DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh SHOLIHATUN NISA, S.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS MAN CIBINONG

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ...........................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...............................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text............................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Narrative Text...............................................................................14 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................14 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..............................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text..............................................................................23 What is News Item? ......................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................24 Discussion Text.............................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................28 Explanation Text............................................................................29 What is Explanation?...................................................................................29 Hortatory Exposition Text..............................................................31 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................32 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................35 Report Text...................................................................................35 What is Report? ..........................................................................................35 Report ........................................................................................................ 37 Spoof Text.....................................................................................38 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................38 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................39 Recount Text.................................................................................42 What is Recount? .......................................................................................42 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........44 Review Text .................................................................................47 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................49 Good Translation ........................................................................................50 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................50 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................51 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................51 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................51 Writing job application letters........................................................52 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................52 The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................52 The main body of job application letters:....................................................52 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................53 Similarities and differenties...........................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................53 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................54 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types................................................55 Bentuk Soal Reading......................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language.......................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................75 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................76 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike...........................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................82 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE .........................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)....................................99 QUESTION TAGS .......................................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ......................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...................................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ..............................................................................104 GERUND ...................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ............................................................105 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ..........................................CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung).............................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .....................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.........................................

Report 4. 5 SMA Students’ Modul of English . taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Descriptive 10. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Narrative 11. News Items 13. Hortatory Exposition 3. As we all know. Explanation 2. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Recount 6. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. 2. 1. Procedure 12. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. The language feature. analyzing the used structure in composing the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Anecdote 9. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. why is the text made?. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. cars create pollution. Spoof 5. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Review 7. Examples and structures of the text Thesis Cars should be banned in the city Cars should be banned in the city. Discussion These classifications on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Analytical Exposition 8. These types of text are.

or concentrate on your homework. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Secondly. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . and especially talk to someone. In one hour in smoky room. contribute to most of s the pollution in the world. Example of Analytical Exposition A. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Smoking however is not good for every body else. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. the city is very busy. If you live in the city. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Reiteratio In conclusion. cars should be banned from the city n for the reasons listed. as we all know. Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. it is better to look at the fact. cars are very noisy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. lung cancer. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker.Argument Firstly. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. cars. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Additionally. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. which causes them to die. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Thirdly. and ‘triggers’ off asthma.

The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. As the US. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. Furthermore.Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. In this example of analytical exposition text. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. the oil-rich countries such as Saudi Arabia. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. (Simplified from the jakartapos. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. That wil be true if the conditions. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS.

Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. drawing book. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. dsb. secondly. pollution. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. misalnya First. Of course it will Ciri Umum: need more cost but it will deserve for its (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: function. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. • Abstract nouns. • Reiteration . misalnya She must save. • Relating verbs. and then complete the transaction.Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above thesis. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. decide which computer or laptop they need. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. misalnya car. dsb. ruler and such other stuff. dsb. we. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Secondly. in this multimedia era. Students need Analytical Exposition mobile keyboards to record every (Eksposisi Analitis) presented subject easily. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. misalnya species of animals. According to Nida. • Action verbs. government. Career in Translation Functionally. misalnya certainly. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Penguatan pernyataan. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. leaded petrol car. D. misalnya It is important. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. • Bahasa evaluatif. Students just need to decide which type they really need. eraser. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. pen. misalnya we must preserve. • Connectives. • Thinking verbs. this method will help student to get better understanding. The students just need to brows that online shop. Additionally. misalnya Many people believe. From all of that.dsb. dsb. • C. • Modal adverbs. • Technical verbs. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. dsb • Modal verbs. dsb. • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates the thesis in another phrase to point the writer'opinion. students need book. dsb. students need more to reach their Small Notes progressive development. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. misalnya policy. such translation SMA Students’ Modul of English 8 . misalnya firstly. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. That is really easy and save time and money.

Writing is good in making money online Argument 1. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Generic Structure Analysis • • • Thesis. Arabic translation. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. India translation will grow better and. E. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries.is called dynamic equivalence translation. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. If Hindi translation is provided. India is likely being an English speaking country. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. For instance. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. It seems Indonesia. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. blog is a potentially earning money Argumant 2. Therefore. writing articles is good in earning money 9 SMA Students’ Modul of English .

do you know what? 4. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Orientation 3. then. 2. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1.• Conclusion. it's wonderful!. Using exclamation words. Using action verb. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. write. etc • Causal conjunction . etc 5. afterward 6. Using simple past tense 4. Abstract 2. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. because. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Crisis 4. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! We had just moved into a new house. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using conjunction of time. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Incident. go. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. it's awful!. Using rhetoric question. etc 2. listen to this 3. Using imperative. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. 3. 10 Abstract Orientatio n SMA Students’ Modul of English . Generic Structure of Anecdote 1.

Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! several years but finally they had saved And do you know what? It’s awful. passport. SMA Students’ Modul of English 11  Pengenalan (Orientation) . Blessing behind Tragedy  Krisis (Crisis) There was a black family in Scotland  Tindakan (Incident) years ago. there were being quarantined for long days. For an instant I stood there quite paralysed. anticipation and excitement with their afterwards. The family dreams were dashed. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handleSmallbroom. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: They were making plan to travel with their children to America. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Abstrak (Abstract) Example of Anecdote A. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. Indeed I had to Ciri Umum:out of the way pull her (a) the bath to get a or she’d probably have leant over Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu better look! Ever since then I’ve always berdasarkan plug inatau peristiwa put the khayalan firmly nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. enough money. It had taken • seruan/kata seru. The ship. They had gotten isn’t it? dsb. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. dsb. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. The entire family was full of • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. before running the bath water. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. The doctor sewed up the boy. misalnya go. Then I yelled for my husband. Suddenly to my horror. They had a dream to go to  Koda (Coda) America. write. seperti then. America. but because of the bitten son by a dog. They were Clark family with nine children. and turned on the tap. new life in America. the mighty Titanic. had shank. The Clak family should have been on that ship. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He shed tears of disappointment. who of a Notes was only three at the time. they were left behind. However few days before their departure. The family worked and saved. dsb. was Anecdote (Cerita Lucu) quite interested in the whole business. Five days latter. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • action verbs. spitting and hissing at us. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. Anna. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. It was unbelievable but it was.Crisis Incident Coda so we set to.

he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. • Using simple present tense 4. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. identifying the phenomenon to be described. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. or thing. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. In 1964. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan. • Description. qualities. 2. it celebrates its 40th anniversary. place. You have and so do I. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. describing the phenomenon in parts. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. or/and characteristics. Sydney. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. This year. When the dream will come true. They had dream to travel to America. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. He thanked God for saving their lives. Descriptio The university is located at the North Ryde n Greenbelt.When the father heard the news. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The father was angry with his son and God. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. there is something wrong last minute before it. in 2004. 3. Examples and structures of the text MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process.

boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. She really have perfect appearance. bright color. She always pays much attention on her appearance. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. all her friends. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. In three years1 time. This shoes really matches on her. She is really mad on that shoes. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Today. The products provide varieties of choice. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. When she are walking on that shoes. attractive and trendy. casual. Example of Description A. a grass amphitheatre. Recently. The style. yet retaining its beautiful site. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. Ballet. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. She said that the products covered all genders. She always want to be a trend setter of the day.Budhist temple. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. a railway station is under construction. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She is beautiful.fringe. native plants and eucalypts. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. B. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.

