T h i s a n d ma n y o t h e r d e v e lo p e r r e f e r e n c e s a v a i l a b le a t h t t p : / n e a t in f o .

c o m / d e v _ n o t e s / _ c h e a t - s h e e t s

Notes:
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Table of Contents

Chapter 01 Charts & Formulas .................................................................. 4
Chapter 02 D/C electronics ....................................................................... 5
DC Concepts ........................................................................................... 5
Chapter 03 A/C electronics ....................................................................... 6
AC Concepts ........................................................................................... 6
Chapter 04 Resistors ................................................................................ 9
Resistor Color Chart ................................................................................ 9
Resistor Concepts ................................................................................... 9
Chapter 05 Capacitors ............................................................................ 12
Chapter 06 Coils & Inductors .................................................................. 29
Chapter 07 Frequency & Antennas .......................................................... 30
Chapter 08 Filters & Audio ..................................................................... 33
Chapter 09 Pow er Suppl y ....................................................................... 34
Chapter 09 Transistors ........................................................................... 38
Common Electrical Definitions ............................................................... 39
Back Page ..............................................................................................
Documentation ......................................................................................
TutoriaLs ..............................................................................................
References ...........................................................................................

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40
40
40
40

Chapter 01
Charts & Formulas

1018
1015
1012
109
106
103
10-1
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-18

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

1 R a di a n
1 Deg
1 rev
D ut y c y c le

E
P
T
G
M
k
d
m
u
n
p
f
a

=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

P o we rs
e xa
p eta
t era
g iga
m ega
k ilo
d eci
m ill i
m icr o
n ano
p ico
f emt o
a tto

of T e n
= exa
= peta
= t r i ll io n
= b i l li on
= m i l li on
= t h o us an d
= d e c im al
= t h o us an dt h
= m i l li on th
= b i l li on th
= t r i ll io nt h
= f e m to
= atto

RESISTOR & INDUCTOR
Series
Parallel

RTotal = R1 + R2 + R3
1
RTotal

=

1 1 1
+ + + ...
R1 R2 R3

Mu lt by
To g et t his
G iv e n
A vg
RMS
P ea k
PP
-- - -- - - -- -- - -- - - -- -- --- -- - - -- --- - A vg
~
1.1 1
1 .5 7
3.1 4
R MS
. 90
~
1 .4 1
2.8 2
P ea k
. 63
.7 0
~
2.0 0
PP
. 31
.3 5
.5 0
~

5 . 72 ˚ de g
1 . 74 ˚ ra d
3 6 0˚
= 6 . 28 r ad
( w id t h / t i me ) * 10 0

t
= 1/f
f
= 1/t
H er t z = 1C ps (c y c le s per s e c )
Vp
= + V ma x
R MS
= V p x . 70 7
V av
= V p x 0 .6 36
V p- p
= Vp x 2
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Chapter 02
D/C electronics
DC Concepts
1)

2)

A C c ur r e nt i s a r el at ive ly s ta ble c ur r e nt
t ha t c h a ng es di r e ct io n a t r e gu lar
i nt e rv a l s in a s h or t per io d of ti m e .

DC − Ohm' s Law
P =V ⋅I = I2 ⋅ R =

D C. . .

V = I ⋅R =

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V2
P

P
= P⋅R
I

I=

V P
= =
R V

P
R

R=

V
P V2
= 2 =
I I
P

May 20, 2012

Chapter 03
A/C electronics
AC Concepts
1)

2)

AC − Ohm' s Law

A C c ur r e nt i s a r el at ive ly s ta ble
c ur r en t th at ch a n ge s dir ec t i on at
r eg u la r in te r va l s i n a s ho r t p eri o d
o f t im e .

P = I 2 ⋅ Z ⋅ cos Θ = I ⋅ V ⋅ cos Θ
PReactive = Vrms ⋅ I rms =

T he r e c a n on l y b e o ne vo lt a g e at a n y
i ns t an t in t i me , bu t an ap p a re nt " D C"
v ol t ag e ca n b e s u pe rp ose d o n t he A C .

V 2 ⋅ cos Θ
Z
V
P
E 2 ⋅ cos Θ
Z= = 2
=
I
I ⋅ cos Θ
P
P=

3)

O ne cy c l e is th e ti me it t a k es to
m ak e o n e r ev o lu t i on .

