Cardamom Cardamom (Amomum sabulatum Roxb), is an herbaceous perennial cash crop, and also referred to as “Queen of Spices”.

It is cultivated in an altitude range of 600 m and 2,000 m above sea level where annual rainfall is between 1,500 to 2,500 mm and the temperature varies from 8° C to 20° C. Economic yield starts from 3rd years onward after planting and its optimal yield period is 8-10 years. The total life span of Cardamom plants is about 20-25 years.There are sixteen varieties of Cardamom in the world. Among them five types of Large Cardamom are in farming practices across Nepal-Ramsey, Golsey, Sawney, Chibesey, and Dammersey. Due to increased demand in the international market and favorable climatic condition, Cardamom has become a major cash crop for farmers in the mid hills in the last two decade. At present an estimated 12, 000 ha in over 40 mid-hills are under Cardamom cultivation with estimated annual production of 6, 000 metric tons. Cardamom oil is a precious ingredient in food preparations, perfumery, health foods medicines and beverages. Cardamom seeds are astringent, tonic, appetizer, and diuretic. Large volume of dried but un-graded Cardamom is traded in Indian and Pakistan markets. Harvesting and Post Harvesting Activities Harvesting The yield starts from 3rd years onward after planting. Fruit is ripped during August to November. Harvesting is done with the help of mechanical instruments e.g. knife. After harvesting, Cardamom capsules are separated manually by hands. Drying and Curing The harvested fruits are processed mainly using traditional or improved drying technology (bhatty). The existing traditional practice of curing and drying the Cardamom is age-old types, where the capsules are dried by direct heating in the traditional bhatty. Under this system the Cardamom comes in direct contact with smoke and turns the capsule to dark browner black color with a smoky smell. To reduce smoke and produce light purple capsules, improved bhatties are being introduced. After 18 to 24 hours of drying, the capsules are removed. But the total time of drying varies depending on factors such as fire management, initial moisture content of the capsules,weather condition and bhatty structures. There is no clear indicator to decide if the drying process is complete or not. In some cases, the capsules are either over-dried or under-dried at the same condition of fire and weather. Sometimes the farmers feel that the product is over-dried and they sprinkle

Production in MT 60 60 60 40 60 20 60 00 50 80 50 60 50 40 1 9 /0 99 0 2 0 /0 00 1 2 0 /0 01 2 Ya er 2 0 /0 02 3 2 0 /0 03 4 Large Cardamom Production in Nepal Price Variation Fluctuating prices and uncertainty of market (final) of Cardamom are the major problems facing the farmers. color and the level of dryness. it became about NRs. Similarly. 150 per kg.water to increase weight. a total of 6. Delhi and Amritsar are the potential markets in India. Market Channel The Large Cardamom produced in Nepal is exclusively sold to Indian markets (Siliguri).800 to 3.District Traders – Indian Traders Collector . moisture content.Wholesaler – Pakistan Traders Trade Volume According to trades’ information. 2.District Traders .Regional Trader – Indian Traders Collector . and variety to variety.400. In 1999/00 the price at farmers’ level was about NRs.26 billions. .Village Trader . In monetary terms it was worth of NRs 1. the total cost of production per ropani is in the range of NRs. This practice leads to difficulty in maintaining consistent quality.014 tons of Cardamom was traded in 2003/04. In Taplejung district. whereas in 2003/04. Collector . there is a provision of premium price for improved bhatty products but prices also vary depending on tail-cut. Although it varies from place to place. 300 per kg. Beside this.Regional Trader . about 26 kg of Cardamom (dry) is produced from 500 sq m (a ropani) of land. Pakistan is a good export opportunity for the Large Cardamom.

cleaned and packed in jute or plastic sack for export. from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005. grows at an altitude of 600 to 1600 meters from the sea level. a popular spice in culinary preparation.99 million was exported compared to IRs 41. Palpa. Ginger farming has gained popularity among farmers in mid hills. percentage of moisture content. Tanahu. Kaski. Ginger has emerged as a potential agriculture export produce to India in recent years. Ginger worth IRs 76. In 2004/05. land coverage and production recorded an increase of 70 percent ( ) and 50 percent (11626. Nawalparasi. presence of smoke and tail-cut.400 300 Price/kg 200 100 0 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 Ye ar Wholesale Price of Large Cardamom (at Nepal–India Border) As reflected in various studies. Kavre Palanchowk. size. For example. Ginger Ginger. Terhathum. Sallyan. 77 million in 41. Pancthar. Fresh Ginger are graded. . and Phyuthan are the top districts in ginger production in the country.77 . Ilam.7 MT) respectively. Some farmers have also attempted to undertake value addition of Ginger by converting it into Ginger powder (Suntho). Dang. Due to favorable climatic conditions and increased demand in domestic and export market. the factors that influence the price are various qualities of Cardamom especially color.