Santos, Raymund John IV- Group E

Dengue (ward class)
Dengue hemorrhagic fever - is a severe, potentially deadly infection spread by certain species of mosquitoes (Aedes
aegypti). Causes, incidence, and risk factors Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person catches a different type dengue virus after being infected by another one sometime before. Prior immunity to a different dengue virus type plays an important role in this severe disease. Symptoms Early symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever are similar to those of dengue fever, but after several days the patient becomes irritable, restless, and sweaty. These symptoms are followed by a shock -like state. Bleeding may appear as tiny spots of blood on the skin (petechiae) and larger patches of blood under the skin (ecchymoses). Minor injuries may cause bleeding. Shock may cause death. If the patient survives, recovery begins after a one-day crisis period. Early symptoms include: • • • • • • • Decreased appetite Fever Headache Joint aches Malaise Muscle aches Vomiting

Acute phase symptoms include: • Restlessness followed by: • Ecchymosis • Generalized rash • Petechiae • Worsening of earlier symptoms • Shock-like state • Cold, clammy extremities • Sweatiness (diaphoretic)

• if the dengue enters Stage 3. encephalitis. spontaneous bleeding. abnominal pain. Grade 2. weak pulse. difficulty in breathing. which are: Grade 1. the patient can suffer from complications like organ failure.Circulatory failure. and low blood pressure Grade 4. Rashes can appear in any grade of dengue. Grade 3.the 4 grades of dengue.Shock and possibly death if the body of the patient is weak and immune system is low. bleeding. rashes.fever. rapid pulse Tests may include: • Arterial blood gases . central nervous system problem. Signs and tests A physical examination may reveal: • Enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) • • • • • • Low blood pressure Rash Red eyes Red throat Swollen glands Weak. and others.All the symptoms of Grade 1.

Complications • • • • • Encephalopathy Liver damage Residual brain damage Seizures Shock Calling your health care provider . However. half of untreated patients who go into shock do not survive. most patients recover from dengue hemorrhagic fever.• • • • • • • • • Coagulation studies Electrolytes Hematocrit Liver enzymes Platelet count Serologic studies (demonstrate antibodies to Dengue viruses) Serum studies from samples taken during acute illness and convalescence (increase in titer to Dengueantigen) Tourniquet test (causes petechiae to form below the tourniquet) X-ray of the chest (may demonstrate pleural effusion) Treatment Because Dengue hemorrhagic fever is caused by a virus for which there is no known cure or vaccine. • • • • • A transfusion of fresh blood or platelets can correct bleeding problems Intravenous (IV) fluids and electrolytes are also used to correct electrolyte imbalances Oxygen therapy may be needed to treat abnormally low blood oxygen Rehydration with intravenous (IV) fluids is often necessary to treat dehydration Supportive care in an intensive care unit/environment Expectations (prognosis) With early and aggressive care. the only treatment is to treat the symptoms.

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of dengue fever and have been in an area where dengue fever is known to occur. . netting. Use personal protection such as full-coverage clothing. Prevention There is no vaccine available to prevent dengue fever. and if possible. Mosquito abatement programs can also reduce the risk of infection. especially if you have had dengue fever before. travel during periods of minimal mosquito activity. mosquito repellent containing DEET.