4)

A C s ig n a ls c a n b e i nv ert ed , ad ded ,
s ub t ra c t ed .

5)

A C s ig n a ls a r e a n al og .

Z series =

6)

O hm s l a w w or k s f o r re sis ti v e
c om p on e n ts w i th o ut f urt he r
c al c ul a t io n.

Z parallel =

7)

8)

XL = 2πƒL

L = X L /( 2 π ƒ )

I =

R2 + X 2

ƒ =

2

2

P
P
=
Θ
Z ⋅ cos
V × cos Θ
P
=
I × cos Θ

X
R

P ⋅Z
cos Θ

cos Θ =

C ap a ci t o rs r e ac t a nc e de c re a s es wi t h
f re q ue n c y.
R em e mb e r : EL I t h e I CE ma n.
I CE = I ( Cu rr e nt ) (C ap aci ta n c e) be f o re E (v o lt ag e )
C = 1 / (2 π ƒ X C )

R ⋅ X L ⋅ XC

X L ⋅ X C + R 2 ⋅ ( X L − X C )2

V
=
Z

Θ = tan −1

X C = 1 / ( 2 π ƒ C)
1 0)

R⋅X

V = I ⋅Z =

XL/(2πL)
9)

R + ( X L − X C )2

Z par RLC =

S om e e l e ct ro n ic s de vi ces v a r y
r es i st a n ce d e pe n d in g upo n f r eq uen c y
a nd th e r ef or e h a v e re act an c e i nst e a d
o f r es i s ta nc e .
I nd u ct o r s re a ct a n ce i ncr ea s e s wi t h
f re q ue n c y.
R em e mb e r : EL I t h e I CE ma n.
E LI = E ( vo lt a ge ) L( in duc ta n c e) bef o r e
I (c u rr e n t)

V 2 rms
= I 2 rms ⋅ RX
RX

R
Z

ƒ = 1 / (2 π CX C )

R es o na n c e is th e fr eq uen cy t ha t X L = X C .

ƒ r = 1 / ( 2 π √ LC )

C = 1 / (4 π 2 ƒ r 2 L )

L = 1 / (4 π 2 ƒ r 2 C )

1 1)

i mp e da n c e = t ot a l r es ist an c e a nd r e ac t a nc e = Z

1 2)

H er t z = 1 cp s ( c y cl e per s e c ) = 1 H z

1 3)

ƒ = 1/ T

1 4)

V p = + V m ax

1 5)

V p- p = + V m ax x 2

a nd T = 1/ ƒ
V p = 1 . 4 14 x rm s

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V p = 1 . 5 7 x V av g

May 20, 2012

1 6)

V rm s ( V e ff D C P w r ) = V p x . 7 07

1 7)

V av g ( a v er ag e ) = V p x .6 36

1 8)

I n a n A C c ir c ui t I, E , L a r e o fte n ou t of ph as e .

2 1)

O hm s A / C L aw
_ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ _ _

_ __ ___ _ _ __ _

I =V / Z

I = √ w a tt s / (Z • c o s θ )

I= √ wa t ts / ( V • co s θ )
__ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _

V =I / Z

V =w at t s/ ( I • c os θ )

V = √( wa t t s • Z ) /c os θ

Z =V / I

Z =w at t s/ ( I

w at t s= I

2

• Z • c os θ

•c o s θ)

Z= ( V

w at t s =I • V

• co s θ

2

2

• c o s θ ) / wa t t s
wa tt s=( V

2

• co s θ )/ Z

I f w e k n ow t h e f r eq ue ncy a n d s pee d of a ny wa ve w e c an f in d i t s
p hy s ic a l l en g th :
v el ft / s ec
L en g th = - -- - -- - - -H e rt z

=

11 0 0
-- - Hz

=

1 10 0
- - -- - t

1 0, 0 00 H z t on e = 0 .1 ft
T he sa m e c an be d on e for r a d io wa v e s - th e y’ re f as t er a nd ar e us ua l l y
m ea s ur e d i n m et e r s:
v el m/ s e c
30 0, 0 0 0, 000
L en g th = - -- - -- - - -- = -- -- - - -- --- =
H e rt z
Hz

3 0 0, 0 00 ,0 0 0
- - -- - -- -- - t

1 0, 0 00 H z U lf ra d i o = 30, 00 0 m = 18 m i !

