the polarization mechanism in these crystals is due to electronic bond polarization.00 × 10 -40 4. through the material (v = c/n).513 ≈ 1/2 and A = exp(−0. This will be the case in electronic polarization because electrons are light and rapidly respond 7. d To facilitate this proof.00 × 10 -40 2.4 . The best fit line is n = Aεrx (Correlation coefficient is 0. Thus n = √(εr).325 × 10 -40 .00 × 10 -40 3. The log-log plot exhibits a straight line through the three points.(8.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution Prof. versus relative permittivity. c 6. or an electromagnetic wave. The light wave is a high frequency electromagnetic wave where the frequency is of the order of 1014 − 1015 Hz (ƒoptical).9873 Figure 7Q2-2 Plot of polarizability versus bandgap energy. n.9987) where x = 0.00 × 10 -40 1. 5 Log-log plot: Power law 2 4 10 Relative permittivity.00 × 10 -40 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Bandgap.

dipolar polarization. Apply Ampere's law around C. Consider Figure 8Q1-2. ∫Hdl = total threaded current = Itotal = NI. which is the rectangular circuit PQRS. then l >> r. The relationship between n and εr will not hold if we take εr at a low frequency (<< ƒoptical) where other slow polarization contributions (such as ionic polarization.5 . show that the inductance is L ≈ µoµrn2Vcore Inductance of long solenoid where Vcore is the volume of the core. If H is the field along a small length dl along a closed path C. If r is the radius of the core and l is the length of the solenoid. How would you increase the inductance of a long solenoid? What is the approximate inductance of an air-cored solenoid with a diameter of 1 cm. Ali Shakouri to the fast oscillations of the field. 7.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution Prof. then around C. and 500 turns? What is the magnetic field inside the solenoid and the energy stored in the whole solenoid when the current is 1 A? What happens to these values if the core medium has a relative permeability µr of 600? S I P C R Q r B µr n = Turns per unit length Figure 8Q1-1 Solution We use Ampere's law in Equation 8. The total number of turns is N and the number of turns per unit length is n = N/l. e n = ε r would apply to ionic crystals if εr is taken at the corresponding optical frequency rather than at frequencies below ƒoptical. Tabulated data for ionic crystals typically quote εr that includes ionic polarization and hence this data does NOT conform to n = ε r .15 (in the textbook). interfacial polarization) also contribute to εr. and show that B ≈ µoµrnI Further. Chapter 8 8. length of 20 cm. The current through the coil wires is I.1 Inductance of a long solenoid Consider the very long (ideally infinitely long) solenoid shown in Figure 8Q1-1.

23 × 10-4 H or 0. where n is the number of turns per unit length. along the whole length of the solenoid from one end to the other. further. Assume that the field H is uniform across the solenoid core cross section. We can assume that H field is relatively uniform at all points inside the solenoid. Ampere's law ∫Hdl = Itotal is then H(PQ) = I(nPQ) i. For a given volume inductor.92 J / m3 The total energy stored is then. L can be increased by using a higher µr material or increasing n.e. The rectangular loop PQRS has n(PQ) number of turns where n is the number of turns per unit length or n = N/l (See Figure 8Q1-1). The theoretical inductance of the coil is L = (4π × 10-7 H/m)(1)[(500)/(0.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution I Prof.01 m)/(2)]2 ∴ and L = 1.8 in the textbook). e. quality factor.2 m)]2(0. Note: The approximate equality sign in the text (equation for B) is due to the fact that we assumed H is uniform across the core and. Evol = B2/(2µo) = (3.6 .14 × 10-3 T)2/[2(4π × 10-7 Wb A-1 m-1)] ∴ Evol = 3. Let A be the cross-sectional area of the solenoid. thinner wire to get more turns per unit length (not so thin that the skin effect diminishes the Q-factor. Ali Shakouri O C r dl P Ht Figure 8Q1-2 Ampere’s circuital law Assume that the solenoid is infinitely long.2 m)](1 A) = 3.123 mH B ≈ (4π × 10-7 Wb A-1 m-1)(1)[(500)/(0. see §2. on the relative permeability µr and on the volume of the core containing the magnetic flux. Inductance depends on n2.g. The magnetic field B. the flux Φ and hence the inductance L are B = µoµrH ≈ µoµrnI ∴ and ∴ Φ = BA ≈ µoµrnAI = µoµr (N/l)AI L = (NΦ)/I = N[µoµr(N/l)AI]/I = µoµr(N2/l)A = µoµrn2(lA) L = µoµrn2Vcore where Vcore is the volume of the core. Then the path integral of the magnetic field intensity H around PQRS is simply is Hl = H(PQ).2 m)(π)[(0. RS and SP is zero.14 × 10-3 T The energy per unit volume is. 7. The ends of the solenoid will have different fields (lower). H = nI The dimensions of the solenoid are such that length >> diameter. The field is only inside the solenoid and only along the PQ direction (long solenoid assumption) and therefore the field along QR.