8 km of passage and starways. Indonesia. etc Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur temple • Description. Definition of Narrative SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Cambodia. Each of them is with a circle of bell shapestupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.The temple is constructed. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.kingdom. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Borobudur is well-known. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Central Java. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The upper three are circular. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. valuable • Using simple present tense. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.

1 memberikan informasi tentang subjek. animal. a sweet young lady. She knocked puppy bites our shoes. Snow White Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt • action verbs. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. Orientation dsb. yang Uncle because her parents were dead. of participant to solve the crises. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. dsb. There they 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . She ran away into the woods. Resolution: Showing the way topik yang akan dideskripsikan. dsb. • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs Resolution 1 untuk mengungkapkan pandangan this so she decided it would be best if she ran to do pribadi penulis tentang subjek. Identifikasi tentang 3. dsb. dsb. house. Misalnya: I have many pets.my cat. Complication: Describing the benda atau tempat tertentu secara rising crises which the participants spesifik. Orientation: Introducing the Ciri Umum: participants and informing the time (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: and the place Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. at Meanwhile. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following Small Notes structure: Description (Deskripsi) 1. It has very White. The next morning she ran away from home misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. bersifat describing. away. sharp white fangs. Language Features of Narrative  Description. She lived with her Aunt and • berbagai macam adjectives. 3. 2. misalnya fast. misalnya. classifying. misalnya. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle • relating verbs untuk memberikan because they both wanted to go to America and informasi tentang subjek. but better or worse my favourite one is a cat. • detailed noun phrase untuk Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. 4. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. thick fur. numbering. kualitas. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical • Using temporal conjunction appearance). sifat-sifat (characteristic). 2. informasi tambahan tentang Resolution 2 perilaku tersebut. perilaku • Using Simple Past Tense umum. they didn’t have enough money to take Snow My mum is realy cool. Examples and structures of the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: text Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu.Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. I think it is a clever when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. berisi deskripsi • Using processes verbs tentang bagian-bagiannya. two strong Complication legs. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure have to do with  Identification. dsb. • simple present tense.Complication new misalnya Our Then she saw this little cottage. misalnya teacher. They went inside. 2 but no one answered so she went inside and fell • abverbials untuk memberikan asleep.

is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. one of the dwarfs. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him.” Doc. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. One by one she discarded them. She saw the dwarfs. As they were about to have dinner. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. The third sheik. had many suitors. They want to know what next will happen. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. “My name is Snow White.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. in what way she will decide who SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . Then Snow White woke up. The dwarfs said. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Hakim. “Without question. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. The first gave her some left over food. who was called Hakim. which she strikes against herself. Maura asked them for something to eat. you may live here with us. After dinner. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. who received a plate of delicious meat. Example of Narrative A.” Snow White said.found Snow White sleeping. They were also rich and strong. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. “what is your name?” Snow White said. “If you wish. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. said. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. One evening. The psychological conflict inside Maura. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “Oh could I? Thank you. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. The following day.

Next it will be your turn. dsb. He picked the • action verbs dalam past tense. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. • time connectives dan conjunctions Then the man got so angry and shouted untuk mengurutkan kejadianto the bird over and over. parrot like it. masalah. after. dsb. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to housework. where it was born. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Once upon time. soon. dalam cerita. except one word. The name of the • Resolution. to teach. the parrot. The parrot would not say the name of the place • Complication. There were four old chickens for • saying verbs yang menandai next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. konflik dalam cerita. The parrot could say every waktu. SMA Students’ Modul of English 17 . dsb. climbed. “You know. word. misalnya. Although he tried hard two red apples. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. say Catano. before that. happily ever Catano. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. the man really got very angry. The man tried to teach the (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: bird to say Catano however the bird Menggunakan: kept not saying the word. long black hair. He could not bear it. Pengenalan tokoh. Masalah. stupid parrot”. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. Then he continued to humble.the best is. • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti At the first. • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian One day after he had been trying so atau peristiwa. There was no other • Orientation. misalnya. I will cut the chicken for my meal. stepsisters. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. or I’ll kill you”. in many times to make the bird say the mountain. parrot and threw it into the chicken stayed. Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. I will eat you too. The man felt excited having the • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi smartest parrot but he could not pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang understand why the parrot would not dapat dipetik dari cerita. misalnya here. dsb. house. Penyelesaian place was Catano. “Why can’t you say the • adjectives yang membentuk noun word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the phrase. the parrot would not say it. hewan dan benda tertentu to the bird but then he got very angry. “Say Catano kejadian. misalnya then. man said angrily. a man had a wonderful parrot. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata.dsb. After that he left the chicken house. the man was very nice orang.

In the parrot story. rising crisis and climax of the story. There were three death chickens on the floor. he caught a fish. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. A man and his parrot took place once time. As soon as it was free. They found their mother and talked her about it. It will show the crisis. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. The daughters were crying. People believed that the big hole became a lake. The fish begged him to set it free. He opened the door and was very surprised. Volcanoes started to erupt. He made the fish free. They were married happily. She attracted Batara Guru so much. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. They had two daughters. He felt in love with that fish-woman. He could not control his mad. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. readers see the problem is finished. 3. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. Batara Guru could not bear it. One day. To fix this problem. paragraph 2. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. At the moment. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. 4 are describing the complication. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. That was the smartest parrot. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. In that parrot story. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. there was a handsome man. the man came back to the chicken house. Batara Guru broke his promise. Then the earth began to shake. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. The mother was shouting angrily. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. He liked fishing. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. The mother was very annoyed. the man attempted to teach the bird. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. His name was Batara Guru Sahala.The next day. C. The earth formed a very big hole.

uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. They treated Cinderella very badly. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. “Well” said the godmother. Cinderella”. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. “Now. Finally. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. She danced again and again with the king’s son. They were married and live happily ever after. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Cinderella?” a voice asked. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. It fitted perfectly. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. on the other hand. In the end. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. “Why are crying. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Magically. In her hurry. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. the day of the ball came. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time.”you’ve been such a cheerful. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house.D. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. one of her glass slipper was left behind. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. A few days later. SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . such as scrubbing the floor. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. “You must leave before midnight”. The two step sisters. there was a young girl named Cinderella. hardworking. did not work about the house. and her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. and it became a beautiful ball gown. she said. At last. One day. and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. she was driven to the palace.