H el p fu l fo rm u la s :
t
= 1 / f
f
= 1 / t
H er t z = 1C ps (c y c le s per s e c )
Vp
= + V ma x
R MS
= V p x . 70 7
V av
= V p x 0 .6 36
V p- p = V p x 2
N ot e :

S om e p u b li ca t io n s c al l R MS “ ef fec t i ve ” vo l ta ge , th e re fo r
V rm s = V ef f.

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Chapter 04
Resistors
Resistor Color Chart

Resistor Concepts

Bad Beer Rots Our Young Guts, But Vodka Goes Well
B lk

Bro

R ed

Or g

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Yel

Gre

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Blu

V io

G ry

W ht

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Chapter 05
Capacitors

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Chapter 06
Coils & Inductors
Volt – (pressure)
The volt (abbreviated V or E) is the Standard International
(SI) unit of electric potential or electromotive force. A
potential of

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Xformer
N = number

Frequancy
charge

discharge

T 1 = 63 .2
T 2 = 86 .5

36 .8
13 .5

efficiency

T 3 = 95 .0

5.0

T 4 = 98 .2

1 .8

T 5 = 99 .3

Vs
N
=
Vp
N

0.7

L
T1 = R ⋅ C =
R
1
1
f =
T =
T
f
1
R
R
f cutoff =
=
=
6.28 ⋅ R ⋅ C
6.28 ⋅ L 6.28 ⋅ C
f
x
Q =
=
bw R

R
V

p

p

N

1
C =

s
p

N
N

s

1
39 .47 ⋅ f 2 ⋅ L

Z
Z

Ip
Vs
=
Vp
Is

=

RL
Rp

s
p

I

p

p

2

=
=

V

⋅ RL

⋅N

p

=

Pg 30 of 40

Is

=

=

s

=

Vs ⋅ Is
Vp

V ⋅N

I nd u ct o r s re a ct a n ce i ncr ea s e s wi t h fr e q ue n cy .
s
R em e mb e r : EL I t h e I CE ma n.
E LI = E ( vo lt a ge ) L( in duc ta n c e) bef o r e Is( cu r re nt )

N

p

Vs

=

secondary
Chapter 07
Vp ⋅N
Vs =
Frequency & Antennas
N p

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=

p

 N p 

= 
N
S 

Vs ⋅ N
=
Ns

at resonance Vcutoff = Vin ⋅ .707

1)


 ⋅ 100

primary

Resonant formulas
6.28 ⋅ L ⋅ C
1
L=
39 .47 ⋅ f 2 ⋅ C

 P
=  out
 P in

=

pulse width
duty cycle =
⋅ 100
period
bandwidth = bw = f 1 − f 2

f =

=

T Ratio

of turns

V

V

p

s

p

Vs ⋅ Is
Ip
N
N

Vs

⋅Is

I

p

s

⋅Is

N

=

V

=

N

p

⋅I

p

p

⋅I

=

p

Is

May 20, 2012

p

p

Is

p

⋅I

s

N

p

⋅I

N

s

p

XL = 2πƒL
2)

L = X L /( 2 π ƒ )

C ap a ci t o rs r e ac t a nc e de c re a s es wi t h f r e qu e nc y.
R em e mb e r : EL I t h e I CE ma n.
I CE = I ( Cu rr e nt ) (C ap aci ta n c e) be f o re E (v o lt ag e )
X C = 1 / ( 2 π ƒ C)

3)

ƒ = X L /( 2 π L )

C = 1 / (2 π ƒ X C )

ƒ = 1 / (2 π CX C )

R es o na n c e is th e fr eq uen cy t ha t X L = X C .

ƒ r = 1 / ( 2 π √ LC )

C = 1 / (4 π 2 ƒ r 2 L )

L = 1 / (4 π 2 ƒ r 2 C )

4)

t = 1/ f

f = 1/t

5)

i mp e da n c e = t ot a l r es ist an c e a nd r e ac t a nc e = Z

6)

I f w e k n ow t h e f r eq ue ncy a n d s pee d we c an fi nd a ny wa ve s p hy s i ca l
l en g th :

7)

S ou n d w a ve s i n m e te rs ( λ ):
v e l m / se c

λ
8)

3 3 5 .3

= -- -- - - - -He r t z

=

-- -- Hz

λ

- -- -t

30 0 , 00 0,0 0 0

30 0 ,0 00 , 0 00

= - -- - - - -- - - = -- -- - - -- - -- =
He r t z
Hz
5

f(Mhz)

