LHC –

the greatest experiment on Earth & the origin of mass

Dr. K.P.Satheesh Principal, GCB

The Large Hadron Collider will collide the nuclei of atoms with 10 times higher energy than has previously been achieved (14 TeV) 1232, 35 ton, superconducting dipole magnets accelerate ions and focus them into bunches for collision
36,000 tons of coolant below 2K!

Proton-Proton collisions (hydrogen atom nuclei)
14 TeV centre of mass energy

100 billion protons per bunch 20 collisions per crossing 1 crossing every 25ns 600 million collisions per second

To store all collision data would involve storing 10 Petabytes of data a year ie a 20km high stack of CDs… more than can be made

. The unprecedented energy it offers has already started revealing some unexpected results that no one has ever thought of.LHC Is constructed to help scientists in general and particle physicists in particular to answer certain key unresolved questions in Particle Physics... Why the LHC.

The Standard Model.During the steady growth of Particle Physics in the last century physicists have been able to describe with increasing detail the fundamental particles that make up the universe and the interaction between them. .

To complete the story experimental data at the tera scale is required.Even though the standard model is highly successful it contains several gaps and cannot tell us the whole story. . LHC promises this data.

Its primary function is to use electric fields to force charged particles to move at very high speeds and still keep them under control.What is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)?   The LHC is a very large particle accelerator. 2008. roughly 17 miles long and finished on September 10th. .

What is it made out of? The Large Hadron Collider contains:  2 adjacent parallel beams  1232 dipole magnets  392 quadrupole magnets  1.600 superconducting magnets  96 tons of liquid helium for temperature maintenance purposes .

allowing physicists to use the detectors in the LHC to observe much about the basic structure of our world. Once these beams reach their maximum speed. These collisions create new particles and energy.How does it work?  I don’t know the answer to this one… …just kidding In simplest terms. the LHC forces them to collide in four places on their path. the LHC works by forcing two beams of atomic particles to travel in opposite directions surrounding the physical LHC itself. .

it flooded the area.What went wrong with it?  The reason behind the inability of the LHC to be appropriately followed through with as anticipated on September 19th was an electrical fault between two magnets which caused an arc. breaking 10-ton magnets and covering the tubes of proton with soot. . making the helium leak. Once the outer layer of the helium broke.

or made up of even more fundamental particles? Why are there exactly three generations of quarks and leptons? How does gravity fit into all of this? .WHAT DO PARTICLE PHYSICISTS DO? Some unanswered questions       Why do we observe matter and almost no antimatter if we believe there is a symmetry between the two in the universe? What is this "dark matter" that we can't see that has visible gravitational effects in the cosmos? Why can't the Standard Model predict a particle's mass? Are quarks and leptons actually fundamental.

the heavier ones can decay into lighter ones. these can. with the release of some of their energy. Others can be re-created by high-energy collisions. or be formed from bundles of energy. . they cannot be broken down into any smaller constituent particles. As the regions of the universe near us are now in a much lower-energy state than they were shortly after the big bang. such as those produced in particle accelerators. These two types of particles are the leptons and the quarks. only the lightest particles in each family are now very commonly observed. under the right conditions.The Particles and their Properties. Also. However. That is. be converted into energy. There are two types of particles that are thought to be fundamental.

heavier (and hence more energetic) particles called the muon and the tau. Each of these 6 also has an antiparticle. The leptons are all capable of independent existence. the anti-electron or positron.The Leptons The most familiar member of this group is the electron. . but there are also similar. the muon neutrino and the tau neutrino. For each one of these. there is a smaller “partner” called a neutrino – the electron neutrino. for example.

according to the Standard Model. and their antiparticles have electric charges of +1. very small mass. Their spins can be +½ or -½. The electron. there is some evidence that neutrinos do have an actual. All of the leptons have another property called “spin”. However. muon and tau all have electric charges of –1. muon and tau all have mass. . The neutrinos have no electric charge.Properties of the Leptons The electron. The neutrinos have no mass.

. There are 6 quarks. There is also another property called “colour” charge. down. bottom and top. charm. called up. The anti-quarks have anti-colours: anti-red.The Quarks The quarks are not capable of independent existence. making up larger particles (called “bound states”). and are found only as groups. strange. which comes in 3 varieties. green and blue. and -⅔ or +⅓ for the matching antiquarks. They also have spin of ±½. For each quark there is an anti-quark. anti-green and antiblue. The quarks have mass and electric charge. red. The “everyday” quarks are the up and down quarks. The electric charges are either +⅔ or -⅓ for quarks.

Together they are called hadrons. The “bound states” must be colour-neutral. As a consequence of this. The second type is the mesons. the bound states can only have integral charges (0. and the most familiar examples are the proton and the neutron. for example about spin. ±2). 3 quarks (or 3 anti-quarks). There are also other rules.Rules The Particles Follow This relates particularly to the grouping together of quarks. . which must also be obeyed. The particles of the first type are called baryons. ±1. or a quarkantiquark pair. This means that only two types of groupings are possible.

It is a baryon. u d ⅓ + ⅔ The quarks will be one each of rgb. so it is made up of 3 quarks. and all the rules are satisfied. . making the proton colour-neutral.3 Some Familiar Particles Example: The proton has a charge of +1. the only way to make up a proton is uud. u + ⅔ Since the up quark has a charge of +⅔ and the down quark has a charge of -⅓. (⅔ + ⅔ .⅓ = 1).

