Table of contents

Contents Preface Glossary of Symbols Table of Conversions for S.L Units

Chapter 1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

Basic Concepts
Introduction Sedimentation and Sieving in Determination of Particle Sizes Index Tests Soil Classification Water Content and Density of Saturated Soil Specimen The Effective Stress Concept Some Effects that are ‘Mathematical’ rather than ‘Physical’ The Critical State Concept Summary

1
1 2 4 5 7 8 10 12 14

Chapter 2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

Stresses, Strains, Elasticity, and Plasticity
Introduction Stress Stress-increment Strain-increment Scalars, Vectors, and Tensors Spherical and Deviatoric Tensors Two Elastic Constants for an Isotropic Continuum Principal Stress Space Two Alternative Yield Functions The Plastic Potential Function and the Normality Condition Isotropic Hardening and the Stability Criterion Summary

16
16 16 18 19 21 22 23 25 28 29 30 32

Chapter 3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Seepage
Excess Pore-pressure Hydraulic Gradient Darcy’s Law Three-dimensional Seepage Two-dimensional Seepage Seepage Under a Long Sheet Pile Wall: an Extended Example Approximate Mathematical Solution for the Sheet Pile Wall Control of Seepage

34
34 35 35 37 38 39 40 44

Chapter 4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

One-dimensional Consolidation
Spring Analogy Equilibrium States Rate of Settlement Approximate Solution for Consolidometer Exact Solution for Consolidometer The Consolidation Problem

46
46 49 50 52 55 57

7 6.1 6.2 5.12 5.7 5. v.7 7.16 6.4 8.1 7.5 8.6 8.1 8.8 5.8 8.6 7.3 5. and Strain-increment Power Power in Granta-gravel Responses to Probes which cause Yield Critical States Yielding of Granta-gravel Family of Yield Curves Hardening and Softening Comparison with Real Granular Materials Taylor’s Results on Ottawa Sand Undrained Tests Summary Introduction Power in Cam-clay Plastic Volume Change Critical States and Yielding of Cam-clay Yield Curves and Stable-state Boundary Surface Compression of Cam-clay Undrained Tests on Cam-clay The Critical State Model Plastic Compressibility and the Index Tests The Unconfined Compression Strength Summary One Real Axial-test Apparatus Test Procedure Data Processing and Presentation Interpretation of Data on the Plots of v versus ln p Applied Loading Planes Interpretation of Test Data in (p. Stress-increment.5 6.6 5.9 Granta-gravel Introduction A Simple Axial-test System Probing Stability and Instability Stress.14 5.5 7.8 6.4 7.Chapter 5 5.6 6.3 7.9 7.9 5.11 8. q) Space Interpretation of Shear Strain Data & Interpretation of Data of ε and Derivation of Cam-clay Constants Rendulic’s Generalized Principle of Effective Stress Interpretation of Pore-pressure Changes Summary Coulomb’s Failure Equation Hvorslev’s Experiments on the Strength of Clay at Failure Principal Stress Ratio in Soil About to Fail Data of States of Failure A Failure Mechanism and the Residual Strength on Sliding Surfaces Design Calculations An Example of an Immediate Problem of Limiting Equilibrium An Example of the Long-term Problem of Limiting Equilibrium Summary 61 61 62 64 66 68 70 71 72 73 74 76 78 81 85 87 91 Chapter 6 Cam-clay and the Critical State Concept 93 93 95 96 97 98 100 102 104 105 111 114 Chapter 7 Interpretation of Data from Axial Tests on Saturated Clays 116 116 118 119 120 123 125 127 130 135 137 142 Chapter 8 Coulomb’s Failure Equation and the Choice of Strength Parameters 144 144 145 149 152 154 158 160 161 163 .13 5.1 5.3 6.5 5.3 8.10 5.10 6.11 5.2 7.11 7.2 8.9 6.15 5.7 8.10 7.2 6.8 7.4 6.4 5.

4 Coulomb’s Analysis of Active Pressure using a Plane Surface of Slip Coulomb’s Analysis of Passive Pressure Coulomb’s Friction Circle and its Development in Gothenberg Stability due to Cohesion Alone Discontinuity Conditions in a Limiting-stress Field Discontinuous Limiting-stress Field Solutions to the Bearing Capacity Problem Upper and Lower Bounds to a Plastic Collapse Load Lateral Pressure of Horizontal Strata with Self Weight (γ>0.6 9.9 910 9.Chapter 9 Two-dimensional Fields of Limiting Stress 9.12 10.5 9.3 9.11 9.8 9.2 9.2 10.1 9.7 9.1 10.4 9.3 10. ρ>0) The Basic Equations and their Characteristics for a Purely Cohesive Material The General Numerical Solution Sokolovski’s Shapes for Limiting Slope of a Cohesive Soil Summary Scope Granta-gravel Reviewed Test Equipment Soil Deformation and Flow 165 165 167 169 172 174 180 186 188 191 195 197 199 Chapter 10 Conclusion 201 201 201 204 204 206 209 216 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C .