2.1.

1 Structure (Sentence Completion):

To answer the Structure questions, follow the steps below:

Step 1: Read through the entire sentence, analyse structure of the sentence, and then figure out what part of the sentence is missed

Step 2: Cover up answer choices and choose the answer choice that is most appropriate to what you think is omitted in the sentence

Here are some examples to illustrate my methodology

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6. Because the wood of the dogwood tree is very hard, _____ is used for objects, such as roller skate wheels, in which hardness is desired. (A) and (B) it (C) what (D) thus

To crack the question above, follow the steps below:

Step 1: Do not look at answer choices, look at the sentence first. Analyse the structure of the sentence. You can recognise that here is the complex sentence in which ‘Because the wood of the dogwood tree is very hard’ is a subordinate clause (adverb clause). It can be inferred that the clause folowing the comma (,) is a main clause. Easily recognised, a subject should be filled in the blank to complete the main clause

Step 2: Cover up answer choices and figure out that (B) is the only best choice

(A) that many species of organisms (B) many species of organisms that (C) many species of organisms are (D) there are many organisms To crack the question above. It can be inferred that an object. students are taught how to distinguish subordinate clauses and that a noun clause functions as a subject or an object of a complex sentence) Step 2: Cover up answer choices. _____ the diffusion of heat upward to the Earth's surface. the temperature within the Earth remains constant. ‘species of organisms’ is a subject of the noun clause In addition. You can recognise that that is a complex sentence in which ‘Fossil records’ is a subject and ‘indicate’ is a verb (predicate) of the main clause. a noun phrase or a clause. ‘that’ is a noun clause maker. (A) That (B) Despite . You can figure out that the sentence needs an object that can be a word. in my classes. students are also told that the sentence above can be rewritten in the other way. defining the verb ‘ indicate’. Cover up the sentence. follow the steps below: Step 1: Analyse the structure of the sentence. that is.13. must be a noun clause (in my classes. ‘Fossil records indicate that many species of organisms which exist in the past have become extinct’ 11. it is easy to find out that (A) is the only best answer. Fossil records indicate _____ existing in the past have become extinct. you can realise that ‘have become’ is a verb.

(C) If (D) When Step 1: Analyse the sentence. and find out that (B) is the only best answer Notes: In my lectures. and figure out that ‘the temperature within the Earth remains constant’ is an independent clause. and complex). written expression part is a clue hunting process. modifiers (such as adjectives. It is easily inferred that we should choose a preposition rather than a conjunction to complete the sentence Step 2: Cover up answer choices. In my experiences. Noun clauses). compound. Please also note that you cannot find out any clue in many questions of non-ETS practice tests. All correct and incorrect answers of ETS tests are constructed on a system of clues that unconsciously puts ETS in a dilemma. subjects. Please remember that SW section tests your grammar rather than your vocabulary To illustrate my points. sentences (single.2 Methodology for Written Expression (Error Identification) As a matter of fact. conjunctions. I unequivocally state that analytical reasoning rather than English knowledge is the key to cracking these questions. adverbs). Adjective/Relative.1. and subordinate clauses (Adverb. it takes just an hour for students to be familiar with these terms 2. Clues lead you to understanding both correct and incorrect answers. please observe the way I crack the following sentences: . pronouns. articles. prepositions. students will be familiar with some terms that are used in this section. You must interpret the sentences in order to find out correct answers. Terms include nouns. verbs.

which has a high sugar content for yeilds sugar and syrup ABCD At the speed of light. However. often teach them in conventional ways. ‘of’ between the word ‘yeilds’ and ‘sugar’ (yeilds of sugar). who believe that TOEFL is just a linguistic test. we find that if ‘yields’ is a noun.2 Methodology for Reading Comprehension In my experiences. that methodology is compelling enough to influence any English teacher 2. most test takers approach the Reading Comprehension section as if they get points just for reading. English teachers. Some maple trees are raised for their sap. say. the word ‘for’ in choice D must be replaced by a relative pronoun. I strongly recommend the RC methodology introduced by The Princeton Review be applied to this syllabus Summary of The Princeton Review’s methodology: . They will be wasting valuable time. ‘that’ to complete the adjective clause that modifies the noun ‘content’. trying to understand every word. it cannot be in the plural form before the noun ‘sugar’. The word ‘yeilds’ can be either a noun or a verb. ETS guys understand this well and know how to trap test takers) Regarding challenges test takers encounter on RC section and typical features of TOEFL reading section. From a grammatical perspective. It can be concluded that ‘yeilds’ must be a singular verb’ and as a result. Look back at sentence. say. A piece of cake! That way. you can bet that most of the people in the room with you will spend most of their alloted time reading and reading the passages. English teachers help students to recognise that choice D is incorrect. Here is my way based on analytical reasoning rather than English knowledge: The clue is the word ‘yields’. The question is why choice D is incorrect. the word ‘yeilds’ would be correct if it was a singular noun ‘yeild’ or there was a preposition.33. and C are correct. even the most mentally challenged English student can understand my methodology! Also. B. When you eventually take the TOEFL. you can find out clues that help to know choices A. POE is only the second best policy that is not compelling enough to influence students. test takers face the two biggest problems on this section: vocabulary and time pressure. Assuming that the word ‘yeilds’ is a noun. Via POE (process of elimination). (It is a piece of cake to understand why students take this way of approach on RC section. In addition.

General questions include main idea/tone/attitude/purpose. “Before/after” questions – use the first or last sentence of the passage 3. inference questions. Sometimes. Main idea – use the specific questions to find the main idea 2. pronouns must agree in number and gender with the nouns they replace o Except/Not questions – use lead words from the question or from the answer choices o Then tackle the general questions: 1. Inference – use lead words and look for a paraphrase. using common sense and outside knowledge if you can. use POE (process of elimination) 4.Do not read the passage. and organization questions First do the specific questions: Lead words – use the words in the question to lead you to the answer. you need to paraphrase the answer you found. Remember. o Vocabulary-in-context questions – make up your own word to replace the word in question o Reference questions – plug each answer choice back into the sentence and see if the sentence makes sense. “before and after” questions. Go to the questions first Answer the questions in order of difficulty RC questions are categorised into 2 main groups of questions: Specific Questions and General Questions. vocabulary-in-context and reference questions and except/not questions. Guess from what’s left . Specific questions include “lead word” questions/restatement questions. Organization – use transitional signals… Never get stuck on one question Use POE to eliminate.

Notes: I strongly recommend only ETS tests be introduced in TOEFL preparation classes for the two following reasons: .They are actual and accredited tests that have been published by the ETS. Practising ETS tests is the shortest and most effective way to TOEFL high scores .Practising ETS tests is the most powerful way to challenge students and qualify teachers. Contents . Specific strategies will be developed for each type of question. Non-ETS TOEFL publications. It will be further elaborated on ETS questions during my lectures. Non-ETS practice tests deviate from ETS tests. There are no explanations but only answer keys in ETS tests (is this a reason why English teachers do not like to use ETS books? I hope not!) .Please also note that here is a summary of Princeton Review’s methodology. 3. are self-study oriented books full of detail explanations. which are available in markets.