GLASHOW. communicators of weak interaction. 1984 Nobel Prize-. The Nobel Prize winner 1979 Nobel Prize-.The History of Standard Model 1. .RUBBIA and VAN DER MEER the discovery of the field particles W and Z. SALAM and WEINBERG the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction.

J. Experimenters found proof of the bottom quark. The tau neutrino was observed at Fermilab. J. . The charmed quark was observed. A Five-Quark State has been discovered. The muon was discovered by J. The tau lepton was discovered at SPEAR. Carlo Rubbia and Simon Van der Meer discovered the W and Z bosons. Pauli invented the neutrino particle. Kendall.A short summary of events Ancient times 1802 1897 1911 1930 1932 1937 1956 1962 1969 1974 1976 1977 1983 1991 1995 1998 2000 2003 People think that earth. Discovery of an other type of neutrino: the muon neutrino. First discovery of the neutrino by an experiment: the electron neutrino. Rutherford discovered positive nucleus. fire. Dalton’s Atomic theory began forming. Street and E. and Taylor found the first evidence of quarks. LEP experiments show that there are only three light neutrinos. Friedman. James Chadwick discovered the neutron. Stevenson. C. and water are the fundamental elements. The top quark was found at Fermilab. C. Thompson discovered the electron. air. Neutrino oscillations may have been seen in LSND and Super-Kamiokande.

2. Question: What is Standard Model? .

…… . the “quark” model was not accepted widely. Physicists are human beings 1898 Joseph Thompson : “plum-pudding”model of the atom 1911 Ernest Rutherford: “planetary” model of the atom It took 10 years to realize the muon wasn’t Yukawa’s pion. At the beginning.4.

The Story So Far Electrons and their electromagnetic interactions are responsible for chemistry and day to day forces .

Dirac’s Legacy Electrons can absorb photons But in Relativity. . rotating this in space-time gives… The electron travelling back in time is a hole or antiparticle Every particle has a twin of the same mass but precisely opposite charges – particles and antiparticles annihilate into photons.

.Gauge Theory .QED How do you know which to call particle and which anti-particle? Nature has the same problem – it may make a different choice in causally disconnected bits of space Nature has invented an interaction so that two charged particles can probe the choice each other made – that force is electro-magnetism.

The Quantum Vacuum E t >h The vacuum can borrow energy for short periods E = mc 2 The borrowed energy can be used to create particles (You can’t just create an electron because of charge conservation . .but can create electron positron pair) The quantum vacuum is a seething mass of particles appearing and disappearing constantly….Understanding Mass .

How Can You Tell? The “virtual” particle pairs interfere in electron scattering processes. . g-2 is tested to 13 sig figs! The effective charge seen in two electron scattering depends on the separation of the electrons.

. carry colour charge…. Politzer. gluons..The Strong Nuclear Force Quarks come in 3 colours! This difference changes the way in which the vacuum is polarized so that… “asymptotic freedom” Gross. Wilczek The strong nuclear force is described by a gauge theory … except that the 8 gauge fields.

The attractive force is so strong that binding energy >> mass energy The vacuum has lower energy if it fills itself with quark antiquark pairs! .Confinement You can never pull hard enough to liberate a quark from a proton… The Quantum Vacuum Every so often quantum effects create a quark anti-quark pair.

The vacuum is really full of quark anti-quark pairs with a density 15 3 like that of an atomic nucleus (10 grams/cm ) !! The Proton Mass The quark pairs are responsible for the proton’s mass Interaction energy provides proton mass .

QCD & Strings Strongly coupled QCD is a tough maths problem – how do we compute beyond perturbation theory? String theory gets meson properties right because a q anti-q pair look like a string A string is a one dimensional object with tension BUT relativistic strings like to live in 10 dimensions! String theory contains quantum gravity .

Classical General Relativity computations solve strongly coupled quantum problems! Is real gravity a hologram?? EG a quark is a string with an up label on one end and a colour label on the other If the space-time stretches it the quark becomes massive .Gauge Gravity Duality In recent years we have realized that strings in 10d are in fact the QCD string… a weird and wonderful alternative description of quarks and glue… Maldacena The extra dimensions are holographic creations.

Quarks in a Dense QCD Plasma Computations of gravity wave propagation tell us about transport properties of a quark gluon plasma Larry Yaffe’s calculations of the shock wave produced by a moving quark .

At LHC energies the quark gluon plasma is a strongly coupled liquid Gauge gravity duality is currently our best tool to describe this mayhem! .The ALICE Connection A lead-lead collider at LHC In heavy ion collisions we squeeze quarks together testing asymptotic freedom.

What else have we found? Massive gauge bosons for the weak nuclear force! Why do otherwise identical particles have different masses? .

a new sort of matter – a scalar? To explain the W mass the higgs vacuum must be 100 times denser than nuclear matter!! It must be weak charged but not electrically charged .The Origin of Mass The strong nuclear force cannot explain the mass of the electron though… Or very heavy quarks top mass = 175 proton mass The Higgs Boson We suspect the vacuum is full of another sort of matter that is responsible – the higgs….

The Search for the Higgs EG look for Higgs decay to two photons There are variants…. Is the Higgs some new quark anti-quark pair bound by a new ultra strong force? Should we embrace a new symmetry that requires a scalar for every fermion Supersymmetry… .

a bigger gauge symmetry SU(2)xSU(2)x… .something new… .No Loose What if our theories are wrong and there is no higgs? Without the higgs our theory of WW interactions predicts scattering cross sections greater than one… there must be something there… What could it be? – extra space-time dimensions .

2. Question: What is Standard Model? .