David Myers & David O’Hara Phelps Dodge Magnet Wire Company
Abstract: Bondable magnet wires have been wed for years in certain specialized applications such as television deflection yoke coils and bobbinless c i s ol for solenoids and inductoa. With the development of bondable magnet wire that retains bond strength at temperatures exceeding 155°C. it is now possible to use the physical and electrical properties of a bonded wire system to replace conventional varnish system in some motor applications. Varnish provides more than mechanical strength to the stator of a motor, so one has to consider whether these features can he replaced by other systems or foregone in order to realize the costs savings associated with the use of bondable wire.
I. INTRODUCTION Self-bonding or bondable magnet wire is magnet wire in which the base insulation is a conventional thermosetting system. To this is added a self-bonding resin to provide the mechanical bonding of the wire to itself and its surroundings. Various forms of this product have been used since the 1950’s. The limiting factor in the use of self-bonding magnet wire has historically been the strength of the self-bonding resin at elevated temperature. The development of bondable magnet wires that conform to NEMA M W - I OOO standard M W 102-C has opened the possibility of producing fractional and integral horsepower motors with B and F thermal class ratings without the use of traditional trickle or dip and bake varnish and the long curing cycles and hardware associated with such systems. Depending on the motor’s design and expected use, considerable cost savings can be realized through the use of bondable magnet wire to replace the conventional wire and varnish. The additional cost of the bondable wire is usually more than offset by the elimination of varnish, lower labor and energy costs. One also needs to consider harder to quantify savings such as reduced manufacturing space requirements, the environmental issues associated with varnish, smaller WIP, and reduced equipment maintenance. Motor manufacturers have been reluctant to embrace the use of bondable wire to replace traditional magnet wire in their motor designs. Their concerns usually focus on product reliability issues. There is a perception that a motor containing bondable wire is not as sound. mechanically or electrically, as a motor made with traditional wire and a varnish-based process. However, with proper design changes recognizing the differences between the two systems, a reliable motor can be made for many applications using self-bonding magnet wire and without the use of varnish. 11. DISCUSSION
A. Self-bonding Magnet Wire

Self-bonding magnet wire has been in use for almost fifty years. Among its fust commercial uses was winding coils for the horizontal scan magnetic field in the deflection yokes of cathode ray tubes for black and white television sets in the 1950’s. The product evolved with a higher temperature class of materials for color sets in the 1960’s and has been commonly used in automotive air conditioner clutch coils and power tool motor fields since the 1970’s. Bondable magnet wire that meets NEMA MW 102-C requirements has been around for more almost thirty years, but only recently have motor manufacturers been willing to use this capability to replace varnish in commercial motors. As competitive pressures have forced them to reduce costs, bondable magnet wire bas emerged as an attractive replacement for conventional magnet wire and varnish in many applications.

B. Bondable Magnet Wire Constructions Bondable magnet wires have historically been based on conventional magnet wire insulation systems, with the addition of an outermost layer of bonding resin or ‘cement”. The underlying insulation system can be a single insulation such as polyurethane or two such as polyester/polyamideimide. Because of the dimensional demands placed on magnet wire, the two NEMA dimensional tables for bondable wire are based on conventional heavy and triple build. For class B or class F insulation systems, polyurethane insulation with a bonding cement that softens at or just above 155°C. is the usual choice. Class H operation usually requires a polyesterlpolyamideimide insulation system with a higher-temperature softening cement. Such a wire, if it

