GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN NATIONAL STATISTIC SYSTEMS

A Situational Analysis in Central and West Asia
Susann Roth (Social Development Specialist, CWRD)
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

December 2011 GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

“All our data are sexdisaggregated anyway. What’s the problem?” “Business statistics does not relate to gender.”

“Gender statistics is not a statistical field, what is special about it?”

“We do not want to overburden the respondents.”

“Nowadays women have the same opportunities as men. So where is the problem?”

“There is no space.”

“The role of women is not an issue in our country. We have resource constraints and we need to concentrate on other areas.”

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Why Gender Statistics is important
• To demonstrate impact of national gender equality strategies and action plans on improving the lives of women and men. • If is not available, analysed or used, national strategies cannot show their promised achievements and thus could make further investments in gender equality from Governments and development partners questionable.

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

CWRD’s challenges and solutions to improve gender mainstreaming

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

A Vision…
In 2011 One button push •X number of women employed •X number of women trained •X number of women provided with access to micro-credit •etc., etc.

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

ADB’s need for sex-disaggregated data
Census, Admin. records Sector dev. level

Surveys, Admin. records

Project level

Surveys GAP level

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

National Statistic Systems
Ensemble of statistical organizations and units within a country that jointly collects, process and disseminate official statistics on behalf of national Government. •National Statistic Agency •Line Ministries •Local Government units •National W omen Machinery Source of Definition: OECD Glossary

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

CWRD’s Gender RETA
Output
Output 1 Countries’ capacity to collect, analyze and use sexdisaggregated data improved Output 2 Sector specific gender issues assessed Output 3 Pilot projects, which result in gender equality and which support ADB’s investments implemented Output 4 GAD networks strengthened

Indicator
• Policy framework for sex-disaggregated data collection developed and adopted in participating DMCs by 2011 • Selected sex-disaggregated data collected and available for gender analysis and cross-country comparison by 2013 • CGA published for Armenia and Georgia by 2013 • CGA updated for Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Uzbekistan by 2013 • Two pilot projects developed in each participating DMC (7–10 projects per year) by 2012 and implemented by 2013 • One compilation report of 15–20 implemented pilot projects published by 2013 • Country GAD focal groups established and functional in each participating DMC by 2011 • Quarterly meetings of each country focal group held • Directory and terms of reference of GAD network of each participating DMC documented by 2011 and updated as needed

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International Commitments
Beijing Platform for Action (1995) A 2010 review found that after 15 years: Progress cannot be measured in critical areas •because of “limited or non-existent data”; •because “many gaps remain”; •since there is a “need for increased investment in data collection and analysis”.
Source: Commission on the Status of Women 2010 (E/CN.6/2010/CRP.5)

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Methodology of the Situational Analysis

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Assessment of Central and West Asia DMCs
Some Progress Less Progress Considerable challenges

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Development Partners

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Achievements on Gender Statistics
At regional level: •Gender statistics training workshops targeting NSO staff and data users; •A regional gender statistics website and database created; •Manuals and guidelines developed to support gender mainstreaming in statistics and translated into Russian. At national level: •Efforts have been undertaken to make censuses and surveys gendersensitive; •Collections reviewed to capture sex-disaggregated data where possible; •Compendiums of ‘W omen and Men’ booklets are regularly published by almost all ten countries .
UNECE Gender Statistics Website and Database http://www.unece.org/stats/gender.html For example, UNSD (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods.htm) and UNECE (www.unece.org/stats).

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Gender Statistics Framework

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Demand Exists
• All countries developed national strategies to address gender inequality. • Gender budgeting initiatives implemented in Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Kyrgyz Republic . • Some countries (Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) introduced legislation on gender statistics, through a specific provision in laws on gender equality. • NSOs have developed institutional mechanism for gender statistics. • Awareness-raising through gender statistics training workshops targeting NSO staff and data users conducted.
GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Challenges “Demand Exists”
• Limitations of legislative provisions – requirement for gender statistics not established in the mainstream laws on official statistics. • Weak institutional mechanisms - clear mandates are lacking and those delegated responsibility for gender statistics have insufficient authority to influence change.

