5/18/2011

Ani Tejada, MD


Bullying - a specific type of aggression
(1) The behavior is intended to harm or disturb (2) The behavior occurs repeatedly over time, and (3) There is an imbalance of power, with a person or group perceived as more powerful attacking one perceived as less powerful.

Filippos Analitis (2009)

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Externalizing: behaviors Internalizing: depression, anxiety Prosocial: altruism, sharing, volunteerism. Cyberbullying: bully behavior through electronic media (cell phone, computers)

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emotionally distressed and socially marginalized Bully-victims . Greece.5/18/2011    Verbal Psychological Physical (younger children) Analitis (2009)  Involving: ◦ Bullies (perpetrators) 24% ◦ Victims 13% ◦ Bullies/victims 22% Forero (1999) Findings from community survey:  Bullies – appear psychologically strongest with high social standing Victims . and Wales   2 . Highest Bullying: Latvia. Ireland. and Austria. Russia. Sweden. Norway. Ukraine. Finland. Iceland. Czech Republic.most troubled with problems in ◦ Conduct ◦ School ◦ Peer relationships    Junoven. Lithuania. Estonia. and Ukraine. Romania. Turkey.2003 Region All Europe Sweden Lithuania  Boys 23% 9% 45% Girls 16% 5% 36% Highest Victimization: Lithuania. Romania. Greenland. Lowest Bullying: Hungary. Latvia. Greece. Greenland.

5/18/2011             Younger adolescents (<15 years) Males Loneliness Depression Anxiety Poverty. non-primarily English Hopelessness Smoking cigarettes Alcohol consumption Truancy Lower academic achievement Poor parental support  Compared reported: to bystanders. victims  Lower achievement  Feeling unsafe  Feeling as if one does not belong at school (4 times as often)  Feeling sad (nearly twice as often) Having close friends Parental supervision High academic achievement. 3 . minority.

5/18/2011  Correlate of youth violence Victims have  rates of: ◦ Physical illness ◦ Mental illness. Bully groups:  School problems  Difficulties getting along with classmates.depression. anxiety ◦ Violence Subsequent mental health symptoms ◦ Social problems ◦ Aggression ◦ Externalizing behavioral problems    Bully-victims:  Most troubled  Highest level of conduct. Bullies:  Increased conduct problems.  Psychologically ‘strongest’  Enjoyed high social standing among their classmates. school.  ↓ degree of empathy and cooperativeness   Victims:  Emotionally distressed  Socially marginalized among their classmates.  4 . and relationship problems.

and bullies  Increased risk for psychosomatic problems compared with uninvolved peers.  feel alone 5 .victim  Suicidal ideation  Most often among bullies. victims.5/18/2011  All groups:  Equally Increased depression  Increase severe suicidal ideation  Depression  Most common among bully.   unhappy with school  Victims:  like school.  Bullies and victims:  Increased psychological and psychosomatic symptoms.  All bullying-involved groups: Bullies:  lower than the scores of bystanders.  Bully-victims.

school.  If during the first years of schooling If Girls  contributes to maladjustment in young children   More internalizing and externalizing problems  Highest conduct.  More internalizing problems  More externalizing problems  Fewer prosocial behaviors  Less happy at school  Children involved in bullying:  Endorse carrying guns to school  Beating up someone who started a fight  Smoking cigarettes. 6 . and relationship problems.5/18/2011  Victims  Emotionally distressed  Socially marginalized among their classmates.

parents involved.5/18/2011 Primary: before problem Secondary: early stage of problem Tertiary: consequence of problem  Methods most used in the world: ◦ Dan Olweus ◦ Dr. (↓ 30% to 70% others) “System-wide program”. Ken Birgy  1980s in Norway ↓bullying by 50%. Based on: ◦ constant reminder of rules ◦ close supervision ◦ meetings. committees ◦ Levels  School  Individual  Classroom  Community   First worldwide prestigious program 7 .

5/18/2011  Rules and ‘consequences’ Restorative Justice procedures Mediation the No-Blame or Social Group Method Method of Shared Concern      Non-punitive problem-solving: “There is no individual bully” Information by bystanders: Not from victimsavoided Moderate severity. not for trivial or criminal Series of discussions  With all groups involved  Refer to ‘hypothetical bullies’ who can assist in resolving the problem.     Improving Parent Involvement Training Students:  Bystander Intervention Programs  Student Mediated Conflict Resolution Programs   Role of Media/Newspaper Reporters 8 .

htm http://www.thereadings.org/schoolbully/case s.bullyonline.com/brandon.html http://parentsagainstbullying.org/ http://www.net/wanda http://www.html http://www.jaredstory.html http://www.html     9 .5/18/2011  School-Wide Intervention Programs      Playground Interventions Interventions With High-Risk Students Helping Children Who Bully Helping Victimized by Bullying Addressing Gang Problems  Training Teacher on how to     Intervene Improve Classroom Management Recognize and Reinforce Students’ Behaviors Ways to “Defuse” Angry Students  http://teachsafeschools.bartowparentsagainstbullying.org/bullyingprevention.bullycide.overcomebullying.org      www.org/bullycide.com/ http://bullycide.org/WandaProject.

individual. 10 .5/18/2011         Depression Anxiety Psychosomatic complaints Poor adult supervision or support Low academic grades Lower family income Absence of friends Truancy  Referral and treatment with behavioral health professionals Treatment tailored to specific needs  Pharmacological  Therapy. family  CB1  A moderate and statistically significant relationship exists between low self-esteem and experiences with cyberbullying. group.

Slide 31 CB1 add definition of cyberbullying before this slide Caroline Bonham. 4/14/2011 .

(4) procedures for reporting incidents of bullying. (1994). (Point 4) but shall not be limited to: (1) definitions. LLC http://preventionconsultantsllc.BullyPolice. (2) absolute prohibition. www. Prevention Consultants. and (9) a requirement that anti-bullying is included as part of the health education curriculum 11 . (Point 6) no later than April 1. and charter schools and governs policies to be adopted and implemented by local school districts with regards to addressing bullying. retaliation or false accusation (5) consequences (6) consequences for knowingly making false reports pursuant to the anti-bullying policy. teachers.confidentiality /protection from reprisal.com Olweus Bullying Prevention Program.5/18/2011  Bullying behaviours are reinforced when a bully does not experience negative consequences Huesmann and Eron (1984) Teachers and other school staff model bullying behaviours Song and Swearer. local school districts. B. administrators and all other school or district employees. Any such anti-bullying policy shall at least include. (3) annual dissemination of the anti-bullying policy to all students.org                NEW MEXICO B+ A. (7) procedures for investigation by administration of incidents (8) a requirement that teachers and other school staff report any incidents of bullying. Each school district and charter school shall develop and implement a policy that addresses bullying.   Pepler et al. 2007. (Point 7) C.olweus.org/NewMexico Kathleen Keelan. 2002 Discrepancy between reports of intervention  85% teachers reported intervening ‘always’ or ‘often’ to stop bullying  35% students reported that teachers intervened in bullying. This section applies to local school boards. parents.  www.

5/18/2011  Research articles from PUB MED Mentioned Web Links  12 .