One day. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Generic Structure Analysis 1. the next day past tense. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. was surprised to action verb. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Resolution: Like complication. “Yes” said the man. E. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis • • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “you are so big and strong. once. one day connectives. SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . “Can I see your intelligence?”. the man tied the tiger. the man is very intelligent”. Once there was a farmer from Laos. The Smartest Animal. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. After the man went home. hit time conjunction. answered thinking verb. farmer and his buffalo. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. once in Laos 2. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. “it at home”. “No. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. said the buffalo. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. tie. In the last paragraph. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered.Complication: In this Cinderella story. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. after. Resolution. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. Then he said. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. I can’t tell you”. introducing specific participants. The tiger asked. “oh. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. saw. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. there was a farmer. But the man answered. Every morning and every evening. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Complication. Orientation. 3.

Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. ¼ cup milk. cheese grater. Eat while warm. Place on a plate. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. plate Method 1. season with salt and pepper 10. bowl. Add milk and whisk well 4. Cook both sides 9. Here are the steps. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. fork. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. It should be in open area Next. spatula. wait it. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Firstly. Goal: showing the purpose 2. SMA Students’ Modul of English 21 . Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Planting Chilies Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Langkahlangkah (Step) Example of Procedure A. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. 50 g cheese. put the seeding on the soil. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg.Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order.

misalnya make your company the next Google. put. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Here's a simple checklist to follow. Your customers don't care about you. • Material. Don't describe how your company may. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. next. Some sentences are long and some are short. Mix them up and keep things interesting. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. don’t. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. to. Langkah-langkah. finally.re-read what you've done before publishing. Edit it necesarily. firstly. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • • Goal. I'm dsb. They want to know "What's in it for me?" • adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu. dsb. but it turn. How does it sound? Thirdly. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. mix. excluded • Steps. write your benefit like you talk tempat. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. features. Cut. you don't have • pola kalimat imperative. dsb. it. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.Finally. not saying that following these rules will • action verbs. etc • Temporal conjunction. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. dry a handful seeding. put. misalnya then. Fifthly. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. while. dry. excluded 22 SMA Students’ Modul of English . not mengurutkan kegiatan. Use regular words. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Well. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. the following is a guided information B. take the topic of benefits. Don’t mix. Fourthly. informing on how to write for business Material. informing on how to plant chillies. Secondly. Use a nice rhythm. etc • Action verb. cara yang akurat. misalnya. will help. put it. • connectives untuk Firstly. Read aloud what you've written. lose the weak words. put it in another big pot. planting is a nice activity.

cheese grater. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. a pinch of satlt and pepper. SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . a quarter cup of milk. showing the method in writing for business. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered events evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. etc • Action verb. First. Focusing on circumstances 2. you need an egg. Resource of information 3. choosing the advantageous topic. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. frying pan. such as. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Generic Structure of News Item 1.• Steps/ method. time. three tablespoons cookin oil. fifty gram cheese. etc C. write like you talked. to make a cheese omelet. Next. firstly. spatula. Main event 2. fork. read. reread what you have done. etc • Temporal conjunction. bowl and plate. participant. Listen carefully. you need some tools. 2. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Next. write. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. writing the topic like the way it is talked. secondly. Language Feature of News Item 1. place) 3. Using material process 4. add First. re-reading what have been written . Elaboration (background.

Sumber  Newsworthy events. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Example of Procedure • • • • A. Sources Latar belakang kejadian. misalnya say. a news report said. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. even though they know they have HIV” she said. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. pendapat para ahli. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Last year. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Events Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. June 01. dsb. Kejadian inti. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. which was Menggunakan kata celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. 2008) SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. verbs. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Malaysian Aids Council president. less then 10 percent are woman.Background Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. Informasi  Background Events. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. Women are the first ones to get exploited by headline their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” Menggunakan action Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by verbs Sunday Star Newspaper. tell. komentar saksi kejadian. In the past the event was held behind closed door. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. many women who contract HIV are housewives.  Sources. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. tempat kejadian dsb. (Source The Jakarta Post. but the number is steadily rising. Informasi singkat “This is not to debate them but to protect tertuang dalam them. orang yang terlibat. The accident. he said in the report. it’s up to them”. “But this just a Menggunakan saying suggestion. dsb. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS.

Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Then the maid was arrested. May 6. The maid. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. the Saudi Interior Minister said. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. (Adapted from Reuters. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. She had relationship the boy for five months.Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Rape. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Last year. Hong Kong. Saudi Arabia. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. named Suwartin. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee.

serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. contrastive. Using material process. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. similarly. hope. must.bbc. deliberately. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue.news. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. and causal connection. feel. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. believe.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. execute. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. etc • Using modalities. Background 3. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. behead. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . carry. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. and social text. however. 2. hopefully. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. could. should. Resource. historic. Background 2. on the hand. may.(Taken from: www.co. Background 1. etc 4. law of serious crimes. etc • Using adverbial of manner. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. etc • Using additive.

Sometimes homework is boring and not important. England in 1956. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Homework is really good because it helps with our education. doing homework is not a great idea. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It is reliable. and produces huge amounts of energy. many times. Example of Discussion Text A. But. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned.Homework Issue Stateme nt of issue and Preview Stateme nt of various viewpoin ts I have been wondering if homework is necessary. It produces small amount of waste. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. so it is not expansive to make. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.

They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. 28 . between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb. This example of discussion text present the two poles. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). must. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. • adverbials of maner. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. hope. misalnya uniforms. Elaborasi (uraian). In many social activities. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk • modalities. it is presented the advantages of nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance.  Kesimpulan. Furthermore. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. perception and recommendation. dsb. nuclear power is very. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu.On the other hand. could be. seperti perhaps. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. dsb. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. Gagasan Pokok 2. on the hand. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. misalnya feel. very dangerous. dsb. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. alcohol. dsb. should. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. Elaborasi (uraian). believe. memberikan informasi secara padu. although it is reliable. however. should have been. It SMA Students’ Modul of English Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. dsb. misalnya deliberately. misalnya smoking is harmful. misalnya similarly. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. hopefully. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan.

always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Sequenced explanation. farmer. conservationists. to begin with. hunting fox. Contrastive point. Using thinking verb. must. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. social. believe. Many farmer and even conservationists. etc Using chronological connection.gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. Supporting point.co. Language Feature • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . rain. B. sun. Using modalities. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Recommendation. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. geography and history text books. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Featuring generic participant.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. (Taken from: www. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena.bbc. It is often found in science. Generic structure of Explanation 3. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. next. etc Using passive voice pattern 29 2. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. • • General statement. however. Using connectives. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. scientific and cultural phenomena.

as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.panda.org) SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Example of Explanation Text A. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium.• Using simple present tense 4. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. (simplified from www. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Tsunami always bring great damage. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.