4

- - -- - -- -- - t

3 x 10
3 x 10
= - -- -- - - --- = - -- -- - -- - - - =

λ ( me t er )
8)

=

R ad i o w a ve s i n m e te rs ( λ ):
v e l m / se c

9)

33 5 . 3

λ ( c e nt)

984
-- -- - - -- ---

λ (f t )

R ad i o w a ve s:
3 x 105
λ ( met er ) = -- - -- -- - - f( m hz )

1 0)

λ ( cm)

3 x 104
= -- - -- -- - - f( m hz )

λ ( ft)

98 4
= -- - -- -- - - f( m hz )

C om m on " wa ve s "
0 Hz
5 0- 6 0H z
2 50 - 30 0 0 Hz
2 0- 2 0K H z
3 0- 3 00 K H z
3 00 K Hz - 3 Mh z
3 MH z -3 0 M Hz
3 0m h z- 3 0 0M Hz
1 -3 0 0g h z
3 00 G Hz - . 76 Um

DC
P o we r li ne
V o ic e
A u di o
L f ( l o w)
I f ( i n te rm e di a t e) i .e. A M
H f ( h i gh ) i .e . ai rc raf t
V h f ( v er y h ig h ) i .e . T V & FM
M i cr o w av e
I n fr a r ed
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=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

May 20, 2012

. 76 - .3 9 U m

= V i si b l e li g ht

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Chapter 08
Filters & Audio

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Chapter 09
Power Supply

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Chapter 09
Transistors

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Common Electrical Definitions
Volt – (pressure or force)
The volt (abbreviated V or E) is the Standard International
(SI) unit of electric potential or electromotive force. A
potential of one volt appears across a resistance of one ohm
when a current of one ampere flows through that resistance.

Ohm – (friction or resistance)
An ohm (abbreviated R) has a resistance of one ohm when a
potential difference of one volt produces a current of one
ampere through the component.

Ampere – (volume or flow)
The ampere (abbreviated I or A) of current represents one
coulomb of electrical charge (6.24 x 10 18 charge carriers)
moving past a specific point in one second.

Watt – (work or power = mass * time)
The watt (abbreviated W or P) is the International System of
Units' (SI) standard unit of power (energy per unit time), the
equivalent of one joule per second. The watt is used to
specify the rate at which electrical energy is dissipated, or
the rate at which electromagnetic energy is radiated,
absorbed, or dissipated.

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Back Page
Documentation
h t t p : / / www. dm o z. or g / S c ie nc e/ Te c h no lo g y/ E l e c t r o n ic s / Re f er e nc e / C ir c u it _ A r ch iv e s/
h tt p :/ / s ci en c e- e b oo ks .co m/ e l ec tro n i cs / b as i c_ el e c tr o ni cs .h t m
h tt p :/ / w ww .a n al o g .c om /li br a r y/ ana l o gD i a lo g ue /a r c hi v es /3 90 6/ i n_ a m p_ gu i de . h tm l
h tt p :/ / w ww .d s pg u i de .c om/ pd f b oo k.h t m
h tt p :/ / w ww .r f ca f e .c om /re fe r e nc es/ e l ec t r ic a l. ht m

TutoriaLs
h t t p : / / www. r ad io - el ec t r o n ic s . c o m/ in f o / el ec t r o n ic s - t u t or i als . p h p
h tt p :/ / w ww .i b ib l i o. or g/o bp / e le ctr i c Ci r c ui t s/
h t t p : / / www. el ec t r o n ic s - t ut or i a ls . ws /
h t t p : / / d oc t o r d. d yn d ns . o r g: 8 0 0 0/ co ur s e s/ T op ic s / Ele ct r o n ic s/ A le x_ P o u n ds / I n d e x . ht m

References
h t t p : / / m ysit e. du . ed u/ ~e t ut t le/ ele c t r o n / e lec in dx . h t m
h t t p : / / www. r ep r is e. co m/ h o s t / c ir c u it s/ d e f au lt . a s p
h t t p : / / www. s mp s . us / r e f er e n ce s. ht m l
h t t p : / / www. dm o z. or g / S c ie nc e/ Te c h no lo g y/ E l e c t r o n ic s / Re f er e nc e /

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May 20, 2012