• Lack of gender-specific indicators on poverty, inequality in economic opportunities, informal sector, governance, stereotyping, violence, impact of conflict, access to assets, services and state subsidies, etc. • Timeliness of gender statistics is the issue, as well as comparisons over time. • Limited awareness of gender equality and women’s rights concepts among policy-makers and the general public.
GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Data exists
• Gender bias in data collection instruments improved (Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan). • New indicators on time-use, poverty, violence against women and children, time-use available in a number of countries. • Some countries developed databases of gender indicators (as GenderInfo in Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan). • New data collection activities related to gender concerns have been introduced.
• Afghanistan has begun a survey on gender and decision-making • Armenia, Kyrgyz Republic and Pakistan have completed surveys on time use. • Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic have conducted full or pilot surveys on violence against women
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Data exists

In Central and West Asia Data exists on: Population / demographic indicator, Health, Education, W ork and employment, Crime and violence, Parliament and power & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT! GENDER

Challenges “Data exists”
• Poor coordination between data-producing agencies resulting in gaps in data collection, limited data comparability, and duplication of effort. • Lack of consultation between data producers and users leading to limited understanding of users’ needs and the extent data provided meet those needs. • Obstacles to collecting gender-related data such as cultural issues, civil unrest (in some countries), employing trained enumerators, and reaching remote communities. • Little success in developing statistics needed to influence policies, legislation, plans, and budgets and lead to positive outcomes for gender equality.
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Data is disseminated
• Countries have published gender statistics products (“W omen and Men in Uzbekistan”), mostly donor’s except Kazakhstan. • Greater efforts to disseminate data. Countries like Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic made their ‘W omen and Men’ booklets available through their official websites.

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Challenges “Data is disseminated”
• Limited capacity in analysing and presenting statistics. • Lack of resources, both human and financial. • Less emphasis on data dissemination and communication than on collection and processing.

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Data is used
• In Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, consultations with data users preceded international reporting and the production of gender statistics publications. • Data is to some extend used by national women’s machinery.

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Challenges “Data is used”
• Little evidence of regular consultation with users to discuss emerging needs and monitor the use of gender statistics. • Only Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan have established such a mechanism for the use of gender statistics. • A key challenge is the capacity of users to access, understand, analyse, interpret and use statistics. • Gender statistics not yet used for policy-making.

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

The 3 sub-regions

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Examples of good practice - Caucasus
• Georgia prepared National Action Plan for Gender Equality that includes the production of gender statistics as key priority area. • Focal point for gender in the National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia is a senior manager, who is part of the office decision-making team, and the responsibility for gender statistics has been devolved across four divisions. • Azerbaijan engendered its 2009 Population and Housing Census and is producing analysis of census results specifically focused on gender issues. • Statistical collections on domestic violence have been introduced/piloted in all Caucasus countries. • Armenia conducts a regular survey on time use.
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Examples of good practice – Caucasus (2)
Sex-disaggregated data exists on: •Demography / population •Health •Education and science •W ork, unemployment and economic activity •Crime •Governance, influence and power •Social security and welfare •Family and households •Agriculture •Culture and sport

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

The 3 sub-regions

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Examples of good practice Central Asia
• New database for gender statistics formed in Turkmenistan, including more than 1500 indicators in 7 sections of «Genstat Region». Indicators are related to various social and economic policy areas, disaggregated by territory (national, regional and local; also, urban and rural) and sex. • New indicators introduced in Tajikistan to reflect women’s access to land. (ILO) • In the Kyrgyz Republic, harmonized set of indicators developed where CEDAW, MDGs and national GAD and PRSP indicators were consolidated into a platform for mainstreaming gender into national plans and socio-economic programs. • In Uzbekistan, the collections of statistics ‘Women and Men’ are the result of collective efforts by the NSO, the Women’s Committee (national machinery of Uzbekistan), and the Centre to Support Civic Initiatives (NGO).
GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Examples of good practice Central Asia (2)
Sex-disaggregated data exists on: •Health •Education •Economic empowerment of women •Power and decision-making •Migration •Violence against women •Measurement of gender attitudes •Reconciliation of family and work life •W omen with HIV/AIDS, and other vulnerable and marginalized groups

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

The 3 sub-regions

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Examples of good practice West Asia
• National development plans and commitments in place to create a clear demand for gender statistics. • Gender statistics is included in the statistical master plan for Afghanistan. • Pakistan conducted a time use survey in 2007. • The Afghanistan Central Statistics Office has a gender statistics work plan and budget allocated for dissemination.

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!

Examples of good practice West Asia (3)
Sex-disaggregated exists on: •Health, nutrition and well-being •Education and literacy •Household and family structure •Labour force and the informal economy •Participation in decision-making •Access to and control of assets •Time use •W ater and sanitation •HIV/AIDS •Gender-based violence

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Next steps of the Project
• Develop capacity development plans for data producers and users together with UNESCAP. • Strengthen gender unit of national statistic agencies. • Improve advocacy on the need of gender statistics to inform national development policies.

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ADB’s next steps

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THANK YOU!

GENDER & DEVELOPMENT - GETTING THE BALANCE RIGHT!