CONTENTS

Fecsrurr-B rns Anre rlr tnB Onrcrr.rar, EortroN or PnerecB: I . Origin II. Form III. The Instrument IV. Ornamentation
General Rules The Ornaments,Individually Treated The Execution of Trills Notes Concerningthe Execution of the Ornamentsin the Variations
\/

Frontispiece
PAGE

vii vii ix x x1 xii xv

xv xx xx

Fingeqing Phrasing

vI.

VII. Tempo VIII. Dynamics IX. GeneralInterpretation
Facsrrnr,r or rnB Trrr.o-PAGEor rHE OnrorNer- EorrroN Anre wrrn Tnrnrv VanrlrroNs Texr RrvrsroN Eorroa's Nore

xxiii xxvii xxviii I

82 83

P R EF AC E
I ORIGIN
Thc "Goldbcrg" Variations wcrc frrst publishcd in 1742 by Balthasar Schmid in Niirnberg under the modcst titlc: "Kcyboard-practice, consisring of an Aria with diferent variations for the harpsichord with two manuals. Preparedfor thc enioyment of musiclovcrs by Johann &bastiao Bach, Polish royal and Saxon electoral court-composer, dircctor and choirmaster in Leipzig." Thc Aria appearsas a Sarabande in Anna Magdalena Bach's notebook of rhe year 1725. Alqut thc composition of thcse variations, Forkcll tclls thc following story, which, for all its doubtful character, has pcrmanently attachcd to rhem thc namc of Bach's pupil, Johann Gottlicb Goldbetg.x "For this modcl, upon which all setsof variations should be formcd (although fotcomprehcnsiblc reasons not a single set has yct bccn thus made), wc havc to thank thc instigation ofthe formcr Russianambassador to thc clectoral court of Saxony, Count Kaiserling,3 who often stoppcd in Lcipzig and brought thcre with him the aforc-mcntioncd Goldbcrg, in order to have hirn givcn rnusical insruction by Bach. The Count was often ill and had sleepless nights. Ar such timcs, Goldbcrg, who lived in his house, had to spcnd the night in an antcchamber,so as to play for him during his insomnOnce rhe Count mcntioned in Bach's prcsence ah;rt he would likc to havc somc clavicr piecesfor Goldberg, which should be ofsuch a smooth and somcwhat livcly character rhat he might be a little cheeredup by them in his sleepless nights. Bach thought himself best able to fulfill rhis wish by means of Variations, the writing of which he had until thcn considercd an ungratcful task on account of the repeatedly similar harmonic foundation. But sincc at this time all his works werc alrcady models of art, such also thcsc variations became undcr his hand. Yct he ptoduced only a singlc work of this kind. Thercafter the Count always called them hh variations. He oever tired of thcm, and for a long timc slceplcssnights mcant: 'Dear Goldberg, do play me one of my variations.' Bach was perhaps ncvcr so rcwarded for one of his works as for this. The Count prcsented him with a golden goblet filled with 100 lo .r-d'or. Nevctthcless, even had the gift been a thousand times larger, their artistic value would not Yet havc been oaid for."

II FORM
Likc an cnormous passacaglia, thcsc variations reiterate the harmonic irnplications of the samebassin This fundamental bassis never stated entircly in its most elernental form, as quotcd hcrc (Ex. 1), not even in thc Aria. But on this harmonic skclcton and around it are constructed the lariations, each highly organizcd and composcd of indcpendent thematic material. Thesc follow ooe anorher ir a symmctrical gtouping like rhe beadsof a rosary. Certainalterations the fundamental of bassare to be found. For cxample, chords of the sixth are interchangcd with their root positions, and t'icet'rra. Ir clcn happcns that a six-four is substitutedfor a sixthr"LS€rJohann Scb$tien 3&hs Lcbcn, Kunst und Kunstwcrkc (1802). , Ix. {cc Ernst Daddcr: Johlnn corrlicb Goldbcrg ', Bac|-Jahrl*h, 1923, o.57. Scc Hcinrich Micsacr: Grlf r. Kc!.c.lingk und Mioisrcr v. Heppc,.zwci Grinocr dcr Familic Bach." tvtrl

Ex. 1

rhirty difrcrcnt forms.

B'.h-Ja/1rbacl1, 1,9J4, p.1,Ol.

THE C.OLDBERGVARIATIONS

chord. Thc bass, the third, thc sixth, or cven the fifth is occasionally sharpencdor flartened. In some placcs thcrc is a cerrain interchange or ambiguous hcsitation bctwecn the 6frh and thc sixth, with much usc of the third alooc againsr the bass,in order ro leavc this ambiguity frec of limitation or definition. Frcqucntly a basicchord is given a subordioate position but thc main progrcssion is re-atfirmcd by a kind of harmonic circumlocution; or a harmony, iostead of bcing statcd unequivocallyonce, is hintcd at two or thrcc timcs. This oftcn occurs in passageswhere ccrtain stepsof thc bass are displaced from the mcasurcs propcr to thcm (especially in the canons) being cithcr anticiparcd or reaardcdand bunched together ar thc closc of a phrasc. Bur all these dcvicesare employcd by Bach in such ways as ncver ro obscurethe main outlincs. A detailed study of thesevariarions !o try to sec exactly how Bach conceived their relation to a commoo foundation reveals more fully the intellectual span, rhe imagination, and the genius which pcrmitted so much daring freedom. The form of the Variarions as a whole may be shown by comparison, before,to that of a rosary,or as pcrhapsbettcr explainedby an archirecturalanalogy. Framed as if bctween two rerminal pylons, one formed by the Aria and rhe first two variations, rhe other by rhe rwo penultimare variationsand the euodlibet, the \rariations are groupedlike rhe members of an claborare colonnadc. The groupsare composed of a canon and an elaboratetwo-manual arabesque, enclosing in cach cascanorher variarion of independent charact . Following upon rhe pylonJike group which terminatesthis rhythmic procession, Aria the rcpeatedclosesthe grcat circle. There are ninc canons, at intervals successively f r om th c u n i s o n ro l h c n i n l h , rh ose the fourrh and ar fifth in cootrary motion, rhat at rhe ninth wirhour any indepcndcnt third voice, such as accompanies the others. Among thc variablc forms are to be found a

fughetta, a French overture, florid slow movemenasl The Quodlibct mixcs together thc runes of two folk-songs: "Ich bin so lang nicht bei dir g'wcst. Ruck her, ruck her, ruck her." and: ''Kraut und Riibenhabenmich vertrieben. Hitt, mein' Mutter Fleischgekocht, so wir ich I ?inget blieben.', Thesemight be cranslated thus: "I ve oot beenwith you for so long. Comecloser,closer,closer." and: ''Beetsand spinachdrove me far away. Had mv mother cookedsomemeat, then I'd have stayedmuch longer." Possiblv this Quodlibet was associated Bach's in mind with the memoryof thoseannualreunionsof thc Bachfamily described Forkel{. "The way in which by they passed time during this meeringwas entirel), rhe musical. Because whole compary was composcd the of cantors,organists,and town-musicians, who werc all concerned with rhe Church, aod because anywav it was srill the custom to begin all things wirh re_ ligion, as soon as rhev were assembled chorale was a lirst struck up. From this devout beginning ther. proceeded jokes which were frequently in strong to contrasr. Thar is, thev then sang popular songs, partly of comic and also partly of indecenrconrent, all mixed togetheron the spur of the momenr so rhar the different improvised voices indeed consriruaed e kind of harmony, bur so that the s,ordsin every voice were different. This kind of improvisedharmonizing they called a Quodliber, and not only could laugh over it quite whole-hearredly themselves, bur also arousedjust as hearty and irresistiblelaughrer in all who heard them."

tol. cb.

VARTATIONS THE C,OLDBERG

ix

III THE INSTRUMENT
Thc kind of irstrument for which the Goldberg 1-s:etions rverc composedis perhapsbest exernpli6ed :. :hc harp,sichord believed (probably crroncously) :-. hzr.c bclongcd to Bach, now h the HochrchrhJir -\L;rl in Bcrlin.s This instrumcnt has two manuals =i four scts of strings, likewise four sets of iacks :lucking mechanism),al.l furnishcd in quill. The The varicty of registers makes possiblc thc use of differcnt tone colors for various scctions, and thc adding or subtracting of registcrsproduccsvarious dcgrees of volume. Also thc two kcyboards cnable rhe player to cmploy two different qualities of tonc at the samc tirnc. A kind of richnessof which thc piano is incapable is the full octave doubling produced throughout by thc usc of the four- and sixteenfoot stops. Whcn these are uscd in conjunction with eight-foot tone, we havc for cvcry notc struck thc normal tone, the octave above, and the octave below sounding simultaneously. The possibilitics of harpsichord registrarion (so oftcn misconstrued by pianists) are not to bc crnployed in the service of pianistic chiaroscuro dynamics, but rarher changes of register should bc logically determincd by musical construction so that they clarify rathcr rhan obscuremusical forrn. Upon the resulting flat dynamic planesthc urmost subtlcty and evpressiveness phrasing must be cmploycd. of Bctwecn harpsichord and piano muslc ore mus! acknowledge a difference of style analogous cvcn if orly at facevalue to the diffcrence,Iet us say, bctwecn thc painting of Botticclli and that of Tirian. Any thorough examination of rhe character of thc harpsichordis enough, it would seem,to show that Bach, wirh however much approval hc rnighr have regarded the modern piano, would have composedfor it altogether differently. By this time it should bc universally realized that the keyboard music of Bach is not piano music, and that on the piano it must bc rcgarded as transcription. If Bach is played on the piano, and if justiceis to be doneto the true expressioo of the thematic matcrial and to an undisrortcd cxposition of whole musical structurc, a stvlc of playing must be cultivated which will be quite differcnt frorn the usual pianistic habits. Let us hope some elements of this style will become fairly cJcar in rhc courseof the followine discussions.

-:rscr manual controls two rcgistcrs, onc of a rather :rrk cight-foot tone (that is, at normal pitch) and :rc of sixtcen-foot tone (that is, sounding an octave -orscr). Thc uppcr manual controls also two regislcrs, onc of a somcwhat lightcr cight-foot tonc, and rhc other of four-foot tonc (that is, sounding an ocrave higher). The rcgistcrs of thc uppcr manual nev be coooectcdto the lowcr by mcansof a coupler, cp'eratedby pushing in rhc upper manual. For the :rght-foot srings of the upper manual there is a stop cpcratinga set of padswhich partially darnpthc tonc, eitiog a lutc-like effect. All the registersof this :ostrument are operated by hand stops. The tone :s still quite full, of a rather clcar, silvery character. Somc harpsichords had the four-foot stop on the lowcr manual,and the iacksof part or all the registers furnishcd in leather. Harpsichords with sixtcen-foot rone seemto havc becnfairly rare. A very few harpsichords scem to havc been constructedwith pedals or gcnotilliint (knee-levers) to facilitate quicker changingof registers. Although some dcgree of accent ma)' be obtained, and from sensitive instruments an appreciable difereoce in tone as well, according ro the speed with which the string is plucked, really substantial nuancesof tone volume are not obtainablethrough the rouch of the fingcrs. But the vcry thinness of harpsichord tonc makes possible the effectivenessofalmost dcgrecs of lcgato ar'd, staccato, atd, by tbese meansit is possibleto give the illusion of incrcased dynamic variation, much as a paintet can suggestthc rhird dimcnsioo in a rncrc outline drawins. iolinite

rSccGcorgKinsky: "Zui Echihcitsfragc Bcilincr B.ch-Fliigcls",B.cl,I.M*b, dcs

1924,p. 128.