But that is the case. then. dunia ilmiah. conjunctions of time dan cause. Explanation. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. misalnya the large cloud. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • general dan abstract nouns.ictteachers. How Day and Night Happen The sun seems to rise in the morning. (Taken from: www. simple present tense. It is called as rotation. daylight. sosialbudaya. complex sentences. Using pasive voice. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. noun phrase. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. the earth is actually closer to the sun. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. misalnya the temperature. B. adverbial phrases. bahasa teksni. so. It takes 365 days or a year. but. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Using chronological connection. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. The earth also moves around the sun. Using present tense. abstract nouns.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. action verbs.co. misalnya word chopping. kalimat pasif • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. you would be forgiven. earthquakes. Hortatory Exposition Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . passive voice. This process is called revolution. It causes day and night. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C.

etc 3. secondly. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Arguments Recomendatio I feel that country people. Using evaluative words. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using thinking verb 5. Using simple present tense 4. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Those who want to penalise older . Using temporal connective. Recommendation 3. etc 6. Using passive voice 9. absolutely "Yes" and SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. firstly. Arguments 3. Using modal adverb. Using abstract noun. However. 2. valuable. Using action verb 4. I feel that when you travel through the country.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. etc 8. Thesis 2.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. of course. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. advantage. certainly. important. trustworthy.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Focusing on the writer 2. policy. etc 7. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). surely. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive.

sales letter. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. and the possibility of being aggressive. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. especially violence. pornography. Meanwhile. SMA Students’ Modul of English 33 . Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. speech campaign. In many social activities. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. and short sleep duration. and news advertorial. Considering some facts mentioning above. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood.that should be done by all parents. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. advertising. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. In the first paragraph. stress. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. consumerism and so on. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. Recently. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from.

doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. So when students want to throw away their litters. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. In the same way. there papers. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. it SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . school corridors and schoolyard. When they think about continuing study. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. when they think about straightly seeking job. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. Where should be after High School?. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. More dust bins should be put beside each step. B. it will be quite confusing. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. mineral water cops. When we look at classroom. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. straws. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. C. and napkin everywhere. In the other hand. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. If it is a hortatory text. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Both take place as argumentative essays. they can find the dust bins easily. So. they will think hard about the time and cost.Basically. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time.

dsb. we must save.government dsb. doesn’t seem to have been . As result. dsb. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. there is a way out of financial problem.dsb. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. D. a hortatory exposition text Dear friend. valuable. misalnya important. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. We can show the way to give up work. Relating verbs. dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Recommendation. Modal verbs. etc Using thinking verb. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. Technical verbs.misalnya policy. misalnya firstly. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. make. Argument. dsb. Connectives. As the alternative method of studying. misalnya I believe . Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. are you tired?.we. Thinking verbs. dsb. give up. he drives a sport car. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. Millions • • • • • • • • from Property Market. misalnya species of animals. misalnya. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. dsb. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. the available time will be more flexible for them. Modal adverbs. misalnya should be. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. misalnya certainly. reward Using action verb. secondly. misalnya We must preserve. etc Report Text What is Report? SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . dsb.Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Kalimat pasif (passive voice) will be very hard to looking for job. now there is a way out. felt Using simple present tense. Albert Smith is the proof. Action verbs. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one.

Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is one of the most successful fish-eating birds. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect • Using conditional logical connection. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. beating the water furiously with their wings.1. A group. perhaps two dozen birds. Example of Report Text A. The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. when. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. part per part . Generic Structure of Report 1. Platypus. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. as it is. and woolly layer of fur. animal. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. so. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. etc • Using simple present tense 4. public place. Platypus' eyes and head are small. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . driving the fish before them. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. As the bird lifts its head. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. plant. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds.

the animal of platypus conditional. apa adanya. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. the animal of platypus. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. SMA Students’ Modul of English 37 . Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. Description. but. stating general classification. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. rivers. misalnya lizards cannot fly. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. misalnya. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. dan klasifikasinya. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. benda buatan manusia. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus lives in streams. lingkungan. dsb. in terms of parts. male platypus does not need any burrow. dsb.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. qualities.Platypus lives in streams. and lakes. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. atau gejala-gejala sosial. kegunaannya jika non natural. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). keterangan. In the other hand. logical connective. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • general nouns. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. habits or behaviors.

etc 3. ran. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Twist 3. The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. 2. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.’ replied the man. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Events 3. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Twist (Akhir yang lucu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . ‘ and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Kejadian/peristi wa/ kegiatan 1 Kejadian/peristi wa/ kegiatan 2 Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Focusing on people. dsb. Using adverb of time and place 4. ate. Generic Structure of Spoof 1.• • istilah teknis. Spoof Text What is Spoof? 1. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Orientation 2. ‘ I have just found this penguin. He took him to a policeman and said. Told in chronological order 4. ‘ take him to the zoo’. animals or certain things 2. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Using action verb. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked.

• Menggunakan keterangan waktu dan tempat. benda tertentu. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. He bought some new furniture and moved in.  Twist (akhir yang tidak terduga atau lucu). he pretended to be a very successful businessman. he wanted to set up his estate company Event 2: He had his new office. SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . Soon after he left college. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. In his office. Dave found a nice office. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” • Menggunakan past tense. Example of Spoof text A. “That Phone is Off” • Menggunakan action verbs. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. • Disusun sesuai dengan urutan kejadian.  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan 1. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: • Terfokus pada orang. Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. Event 1: Being rich. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). run. binatang. He suddenly became a very rich man because of the death of his rich uncle who had no children. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Pengenalan. misalnya eat. Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Orientation: Dave was a lucky man.  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan 2. He inherited his uncle’s money.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Then the man said to Dave. He showed by making conversation on the phone. He acted as had an important client. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.

I did not enjoy it. You walk on stilts like a child. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. (Adapted from S. “If that is what you want. Instead leaving the country. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. I do not step on the ground of this country”. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. I do not step on the ground. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. “I remember exactly what you said.B. He had not left the country yet. look at you. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. I have been walking on this stilts. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. And since yesterday. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. “Hey Abu Nawas. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Your Majesty. “Yes. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. The play was very interesting. They were talking very loudly. The king was not able to say anything. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. I had a very good seat. didn’t he?” said the guards. So you see. “You want me. Then “Remember. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. The king wondered and said “Abu. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. The King continued “And now. You have not left this country”. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country.I got SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . I want you to leave the country.

Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. I could not hear the actors. I could not bear it. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The host at once got up and came to meet him. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again.very angry. Getting Nasreddin's answer. D. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. you give food to my coat instead of me”. I turned around. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. were talking noisily. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.In the end. “Eat the food. young man and young woman. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. I turned around again. nobody looked at me. So. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. When he arrived in the party. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. He put his coat and said. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “When I came here with my old clothes. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . It’s a private conversation”. They did not pay any attention. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. “It’s none of your business. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. they just shook the head.