5 T inside the solenoid.2 Magnetization Consider a long solenoid with a core that is an iron alloy (see Problem 8.23× 10−4 H)(600) = 0.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution 2 Prof.2 m Since I = 2 A gives saturation.01 m = Evol (Length × Area) = (3.88 T )2 −7 Wb/A ⋅ m ) 600 ) ( = 2344 J/m 3 Etot = (Evol)(Volume) = 36.8 mJ This is a dramatic increase and shows the virtue of using a magnetic core material for increasing the inductance and the stored magnetic energy. What is the saturation magnetization Msat of this iron alloy? c. The current is increased until the core is magnetized to saturation at about I = 2 A and the saturated magnetic field is 1. 8.88 T and so that Evol ≈ 2(4π × 10 (1. µoH.1 for the relevant formulas). The number of turns on the solenoid is 200.7 b . Ali Shakouri 3 Etot 0.5 T. how much current would we need? Is there a practical way of doing this? Solution a Applying Ampere’s law or Hl = NI we have.2 m ) = 61.0738 H B ≈ (3.6 µJ 2 Suppose that µr = 600 and suppose that the core does not saturate (an ideal ferromagnetic material) then. a. Suppose that the diameter of the solenoid is 2 cm and the length of the solenoid is 20 cm. for saturation? b.51 × 10-3 T Apply Bsat = µo (Msat + Hsat ) 7. corresponding magnetizing field is Hsat ≈ 2000 A/m Suppose the applied magnetic field is the magnetic field in the toroid core in the absence of material.92 J/m )π (0. Then Bapp = µ o Hsat = (4π × 10−7 Wb A -1 m -1)(2000 A/m) ∴ Bapp = 2. H= NI (200)(2 A) = l 0. If we were to remove the iron-alloy core and attempt to obtain the same magnetic field of 1. L ≈ (1. What is the total magnetization current on the surface of the magnetized iron alloy specimen? d.14 × 10 −3 T)(600) = 1. What is the magnetic field intensity at the center of the solenoid and the applied magnetic field.

2 m d = 1194 A Not very practical in every day life! Perhaps this current (thus field B = 1.5 T 200 (4π × 10−7 Wb A -1 m -1) 0. Im = Msat ≈ 1. B ≈ µo nI (for air) I≈ 1. Ali Shakouri ∴ ∴ Msat = Bsat µo − Hsat = 1.5 T − 2000 A/m 4π × 10 Wb A-1 m -1 −7 Msat ≈ 1.19 × 10 6 A/m ) 0.38 × 10 5 A ( Note that the actual current in the wires.8 . 7. 2 A is negligible compared with Isurface.EE145 Spring 2002 Homework 7 Solution Prof.19 × 106 A/m Since M is the magnetization current per unit length. Apply.5 T) could be achieved by using a superconducting solenoid.2 m ) = 2.19 × 106 A/m Then Isurface = Total circulating surface current: c ∴ I surface = Iml = ( 1.

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