THE GOLDBERG VARIATIONS

IV ORNAMENIATION
Becauseof the almost incredible ignorance and falsc information prevalcnt concerning eighteenthcentuly ornamentation, it would have been desirable to undertakc a comPrchcosivc discussion of Bach's andsubiect ofspace omamentation,but the restrictioos ro a statcmcnt of thc most neccssary limit us herc and lcave to another occasionthe quotageneralities tion of many furthcrimportant dctails from cighteenthccntury treatiscs. Thc undcrstanding of a written explanation o{ harpsichord oroamcotation, no mattcr how clear and accurate, has not been facilitated by thc variety of and thcir great insigns uscd by diffcrcnt comPosers consistency of nomcoclatufc, or, needlessto say, by thc crroncous "traditions" inheritcd from thc ninetecoth ccntur)' and maintained by aggressively ignorant musicians and writers. Moreover, ooly a thorough knowledge and experience of the harpsichord reveal all the many shadesof variation of which and especiallytheir mantare susceptible, ornaments as fold significance accent,as meansof continuity, as incorporatedin the melodic line, as codecoration ri chmenr of the musi cal fabri c, or as e xPr essi! c declamation. But through quotation from original tables and from eighteenth-century writers, and through additional cornmentsand the writtcn-out versionsof ornamentsin the Variations, the attemPt has been made to convel to the reader as much a.; of possibleof the comParativeclarity and sureness rnind which a carefulstudy of the matter will permit' In the "Clavier-Biichlein vor Wilhclm Friedc' mann Bach" Bach wrote out the table of otnamens which follows here.

THE GOLDBERG VARIATIONS F;r more fruicful and adequare sources ioformaof :::. t'or Bech ornamentationare the books of Carl :-::i:lp Emmanuel Bach ("Versuch iiber die wahre r^- ias Clatier zu sPielen",First Patt, 1753)6 and of '\rersucheinef Arweisung . -.rinn Joachim Quanrz ( j:c Flcjte tra'ersidre zu spielen", 1752).6 From i::och rvorks like the table of ornaments d'Anglein :ct s harpsichord pieces (1689), St. Lambert's Principes Clavecin" (1702),and Franqois du Couper:: s tables in his first book of harpsichord pieces 1-11) and in 'L'Art de toucherle clavecin" (1717)i, :tc cao alsoleatn much that was taken over by Germao :.:sicians, including Bach. A vety useful source is ' ::: Anleirung zurn Clavierspielen' (1755) of Fried::ch Wilhelm Marpurg. The ''Klavierschule' of D.:niel Gottlob Tiirk (1789, secondeditioo 1802) is -: lessimportancespecificallyfor Bach, but forms a i:eJ of summaryof the whole of eighteenth-century Germankeyboardculture. Standingout from the massof modernfalsification confusion are two books concernedwith musical "The Interpretationof rhe Music of -r.namentation. :he XVIIth and XVIIIIh Centuries" by Arnold Dol(London, Novello) is quite indispeosable rnetsch and ror the most part accurate,the work of one to whorn .invoneconcerned with this music must be grateful. \Iusical Ornamentation" by Edward Dannreuther more conveniently .London, Novello) is somew-hat organized,but is unfortunatelyfull of mistakes and in inconsistencies the sectiondealingwithJ. S. Bach. In fact it may be wise to warn the readerhere against and inaccuracyof Dannrhe frequent incorrectness reurher'sdiscussionand "corrections" of the ornaments in the Goldberg Variations, in spite of the general excellenceof the book. Both works are mosrlv of quotationsand paraphrases from composed and the)' nearly always permit the original treatises, ,lisrinction between primary sourcesand the someof rimes doubtful conclusions the compilers. indication of ornaments has often The abbreviated been justifredby the remark that it leavesclear the and that main harmonic anC melodic progressions, rhe writing out of such atl ornamentas the mord€nt complication of rvould in any casebe an unnecessary for rhe text. But the principal reason this incomplete is of expression ornaments a certain freedomof execu:rl
6 P i r r i a l m o d e r nr ep r in r s. L cip zig , G. F . Kr h n r . iModern rcprint wirh English and Gcrmen rrandations. kiprig,

tion, not only in pieces where their choice and placing is left largely to the player, bur evenin works like the harpsichord piecesof FranqoisCouperin,where ahecomposer indicatesexplicitly and consistently the preciseornamentswhich are ro be performed the by player. This freedomcomes on rhe one hand from the fresh impromptr characterof much ornamentation, to which we have an illuminating cooremporary parallel in American jazz, and on the other from rhe calculated subtleexpressivenessperformance, of which varies from insranceto instanceand from player ro player, and makes it practically impossibleto wrire out accurately the exacr rhythmic form ol certarn trills, for example,or to generalize upon their execution beyond cerrain consranrconditions. But these generalcondirionsare very importanr and necessirare a rraining of the ear, and ofren a kind of declaration of independence from ccrtain contrary modern practices. For thc commoneighteenth-century ornam€nration, in spite of irs freedomand subtlety, falls into certain definite categories and under certain general rules, a thorough knowledge of which is absolutely essential anyoneconcerned to with it. A{ter enor:gh experience one finds that seemingly arbirrary rules come to be thoroughly justified and explained by musicalfeeling. We shall now proceed briefly to discuss rhesecategories and rules in accordance with rhe clear codification and detailed accountswhich are to be found in rnid-centuryworks like those of C. p. E. Bach, Marpurg, and euaotz. GENERAL RULES With certaio rather rare and somewhat controversial exceptions,mostly of the earlier eighteenthcentury (the passing appoggiattra ot Nachtcltlag, for example, so much disliked by C. P. E. Bach), all ornamentsare played on the beat; ahaais, they take their value from the beginning of the note. affectedby the sign, and the first noaeof the ornament will coincidewith any note of the bassor any other voice which occurson the samebeaa. In canonsor imitative passages secondvoice the should follow exactly the ornameotationof the lirsr. (SeeC. P. E. Bach, Chap. II, Sect.2, Par. 28.)
Breitkopf & Hirtel.

VARIATIONS

,'"

OO*A"'TS,

INDIVIDUAL'"T;;;*

AppoccrATURA(Vauchlag, Accent, Port de ooix): C. P. E. Bachdistinguishes two kinds of appoggiatura, one that is "long" and of variable length, and one that is invariably "short". According to general rule, a long appoggiatura takes frorn the following note half or, in the cascof dotted notes, two thirds of irs value (Ex. 2) but rhythmic or harmonic considerations causefrequent exceptions. (See the inreresting and enlightening examples C. P. E. Bachand Quantz.) Moreoverthc in cxpression certain appoggiaturas of consistsin their improvisatorycharacterand the fact thar their value is not exactlvdeterminable.

MonooNr (Pjzcy'): Sometimes distinction ofnotaa tion is made berweenshort and long mordents,,rfv and alr,r,, but it is scarcelvever followed consistcntly (Ex. 4a.). The length of a mordentdepends upon the context and partly upon the value of thc maio note. Sometimes the mordenr prolongs itsclf through several rneasures, becoming the pirrci contixt of Couperin. "There is anotherspecialway of making mordcnts when they should be verv shorr (Ex. 4b.). Of thesenorcsborh srruck simultaneously, onc holds thc upper, immcdiarell' releasingthc lower. This modc is not to be neglecrcd, as loog as onc cmploys it .less oftcn than the othcr kiods ofmordenr. ft occursonly cx dbrupto, that is, r,r'ithourconoecrion." (C. p. E. Bach, Chap. II, Secr.5, Par. 3.)

Ex . 2 ( n .l . r . )

Ex.4 (tuarpurg, Tab.y Figs. rta, tZ)

The short appoggiatura, according to C. P. E. Bach (Chap. II, Sect. 2, Par. 1l), occursmost often beforeshort rrotes,but also beforerepeated notesand before various figures where the melodic contour, harmonic character, or rhvthmic function is to bc preserved unchanged,such as at caesuras connecrn r ir r n r v irl r a q u i c l i n ,-rrea n J i n s r.n c o pati ons, . suspensions, slurredpassages, triplers, skips of thirds. He givcs manv examples, more than can be quoted here. C. P. E. Bach tries to inclicate rhe durarion of the alpoggiltura by the value of the small note, but mosr composers,including his farher, macle litrle such aa{ e P r . m ' 'The Passiog (N Pesstrsc Appoccrarunr, ach:cltlag): Appoggiaturasare found when severalaotes of the samevalue descend skips of thirds (E". la). They by must be flayed as seenar Ex. lb." \ r I I I , P a r.6 .) (Quanrz, Chap. TunN (Doppeltchlag, Cadncc, Doubh): (Exs. 6, 7.) C. P. E. Bach (Chap. II, Sect. 4, Par. 20) distinguishcsthe turo from the ending of rhe trill witl rermination, in remarking that rhe frrsr notcs of rh: turn are playedmore quickly rhan rhe lasr, lcaving r slight pause the lasr note, whereas on ahclast notesor the rerminated trill alwaysconnectsmoothly with rh: following notes. For various ternpi he gives corrcsponding versions. Appoccr,rrun r ,rlro Monoxur (Acunt ud Mordant, Pirci ct Pott dc Vaix): Frequenrly an appoggiarura is followed by a mordenr (E*. :). ttte single clcmcnts of the combinarionfollow the usual rulcs and exccp r i ons.

Ex.5*ttiirt

p. [raoz], sou)

Ex. 3 (Quantz, Tab. Figs. s, o) VI,

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

Itll

Er . 6 (c. p. E. 8., Tab. Y Fig. L)
o0

Ex. 11 (D'Angtetert)

When thc sign appcars after the notc, thc cxccurion is as follows:

Ex.7 (c.P.E. B.,Tab.t Fig. LX,cj

Coul6 sur une tierce
Tremblemert): It cannot be too cmphaticallystatcd th at theBach trill aluay bcgitttuitlt thc tpfcl note, accordance in with the nearlyunanirnous directions ofeighreenth-ceotury instructionbooks8.It is almost incrediblethat the nineteenth-ccntury change to the modern practice of beginning on the lower note should have led peopleeven ro deliberatcfalsification of eighteerth-cenrury rexts Iike that in certain edirions of Bach's own table of ornaments. Moreover it is rather disheartening neady always to hear trills and other ornamenrs wrongly performcd even by the best musiciansof today. But quitc ioexcusable the work of certain musicologists is who have presumably worked fo'' years with books like C. P. E. Bach's"Versuch" with its cxplicit directions, Tnu,t (Trillr,

Thesc interpretations must be distinguished from that of thc modcrn turn

Ex. 8 (n.1.x.)

iodicated thus by C. P. E. Bach: hus by C. P.

Ex.
e il,.

(c.P.e. n.,tat.q Fig.LXIXa,b)

and yer make edirions in which ornamenrs writccn are out as wrongly as if no evidenceof eighteenth-ccntury practice had survived. Perhaps thc most flagrant exarnplc of such work (cited to augment rhc readcr's caution against editorial rnisdecds)is thc cdirion by one of the foremost English musicologisrs of the Prcludcsfrom Couperin's"L'Art de Toucherlc Clavccin". Herc, io the face of Couperin's own table of orna-

Suos (Scbhifet, Co Q: The slide is indicatcd in Bach by thc sign ,/- or by small notcs, and cxecuted th u s :

ments and his own insrructions in the very samebook, are the most incredibly false realizations of signs so employed by Couperin as to leave no room for error. The trill is indicated by the signs av or ,t* or * or somctimesby a cross.

