Davis Khan Vinson 1 Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources "Berlin Violations Imperil Detente, West Warns Soviets.

" The Washington Post. (May 10, 1977, Tuesday, Final Edition): 840 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2011/12/31. The USSR had completely closed itself off even though the allies still had pieces of their controlled parts of Berlin within the Soviet side of the iron curtain. The US and her allies warned the Soviet Union. This protest had no real effect to the USSR but citizens protested and fought until in 1989 they were able to tear down the wall. "Cold War Alliances." Map. Encarta. MSN. Web. 23 Dec. 2012.

<http://encarta.msn.com/media_701722302/cold_war_alliances.html>. The Cold War drew a line in the sand between Democracy and Communism. The Communist nations identified in the map show those that are allied on either side. "Cold War victory honors due." The Washington Times. (April 16, 1995, Sunday, Final Edition): 1025 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2012/01/23. The USSR is collapsing and its hold over its satellite countries is greatly reduced. However, in the US there are no celebrations in the streets, national holidays, or parades. The US was ready to overreact to the Soviet threat but merely breathed a sigh of relief to its collapse. "Eastern Bloc Countries." History Can Be Fun. Wyler. Web. 19 Dec. 2011.

<http://www.historycanbefun.com/eastern-block-countries.html>. The Eastern Bloc was the informal response to NATO. The USSR¶s ³Red´ subordinate nations were all in this geographically linked group. The nations on this map identify the players in the soon to be formed Warsaw Pact.

Davis Khan Vinson 2 Eisenhower, Dwight "Domino Theory Principle." News Conference. 7 Apr. 1954. Speech. In this speech, President Eisenhower coined the ³domino effect´. He publicly detailed the threat of the spread of Communism, and catalyzed the anti-communist movement. Joe-1. Photograph. Kuchatov, Kazakhstan. Atomic Archives. AJ Software & Multimedia. Web. 3 Jan. 2011. <http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/page03.shtml>. The extreme US reaction, arguably, started when the USSR tested its first nuclear missile, represented in the photograph. The US was greatly surprised by the speed in which the Soviets gained nuclear capability. Investigations into industrial espionage, Soviet spies, and the proliferation of a nuclear arsenal that would serve as a deterrent force against that of the Soviet Union¶s began. "NATO - Official Text: The North Atlantic Treaty, 04 Apr.1949." NATO - Homepage. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Web. 16 Dec. 2011.

<http://www.nato.int/cps/en/nato- live/official_texts_17120.htm>. The North Atlantic Treaty was the treaty that established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This organization was actually a military alliance founded by eight countries (including the United States) that consisted of democratic countries that promoted peace, stability, security, and democracy. The treaty was signed on April 4, 1949. The official text of the treaty conveyed, verbatim, the content of the treaty. Nixon, Richard. "The Meaning Of Communism To Americans." 21 Aug. 1960. Speech. In this speech, Vice President Nixon publicly discussed Communism. He wanted to en- sure that Americans understood what was wrong with Communism, so that they did not ignorantly hate it. This speech made the public more aware of Communism.

Davis Khan Vinson 3 "Other Reports on China; Superpowers' interest in continuing the arms race." BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. (April 27, 1984, Friday): 237 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2012/01/23 Although the USSR was nearing bankruptcy and its economy was failing, the arms race persisted. Diplomatic talks to reduce nuclear arms only staggered the proliferation. The US was ready to continue along with the Soviet Union for however long it took. Somerville, John. "Cuban Missile Crisis: A Lesson Unlearned." Los Angeles Times (1923Current File) Oct 10 1982: E5. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1987). 23 Jan 2012. The most heated time during the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis evoked a very strong US response. Americans felt threatened, as they were closer to nuclear war with their Soviet rival than ever. Had it not been for the use of rare diplomatic resolution strategies, this crisis could¶ve ended the war and human life. "Soviet Attitude Poll." Washington Post Aug. 1991. Print. During the fall of the Soviet Union the American people could breathe a sigh of relief. Although still a danger with its large stockpile of nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union was imploding. Peace talks had begun between the US and USSR and the end of the Cold War seemed near. Polls done by the Washington Post show a sample of the US¶s beliefs on global issues concerning communism, the Soviet Union, and the US involvement in the Cold War. "Soviet Emigration Laws ''Not Restrictive''." BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. (May 12, 1981, Tuesday): 747 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2011/12/31. The USSR and US had been separated by a metaphorical iron curtain that had become all too real. The USSR had restricted its citizens and those of its satellite states including