They were in the park Event1.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. Generic Structure of Recount 1. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. the policeman saw the man in the same park. The man was still carrying the penguin. "Take it to the zoo!". He took it to a policeman and said. policeman Using action verb. chronological order by days.Twist: Among the hosts and guests. He. The following day. today I am taking it to the movie". the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. carry. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. Orientation: Introducing the participants. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. walk up Using adverb of time and place. place and time SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . "What should I do?" The policeman replied. Even. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. So. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. The next day. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. once. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. penguin. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. in the park Told in chronological order. "I certainly did.

They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Vacation to London Mr. then. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. etc • Using simple past tense 4. heard. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. first. Richard’s family was on vacation. etc • Using action verb. The officers were pleasant. were. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Instead of keys for the room. This includes travel and accommodation. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. It was scary. my group. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Examples and structures of the text Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientatio n Events On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. I. etc • Using linking verb. they inserted a key-card to open the SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. Richard with two sons. on Example of Recount text A. We stayed at David and Della’s house. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. was.2. look. They are Mr. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. There was a film for their entertainment. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. The room had perfect view of the park. They had a very pleasant flight. They gave them food and drink. Reorientation: It is optional. go. They went to London. They had booked fourteen days tour. Then. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. saw. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. change. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. They slept part of the way. Mr. and Mrs. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. etc • Using chronological connection.

hewan atau benda yang terlibat. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. C. misalnya beautiful. then on Monday.  Events. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. then. They had variety of food. hear. the thing is an experience. at my house. Singaraja is a city of about 90 SMA Students’ Modul of English • • . It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Pengenalan. kejadian atau kegiatan.  Reorientation. On the third floor. misalnya yesterday. Visiting Bali • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. In simple way. adjectives untuk 44 menerangkan nouns. misalnya We went to the zoo. What does recount differs from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. funny. the monkey. what happened on Sunday. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. misalnya go. On the other hand. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. dsb. we dsb. Between Recount and Narrative Small Notes Recount (Laporan peristiwa. The event happened smoothly. read. Narrative texts always appear as a hard portrait of participant's past experience. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The first one was to Singaraja. Rekaman peristiwa. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. the on Tuesday. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. It can be what the writer has done. At the end of the 14-day. kejadian atau kegiatan. dsb. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. B. slowly dsb. Narrative without conflicts is not narrative any more. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. • • • There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. On the day of the tour. misalnya David. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. recount describes series of events in detail. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. the second was to Ubud. waktu dan cara. She was happy dsb. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. and felt. The two week in London went by fast. run dsb. past tense. he was ready. they were quite tired but they felt very happy.door. di mana dan kapan. sleep. but. misalnya and. It reveals the conflict among the participants. In writer's point of view. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. after that.

The car lunched to one side. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. Although nothing was left. D. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. etc. moved. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. all his day was spent on the beach. earthquake happened. It is a busy but quiet town. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. I • Using chronological connectives. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. suddenly • Using linking verb. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. I was trapped by the rock. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. introducing the participant. I was on the car las week. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. The first stop was at Batubulan. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. stating the writer's personal note. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. to the left. The next stop was Celuk. in the town.thousands people. I thought I got flat tire. Even I could not move my car at all. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. was. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. There were rocks everywhere. Events. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. using first person point of view. were • Using action verb. I did not know that it was an earthquake. describing a series of event which happened. and. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. left. made. Re-orientation. I was on the car. He was quiet satisfied. I was on my car. When I reached my town. When the earthquake happened. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. my car lunched on one side. like matchsticks. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. then. walked. a center of stone sculpture. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island.

we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. my uncle. After that. However. It took about a week. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. During the day. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Meanwhile. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. They were great matches. and dancing. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. The funeral was performed in two phases. Overall. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. First. and end your composition. After that. there were also buffalo matches. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. my brother. Those words and phrases are: First. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. A recount text has an orientation. the ceremony was quite elaborate. Finally. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. a series of events in chronological order. Several days before the ceremony was done. In the text. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. we were feasting. you find words and phrases used to start. chanting. Questions 1. 46 • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . In this ceremony we wore black clothes. and then moved the corpse to face north. In the night. connect a sentence with the next one. Then. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. Then. On the last day. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. Finally.E.

This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. It states the parts. As I said in my previous post.Review Text What is review text 1. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. After clearly explanation. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Definition Review is one of text genres. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. 3. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. etc. Focus on specific participants 2. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. It can be product. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Using metaphor 4. uniqueness. quality of the product which will be known publicly. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. valuable. services which want to be sold. Using adjectives 3. worthy. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. useful. Dominant Language features: 1. It is personal idea about the product. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Using long and complex clauses 4.

Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 .

and ultimately satisfying. In some instances this works.housekeeping is still housekeeping. for example . Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. especially with being a teenager and all. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.. He goes from being a warm-hearted. I actually liked the ending (and yes. The stories were bright. with some editing it would have been great. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. fast-paced. The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book.you feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. A few other changes in this book . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. magical or no. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books.Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. and this part I loved. I cried!) as sad as it was. however. and parts of it do seem long. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . this was not my favorite. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more.. depressing feel. intriguing. Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Still a really good book. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. I was truly moved by the last page. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. Tafsiran (Interpretat ive recount) Rangkuma n Example of Review text Zenni Optical.

In certain case. easy and not complicated design. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. does and will do daily. The site is quite simple but very informative. Again. Eyeglasses for children. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. The site is her effort to record of what she did. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. lexical. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. It is real. However. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. it will be quite difficult to make translation. SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . Similarly. The experts who have grammatical. Titanium. The translation experts. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses.eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. woman and man are available choice. If we visit the site. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. For Rosemarie. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. if he works with Farsi translation. the daily activities are worthily documented. aluminum and rimless frame are available. It straightly goes to the end user. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want.

The site consists of several topic. Beside that. seperti bad. motherhood. These topics are close related to her own life. dsb. She looks to have strong Menggunakan: care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby • adjectives menunjukkan attaches on the header of the blog. fresh and bright. relating her position of a mother of kid and a Jika ada. anniversary. The template design of her site is very girly. It must help her husband support financially the family. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 .(Interpretive) of her idea of becoming young mother. she is trying to  Rangkuman. surely will like the site too. In one side. money. She is not only a good mother for her good. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan. (orientation)  Evaluasi 1. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. Good Young Mother  Evaluasi 2. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. it makes us complicated to choose. He  Evaluasi 3. she is monetizing this blog. pink centered. computer. in the other hands. buku. She is a widely knowledge mom. young mothers. These topics will be useful to her. This blog is representative  Tafsir. this phenomenon presents us comparable software products but. It is a romantic scene. It has a title of yummy mummy. this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: She choose green border of her template. It is about a young mother. monetizing it (Evaluative Summation) This blog has fresh physical appearance. love fashion and shopping. pertunjukan. wife of a husband. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. loan and other interesting stuff. They claim that they are the best product. dll. In the last • metafor. internet. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. She Terfokus pada is young therefore she has to have a blog look partisipan tertentu. She has arranged her site very attractive. family. Rosemarie is also interested with making money. I like this site and you. baby but also a good wife for her husband. Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. fresh and energetic. shopping. misalnya film. A buyer is really a king. business. pours her thought and opinion on this blog in  Evaluasi 4. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer. sikap. • klausa panjang dan She expresses it in her post labeled wedding kompleks. Again. a review site is necessary.