Ex. 10 (uarpurg, Tab. Iq Fig. 16)

In Ex. 11,wc find anotherkind of slidc usedin chords to 611 thirds. in
tThc fcw cxccptions to this practrcc sccm to havc no bcering on thc work bcforc us, .Dd ccrtdnly h.vc not beco rekcn iDto accounr t'' rhc pcoolc who icrtrzc rills fr6m bclow. lr is hopcd rhac this cootrovcrsial mattcr mey bc scttlcd once rnd tor all bv rhc cvcnturl poblicaiio; of t hbulation of thcsc cxccprions rnd . g;ocrrt survey, now in proccss,of all iourccs of informetion conccrning cighrccarh-

I

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

trill, ft should be noticed that the eighteenth-century upon the upper auxiliary note, has an apbeginning poggiaturacharacterin the accentuationof the disfrom the sonance which givesit quite a differentseose moderntrill, which beginson the lower main note and hasonly the weaket chatacterofa changingnote. Tnrr-r-wrrn TsRrNerroN (Triller mit Nachrchlag, et Trillo and Motd.ant,Trmblement pinci) (Ex. fl): The ,n") indicate rrills with termination(rzir signs { and Nachtchlag). This termination can frequently be iotroducedby the plaver when it is not already indicatedor written out.

Ex. 16 (o'englebert)

Trro Trur-r (Accextand Trillo, Gebandener or getchlonexer ller, Tremblement T Iil): If, tn rhe the trill is of a downward diatonic progression, note, that noi. nectedby a slur with the preceding not repeated, but is tiecl o1'eras the 6rst note of trill.

(y. Ex. 13a. S.Bach)

Ex.13b.(R.L.K)

(Marpurg Tab. IV, Figs. 30,31i

Pnspaneo Tnttt appall): emphasizeclit rhe player.

(Accent und Ttillo, Trembhmert In many casesthis slur can be pre-supposed w hen not i nJi cateJbv the coml oser,exc eptin w of c.rtnposersi ke C ouperi n, uho w .r s absolu l precise about his indicatioos, even on this But in the works of composers who are not preci seor consi srent,rhere ;rre manv the slur should not be presupposed, the because acter of phrasing and accentuation make it desi to sounclagain the first note of the trill instead tying it to the prececling note. Her-r Tnrr,r, (,Prall Trillet): The nue Ptall T. is r form of Tremblenent /rl, playeJ very frsr

The appoggiatura character is especially the trenblemeit appuli, indtcated.h,

(Ex. 14), or sometimes only implied as a freedomof

Ex. 14 (l'e.ngtebert)

ABovEoR rRoM Tnrr,ls wrrn Pnerrx, srrner FRoM oatow (Ttiller tan Obexot Triller uan U ren, DoqleltCadetcc,Cadence):The signs Cra and Cw indicate trills with prefixes respectively from above and from below.

Ex. 18 (c. p. E.8., Tab.I{ Fig. xLV)
,Motuj Ir the o!igiral table,the tiebetweer the first two aotes of the secoad ve rs i on w as evi dentl y omi tte d through a mi stake o{ the en gl av er, as C , P . E . B . expl i ci tl y refers to i t i r the text (C hap. U , S ect.3, P ar.3o).

Ex. 15 (n'Anglebert)

short, consisting, as Marpurg remarks (An [1llll, Page 56, Note 2) of only three notes. occursi n fast passl ges, i n rl ow mol e m enr sjust or the end of a long sustained appoggiatura,but in

THE COLDBERGVARIAT1ONS

zr -? I

fqllqe,,ing a dotvriward stepwisc prcgression

E. Bach,Chap. II, Sect.3,Par.34). l= nscrtcd mordent (Ex. l9), now somctimcs rrnr-:'-r callcd Prall Trilhr, is ncver indicated by :E :-but is always writtcn our in small ue =l called a Schteller. Unlike rhe Prull Ttilhr, cr lc:aciler is not restricted to preparation by a :--r-- rirJ stcpwiseprogression,bur can occur on quitc c::i:cl notcs. sigo, *,

uqtil thc cod; but whcq it is short it should always bc prompt. " Hcre in the Variations, as wcll as elsewhcrc. distinctions should bc madc amongt l. Trills usedas accents, cspccially on short notcs, or leaving clear a rathcr largc proportion of rhe main note. These are quickly disposed of and contain rather few "bears". (Var. 7, Bar 2, ctc.; Var. J, Dar lu- etc. ) 2. Trills which are not accentedbut incorporatcd smoothly into thc mclodic line. Thcsc are playcd evenly and conoected smoorhly with thc following notcs. Such smooth trills frequcntly have tcrminations. (Var. 9,Bar,etc.; Var. lO, Bar4.) 3. Ttills which begin with an emphasis of thcir appoggiatura character, or a certain lingcriog on thc upper note, \ke rhe *cmblcmcx, app*Jl. (Yar- 2L,

Fr 19 (Marours.Tab.v. Fiss. rr. rc) (Marpurg, 'fab. Y Figs. 16,16)

THE EXECUTION OF TRILLS l-:c rhythmic shapeand number of beats in trills is -;:-::le. Couperin ("L'Art dc Toucher le Clavccin") =-ri:s the following remarks: -llthough thc trills are marked equal in the tablc :r ,=aments of my first book, they should neverrhe=: :rgin more slowly than they end, but this grada::: should be impcrccptible. Trills of any considerable length conrain three :r=tors, which in performance appear to be comunifred: l. Thc leaning (app J) npor' rhc :l-:lv -:-: oote. 2. The beacs. 3. The sropping poinr.

Bar 6.) 4. Long trills. Such a trill becomesfasrcr toward thc middlc and often slightly slowcr to round off thc ending and to connect it smoothly with what follows. (Var. 22, bars II, f2.) This is also frcquently truc of trills of any considerablelcngth which havc terminarions. (Aria, Bar 3.) 5 Trills, most frequcntly on dotted norcs or prcceding tied-ovcr notcs or rcsts, which increascgrcatly in specdand end in a kind of snap just bcforc thc dot, tied note, o! rest, as rhe cascmay be. (Var, Il, Bar J, 6tst version, etc.; Var. tl, Bar 12.) This snap is called. Scbnclhnby C. P. E. Bach, and is dcscribcd in connection wnh the Prall Trilhr (Chap. I1, Sect. 3, Par. 32) and with the last beats of an accelcrated tlrll (Ibid., Par. 8). Sometimes it is followed by a rest in the place of the dot, making a rremblemcnt atpiri. (Var. 16, Bar 15.)

((L'Art de toucherle Ex. 20 (Couperin,
clavecint')

''-Ls for other Trills, they are arbitrary. Thcre ::: those which are prepared Qppa/) and others so :: ::r t hat they show neirherpreparation nor sropping :-.:at. One can even aspiratethem." (SeeVar. 16, 3i-- l5 for a ncmbhment arpiri.) Saint Lambert says("Les Principes Clavecin", du "When the trill must be long, it is more 11) r -:.:;. :c.:r-:riiul beat it slowlv at first and not to hurry it to

Notes the Concerning Execation the of Variations )rnamentuin tLe
The rhythmical values which are given to thc written-out trills reproducethe fundamenral characteristics my presentexecution,but can undoubtof edly well be subjected alteration by myself as well to as others. At any rate rhey give some indication of the frequently igllred but necessar)'shapeliness and exptessive subtlerywhich should bc givcn to all

VARIATIONS THE C'OLDBERG

with ornameotationin accordance eighteenth-ceotury useless complicatethe to its context. It has seemed text with any indication of the fluctuating details of rhythmic freedom, which must necessarilybe the result of the performer's own feeling. On the piano with fewer "beats". the trills could often be executed Certain trills may be given terminationswhere they ale not indicated, but the versionsgiven have been consiJeredpreferable. _ T h e tu rn sc a no fi e n b e g i v e n rh u s:JJJ J, accordindications;but many of them ing to C. P. E. Bach's. c an lu s t a s w e l l b e p l a y e d,* o o ,h l y ,.Jl T! A R] A : Bat 2: The two appoggiaturas ate interpreted by Dolmetsch as "Nachtchlige" on the authority of Quantz (Chap. VIII, Pat. 6), but it would seemthat the rhythm and the sentimeflt demand appoggiaturas. One may play the 6rst appoggiaturashorter than its wrirren-out valuc. If the secondappoggiaturawere played long, accordingto rule, the two D's rogether would sound too hard on the harpsichordand give a false accent, See Bars 6 and 25. fol Bar 4: Herea long appoggiatura lowing the rule produce an ugly fourth between A aod D. would Bat 6: SeeBar 2. BarT: The harmony would be less pure in this alternative version with the appoggiatura as an cighth-note, following an exampleof C. P. E. Bach ("Versuch", Chap. II, Sect. 2, Par. 11), (Ex. 2fb.) , .tc.

of rhe trcmblcmextalqryi. addedhere.

A

m a

Bat 14: The consonaflce G, B, and D, aod ;of the rhythm, would sound quite flat if the appog:: tura were playedlong. It can be playedshorter iodicated. Bar 16 The first appoggiatura may also be plar as an eighth-note,accordingto an exampleof C. P. Bach similar to ahat referredto at Bar 7 (Ex.21z The octaveD's of the third beat.unlike those in BarI have an agreeable finality, and on the harpsichord rhe octave following parallel rnori gives the illusion of a dimiruendonther than thc cF of accent which seems to occur after thc motion of Bar 2. SeeBar 24. may be Bar 18: The first two appoggiaturas shorter. Bar 19: Hete aqain the accent of an octave on would be unpleasant.In the sccondbeat thc tion of the appoggiaturaD sharp to E should still connecred with the harmony of C. even if rhe rion coincidesonly with the passing note B. result is a wonderful fluidity of harmonyin which trill on F sharp makesa delightful accenr. Bar 20: The sequence 6fths makes impossiblc of long appoggiatura resolvingaccordingto rule. Bar 21 the appoggiaturamust be short to coosecutive seventhswith the tenor. Bat 72. lt misht have been consistentrvith practiceof C. P. E. Bach (

Related Interests

ersuch", Chap. II, 2, Par. 11; Ex. 21a), to prolong .he appo
the length of thc entire qualter-notcr were it not

(C.P. E.8., Tab.trI, Fig. VI)

rhe weakness rhe resulringharmony. of the resolution coincidiog with the tenor F would be undesirable. Bar 24 The resolution of the first appoggia accordingto rule would be obviously impossible. Bat 25'. SeeBat 2. Bat 26: Here the octaveG-G would be less

J. S. Bach seldornrnakesa distinction between the sign of the arpeggioupwards and that of thc arpeggio downwards. This chord might also Bar 7l be brokcn upwards. Bat 72. As in Bar 2 the 6rst appoggiaturamrght also bc very short. In Anna MagdalenaBach s noteD book of U25 only an appoggiatura occurs,instead

demandsthe present turbing, but consistency tion. The appoggiaturain the left hand might played shorter.