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and essentially identical from 125°C. There are other requirements to be considered. 50 45 I 0. It cannot bridge between wires that do not touch. when tested as proscribed by NEMA. Since corona is caused by an ionization of this air.C.tun. the reduction of the amount of air raises the voltage needed to produce it.mper. but the minimum dielectric breakdown voltage for an MW 102-C Type 1 bondable is identical to a NEMA single build MW 35-C. Limitations and Considerations of Using Bondable Wire MW 102-C Type 1 bondable has the same maximum OD as an MW 35-C heavy build. In fact. or at least that it may not. and the energy savings resulting from so doing. Table I.has at least 3 pounds of retained bond strength at 180°C. Table I shows the dielectric breakdown voltage (DBV) of Types 1 and 2 bondable MW 102-C wire both before and after bonding as well as MW 3542. qualifies as MW 102-c. proper attention at the design stage and some clever manufacturing techniques can yield a stator that uses the bond strength of the cement. Figure 1. Because of the ability to rapidly bond a stator produced with bondable wire. The working thesis to explain the improved CIV is that the bonding process forces out some of the air found between wires of opposite polarity. Another common concern about using bondable wire is that it lacks the bond strength of a conventional varnished magnet wire system. The electrical requirements of most commercial motors can still be met if the standard magnet wire is replaced with the right bondable wire. The challenge with bondable wire is that its cement can only bond to what it is in contact with. the Type 1 bondable wire has twisted pair dielectric values comparable to the MW 35-C. Testing on bonded samples of Type 1 bondable magnet wire indicate that this is not a correct assumption.0027” 13182 volts g :: a 20 2 25 30 10 15 I 5 0 25 75 125 . C. 175 q 102 Wlre -+-Water BasV u “ Pohlester VamlSh -MW r. and the C N is essentially identical.0030” 0. Varnish 121 722 13840 volts 650 D. these can usually be met with the right combination of material choices. but.0020’ 11828 volts 655 11864 volts 734 I I [ 0. Cost Considerations of Using Bondable ‘Wire NIA 830 NIA The dielectric of each wire showed no deterioration and the CIV actually increased with both bondable types. the bond strength of MW 102-C bondable wire can be higher than varnish at low temperature. However. 572 . [ 11 Type 1 Bondable Total Build Base Insulation Build Unbonded DBV Unbonded CIV DVB after Bonding CIV after Bonding Type2 Bondable Heavy Build MW 35-c 0. There are good reasons to switch from conventional materials and techniques even if the only result is an “as g o o d product. and most if not all can be bonded by conventional oven heating. to 200°C. The same is often said of Corona Inception Voltage or CIV. Bond Strength of MW 102-C v!i.0037” 0. again. Although some bondable wire can be “activated by solvent through wet winding. As expected. manufacturing cost reductions can be realized just from the energy not wasted avoiding by the varnish curing process.0028” 0. It is also no surprise that the Type 2 bondable wire has both a higher DBV and CIV. Dielectric and corona testing were performed again on the bondable wires after bonding. due to its higher total build.0030 12056 volts From Table I it can be seen that one does not necessarily lose critical performance characteristics when bondable wire is used in place of conventional magnet wire. as can be seen in Figure 1. the energy cost savings potential of bondable wire can only be achieved through resistance bonding of the wire. Testing on an “apples to apples” basis shows that bondable wire has bond strength equal to or greater than varnish systems commonly used in the manufacture of commercial motors. The inference is that the bonding resin does not add to the dielectric strength. and manufacturing techniques. design changes.