producer. A good reviewer will place hes /her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observe to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommend whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, and this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensures that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: “Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most)
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

you need to summarize your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyze your career and summarize it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialize in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammars or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume; in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

generic structure. However if they are analyzed carefully, the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. The purposes of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. What make different, between report and descriptive text, is the scope of the written object. If we talk about, eg: bicycle, it belongs to report text. It will talk about bicycle in general; its parts, physical strengh, function for certain people or other general characters of bike. In the other hand, descriptive text will convey more focus, for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters; colour, lengh, wheel style, etc. In short, report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature, animal and scientific object. Mostly, report is written after getting careful observation. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function, both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. They give the detail description on something, phenomena, goods, product case or problem. To see the differences between explanation and procedure, we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Procedure, this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. For example how to make a cup of tea, how to make a good kite, etc is the best example of the procedure text. It is such word; first boil water, secondly prepare the cup, and so on. Explanation, it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. How a tornado form, how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Between Recount and Narrative

SMA Students’ Modul of English

54

hear. what happened on Sunday. secondly prepare the cup. Explanation. On the other hand. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . recount. For example how to make a cup of tea. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. and felt. It can be what the writer has done. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. recount describes series of events in detail. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. product case or problem. descriptive. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It reveals the conflict among the participants. The event happened smoothly. read. phenomena. In simple way. the on Tuesday. It is such word. explanation. They give the detail description on something. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. how to make a good kite. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. the thing is an experience. Procedure. How a tornado form. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. etc is the best example of the procedure text. and so on. texts are divided into several types. goods. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. report. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. analytical exposition. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. They are narrative. first boil water. then on Monday. In writer's point of view. Explanation is such a scientific written material. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place.Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text.

and news item. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. 14. 20. 24.hortatory exposition. spoof. anecdote. 22. 18. 16. 15. review. procedure. 19. discussion. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . 17. 23. 25. 26. These variations are known as GENRES.

Reorientation 57 . Using thinking verbs 4. Using modals 2. Using technical terms 7. Resolution 5. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. rhetorical question or intensifiers SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Thesis 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using noun phrase 5. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Abstract 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. Generic Structure: 1. Explanation 3. Evaluation 3. Using adjective 6. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Crisis 4. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. Using exclamations. Using action verbs 3. Using adverbs 5. Dominant Language Features: 1. Using passive voice 4. General statement 2. Arguments 3. Complication 4. Orientation 3. Using material process 3. Reaction 5. Coda. Using technical terms 7. Using general and abstract noun 8.a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3.

Description SMA Students’ Modul of English 58 . Using Imperatives sentence 3. Short. place or thing in detail. Using adverbs : time. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Identification 2. Goal/Aim 2. place and manner. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverb 4. Using thinking verb 4. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using action verb 3. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.Dominant Language Features: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using modality 7. Arguments for and against 3. Issue 2. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Background event(s) 3. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using Past Tense 2. Materials/Equipments 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 5.

Arguments 3. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using thinking verbs 5. It is to convince that the thing should be done i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 4. Using adverb 4. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 9. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Thesis 2. Using adjective 7. Using special technical terms answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using action verb 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbs 6. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Orientation 2. Analytical is the SMA Students’ Modul of English j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using technical terms 8. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Event(s) 59 . General classification 2. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. as it is.Language Features: 1. Using modals 3. In simple word. Generic Structure 1.

Focus on specific participants 2. fable. Using adverb 4. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Event(s) 3. Evaluation 3. or Past Perfect Tense. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. folklore. The ways narrative and SMA Students’ Modul of English . etc while recount text is found in biography.3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Orientation 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verb 3. Using long and complex clauses 60 l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. social conflict or psychological conflict. Orientation 2. Using adjectives 3. In the contrary. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Interpretative Recount 4. Chronologically arranged recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. whether Simple Past Tense. Evaluation 5. Using action verb 3. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Using Past Tense 2. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. myth.

artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. descriptive.exposition. 8. tahun. 2. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 5. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. spoof dsb. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. label. 1. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. grafik. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. tabel. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. map. 9. penjelasan. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 7. tanggal. 3. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . diagram dsb. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 10. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Continuous text misalnya narrative. biasanya tentang nama. tempat. 4. 6. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. dsb. 11.4.

And cute. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. The purpose of the text is _____. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. it is small. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . fluffy.

The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment.. According to the writer. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. more dust bins…. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. straws. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2.. So when students want to throw away their litters. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. they can find the dust bins easily. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. What is the writer’s intention? To …. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. outside of the classrooms. Besides. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. there are paper mineral water cups. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. They put their litters on the proper places. readers to do something good. When we look at classrooms. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. and napkins here and there. a number of dust bins should be increased. and some more also the corridors. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease.EXERCISES. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. school corridors and school yard. 1. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. in every ten meters.

some songs can be quite complex syntactically. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. lexically and poetically. place or time reference. Furthermore. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 64 6. patriotism and yeas. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. religion. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. 5. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. shopping malls. The generic structures of the text are …. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. They provide variety and fun. Firstly. From the elaboration above. with a lot of repetition. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. which is just what many learners look for sample text. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English . learning vocabulary. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. translating songs. What is the text about …. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. spelling and culture. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. even revolution. songs are relaxing. Last but not least. In addition. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. songs in general also use simple conversational language. Although usually simple. practicing selective listening comprehension. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. Secondly.

Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.Since we can find a thesis. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. Firstly.9. Therefore.” The underlined word refers to …. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. so we can conclude that this text belongs to….“They provide variety and fun. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. not just in restaurants.. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Based on the text. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. The word reasons mean….. It must not be allowed because it is rude. smoking in restaurants is impolite.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English 65 . there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. 11. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. Finally.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… word 13.

a) b) c) d) e)

rude impolite health risk harmful disease

c) reiteration d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. SMA Students’ Modul of English d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine 66

d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

a) b) c) d) e)

To To To To To

tell a story describe the reader entertain the reader give information persuade the reader

22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text?

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

• • • •

Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

Jack. Pleased to meet you. father. Mr. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. • I want to introduce you to …. boss. co-worker. Ritter. Mary Jones. And you.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. mother. Ms. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. 2.. Nice to meet you. This is my friend. Penny Pitcher. sister. Cindy. Nice to meet you too. Introducing someone else my name is. Very nice to meet you. Harris. I'm Linda 1. Bob. Likewise. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to ….. Harris.. my my my my my my my my my brother. Mr. It's a pleasure to meet you. Hi Jack. Carrie. Mrs. friend. student.. I don't believe we've met before. Watson. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . teacher. I'm.