VARIATION 5: Bar 20. Here the weakness the D sharp of
tremblemcnt lii, tion is best expressed an accelerated. by

THE C.OLDBERG VARIATIONS

instead of thc rcncwed accent of an ordinary trill, This must occupy an almost imperceptiblc part o{ thc ootc. Notice thc contrasting acccntual interpretation of thc trill on G. 7: B* 2: Herc the trills havc almost the same crisp accentual efect as the mordents, and should occupy no more of the time of the main notes. Bar 76, Herc the customary practicc is followed in cooncctiol with tied dotted notes (Qgantz VIII,9), VA$IATION

Bar 6: Herc thc dissonant resolution of thc appoggiatura givcs an extraordinary savour to thc harmofly. VARIAT]ON T5: Bau 7, 8', Seenotes to Variation 12, Bars 4, 5 or 29, 10. VARIATION 16:

The inexact indicarion of dotted notes in erght_ eenrh-ceorury music is menrioned in thc books of C. P. E. Bach,Quanrz,Agricola ("Anlcitung zur Singkuns.", 1757)0, and Leopold Mozart ("Vcrsuch eincr griindlichen Violinschule", l?J6). C. P. E. Bach says (Chap. 3, Par. 23): "Thc short notcs following dots will always be dispatchcd as shorter than the notation indicates, thus it is supcrfluous to dc6ne these short notes by thc usc of dots or strokcs." "In Ex. 2J we secthcir exprcssion.

Ex.22

(Qratlz, Tab.VI, Figs. rr, ro)

E.x.23 (c. p. e. B.,Tab. Fig.vIt) vr,
but in Bar 8 harmonic puriry dcmands the execution given. VARIATION 8:

Bar 24: C. P. E. Bach gives an cxample of a similar casc and its execution. (Ex. 2fa.) Thus this ap poggiatura might be playcd as a quartcr-note. \.ARIATION 9: Bat 12 The imitation, of course, will follow the At times thc arrangemeorof parts (Einthcilung) dcmands that one procccd accordiog ro thcir litcral "Thc dots after shorr notation * (Schtcibart)." notes, followcd by notes still shorter, should be hcld out. "

6rst voicc cxactly. VARIATION 1I: Bar 5, ctc.: Thcsc rills must cnd with a vigorous soaP. \.ARIATION 12:

Bar 4, 5: The till is intcrpretcd as ,ftmbhn.n, lil ^ rn order that thc following mordentmay imirate it in contrary motion. These may also be played respectivcly as simple Prall Triller and short mordent. Batt 29,3o: Here likewise the mordent imitatcs the rrill in contr'ary motion. VARIATION 1]: Bar 2: C.P. E. Bach writcs ("Vcrsuch", Chap. II, Scction2, Par. 14): "When the appoggiaturasounds rhe octaveof the bass,it cannot be long, becausc thc harmonv would sound too empty' ,

Ex.24 (c. p. E.8.,Tab. Fis. vff) vr,

Thc following passage in Agricola (p. rl3), is "Short notcs (Vol. I,p.f9f). quotcd by Dannreuther which follow dots, espccially sixtccnth- and thirtysecond notes, and in alla bnoc timc, $ , 2, ,""n cighth-notcs, are invariably takcn vcry short-thc notcs prcceding thc dots bciog hcld so much thc longcr."
i, o lhno o$en.4;o t rof. ;l C."ro fgtrzto. Dnlogor.

'An zmplificd cransletioa of Picr Franccsco Tosi: O?i"ioni d.' C.n oi a"tkb; . no&

VARIATIONS

j,r"n,,

employsfor the Loure, the Sarabande, Coura:=rhe dotted eighrh-, sixre€nth-, and thirty-second-notes, and the Chaconne, rhe eighth-notes following doi:one departs from the general rule, because of the quartersare nor expressed accordingto their prc:e vivacity which they should express. It must be value, but shortly and sharply. The dotted nore s noticed,above all, that the note following the dot in emphasized and the bow is dctachedduring the j:-_ Ex. 25a and b, should be played as quickly as that One does likewise with all dored notes if rhe t:=r inEx.25c, wherher in slow or fast tempo. Whence permits, and when there Are three or more thir:rit follows that the dotted ootes io Ex. 25a dernand second notesxf(er r dot or a resr,thev are nor erecu:j nearly the whole time of a quarter-nore, and those in according rheir real value,especially slow piecs_ ro in Ex. 25b nearly that of an eighth-note. One cannot but, awaiting the very end of the time allorredthe= exacrlydetermioe the rimc of the short note following one plavs them then with rhe utmost speed,as I the dor." often the case in Ouvertures, Entr€es aod Furie: However one must give a separatebowing to each Ex.25 (Qaantz, Tab.tr, Fig. z, c, d,e ) --cthesequick notes,and one can hardly slur anything a. This last is an excellent description the vigoro:r of tlitacLti style in which the Ouverture (Variarion lf (R. bb. should be played. Although thesequotationsexplain the inaccura= notation and the true executionof much eighteent!(Chap. X\III, Secr. 2, Par. 16): "When thirtysecond-notes follow a long note aod a shorr rest (Ex. 26) they should always be played verv quickly, whcther in an A,lagia ot in an Allegro. Hence, to avoid faulty time, onemust wait to the lerv end of the allotied time beforeplaying them. ceoturv music, especiallythe slow sections Frencl of Ouyertures(and one must at all times bear rhcm:: mind), in much music of Bach there is still son: room for doubt as to whether el. J) occurringagains: a, .) l . a shoul d be rakenJ

*ri,.r 1Chap. par.,tr' "r,]:t :::::"" V.

t\

t.:t t-t

!.3

.

nr ur lny casej.

Ex.26

(Q'aantz, Tab.XX[, Fig. ze)

also here, one can be influ"nJ afternatelv by Bach ! obviously mere orthographicalconlenrion of writir.of J. Jr InsreaLf J

tN

.tt- .

J.)

rn al l a brcreri me, bypassaoJ

''If in a slow alla brcteor in ordinarv common time there is a sixteenth-reston the down-beat followed by dotted notes(Exs. 27 a, b), the resr must be playecl if therewereeither a dot or a pause half as of the value following ir, and as if the following notes were twice as short." (In other words, like Ex. 27, aa, bb) .

ageswhere he d.ii-ir.ly intencled the literal inrerpretr lltati on.rf J, ))aod ).).1.J, such as rhose in r hr ''Kunst der Fuge" and the "Musikalisches Opfer' where dotted themes appear siinultaneouslyin augmentation and in their natural form. Here, afcc: having for sometime played as sixteenths eighths the following dotted quarters,I have finally decided,ar leasrfor the presenr, upon rheir literal interpretation. especiallyas the sound of the harpsichordis giver greater continuity through the increased complexirl of rhyrhmic morion. I actually play the sixteenrhs shorter than noted, and undertook ar first ro wrirc
6

Ex.27 (Qtantz, Tab.XX[, Figs. ao, sr)

@:;#

ha.

-

b

wg

them our rhus:J. by , bur w as di ssuade d whar J -'1- t (Chap. XVII, Sect. 7, Par. J8): "Morcover, in this measure , as well as in 3-4 time , which one Q .."-.d ono"."rriy complication of the text. Likewlse there is here no attempt to indicate the rests

THE GOLDBERGV'.RIATIONS

:mplicd by Quantzabovein speaking the detached of :os'l rvhich can takc the placeof the dots. Barc4,5: A tcrmination may be addedhere. In ::ct Marpurg says (Anweisung, 11755), Page 57, \ore 4) that such "prcpared trills" are always given : rcrmination. One may qucstionwhcther sucha rulc lsas thc result of unanimouscontemporaryopinion. :s it is not mcntionedby C. P. E. Bach, or Ttirk, or rndicated in D'Anglebcrt's table, At any rate thc remaining "prcpared trills" in this variation do not rcquire the addition of a termination where not inJicated, since the function of the termination is already performed by the succeedingquick notes (as C. P. E. Bach points out in parallel passages fChap. II, Scct.III, Par. 161). Bar 28: The version with a "Triller von unten" rs given to avoid the 6fths resulting from the literal interpretationof the original, which might offend a fastidiousear. Barc 31, 13l Here likewise especialcare has been taken in shortening the termination of rhe rrill to rroid rhe fifths which would othcrwise occur. \..{RIATION 22: Bar 11: This trill should be incorporated smoothly in the rnelodic line and played as rhythmically independent from the bass,with a slight speecling up in the middle and slowing off toward the end. It is useless attempt to indicate the exact number of to ''beat s " . vARIATION 2]: B ar 23: B es ra s ' a Pra l l T ri l l e r. T h e rri l l shoul d take as little of the time of the main note as possible. VARIATION 24: Bar 17: A rough attempt has beenmade to iodicate the changes of spced without specifving the number of "beats" in the middle portion. \TARIATION 25: Bat L3. The appoggiaturaon the secondbeat is found written out by Bach in the corresponding place in Bars21 and 22. Although rhis sameappoggiatura has beeo introduced in the first two bars, in other corresponding placesfr.rrtheruse of it is left to the caste the player. of

VARIATION 26: See notes to Variation 16 for information concerning the indeterminatevalue of dotted notes in eighteenth-century notation. See also following note. VARIATION 29: (See also Notes to Variation 16). Marpurg ( Anleitung" [1755], P. 24) makes the following remarks: "It is frequenrlycusromaryto employ simultaoeously a simple and a compositemeasute, example for 12-8 against C (Ex. 28a, b) as well as 6-8 agrinsr 2-4, or 9-8 againsr 3-4, and so forth. If in this combination of measures two notes of equal value occur against three others likewise of equal value, for exami.rle, two eighrh-notes against three other eighth-notes, or two quarter-noresagainsr three others, the 6rst two of the three equal noceswill always be played againstthe 6rst of the two. Thus, for instance, those io Ex. 28a will all be played as in Ex. 28c, and even if tbe 6rsr of the rwo equal notes is dottecl (Ex. 28b), they must nevertheless be played as in Ex. 28c. The so-calledtriplets which one usesin simple measurcs have their origin in this mixaure of measures. These are such that one takes three eighths against a quarrer, three sixteenths againstan eighrh, etc."

(Marpurg, Tab. I, Figs. 42,44)

VARIATION ]O: Bat 2: A trenblemtnt se€ms lil best.

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

i
I

"l
now traditional successionof five fingers an.r crossi'g thumb. Thus fiogers rarely cross' excePt in Polvphonic passages, where there is often occasion changefingerson the to samenote to ensare legato A comptomise advisable is betweenthe old principJeof avoiding the use of the rhumb on "black" keys and that ofavoiding changes of live-fingerposition or usiog similar fingering for s e q u e n ti are p e ti ti o n s f fi g ures. A l l j umps of posi l o tion and breaksof lcgatocaobe fitted to places where

In plaving Bach seems to use t:il:tTT:etached it besr " modern fingering based upon the

I
finsering which makes,, ",-^..,- I '=
I

:l:';;:':il:iJi'.',."T:::JTi::::::-,J:Jj j::.:lf,.j: i:ffi::l,ijl";.,..T;:;;* I .'"JilT::::*'.';:A:1iT,:Hl:,ather
to understand someeighteenth-centurv fingeringas represenced Bach'sown indications in (Bachgesellschaftedition,volr.:me Pages 224,225, J6, 2)7, 126), or in the sonaras c. p. E Bach's"

Related Interests

ersuchr.iber of die wahre Arr das Clavierzu spielen,. Herc one

I tached style entirely intentional? o, i, i:';;| promisebrought abour by the traditions ;;. I ";; just beginning ro culrivate u ..r1"in .qo"tiry'ot- ,1,. I 6.refin!..s and a substitution.r ,rr. - | ond.. uf th" thumb for the old principre ;;::l:: -.a."-'t-.^"",I a longer finger over a shoner (a .;." "'^"' r.;,:. I ' ri ghtl an.r: r23434)4etc.)? "r" I In playing the piecesof couperin, on. ,hour, I

possibre play passages .o altogether.-oo,"tott we wourrr feer to require regata praying. ,:'ilt.':

dinc,rrt ::'"':"',',1.i',:Til;;:, ;::ii: mti*:: and of rhe hancr. But

with u-n, *n*.-iir'.,., music so muchless is idiomatic, often;:"... and orherinscruments, consraorly one t..,r,n.rl'jjl,?'. of bringing to the keyboard,n. .r"."rrr"'.*',.. ,uppl.nfs ofstringor voice phrasing.