Davis Khan Vinson 4 East Germany, from leaving its borders. The USSR was giving the US all the more reason to intervene based on the deprivation of civil liberties and basic human democratic rights. Testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (1956) (testimony of Paul Robeson). Print. This testimony took place in 1956. Paul Robeson was a famous American singer. How- ever, his sympathy for the Soviet Union and membership in the American Communist Party brought him under the scrutiny of the HUAC. Robeson¶s passport was revoked in 1950 and he was forced to appear before the committee. He refused to answer any questions about his political affiliation and famously deemed the HUAC as the real ³unAmericans´. Robeson¶s testimony provided an antagonistic view of the Second Red Scare. "The Army-McCarthy Hearings, 1954," in Robert D. Marcus and Anthony Marcus, Eds. On Trail: American History Through Court Proceedings and Hearings, vol. II, (St. James, New York: Brandywine Press, 1998), 136±51. The Army-McCarthy Hearings were a series of hearings held by the U.S. Senate¶s Subcommittee on Investigations during 1954. They took place on account of the increasing conflicts between the U.S. Army and Senator McCarthy over the coerced preferential treatment of one of McCarthy¶s aides in the Army. McCarthy asserted that the accusations were simply an attack against his increasingly aversive investigations into Communists. These hearings provided in-depth insight into ³McCarthyism´, which was an essential component of The Second Red Scare.

Davis Khan Vinson 5 "The Berlin Wall: Stronger Than Ever." Newsweek. 423 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2011/12/31. The Soviet Union¶s puppet, East Germany outfitted the Berlin Wall with new deterrents. These deterrents add on to the now literal iron curtain. "'The CIA's Secret War on Cuba': Laying Bare Our Painful Legacy." The Washington Post. (June 10, 1977, Friday, Final Edition): 2635 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2011/12/31. The CIA was involved in the prevention of the spread of Communism very heavily because of is inimical effects to American democracy. The CIA staged a poorly planned revolution in Cuba in order to carry out the aforementioned goal and failed miserably. The Cubans that were used in the revolution were also part of the Watergate scandal. Truman, Harry S. "Truman Doctrine." Address. President Harry S. Truman's Address Before a Joint Session of Congress. 12 Mar. 1947. The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, His- tory, and Diplomacy. Yale Law School. Web. 16 Dec. 2011. <http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/trudoc.asp>. On March 12, 1947, President Truman addressed the Congress in order to elicit approval for his plan to send $400,000 to aid Greece in the reconstruction of their government as a democracy. He established that henceforth, the United States would provide military, political, and economic assistance to any country that wanted to resist its oppressive government and form a government of its choosing. This message, known as the Truman Doc- trine, is arguably what officiated the beginning of the Cold War between the democratic and capitalist United States, and the

Davis Khan Vinson 6 communist Soviet Union. This transcript supplied fundamental understanding in Truman¶s foreign policy, along with his reaction to the threat of Communism. "West's Alleged Collapse of Soviet Economy ''Wishful Thinking''." BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. (January 27, 1983, Thursday): 791 words. LexisNexis Academic. Web. Date Accessed: 2011/12/31. The US and the USSR¶s battle for world domination had led to a great race of nuclear proliferation. A consequence of this was the exorbitant spending that went along with it. This spending had bankrupted the USSR and almost done the same to the US White, Matthew. "The Cold War 1945-1960." Map. Nov. 1997. Web. 11 Jan. 2011. <http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/coldwar1.htm>. This source gave us a map detailing the communist and capitalist countries. Comparing it to other sources that were acquired later we were able to gauge the spread of Communism and the true effectiveness of the ³Domino Effect´.

Davis Khan Vinson 7 Secondary Sources "Communist Countries During the Cold War - World History Online." History Articles - World History Online. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://www.worldhistoryonline.org/modernhistory/communist-countries-during-the-cold-war.html> The Soviet Union started with satellite countries that were all under the primary soviet umbrella. Spreading to countries in the middle east, central America, and Africa, Communism was starting to leak into the western hemisphere. Cuba was the closest it came to the west and remains as one of the longest standing communist regimes. ³Communism on the World Stage." Rationalrevolution.net - Making Sense of History, Economics, Politics, Philosophy, and War. 23 May 2003. Web. 23 Dec. 2011. <http://rationalrevolution.net/war/communism_on_the_world_stage.htm>. Communism first appeared on the world stage during the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and Lenin¶s subsequent rise to power. By using smaller third world countries with valuable resources, the adolescent Soviet Union spread Communism by capitalizing on countries¶ bad experiences with capitalistic western societies. With Communism slowly spreading through the snowball effect, political maps were becoming redder. "Cuban Missile Crisis." Spartacus Educational. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.

<http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDcubanmissile.htm>. The most heated time during the Cold War, the Cuban Missile Crisis evoked a very strong US response. Americans felt threatened, as they were closer to nuclear war with their Soviet rival than ever. Had it not been for the use of rare diplomatic resolution strategies, this crisis could¶ve ended the war and human life.

Davis Khan Vinson 8 "Cuban Missile Crisis - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.

<http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Cuban-Missile-Crisis.aspx>. As Kennedy¶s first major crisis and one of the White House¶s most monumental, the Cuban Missile Crisis was the USSR and US¶s first close conflict. Unanimously regarded by pundits as the most heated time during the Cold War. Kennedy¶s presidency was tested and proven through his victorious staring contest with Khrushchev and the resolution of the Bay of Pigs invasion. "Cuban Revolution (1952-1958)." Latin American Studies. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.