Arnys? Retno : Okay. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Retno. I am. e. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. we still have half an hour before the class starts. By the way. this is Retno. Hi. are you a new student. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Adib : Hi. a restaurant.g. Arnys. My name is Adib. Shall we go to the canteen?. I’m Arnys. They meet at the students’ orientation course. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Situation: Adib. Adib.g. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. and Retno are new students. Adib : Anyway. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. hotel.

Do you wanna . Very well. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. thanks. thank you. shake hands with other Virga :… women. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Bye. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . . Not so bad. See you soon /later /tomorrow. . . . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . (informal) Would you like to . . thanks. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. • Good bye. . . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. thanks.Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. before leaving. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well.

to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No... . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome. I’d be delighted to. Receiving . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.? Would you like ..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks..I’d like very much ... Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.a chocolate bar? .I’d love to .Yes..I’d be happy/glad to accept .Some responds of inviting. let’s not..

you very much. Responding to compliments and congratulations SMA Students’ Modul of English 73 . Thanks. Thank you.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. complimented you on your necktie. returned your lost wallet. helped carry your grocery bags. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Happy new year. I need it. It’s nice of you to say so. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. not really. Happy birthday to you. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Oh. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so.

That’s too bad e. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . Oh dear B. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. That’s a nuisance d. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.• How kind of you to say so. holidays and other special occasions. Special Days . What’s pity c.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. What’s shame b..use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . That’s pity f.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.

d. I feel … b. I feel disappointed. I’m really sorry for them d. b. feel unpleased with …. h. I’m sorry to hear that b. How terrible! c. j. ketidakpuasan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . Expression Displeasure a. I’m so happy …. g. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I’m delighted. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a.. l. Send my deepest condolence! f. …. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. How Awful! d. I enjoyed it I love it.a. e. Satisfaction. How dreadful! C. c. I feel …. i. I’m sorry about that c. It was terrifi c. k. f. I’m really sad to … c. m. Goodness! b. d.

kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. I feel… 76 SMA Students’ Modul of English . As I see. In my opinion…. … If you ask me.Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How How How How was the trip? do you like your new house? do you think of Rina’s idea? do you feel about this dicition? Giving opinion I think (that)….

? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval.. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. I don’t think so • I don’t buy that idea I don’t think that is true • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I disagree with … • I can’t agree I wouldn’t say that • I don’t think it’s very good Exactly not • Surely not I can’t say so • I am sorry.What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. say • Absolutely. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. but I have to On contrary disagree 77 • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.  I think the other one’s better. I agree • I know what you mean.  In my opinion.. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. • Yes.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. • I am with you • Definitely. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.

Relief (ungkapan kesakitan.• I couldn’t agree less • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. that's not a good idea. kelegaan) Pain Ouch! That was hurt SMA Students’ Modul of English Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. Fear. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. it was over 78 . I don't think that's what happened. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. No.

• Ugh. • I’m glad it was done.. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. it’s very painful! • Oh... • I feel sick. it’s killing me! 2.It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like Noun it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • I’m sick.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • Thank God for ./I feel ill..

When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. BUT "I don't really like it. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick SMA Students’ Modul of English 80 . but it is not a very strong dislike. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something.can't stand them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'." This is not very strong. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. It means that you do not like something.

Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. I was so ashamed. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you….There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Palupi : OK. Sure. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . That’s a real embarrassment. such as: In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Informal Situations … really makes me mad.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. I will. I’m extremely unhappy about this. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.

Complaint. Apology (penyesalan. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. but. Maybe you forgot to.. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. meminta maaf) SMA Students’ Modul of English 82 ... I'm sorry to bother you.. Blame (keluhan. It's your fault for (doing something). Excuse me if I'm out of line.  Of course... Expressing shocked disagreement But that's Ridiculous! Unfair! Unreasonable! A negative structure It's just simply not fair to charge us for the starters! Regret... but I think we should.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. I think you might have forgotten to... Don't get me wrong.. Certainly.  Right away. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. but.

I ….Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. I'll clear up later. I'm so sorry. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Sorry for.. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.. I didn't mean to lose your book. Sorry for taking your DVD... phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. to express regret an exclamation a word. Pete.... I'd like to apologise for. Examples I'm really sorry. to ask for forgiveness.

worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. Several ways of indicating  There is a good chance that …..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . there is a possibility ...unhappiness. possibility are:  There is a little chance that …. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . • Is it possible to …? • Yes.  May be he needs more time  There’s a possibility of his winning  She might not be at home the game/ that he will win the game.. NOTE : 1.  It is impossible  It’s possible that he’ll win the  Probably She is on the way game.. distress...  possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet..

we Has utk S= he.they.  I’m able to do it doing something are:  I have the ability to do it.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English .she. Expressions to show …..  Would there be any possibility of 4.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindaka n yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I.they.? incapability are:  Do you think we are capable of …. Expressions used to ask  I can do it possibility or capability of  There is a chance that I can do it.you. Expressions to show  I don’t think I have the ability capability are :  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I’m capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.she.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. 3. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.2.you.?  I can’t do it  Is it possible for me to …?  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing  Are we capable enough to …? it.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.she.

it Were utk S= you.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv Future Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… At this time tomorrow 86 SMA Students’ Modul of English .we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.pada saat Father has been at his office berbicara since 12 perbuatan/tindaka hours ago.she.he.they. n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.

waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 . sesuatu seharusnya akan SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv masa lampau.

the telephone rang twelve times. is. SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . was parctising e. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children.is. practised d. are Past Was. a. “Srimpi”. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2.does/am. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. they are succesful.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. were Perfect Been Future/modal be Contoh soal 1.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. Iwan : Yes. Fred : Juda. will be practising c. have been practising b.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Present Am.telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.

Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. cleaned e. have lunch d. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. a. am living d. will have lived b. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. a. will be started 2.a. starts c. was living e. worked e. have been cleaning c. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will have worked c. am carrying SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. have been living c. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. would have started d. will start b. will have lunch e. has been working b. works d. a. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. were cleaning b. will have had lunch b. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. have been having lunch c. will have started e. clean d. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. a. If we don”t hurry. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. My family ____ when the postman arrived. a. carry d.

caused d. has been e. a. am learning SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . was carrying e. am d. He ____ ill for a week. has worked for six months e. will have been c. have caused c. have been 6. had been 9. Student : All right. causes e. will have been c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. have learnt e. but I ____ there many times. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. My father is still in Bali. I ____ them by then. This sentence means that Ann ___. has got a new job d. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. forgets b. had forgotten e. was e. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. was d. was e. Is it right? Student : Yes. a. sir. sir. When airport are located in the center of citied. would forget 8. He ____ there for three weeks. a. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. had been 7. is d. have carried 3. started to work 6 months a go c. has stopped looking for a job b. I forget to bring your book. would be b. has been b. a. have been c. a. forgot c. will have learnt c. learn d. is still looking for a job 4.b. will cause 5. will be b. were causing b. carried c. has forgotten d. will be learning b. a. Learn all these. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. a.