I
I I I I I

VI

THE GOLDBERGVARI,{TIONS

:he constanr rhythmic relaaion of strong and weak which ale the notesof introduction, of climax, -*ats; of cooclusion in a mclodic phrase; as well as -irJ rshich are the fiotes of harmonic importance and rhoseof importance the main melodicand harmonic in :rogressions sectionsand of rhe wholc piece. of The performer'stask in converring a piece jnro sound is like that of a painrer who must undersrand rhoroughly the anatomyof his rnodeland the relation of the srnallest detail to the whole, not so much thar the original may be fairhfully reproduced as that his orvn feeling about it and his choice of technical means for its interpretation may bc controled by the complete inner logic of nature. Thus here in rhe music of Bach we arc confrontedwith the task of making clear the articulation and poetic significance of complicat€dsructureswhich rival thoseof naturein their obedienceto all her inner laws of balance, of proportion, of form. One of the mos! important and practically least recognizedcharacteristicsof Bach's music is the fusion of form and expression almost to the point of identificarion. Thus, the musical feeling leading to the true exptessionof a Bach phrasecan frequently be guided largely by the intellect and often rnust be, urtil the musical perceptions reach a degree of instinctive sharpness not so ofren demandedby orher musrc. Although "phrasing" involves a consideration of the music in many phases ard from many points of view, here on paperwe can only attempt to isolate and discuss the most important elements and to make a numbcr of perhapslash generalizations. First, and for us here most imporrant, is rhe consideration of individual voices as single mclodic lines, ignoring for the time being their relationship to each other. The fundamental rule which underlies course of all measuredmusic is the rhythmic relation of weak beats to strong beats, and the different funcrions of rhe first, second,third, and fourth beats. Weak beatsgenerallytend to be connected with rhe following strong beat, so that most pauses likely are to occur aftet strong beats. However, this very rough generalization must not allow us to ignore the musical parallel of feminine eodings in verse. It

seems to me that many wriaers, eveo including Schweitzer,to whom we owe so much. have ovcremphasizedthe progressionfrom thc weak to thc strong bcat-in orher words, iambic the expenseof trochaic movemeflt. In many fast movem€nts, such as those of thc concertos, this trochaic movement,by irs very holdiog back, gives the impressionof tremendousenergy pulsing under thc harness superhuman of restraint. Likewise it sccms to me thar in maoy Bach phrasesthere are quite as many subsidiary nores which take their rhythmic momentum from a precedingstrong note like the successive bounces a rhrown or droppcdtennisball, of as there are those which progressforward to a strong beat like a ball rolling down a slope. And there are noteswhich perform a doublefunction, in relarion to both preceding and succeeding strong bears. In many Bach performancesone hears either the flabbinessof jumpinessof bouncing, for rolling or the excessive lack of balanceberween the two kinds of motion. The parallel in dancing is easily pcrceprible. Exs. lJ-J9 show a few of manv possible modesof rhythmic thoughr which can work rogerher ro produce the equilibrium. S yncopeced nores, or notes tyi ng o\er a srrong beat, often have a peculiar character, being approachedwith a certain spring or sighing effecr,thc impulse coming from the preceding strong beat. Leopold Mozart says ("Versuch einer grtindlichcn \riolinschule" {Chap. I, Sect. 3, Par. 18, Note kl): ''Suchnotesmust be amackedstrongly aod held with a gradually diminishing quierness (eizenacbud nach cerlicrcnde Jrille) wirhour renewed pressure,like the graduallydisappearing soundofa sharplystruck bell." The mel oJrcdetei mi ol ti unof note-groupi ng, even in the face of so many cornplicatedand intaogible elemeots, permitsa few crudegeneralizarions. Notes moving stepn,rscare more often played hgato h contlast to the deta.ched. taccato performanceof jumping notes. (We might make an exceprionto rhis remark in the caseof nores outJining arpeggiaredharmooy in quick time.) Likewise, an inrerruptionofstcpwise progressicn a ieapof the melodicline oftcn requires bv a phrasing correspondingro the necessatvvocal rendition or to rhe parallelsensarion bodily movcof ment. However, one musr oot take these principles

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

too seriously. in view of thousandsof instanceswhere thcy are superseded more imPortant factors. by For nearly all the keyboard music of Bach it is extremely illuminating to think in terms of string bowing. Thus one can often determine the divisions of sequential figures and stepwise passages,also thc texture of hgato and of relative degrccs of rraccaro. Betweenthinking of string bowing and feeling the instinctive vocal inflection (as recommendedby C. P. E. Bach) one is fairly sure to arrive at a natural phrasing. Vocal inflection itself (except in the case of singers,as I am inclined maliciously to remark), is closely governedby mystcriouslaws of kinrsthetic feeling and of bodily movement. For exarnple, a phraseor movementcan often be explainedin terms of sprirlging, falling, or bouncing. The phrasing must make clear the main prodecoration underlyingmore or lesselaborate gressions Often in Bach, esPeciallyin .wovoice pieces,a single voicc will outline harrnonies and carry on in broken form the progressionsof twoof the melodic line. or three-part harmony. This ofcourse must be understood by rhe player and cxpressedby the phrasing.

upon a superposition in thc finished pcrformancc of the various phaseswhich are shown separatcly hcrc. An examplelike this, with its many parallels,goes to demonstratethe fact that much Bach phrasing exists far morc in time, that is in living rhythmic patterns, than in the spatial articulation and cxaggerated nuancing of melodic figures usually cmphasizcd by Bach performers (more unfortunately, for example, in the unaccompanied violin sonatas) at ahe expense the rhythmic vitality and organic of unity of the whole. In fact, one is sometimeslcd to feel that che cumulative effect of sharply dcfined rhythmic detail incorporatedinto a steadypulseis far more important in many Bach movementsthan the inflectionsof tone and dynamics;and cvcn that some of the Bach sonatascould be given a performanccon a drum which would be {ar more thrilling than that of most string players. Of coursethe ideal performance does justice to borh elements. In other words, the music cannot become fully alive in a performancc which develops plastic shape by heightening melodic cootours through light and shade of dynamics and variation of ltaccato ar.d lcgato texture, yet fails to endow these shapes with their own rhythrnic form carved out of precisetime-divisions,just as they are carved so to speak, out of pitch, and dynamic intensity, in perfectly proportioned telation to the the blurred, lopwhole. Anything else resembles sidedcontoursof sculpturein wax beginning to melt uoder the hot sun. Even had the preceding topic of the grouping of notes into phrasesbeen properly treated, one would srill needto makea largebook to explain ihe relationa shipsof noteswirhin thesephrases, thiog which we can hardly expect more than to suggest here. So far we have spokeo principally of the smaller groups of notes more in the senseof texture than io the senscof phraseswhich make small €ntitics in themsclves and which in turn go to build up a larger unit. Thcsc phrases have a definite plastic form, to which the senseand perceptions must bc sharpcncd in rccogniz-

5, Ex.33(Var. Bar 13)

Thc expositionof the manifold melodic,harmonic, and rhythmic implicationsof many such single voice absolutebalanceof rhythm. Such demands passages example, whose richness dcpcnds is the foregoing

ing the functions of every notc, whethcr it be as inrroduction, climax, conclusion, coda, or mere decoration. When we begin to put the voiccs together, rhe resulting harmony has an influcncc, especially on thc

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

phrasingof rhe longer sections. The building up of a stressor tension resolving to repose,although it occurs melodically, we find especiallyin harmonic progressions and in the relation of dissonance and consonance. Here we are not so much obliged to grapple with this dificult subject,because Variations are rhe all built on the same fundamental harmony and on the same rhythmic skeleton of four eight-bar phrases, much as they sometimcs stretch thesebounds, Another important feature,when all the voicesare put togethef, is the texture of the whole. It must not be too close,but must have air, so to speak. On the other hand, especiallyon rhe harpsichord,one must not break it apart with "holes" causedby too short or misplaced .Itaccata. This can occur mosr easily when the bassis played too short, thus removing rhe bottom of the srructuretoo suddenly. The distribution of legat0andrtdccata mtrst balancethrough the whole counterpoint,like the disrribution of black and white in a well made woodcur.

I might remark, in connectionwith harpsichord phrasing, rhat the principal meansof distinguishing notes consistsin infinitely varying degteesol lcgatoand :taccato(akho,tgh the instrument rs to some extent capable of accena)and, through the useof these very meaos of l,tato and,$accato,of the illusion of slight nuance. On the harpsichordone musr guard againsr makiog too short.rt4ccatl, the €ffecris quite unlike as that of the piano, in rhat the plucked string must be given sufficienttime to vibrate, whereasthe struck string vibrates instantly in pure sound. Perhapsthese remarks, for all their inadequacy, will demonstrare the furility of artempting ar all to indicate phrasing in the text, and perhapsrhey will convey some idea of the way in which the player must sepafate and analyze every phraseof rhescVariations, the funcrion of every note wiahin thar phrase, and the organizarionof smaller phrasesinto larger ones,and finally into the whole.

VII TEMPO
In the table on p. xxvi are indicated tempi used in performingthe Variations. Thesemay vary, however, accordingto the instrumentand acoustical conditions, and of course according to the phrasing chosen even, I fear, accordingto rhe metronome! The tempo should be mainrainedvery strictly within each variation. In Bach, especially in strongly rhythmical fast movements, clarity and coherence demanda degree of precisionin the small noae-values which is less frequently necessitated other music, where complete by rhythmic exacrilude is often lefr only to the main beats. This rhythrnic precision is especially necessaryro performarce on a nuanceless instrument like the orgao or the harpsichord, where the weakening effect of most rhythmic freedom cannot be compensated by nuance. On the clavichord, for example, one can play the same piecesmuch less strictly rhan on rhe harpsichord,because any rhythmic flexibility may be combined with a complete flexibility of nuaoce to produce something warm and perfectly hurnan, wher€as on the harpsichord or organ such freedomr going only half way, cannot have the samesincerity of effecr. For slow movements should make someexcepwe tion to the above temarks, becausethere the expression frequentlydepends upon a certain flexibility of small notes within the frame of rhe main beats. However, one of rhe greatest daogers rn tcmponbato is that slight rhythmic lluctuations which were originally sincere and inspiredby perfecttasre,in the course of ahe successive imitations which a professional performeris likely to make of his first good co[ception and performance become mannered and exaggerated, having lost some of their original signiEcaoce,resembling rhe afected movcmenrs of a bad dancer. Moreover,in most Bach movements, harmonic all and melodic detail is arrangedin such a symmcrical relation to the whole phraseor movementthar the musicalstructure can often be distortedby rhythmical fluctuations, like an elaborate Baroque facade mirrored in troubled water, or, as one is inclined to say in reminiscence of some performances, thrown heltet skelter by a seriesof earthquakes!

