Dietary Reference Intake

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It has been suggested that Reference Daily Intake be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2009.

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada and is intended for the general public and health professionals. Applications include:    Composition of diets for schools, prisons, hospitals or nursing homes Industries developing new food stuffs Healthcare policy makers and public health officials

The DRI was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRI values are not currently used in nutrition labeling, where the older Reference Daily Intakes are still used.
Contents
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1 History 2 Current recommendations

2.1 Vitamins and minerals

2.2 Macronutr ients

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3 Calculating the RDA 4 Recent developments 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

[edit]History

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was developed during World War II by Lydia J. Roberts, Hazel Stiebeling and Helen S. Mitchell, all part of a committee established by the United States National Academy of

 Adequate Intake (AI). RDA/AIs and ULs for an average healthy 25-year old male are shown below. The standards would be used for nutrition recommendations for the armed forces. below). but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group. were accepted in 1941." Because of food rationing during the war. the food guides created by government agencies to direct citizens' nutritional intake also took food availability into account. and Canada. In the early 1950s. Stiebeling. The Food and Nutrition Board subsequently revised the RDAs every five to ten years. EARs shown as "NE" have not yet been established or not yet evaluated. expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group based on a review of the scientific literature. The RDA is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U. 35). after which they began to deliberate on a set of recommendations of a standard daily allowance for each type of nutrient. the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient by the Food and Nutrition Board to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.  Tolerable upper intake levels (UL). The allowances were meant to provide superior nutrition for civilians and military personnel. This is the highest level of daily consumption that current data have shown to cause no side effects in humans when used indefinitely without medical supervision.[1] The committee was renamed the Food and Nutrition Board in 1941. for civilians. to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin A) that can be harmful in large amounts. and submitted them to experts for review (Nestle. 35). where no RDA has been established. and it is .S. It is calculated based on the EAR and is usually approximately 20% higher than the EAR (See "Calculating the RDA". called RDAs for Recommended Dietary Allowances. [edit]Vitamins and minerals EARs. created a tentative set of allowances for "energy and eight nutrients". [edit]Current recommendations The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of:  Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). and Mitchell surveyed all available data. ULs shown as "ND" could not be determined.  Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).Sciences in order to investigate issues of nutrition that might "affect national defense" (Nestle. The final set of guidelines. United States Department of Agriculture nutritionists made a new set of guidelines that also included the number of servings of each food group in order to make it easier for people to receive their RDAs of each nutrient. Roberts. so they included a "margin of safety. and for overseas population who might need food relief.

swordfish. clams . grape juice[7] Choline NE 550 3500 mg beef liver. oysters. carrot juice. peaches Vitamin D[4][5] 10 15 100 µg sockeye salmon. USDA[3] Vitamin A 625 900 3000 µg turkey.3 100 mg fortified cereals. condensed cow's milk. pregnant women. tomato paste. to prevent adverse effects.0 2. collards.1 1. Amounts and "ND" status for other age and gender groups. egg. lobster Cyanocobalamin (B12) 2. turkey ham. condensed milk. sunflower seeds Biotin (B7) NE 30 ND µg beef liver. salmon[6] Calcium[4][5] 800 1000 2500 mg fortified cereals. pumpkin Vitamin C 75 90 2000 mg orange juice. turkey. lactating women. grapefruit juice. chicken Copper 700 900 1000 0 µg beef liver. sockeye salmon α-tocopherol (Vitamin E) 12 15 1000 mg fortified cereals. spinach Vitamin B6 1. cheese Chloride NE 2300 3600 mg table salt Chromium NE 35 ND µg broccoli. chickpeas. rainbow trout (also fortified foods and beverages) Vitamin K NE 120 ND µg kale.recommended that intake from these nutrients be from food only.[2] Nutrient EAR RDA/AI UL Unit Top Sources in Common Measures. and breastfeeding infants may be much different.4 ND µg beef liver.