struktur kalimat. pronoun (kata ganti orang).” for me in his bag. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered/commanded me to (!) He ordered me. (-) He said. will be attending d. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). You can’t meet her at her house at 10. keterangan waktu. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. “Do I have a present for (?) He asked me if/whether he you in my bag?” had a present for me in his (?) He asked me. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. “Don’t bring bring his bag there then. “ Why do I have to bag. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said.10. “ I have a present for (+) He said that he had a present you in my bag. She ___ the lectures. would be attended DIRECT . Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. who. your bag here!” (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. attended c. Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past 91 Direct (kalimat langsung) Simple Present SMA Students’ Modul of English .00 tomorrow. Reni goes to her university every morning.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. how. (?) He asked. have a present for you in my (?) He asked me why he had to bag? have a present for me in his (!) He ordered/commanded me. when. where. She studies business. dan tempat. bag. has attended b. a. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. why. has been attending e. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. “I do not have a present (-) He said that he did not have a for you in my bag” present for me in his bag.

Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Past Past Past Past Past Past Continuous Future Perfect Perfect Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Then That day The next day The day after The following day Next… A day later Last… The… after The following… …ago The…before Yesterday The previous … The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .

that Mary had been absent b. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. The baby is sleeping. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. he goes to his country c. that I open his mouth d. to open my mouth b. mom. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. He said ____ the previous day. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. I wasn’t so noisy d. why Mary was absent e. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. why Mary had been absent c. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. Herman : Okay. a. Herman. if Mary was absent d. if I opened my mouth e. opened my mouth c. he has gone to his country e. I am very noisy b. not to be so noisy e.Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. a. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . to be not so noisy c. had gone to his country d. he went to his country b. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4.

what are you were doing now d. 6. a. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. he headn’t cleaned b. “What are you doing now?”. forgets b. what were you doing now. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. he asked me ____”. It was windy outside. he asked. It is windy outside. d. Mira closed the window. I got a headache. I forgot to bring your book. b. “ ___________” a. what I am doing now. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. I hadn’t cleaned d. e. what I was doing then. he does not clean e. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Anto : I am sorry Lina. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. e. Does Mira close the window. He asked me ____ a. has forgotten d. a. c. SMA Students’ Modul of English . c. b. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. can he go with us e.b. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. forgot c. he would not clean c. going with us b. 94 5. Closed the window. It is windy outside. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. wether he goes with us c. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Ari : What did he say. had forgotten e. Mira. If he could go with us d. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. It was windy outside. would forget 3. 4. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Mira closed the window. Mother said. a.

She told the children don’t make noise b. c. finish your work d. not to spend e. My friend said to me. d. how was my appointment e. whether I had appointment 8. not spending b. She told the children not to make noise. e. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. 10. b. The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. did I have an appointment d. finished your work e. when is my appointment b. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. that I had an appointment c. e. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. Father said. She said the children didn’t make noise c. children”. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. “Can I find you a hotel?”. a. to finish my work c.a. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. not spend c. Slamet. “don’t make noise. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. Mean____ a. She didn’t say the children should noise d. did not spend 7. do not spend d. she said. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. a. to finish your work b.

S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri.

What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. she ____ a. was postponed d. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. A : Look! The girl is crying. will be unloaded b. are unloaded c. R. kicked e. were sold b. is sold d. when…. a. a.? a. is born d. are sold e. did it abolish e. has been postponed c. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Y : Really. would be born SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 .Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. was kicked c. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. kicks d.A. have been unloaded d. was kicking b. a. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. was being postponed e. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. was it abolishing d. had been sold c. a. were being unloaded e. has to be postponed b. was it to abolish b. The announcement ____ twice. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. to be abolished c. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price.

She looks after the baby well. has been built b. will clean b. was destroyed 6. has been cleaned 5. is being demolished e. had destroyed e. rewarded d. The passive form is ____ a. is being destroyed c. A big dam ___ in this area next year. cleaned c. was being cleaned d. has been rewarded c.b. is demolishing c. was born e. will build d. would be built 4. a. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. demolishing d. is being built c. has arranged c. a. have arranged b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. a. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. will be built e. was rewarded e. was arranged e. destroyed d. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . will be rewarded 8. the baby is well looked after b. will be born 2. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. is being cleaned e. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. had been demilishing b. the baby would be well looked after 7. the baby was looked after well c. is being rewarded b. the baby is being looked after well e. a. has been born c. will be destroyed b. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. a. the baby will be well looked after d. is arranged d. have been arranged 3.

will be promised e. a. yaitu: 1.9.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. a. was taken b. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. will be taken d. is being taken e. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. will be promised 10. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. took c. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. was being promised c. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. has promised d. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. has been promising b.

Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some.c. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. -le. may. can. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. had. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. shall. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. have/has. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. -ow. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. dll. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. dll. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. was/were. -er. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. will. did.

• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Kalau kalimatnya (+). tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. 3. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. (jika saya punya uang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. I would have written you a letter.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . I will buy a new car. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. I would go to the beach with you.). Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Apa yang diucapkan. Contoh: If I have much money. itulah yang diharapkan.

which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. Their car has been stolen. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. Contoh: We saw the people. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. I met him last week. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. whom. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. your. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. I bought it last year. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. whose. her. (him = the man. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. which. of which. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. his. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. They are printed in English. their.) 2. its. our.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much.

sebuah benda. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Where 8. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. Its surface is not smooth. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. jabatan sebagai objek) 6.

Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). The manager has the letter typed. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. The manager gets the letter typed. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). I had mechanic repair my car. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). I got the mechanic to repair my car.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. 2. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). Jogging makes us fresh.

V . his. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .her. to be worth. 3.I like T. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.Juned prefers combro to deblo. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.your. than plays a video game.to be used to.V better than radio.Dona prefers dancing to singing. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.V ketimbang main video game) 4.Dita would rather watch T.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . 6. to be busy. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. get used to. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. .3. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . can’t help/can’t bear. Contoh : My hobby is cycling.our. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Setelah possessive adjective (my. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . 5.V. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . on. 4.their. he said nothing.Amir’s. Before leaving. before dll.

or. 2. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. d. e. after that.Contoh: . After that. that.I went to your house but you weren’t at home.You can read this book if you like. after. We went home after the rain stopped. we put them into frying pan. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . c. we must prepare the ingredients. yaitu: 1. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first.He is both wise and good. Finally. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. Next. 1. Menunjukan waktu: before. While he was reading her novel. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. I can’t treat you.Although it was raining. for. c. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. when. we put some sauce and salt. then. if. while. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. dll.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . a. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. but. a. Contoh: .) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. next. as soon as. he come on time.Amir and I go to school everyday. since. b. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. 3. although/though. d. c. a. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . b. Since I have no money. somebody knocked on the door. b. first. finally. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and.

(dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .He is not only active but also clever. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .

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