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

IrI conarast to the fluid legato of the canoos and those slow movdnents, the fast variations,esP€cially for two kcyboards,should have a kind of sparkling precision, down to the smallest note values. It is very beneficial to Practise these fast variations with a mearonome,and wise even thus to test the accuracy of largerrhythmical valuesin rhe slow movements'in order to insure against unconsciousextremes of rxbato. Of course there are two ways of achieving a true accuracyof rhythm and tempo, a quality which for the most part is not natural to the human organism of changing pulsetates. For just as one can fall beand mechanlow the human level into an insensitive (someof the most ical kind ofmetronomicalstrictness unrhythmical playing in the world comes from persofispractisirg with a metronome), so one can of rise abovethe weakness vacillating fleshand blood to an unswervingthythmic strengthand inevitability with balanced,sensitivephrasing, which, associated as can only be described supernatural. The metronome is only a mechanicalmeans of and assistance can in no way take rhe place of a real of feeling for rempo, which is a constant inner sense the rhythmical relationshipofeach part to the whole of The acquisitiono{ such a sense tempo may be aided in practiceby singing a rhythrnic motive from one parr of a piecewhile playing another. Attention is called here to some of the useful ancl enlightening patternsor modesof rhythmic thoughr ahat are to be fo'.rndamong the inexhaustibleriches of these variations (Exs. 33-39). Theseall suggestmodes of oba taining from smallernote-values rhythmic precision controlled by musical feeling rather than imposed only by mechanicalfinger disciplne.

Ex.35(Var.26,Bar 9)

Ex.36 (Var.14,Bar 1)

Bar Ex.34(Var.8, 11)

THE GOLDBERGV,{RIATIONS

Ex . 37 ( V a r .2R Bar 1)

r\l

t

Ct

7

Similarly in the Aria one may sing rhe rhythm of the first eight bars againsr the lasr eight, in bassas well as soprano,or superpose the sixteenrh- or rhe eighth-note motion of the last bars on alry preceding sectionof the Aria. Or one may sing simply the bass, either in its sirnplest form (dotted half-notes) or in a figure of quarter-notes. Especiallyuseful in establishing rhythmic equilibrium is playing the movementthrough alternatelvtfrirLirg ;r J the characteristic sarabande movemenr,*1. J . .f, .f J,

N

or e'en occasiona n lI"

) .

If one becomes rhus

Jj

sensitiveto the many sirnultaneous rhvthmic pulses, from sixteenth-notes ro.whole beats,or the rhythmic relation of measures rvithin a phrase,one begins to undersrandpart of the real vitalitv of mosr Bach motemenls. tr= In \:rr.8, rhi s fi gureJ )))l ))) -i-rfrom the beginning,may be used ro kccp the lefr hand under control from bars 9 to 16.
In \rar. 11, this figure, j. on Dars 1/ to Jl.

-Tr !

J

may be superposed

Ex. 38 (Var.17,Bars 27-22)

ln Var. 11, an alrernarion U.,-..n Jl

j

o,

@

l-

|

|
).

r-1-r
) ) )

). ) )^nr

mrv be useful .

In Var. 14, the performerin playing the opening passage shoulclbe minclf'.rl the subsequent of thirtvsecondnore rhvthm. The last two bars should be heard both in sixreen!h-nores and in thittv-seconds. In \ ar. 17, rhe rhrrhm ' 'l .er" hel pful , as a.a i" | I l'f1-1 asainst

well as rhe wh.rle tiqure f.]--

aaataa.aaaaa

E x . 39 ( V a r . 2 0 ,B a r 9 )

J-JlTi:*Ji .i
In Var. 20, the triplcr rhvchm should be superposedon the rhythm of the openirrgsccuon.

T n \ a r. 2 o ,

r--6-r h l lT i ata.aaa

I

ll 1a'l

e rc . . rh e rs

key to the whole moueXnt. In \rar. 28, the eighth-notemotion should always be felt. The trills will be smooth if thev are always felt simultaneously coming from the impulseof the as preceding strong beat and joining smoothly with the following.

THE GOLDDERGVARIATIONS

THE GOLDBERG VARIATIONS
Registration* A RI A V ar iat io l a IC Ia v .

I8' 8, 4, I6', 4', I8' II 8' 4' Lute I8"II 8' I8' ll 8' ( ano) I 8', II 8' I8' I8'II 8' I 8', II 8 I8' 4', 8' (Lute ?) I 8', II 8' I8' 16' I 8',II 8',4', I8', II 8' I8' II 8' Lute I 8', II 8' I8' 8, 4, I8"II 8' I8'
. Alla breve

Tempol J:5s
J:94

V ar iat io 2 . a IC l a v . Variatio l. C-auor.rr ar-r-'UNrsollo,a l Clav.

J: se
J,: 40 rh: rbs J=Es . rl): t8r
a.= 72 d:68

V ar iat io 4 . a l C l a v . Variario 5. a I oaqo2CIau. \rariatio [ ar iat io 6. CaNoNs ar,r,,{Srcouoe, a I Clav. 7 . a I o v e ro 2 C l a v . 9. CeNoNser,LaTtrze, a 1 Clav.

Yatiario 8. a2Clar,. Variatio

V ar iat io 1 0 . F u g h e tIa ,a I C l a v . \ ariatio 11. a 2CIau. Variatio 12. CeNoro ar,r,e Quenre V ar iat io IJ . a 2Clav. Yariatio 14. a 2Clat. Variatio 15. Casouo,rr,r,eQuIrvr,r,a I Clav. V ar iar io 1 6 . Ou v e ri u re ,a I C l a v . Yartatio 17. a 2 Clau. ,{LL.{ Variatio 18. CarqoNe Sosra,a 1 Clav. V ar iat io 1 9 . a l C l a v .
v zrtatto zv, d zL ld tt,

J:6s J: so J.= ,tz J:60 )= + o J.eo .0. s+
(J: J = 72,J.=6o 66, r8r )= (tl3 J : to8 ) =ae oL

. .
'

.h=rsp r l = ee
tl = S e

SsrrIN"x Variatio 21. CeroNr ar,r,,r Y ariario 22. a 1Clav.
v aftatto 2), a 2 L t4 u .

Yariario 24. CaNoNear,r,'Orrave, a 1Clav. V ar iat io 2 5 . a 2 C l a v . Y ati.atto 26. a 2 Claa,

. . .

) =m J = rc 2 J.: 6o
.D= lo

4', 16'(Lute or 8'Lutc?)

I8"II

8'

\:ariatio 27. CaNorr arr,,rNoNa, a 2 CIar'. I ar iar io 2 8 . a 2 C l a r. V ar iar io 2 9 . a l o v e ro 2 C Ia r' . \rariatio 10. a 1Clav. A RI A da C a p o Quodlibet

I8', II 8' I8" II 8' 16' I 8',II 8',4', I 6'I 8'II 8'4' , l8'

J:t+ rl.: 0o rl : 6 0 .l =aa J:so r/ : 5 s

*So lo 1 6 ' o r 4 ' sh o u ld b c u scdherei n sucha w rv astosound at normal ei ghFl oor Fi rch. l i ndi cates i the uscof tw o kcvboarrl s. Othcrof r h e lo se f n r a n u a l, II ' r h c u p per. Th€ presence commas ndi cates *ise th c in d ica tio n o f sto p s fr onr borh uppcr and l oner mrnual s i mpl i esrhe useof the coupl erfrom the l B u p p cr r n a n u eto th e lo n cr . .tll onance i s madc hcre both fot i nstrumcnts i ke th. so-cal l ed ach harpsi l chord rvirh four-foot on thc upper manual and for those $ith four'foot on the lower. tThc secondset of metronome indications (in parcnthescs)*as made eighreen rnonrhs befo.e rhe 6rsr. ls For the sake of trurhfulness. both arc givcn, srron.qll'' I now repsdiate someof the carjier tempi. Where thc poinrs of ad,ustment of thc ordinarl. metronome did not seemsatisfac.ory at rhe iime of mersutcme.t, points in bcrveen arc indicated.

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

VIII DYNAMICS
A harpsichord registration is indicated in the rableof tempi. It should be noticedthat this regir::a;ion is intendedto enhancethe symnetrical arrangement of rhe variarions, in thar the same 8' register is employedfor all the canonsand rhe samecombinarion for all rhe rwo-manual arabesques, whereasthe greatest possible variety is brought ro rhe orher rssorredforms, in accordance with rheir characrer. Changes registrationwithin the variations are of quite uncalled-for; rhey only bring a kind of disturbing restlessness the expressioqand utterl]' destroy the to eichitectural symrnetry. Each movement has its own tone-color, wirhin which all thc expressiveness of Jeclamarionand nuances form can be brought out of bl rouch and phrasing. This same chatacter should be preservedin a pcriormanceon the piano, by preservinga certain unity of volume and color within each variation and by :mploving the resources nuance only in smaller of jeqrees in order to enhancethe declamationof indiliJual phrases. One only doesviolenceto rhe music l.r artempting to render rhe form of the whole movement into pianisticchiaroscuro.However,eachvariarroo should be given a distincrly characterized color or d_vnamic level, Thc pedal should of course used be ''erl sparingly and only for coloring, not for sustainrng, aod should seldombe allowed to interferewirh ihe \vrirren rhythmical values. 1 false kind of expressiveness emotional cliand macricismshould not be imposed upon this music. Neither must we react against nincteenth-century fashioos in favor of a. mechanical, rigidly shallow, "abstract" style of Bach playing. As one must undersrandthc differcncebctween thc heartrending ravings of a Philoctctcs and rhe irtellectual sereniry of a Socrares a platonic dialoguc in like the Phaedo, though realizing that thc human implications of the one are no grearer rhan of the other; so onc musr distioguish in this music the elcments which direcdy appeal ro the senses and thosc which we would no more treat with the physical immediacy, one might almost say importunacy, of much of Wagner, than we would rcad a sonoet of Shakcspeare with dramatic iqflection and a brcak in our voices. As has been too ofren forgorten, therc is much in music that is nobler and emorionally more profound rhan superficial parhosof declamarion"Thoughrs that do often lie too deepfor tears". As far as cxprcssion through dynamics is coocerned, here is an entirely different sruff from Becthoven or Wagner, a kind of music which wirhin a movementundergoes very littlc change ofsentimcntor increase of intensity. The real expression dcpcnds upon rhe 6nest feeling for rhe significancc of the fundamental,germinal phrascs,inwardly sung melodies, intensely felt rhythmic ligurcs and sensitive harrnonic inflections; and the ability to expose, fully and nobly developedin obiective clarity, rhc continuity and emotional logic of the wholc.