bulgur Manganese NE 2. trail mix. beef liver.4 11 40 mg oysters. grain products. beef liver. beet greens Riboflavin (B2) 1. enriched wheat flour.1 1. bulgur Molybdenum 34 45 2000 µg legumes. shiitake mushrooms Phosphorus 580 700 4000 mg cornmeal. sockeye salmon Pantothenic acid (B5) NE 5 ND mg fortified cereals. rockfish.2 ND mg fortified cereals. condensed milk. wheat flour Potassium NE 4700 ND mg tomato paste.0 1. yellowfin tuna Sodium NE 1500 2300 mg onion soup mix. enriched white rice. enriched cornmeal Iodine 95 150 1100 µg iodized salt Iron 6 8 45 mg fortified cereals. fortified cereals.Fluoride NE 4 10 mg public drinking water Folate (B9) 320 400 1000 µg egg yolks. baked beans . whole grain wheat flour. turkey. table salt Thiamin (B1) 1. breadcrumbs Zinc 9. orange juice. yellowfin tuna. chicken Magnesium 330 400 350 mg buckwheat flour.3 ND mg spaghetti with meat sauce. miso. fortified cereals. nuts and seeds[8] Niacin (B3) 12 16 35 mg fortified cereals. turkey Selenium 45 55 400 µg Brazil nuts.3 11 mg oat bran.

an omega-6 fatty acid (polyunsaturated) 17 g/day 12 g/day alpha-Linolenic acid. It is also recommended that the following substances not be added to food or dietary supplements.EAR: Estimated Average Requirements. UL: Tolerable upper intake levels.[2] Amount (males) Amount (females) Substance Top Sources in Common Measures[3] Waterb 3.7 L/day 2. bulgur. an omega-3 fatty acid(polyunsaturated) 1. but was not conclusive in many cases: Substance RDA/AI UL units per day Arsenic - ND - Silicon - ND - Vanadium - 1. turkey. beef Fiber 38 g/day 25 g/day barley. RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances.7 L/day iceberg lettuce.6 g/day 1. legumes Fat 20–35% of calories pie crust. beef liver . turkey giblets. chicken. white chocolate. AI: Adequate Intake. barley Proteinc 56 g/day 46 g/day duck. pie crust. beer Carbohydrates 130 g/day 130 g/day condensed milk. Research has been conducted into adverse effects.1 g/day Cholesterol As low as possible chicken giblets. trail mix Linoleic acid.8 mg [edit]Macronutrients RDA/AI is shown below for males and females aged 40–50 years.

opinion. If data about variability in requirements are insufficient to calculate an SD. several speakers stated that the current Dietary Recommended Intakes (DRI’s) were largely based upon the very lowest rank in the quality of evidence pyramid. beverages. deglet noor dates. a coefficient of variation (CV) for the EAR of 10 percent is assumed. Speakers called for a higher standard of evidence to be utilized when making dietary recommendations."[1] [edit]Recent developments In September 2007. the RDA is set at two SDs above the EAR: RDA = EAR + 2 SD(EAR). rather than the highest level – randomized controlled clinical trials. and drinking water. the Institute of Medicine held a workshop entitled “The Development of DRIs 1994–2004: Lessons Learned and New Challenges. coconut meat. unless available data indicate a greater variation in requirements. that is. If 10 percent is assumed to be the CV.2 × EAR. then twice that amount when added to the EAR is defined as equal to the RDA.8 g/kg of body weight [edit]Calculating the RDA The equations used to calculate the RDA are as follows: "If the standard deviation (SD) of the EAR is available and the requirement for the nutrient is symmetrically distributed.5 percent of the requirements of the population. white chocolate b c Includes water from food.Trans fatty acids As low as possible Saturated fatty acids As low as possible white chocolate.”[9] At that meeting. This level of intake statistically represents 97. Based on 0. The resulting equation for the RDA is then RDA = 1. ricotta cheese Added sugar No more than 25% of calories condensed milk. [edit]See also  Healthy diet .

        Acceptable daily intake (United Kingdom) Vitamin poisoning Canada's Food Guide Food guide pyramid Dietary mineral Essential amino acid Essential fatty acid Essential nutrient .