5 to 5. Labor and energy savings totaled from 15% to 20% of the total savings. Bondable wire costs more than conventional magnet wire. Elimination of the hake oven saves the cost of the oven. This hypothetical stator has exactly one pound of magnet wire. even if this model is a small percentage of the total throughput. commonly more than an hour. Using 0. The actual savings depended in part on which varnish system was replaced by the bondable wire.5 times the wire cost difference [41.CCNMNTICNPL PROCESS FAST FAST SLW SLW Slav BCNDABLE PRCCESS FAST FASI FAST LOW WP HIGH lHRCWGHPVT Figure 2. By making some assumptions one can calculate just how little energy is required to bond a stator. With resistance bonding the stator is through final test minutes after it is wound. and the cost of buying and operating the long conveyor to slowly carry the stators through the oven. The process is so quick that the stator is cool to the touch for a minute or two after removing the bonding voltage. hut the bonding process is already complete at this point. depending on the size of the stator. as the specific heat of copper it can he seen that heating the wire requires ahout 30 Btu or 8. a 6% increase in wire cost was more than offset by labor and material savings totaling 3. It is more difficult to produce and uses more expensive materials than conventional magnet wire. In a commonly used 18-24 AWG wire. This is such a small amount of heat that it is essentially negligible. Another benefit to eliminating the hake oven is the reduction in cycle time. These steps require a relatively long time. (200°C.092 Btu/lh. 573 . a conveyor line typically has to he slowed to give enough dwell time to the largest model being produced."F. The hulk of the savings were realized through the removal of the cost of buying varnish. which needs to he heated from room arnhient (72°F. Figure 2 shows in schematic form the differences between a traditional stator manufacturing process and one using bondable wire. The resistance bonding is usually accomplished in conjunction with and as a part of the electrical testing done as a stator is fabricated.) to 392°F. A less obvious advantage to using resistance heating to bond the magnet wire instead of baking on a varnish is that modern bonding equipment automatically applies just the right amount of heat to each stator. In a study performed by an outside consultant. Any problem in the winding operation is detected before a large number of defective parts are built. The net result is a reduction in post-winding processing of the stator from hours to minutes [3].35-C. the cost of fueling the oven. Absent from the bondable process are varnish and baking steps. it too gets hot. M W 102-C wire will cost roughly 510% more than comparably sized MW 000.). Modern bondable motor lines usually include fast connection to replace the labor intensive connection process used in traditional operations. As the heat in the wire dissipates to the steel. Comparison of Conventional and Self-honding Stator Manufacturing Resistance heating of the wire is so rapid that very little energy is wasted in heating the steel of the stator.6 watt-hours of energy. The comparison included dip and hake as well as a low-heat trickle type varnish. With oven curing.

bondable wire will become even more attractive to replace conventional wire and varnish systems. confidential analysis performed by Schultz Associates for Phelps Dodge Magnet Wire. ”Bondable Wire -Cost Comparisons”. EMMC Presentation. [ 5 ] Underwriters’ Laboratory Publication No. Other Engineering Considerations Successful use of self-bonding magnet wire requires consideration of other issues that the use of varnish usually addresses. CONCLUSIONS Bondable magnet wire can be an economical replacement for a conventional magnet wire and varnish system to produce stators for single and three phase commercial motors. The slight additional cost of bondable wire is usually more than offset by other material. REFERENCES [ 11 Kauffman. [2] Barta. For example. May 16. “Self-bonding Magnet Wire in Automated Motor Manufacture”. steel laminations may rust as the result of not being varnished. the magnet wire manufacturer should be able to assist in securing whatever system approvals are needed. Marketing. 5* Edition. He has been with Phelps Dodge Magnet Wire for just over 30 years with positions in Research. Donald J. holding positions in Process and Quality Engineering. and Sales Engineering. Unlike most conventional magnet wire constructions. John C. hut very important consideration when switching from conventional magnet wire to a self-bonding wire is that Underwriters’ Laboratory does not consider MW 102-C products as generic [ 5 ] . Douglas M.2001.. 1997 111. October 30. As labor and environmental compliance costs increase.. labor. and capital savings. However. [3] Reed. 2002. Karl H. David Myers holds a Bachelor of Science from Purdue University. & Hester. Marketing. A final. Proceedings EMCWA. Donald J. Ballard. He has been with Phelps Dodge Magnet Wire for 11 years. Varnish also provides some moisture resistance to the wire. and Kauffman.E. 2002. and Barta. Proceedings EMCWA... [4] Schultz. A. Design and process changes are needed to fully realize the cost savings possible through the use of bondable magnet wire. 574 . William D. Donald. so noise issues may need to be considered. 1997. David O’Hara holds BS and MEng degrees from the University of Louisville. one cannot substitute one product for another without verifying its approval status. ‘‘SelfBonding Wire for Induction Motor Designs”. “Bondable Magnet Wire for Innovative Motor Designs”. John C. and Sales Engineering. UL 1446. so some lessening of motor life may be experienced in high moisture applications unless other means are employed to protect the stator. Varnish can also provide some dampening of vibration.