<http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/cuban-revolution.htm>. The Castro brothers and Che Guevara built a large revolutionary force to topple the corrupt regime of Fulgencio Batista, Cuba¶s leader. They were vastly successful however left Cuba in a state of disrepair. The CIA, aware of the revolution, launched an unsuccessful counterattack known as the Bay of Pigs. "End of the Cold War and the Soviet Union." MacroHistory: World History. Web. 12 Jan. 2011. <http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch33.htm>. This source gave us other important info on the fall of the Soviet Union. Furthermore it gave insight into the complete end of the Cold War and cleared up information that was not necessarily evident through other forms of research. "Fall of Communism." Future Home Page. Bureau of Public Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

<http://future.state.gov/when/timeline/1969_detente/fall_of_communism.html>.

Davis Khan Vinson 9 Communism fell the same way it arose²a series of dominoes falling down in order. The Communist governments were toppled through revolution and slowly but surely the Cold War, Second Red Scare, and Communism in Europe were all just a historical fact. "Fall of the Soviet Union." Cold War Museum. Web. 11 Jan. 2011. <http://www.coldwar.org/articles/90s/fall_of_the_soviet_union.asp>. This source gave us information on the major impacts of the Cold War. The economic and social strain of the Cold War was clearly demonstrated in the fall of the Soviet Union. Hoyt, Alia. "How Communism Works" HowStuffWorks.com. 25 February 2008. 16 December 2011. <http://history.howstuffworks.com/cold-war/communism.htm> This article delineates communism. Communism is the idea that everyone in a society is given equal shares of the benefits derived from labor. It is the antithesis of capitalism in that it promotes a government-regulated economy where the means of production are con- trolled by the state, as opposed to a private, ³laissez-faire´ one. Wealth is redistributed so that the upper class and lower class each come to the same financial and social level of the middle class. This article clearly and objectively explained all about communism, which was helpful in determining whether or not the Second Red Scare was a rational re- action to communism. Koeller, David W. "Russian and Eastern Europe Chronology." Then Again . . . Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/easteurope/EastEurope.html>. The Bolshevik revolution began as the people¶s response to the czar¶s declaration of war. By entering his people, namely the poor and lower classes, into WWI he solidified the existence of a class locked Russia. With Lenin¶s leadership, the people overthrew the

Davis Khan Vinson 10 czarist regime and established the world¶s first powerful Communist regime. Soviet Russia¶s next leader who arose to power through a clandestine coup, Joseph Stalin, would then go on to usher in the Soviet Russia that so classically rivaled the US. Long, Tony. "Aug. 29, 1949: First Soviet Atomic Test Stuns West." Wired.com. Condé Nast. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

<http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/08/dayintech_0829>. The USSR¶s detonation of its first nuclear missile stunned if not devastated the Americans. It sparked the reaction that propelled the world into the Cold War but also established the USSR¶s new status as the US¶s rival world power. Mintz, S. "The Second Red Scare." Digital History. 2007. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=495>. The Second Red Scare was a national obsession with communist subversion that began in the late 1930s and continued into the end of the Cold War. It consisted of the creation of a House of Un-American Activities, the Truman Doctrine, the Cold War, the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and many other consequent events. This document chronologically detailed the progression of the Second Red Scare through the twentieth century. It helpfully expounded on the United State¶s full reaction to Communism during this time period "The Cold War: October 1951-1991" 13 September 2007. HowStuffWorks.com. Web. 28 December 2011 <http://history.howstuffworks.com/cold-war/the-cold-war-timeline.htm>

Davis Khan Vinson 11 The Cold War was not exactly a war but a time period. It served as the staging round for much of the US Reaction to Communism and laid out the cause-and-effect nature of this time period. "The Marshall Plan." The George C. Marshall Foundation. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.marshallfoundation.org/TheMarshallPlan.htm>. The Marshall Plan was the United States¶ plan in 1947 to provide economic support to Western Europe after World War II to help them reform and rebuild their economies. The purpose of this plan was to promote economic and political stability in Western Europe and prevent the spread of Communism. This website provided a lot of insight into this plan along with many facts. ³The Rosenberg trial begins.´ 2012. The History Channel. Jan 23 2012, 3

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-rosenberg-trial-begins. Even more popular than Alger Hiss, the Rosenbergs were known Soviet spies. On accounts from associates it was revealed that they had been a driving force behind the acquisition of information to expedite the Soviet nuclear program. The Rosenbergs were put to death and evidence of the tactics the superpowers used. "Truman Doctrine." United States American History. Web. 23 Jan. 2012. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1780.html>. The Truman Doctrine was President Truman¶s plan to provide economic support to Greece and Turkey so as to ensure that they would not fail and fall to the forces of Communism. It also set America¶s anti-communist policy for the next several decades. This website provided much needed information about the Truman Doctrine.

Davis Khan Vinson 12 "Who Was Alger Hiss?" The Alger Hiss Story. New York University. Web. 23 Dec. 2012. <https://files.nyu.edu/th15/public/who.html>. Alger Hiss was one of the most famously accused by the HUAC. The Second Red Scare