rxviii

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

IX GENERAL INTERPRETATION
Howcvcr much it is an act of imPu.{encethus to discusssomcthing which is far too Profound and complex to bc graspcd in words, it seenlsncccssary, ln order to explain all that has been s,rd beforc, to confesssomeof the feelingswhich incvrtably come with rhe playing of this music. The Aria seems to foreshadow the spirit of the and calm with whole work through the tendcrncss which the solemnity of the fundamental bass is clothed at its initial appearance. The frrst variation stands like a festive gateway leading to the inner world exposed in the following threc variations. These, like so many of the canons and the Aria, havc an unearthly pure swcctncss and a lyricism in evety phrasc that makes onc long to the instrumcnt,and one'swhole dissolvcone'sfingers, self into threc or fout singing voices. For a moment this quiet lyricism is interrupted by the shining smooth swiftness of the first arabesquc variation. Thcn comes a second canon of an almost nostalgic tendetness; ther, a fataway scherzo of thc utmost lightness and delicacy. The following arabcsquc and canon return to a lyricism whicb is interrupted by the brusque roughness of the Fughcma. This is followed by the delicate network of the third arabesqueand the sunny caoon at the fourth. Then comes a flute aria of a breath-taking quiet pure 1oy. The humor of the fourth arabesquc makes cven more striking thc appcaranceof the dark tragic caoon at the fifth which ends the first half of the variations. The second half opens with a maiestic Ftench Ouverture, followed by one of the lightcst of the vatiations. In the sixth canon and the arabesque like that lute-variationwe return to a lyric sweetness of thc bcginning, but rnore peaccful. Another arabesquccontrasts with thc sombre scvcnth which in turn loins on to the alla brctc This, for all its quicker tcmpo, transforms chromatic pathos of the canoo into that kind screne chastcned joy which follows pain. In seventh arabesquc wc burst forth in the most resrained exuberant loy, which is tranquilized io gcntle rocking of the canon at the octavc. Agaio are intcrruptcd to be carricd to even greater heights on the wavcs ofa quiet yet iresistibly passi on, thc ate aria. Front rhe cighrh arabcsque rions mount through a sprightly caton, glittcri trills, and waltzlikc bravura to the 6nal ]ubi climax in the Quodlibct, upon which the repetitioo thc Aria falls like a benediction. But for all their lyricism and tragic passion exuberance. thc Aria and the Variations scem of divine substanceentirely rcfincd and purified of thing pcrsonal or ignoble, so that in playing them secms only the unworthy mouthpiccc of a voicc. And even beyond the scope of ahe emoti that have been aroused.the ell'ectof the whole is of boundless oeace. in which onc returns rencwed, matured to ahe starting point, which sccn sccond time seemsso transfigured in thc light of travcrsed spirittral journey. But how Bach himself in pious humility ridicule these high-sounding words of ours with wry faceand with godJikc laughter: "Kraut und Riibcn. . . ." Rar.pa Krr.rp Salzburg,Septembff15, 1934.

Related Interests

Bat 14: The consonaflce G, B, and D, aod ;of the rhythm, would sound quite flat if the appog:: tura were playedlong. It can be playedshorter iodicated. Bar 16 The first appoggiatura may also be plar as an eighth-note,accordingto an exampleof C. P. Bach similar to ahat referredto at Bar 7 (Ex.21z The octaveD's of the third beat.unlike those in BarI have an agreeable finality, and on the harpsichord rhe octave following parallel rnori gives the illusion of a dimiruendonther than thc cF of accent which seems to occur after thc motion of Bar 2. SeeBar 24. may be Bar 18: The first two appoggiaturas shorter. Bar 19: Hete aqain the accent of an octave on would be unpleasant.In the sccondbeat thc tion of the appoggiaturaD sharp to E should still connecred with the harmony of C. even if rhe rion coincidesonly with the passing note B. result is a wonderful fluidity of harmonyin which trill on F sharp makesa delightful accenr. Bar 20: The sequence 6fths makes impossiblc of long appoggiatura resolvingaccordingto rule. Bar 21 the appoggiaturamust be short to coosecutive seventhswith the tenor. Bat 72. lt misht have been consistentrvith practiceof C. P. E. Bach ( 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ersuch", Chap. II, 2, Par. 11; Ex. 21a), to prolong .he appo
the length of thc entire qualter-notcr were it not

(C.P. E.8., Tab.trI, Fig. VI)

rhe weakness rhe resulringharmony. of the resolution coincidiog with the tenor F would be undesirable. Bar 24 The resolution of the first appoggia accordingto rule would be obviously impossible. Bat 25'. SeeBat 2. Bat 26: Here the octaveG-G would be less

J. S. Bach seldornrnakesa distinction between the sign of the arpeggioupwards and that of thc arpeggio downwards. This chord might also Bar 7l be brokcn upwards. Bat 72. As in Bar 2 the 6rst appoggiaturamrght also bc very short. In Anna MagdalenaBach s noteD book of U25 only an appoggiatura occurs,instead

demandsthe present turbing, but consistency tion. The appoggiaturain the left hand might played shorter.

VARIATION 5: Bar 20. Here the weakness the D sharp of
tremblemcnt lii, tion is best expressed an accelerated. by

THE C.OLDBERG VARIATIONS

instead of thc rcncwed accent of an ordinary trill, This must occupy an almost imperceptiblc part o{ thc ootc. Notice thc contrasting acccntual interpretation of thc trill on G. 7: B* 2: Herc the trills havc almost the same crisp accentual efect as the mordents, and should occupy no more of the time of the main notes. Bar 76, Herc the customary practicc is followed in cooncctiol with tied dotted notes (Qgantz VIII,9), VA$IATION

Bar 6: Herc thc dissonant resolution of thc appoggiatura givcs an extraordinary savour to thc harmofly. VARIAT]ON T5: Bau 7, 8', Seenotes to Variation 12, Bars 4, 5 or 29, 10. VARIATION 16:

The inexact indicarion of dotted notes in erght_ eenrh-ceorury music is menrioned in thc books of C. P. E. Bach,Quanrz,Agricola ("Anlcitung zur Singkuns.", 1757)0, and Leopold Mozart ("Vcrsuch eincr griindlichen Violinschule", l?J6). C. P. E. Bach says (Chap. 3, Par. 23): "Thc short notcs following dots will always be dispatchcd as shorter than the notation indicates, thus it is supcrfluous to dc6ne these short notes by thc usc of dots or strokcs." "In Ex. 2J we secthcir exprcssion.

Ex.22

(Qratlz, Tab.VI, Figs. rr, ro)

E.x.23 (c. p. e. B.,Tab. Fig.vIt) vr,
but in Bar 8 harmonic puriry dcmands the execution given. VARIATION 8:

Bar 24: C. P. E. Bach gives an cxample of a similar casc and its execution. (Ex. 2fa.) Thus this ap poggiatura might be playcd as a quartcr-note. \.ARIATION 9: Bat 12 The imitation, of course, will follow the At times thc arrangemeorof parts (Einthcilung) dcmands that one procccd accordiog ro thcir litcral "Thc dots after shorr notation * (Schtcibart)." notes, followcd by notes still shorter, should be hcld out. "

6rst voicc cxactly. VARIATION 1I: Bar 5, ctc.: Thcsc rills must cnd with a vigorous soaP. \.ARIATION 12:

Bar 4, 5: The till is intcrpretcd as ,ftmbhn.n, lil ^ rn order that thc following mordentmay imirate it in contrary motion. These may also be played respectivcly as simple Prall Triller and short mordent. Batt 29,3o: Here likewise the mordent imitatcs the rrill in contr'ary motion. VARIATION 1]: Bar 2: C.P. E. Bach writcs ("Vcrsuch", Chap. II, Scction2, Par. 14): "When the appoggiaturasounds rhe octaveof the bass,it cannot be long, becausc thc harmonv would sound too empty' ,

Ex.24 (c. p. E.8.,Tab. Fis. vff) vr,

Thc following passage in Agricola (p. rl3), is "Short notcs (Vol. I,p.f9f). quotcd by Dannreuther which follow dots, espccially sixtccnth- and thirtysecond notes, and in alla bnoc timc, $ , 2, ,""n cighth-notcs, are invariably takcn vcry short-thc notcs prcceding thc dots bciog hcld so much thc longcr."
i, o lhno o$en.4;o t rof. ;l C."ro fgtrzto. Dnlogor.

'An zmplificd cransletioa of Picr Franccsco Tosi: O?i"ioni d.' C.n oi a"tkb; . no&

VARIATIONS

j,r"n,,

employsfor the Loure, the Sarabande, Coura:=rhe dotted eighrh-, sixre€nth-, and thirty-second-notes, and the Chaconne, rhe eighth-notes following doi:one departs from the general rule, because of the quartersare nor expressed accordingto their prc:e vivacity which they should express. It must be value, but shortly and sharply. The dotted nore s noticed,above all, that the note following the dot in emphasized and the bow is dctachedduring the j:-_ Ex. 25a and b, should be played as quickly as that One does likewise with all dored notes if rhe t:=r inEx.25c, wherher in slow or fast tempo. Whence permits, and when there Are three or more thir:rit follows that the dotted ootes io Ex. 25a dernand second notesxf(er r dot or a resr,thev are nor erecu:j nearly the whole time of a quarter-nore, and those in according rheir real value,especially slow piecs_ ro in Ex. 25b nearly that of an eighth-note. One cannot but, awaiting the very end of the time allorredthe= exacrlydetermioe the rimc of the short note following one plavs them then with rhe utmost speed,as I the dor." often the case in Ouvertures, Entr€es aod Furie: However one must give a separatebowing to each Ex.25 (Qaantz, Tab.tr, Fig. z, c, d,e ) --cthesequick notes,and one can hardly slur anything a. This last is an excellent description the vigoro:r of tlitacLti style in which the Ouverture (Variarion lf (R. bb. should be played. Although thesequotationsexplain the inaccura= notation and the true executionof much eighteent!(Chap. X\III, Secr. 2, Par. 16): "When thirtysecond-notes follow a long note aod a shorr rest (Ex. 26) they should always be played verv quickly, whcther in an A,lagia ot in an Allegro. Hence, to avoid faulty time, onemust wait to the lerv end of the allotied time beforeplaying them. ceoturv music, especiallythe slow sections Frencl of Ouyertures(and one must at all times bear rhcm:: mind), in much music of Bach there is still son: room for doubt as to whether el. J) occurringagains: a, .) l . a shoul d be rakenJ

*ri,.r 1Chap. par.,tr' "r,]:t :::::"" V.

t\

t.:t t-t

!.3

.

nr ur lny casej.

Ex.26

(Q'aantz, Tab.XX[, Fig. ze)

also here, one can be influ"nJ afternatelv by Bach ! obviously mere orthographicalconlenrion of writir.of J. Jr InsreaLf J

tN

.tt- .

J.)

rn al l a brcreri me, bypassaoJ

''If in a slow alla brcteor in ordinarv common time there is a sixteenth-reston the down-beat followed by dotted notes(Exs. 27 a, b), the resr must be playecl if therewereeither a dot or a pause half as of the value following ir, and as if the following notes were twice as short." (In other words, like Ex. 27, aa, bb) .

ageswhere he d.ii-ir.ly intencled the literal inrerpretr lltati on.rf J, ))aod ).).1.J, such as rhose in r hr ''Kunst der Fuge" and the "Musikalisches Opfer' where dotted themes appear siinultaneouslyin augmentation and in their natural form. Here, afcc: having for sometime played as sixteenths eighths the following dotted quarters,I have finally decided,ar leasrfor the presenr, upon rheir literal interpretation. especiallyas the sound of the harpsichordis giver greater continuity through the increased complexirl of rhyrhmic morion. I actually play the sixteenrhs shorter than noted, and undertook ar first ro wrirc
6

Ex.27 (Qtantz, Tab.XX[, Figs. ao, sr)

@:;#

ha.

-

b

wg

them our rhus:J. by , bur w as di ssuade d whar J -'1- t (Chap. XVII, Sect. 7, Par. J8): "Morcover, in this measure , as well as in 3-4 time , which one Q .."-.d ono"."rriy complication of the text. Likewlse there is here no attempt to indicate the rests

THE GOLDBERGV'.RIATIONS

:mplicd by Quantzabovein speaking the detached of :os'l rvhich can takc the placeof the dots. Barc4,5: A tcrmination may be addedhere. In ::ct Marpurg says (Anweisung, 11755), Page 57, \ore 4) that such "prcpared trills" are always given : rcrmination. One may qucstionwhcther sucha rulc lsas thc result of unanimouscontemporaryopinion. :s it is not mcntionedby C. P. E. Bach, or Ttirk, or rndicated in D'Anglebcrt's table, At any rate thc remaining "prcpared trills" in this variation do not rcquire the addition of a termination where not inJicated, since the function of the termination is already performed by the succeedingquick notes (as C. P. E. Bach points out in parallel passages fChap. II, Scct.III, Par. 161). Bar 28: The version with a "Triller von unten" rs given to avoid the 6fths resulting from the literal interpretationof the original, which might offend a fastidiousear. Barc 31, 13l Here likewise especialcare has been taken in shortening the termination of rhe rrill to rroid rhe fifths which would othcrwise occur. \..{RIATION 22: Bar 11: This trill should be incorporated smoothly in the rnelodic line and played as rhythmically independent from the bass,with a slight speecling up in the middle and slowing off toward the end. It is useless attempt to indicate the exact number of to ''beat s " . vARIATION 2]: B ar 23: B es ra s ' a Pra l l T ri l l e r. T h e rri l l shoul d take as little of the time of the main note as possible. VARIATION 24: Bar 17: A rough attempt has beenmade to iodicate the changes of spced without specifving the number of "beats" in the middle portion. \TARIATION 25: Bat L3. The appoggiaturaon the secondbeat is found written out by Bach in the corresponding place in Bars21 and 22. Although rhis sameappoggiatura has beeo introduced in the first two bars, in other corresponding placesfr.rrtheruse of it is left to the caste the player. of

VARIATION 26: See notes to Variation 16 for information concerning the indeterminatevalue of dotted notes in eighteenth-century notation. See also following note. VARIATION 29: (See also Notes to Variation 16). Marpurg ( Anleitung" [1755], P. 24) makes the following remarks: "It is frequenrlycusromaryto employ simultaoeously a simple and a compositemeasute, example for 12-8 against C (Ex. 28a, b) as well as 6-8 agrinsr 2-4, or 9-8 againsr 3-4, and so forth. If in this combination of measures two notes of equal value occur against three others likewise of equal value, for exami.rle, two eighrh-notes against three other eighth-notes, or two quarter-noresagainsr three others, the 6rst two of the three equal noceswill always be played againstthe 6rst of the two. Thus, for instance, those io Ex. 28a will all be played as in Ex. 28c, and even if tbe 6rsr of the rwo equal notes is dottecl (Ex. 28b), they must nevertheless be played as in Ex. 28c. The so-calledtriplets which one usesin simple measurcs have their origin in this mixaure of measures. These are such that one takes three eighths against a quarrer, three sixteenths againstan eighrh, etc."

(Marpurg, Tab. I, Figs. 42,44)

VARIATION ]O: Bat 2: A trenblemtnt se€ms lil best.

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

i
I

"l
now traditional successionof five fingers an.r crossi'g thumb. Thus fiogers rarely cross' excePt in Polvphonic passages, where there is often occasion changefingerson the to samenote to ensare legato A comptomise advisable is betweenthe old principJeof avoiding the use of the rhumb on "black" keys and that ofavoiding changes of live-fingerposition or usiog similar fingering for s e q u e n ti are p e ti ti o n s f fi g ures. A l l j umps of posi l o tion and breaksof lcgatocaobe fitted to places where

In plaving Bach seems to use t:il:tTT:etached it besr " modern fingering based upon the

I
finsering which makes,, ",-^..,- I '=
I

:l:';;:':il:iJi'.',."T:::JTi::::::-,J:Jj j::.:lf,.j: i:ffi::l,ijl";.,..T;:;;* I .'"JilT::::*'.';:A:1iT,:Hl:,ather
to understand someeighteenth-centurv fingeringas represenced Bach'sown indications in (Bachgesellschaftedition,volr.:me Pages 224,225, J6, 2)7, 126), or in the sonaras c. p. E 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I tached style entirely intentional? o, i, i:';;| promisebrought abour by the traditions ;;. I ";; just beginning ro culrivate u ..r1"in .qo"tiry'ot- ,1,. I 6.refin!..s and a substitution.r ,rr. - | ond.. uf th" thumb for the old principre ;;::l:: -.a."-'t-.^"",I a longer finger over a shoner (a .;." "'^"' r.;,:. I ' ri ghtl an.r: r23434)4etc.)? "r" I In playing the piecesof couperin, on. ,hour, I

possibre play passages .o altogether.-oo,"tott we wourrr feer to require regata praying. ,:'ilt.':

dinc,rrt ::'"':"',',1.i',:Til;;:, ;::ii: mti*:: and of rhe hancr. But

with u-n, *n*.-iir'.,., music so muchless is idiomatic, often;:"... and orherinscruments, consraorly one t..,r,n.rl'jjl,?'. of bringing to the keyboard,n. .r"."rrr"'.*',.. ,uppl.nfs ofstringor voice phrasing.

I
I I I I I

VI

THE GOLDBERGVARI,{TIONS

:he constanr rhythmic relaaion of strong and weak which ale the notesof introduction, of climax, -*ats; of cooclusion in a mclodic phrase; as well as -irJ rshich are the fiotes of harmonic importance and rhoseof importance the main melodicand harmonic in :rogressions sectionsand of rhe wholc piece. of The performer'stask in converring a piece jnro sound is like that of a painrer who must undersrand rhoroughly the anatomyof his rnodeland the relation of the srnallest detail to the whole, not so much thar the original may be fairhfully reproduced as that his orvn feeling about it and his choice of technical means for its interpretation may bc controled by the complete inner logic of nature. Thus here in rhe music of Bach we arc confrontedwith the task of making clear the articulation and poetic significance of complicat€dsructureswhich rival thoseof naturein their obedienceto all her inner laws of balance, of proportion, of form. One of the mos! important and practically least recognizedcharacteristicsof Bach's music is the fusion of form and expression almost to the point of identificarion. Thus, the musical feeling leading to the true exptessionof a Bach phrasecan frequently be guided largely by the intellect and often rnust be, urtil the musical perceptions reach a degree of instinctive sharpness not so ofren demandedby orher musrc. Although "phrasing" involves a consideration of the music in many phases ard from many points of view, here on paperwe can only attempt to isolate and discuss the most important elements and to make a numbcr of perhapslash generalizations. First, and for us here most imporrant, is rhe consideration of individual voices as single mclodic lines, ignoring for the time being their relationship to each other. The fundamental rule which underlies course of all measuredmusic is the rhythmic relation of weak beats to strong beats, and the different funcrions of rhe first, second,third, and fourth beats. Weak beatsgenerallytend to be connected with rhe following strong beat, so that most pauses likely are to occur aftet strong beats. However, this very rough generalization must not allow us to ignore the musical parallel of feminine eodings in verse. It

seems to me that many wriaers, eveo including Schweitzer,to whom we owe so much. have ovcremphasizedthe progressionfrom thc weak to thc strong bcat-in orher words, iambic the expenseof trochaic movemeflt. In many fast movem€nts, such as those of thc concertos, this trochaic movement,by irs very holdiog back, gives the impressionof tremendousenergy pulsing under thc harness superhuman of restraint. Likewise it sccms to me thar in maoy Bach phrasesthere are quite as many subsidiary nores which take their rhythmic momentum from a precedingstrong note like the successive bounces a rhrown or droppcdtennisball, of as there are those which progressforward to a strong beat like a ball rolling down a slope. And there are noteswhich perform a doublefunction, in relarion to both preceding and succeeding strong bears. In many Bach performancesone hears either the flabbinessof jumpinessof bouncing, for rolling or the excessive lack of balanceberween the two kinds of motion. The parallel in dancing is easily pcrceprible. Exs. lJ-J9 show a few of manv possible modesof rhythmic thoughr which can work rogerher ro produce the equilibrium. S yncopeced nores, or notes tyi ng o\er a srrong beat, often have a peculiar character, being approachedwith a certain spring or sighing effecr,thc impulse coming from the preceding strong beat. Leopold Mozart says ("Versuch einer grtindlichcn \riolinschule" {Chap. I, Sect. 3, Par. 18, Note kl): ''Suchnotesmust be amackedstrongly aod held with a gradually diminishing quierness (eizenacbud nach cerlicrcnde Jrille) wirhour renewed pressure,like the graduallydisappearing soundofa sharplystruck bell." The mel oJrcdetei mi ol ti unof note-groupi ng, even in the face of so many cornplicatedand intaogible elemeots, permitsa few crudegeneralizarions. Notes moving stepn,rscare more often played hgato h contlast to the deta.ched. taccato performanceof jumping notes. (We might make an exceprionto rhis remark in the caseof nores outJining arpeggiaredharmooy in quick time.) Likewise, an inrerruptionofstcpwise progressicn a ieapof the melodicline oftcn requires bv a phrasing correspondingro the necessatvvocal rendition or to rhe parallelsensarion bodily movcof ment. However, one musr oot take these principles

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

too seriously. in view of thousandsof instanceswhere thcy are superseded more imPortant factors. by For nearly all the keyboard music of Bach it is extremely illuminating to think in terms of string bowing. Thus one can often determine the divisions of sequential figures and stepwise passages,also thc texture of hgato and of relative degrccs of rraccaro. Betweenthinking of string bowing and feeling the instinctive vocal inflection (as recommendedby C. P. E. Bach) one is fairly sure to arrive at a natural phrasing. Vocal inflection itself (except in the case of singers,as I am inclined maliciously to remark), is closely governedby mystcriouslaws of kinrsthetic feeling and of bodily movement. For exarnple, a phraseor movementcan often be explainedin terms of sprirlging, falling, or bouncing. The phrasing must make clear the main prodecoration underlyingmore or lesselaborate gressions Often in Bach, esPeciallyin .wovoice pieces,a single voicc will outline harrnonies and carry on in broken form the progressionsof twoof the melodic line. or three-part harmony. This ofcourse must be understood by rhe player and cxpressedby the phrasing.

upon a superposition in thc finished pcrformancc of the various phaseswhich are shown separatcly hcrc. An examplelike this, with its many parallels,goes to demonstratethe fact that much Bach phrasing exists far morc in time, that is in living rhythmic patterns, than in the spatial articulation and cxaggerated nuancing of melodic figures usually cmphasizcd by Bach performers (more unfortunately, for example, in the unaccompanied violin sonatas) at ahe expense the rhythmic vitality and organic of unity of the whole. In fact, one is sometimeslcd to feel that che cumulative effect of sharply dcfined rhythmic detail incorporatedinto a steadypulseis far more important in many Bach movementsthan the inflectionsof tone and dynamics;and cvcn that some of the Bach sonatascould be given a performanccon a drum which would be {ar more thrilling than that of most string players. Of coursethe ideal performance does justice to borh elements. In other words, the music cannot become fully alive in a performancc which develops plastic shape by heightening melodic cootours through light and shade of dynamics and variation of ltaccato ar.d lcgato texture, yet fails to endow these shapes with their own rhythrnic form carved out of precisetime-divisions,just as they are carved so to speak, out of pitch, and dynamic intensity, in perfectly proportioned telation to the the blurred, lopwhole. Anything else resembles sidedcontoursof sculpturein wax beginning to melt uoder the hot sun. Even had the preceding topic of the grouping of notes into phrasesbeen properly treated, one would srill needto makea largebook to explain ihe relationa shipsof noteswirhin thesephrases, thiog which we can hardly expect more than to suggest here. So far we have spokeo principally of the smaller groups of notes more in the senseof texture than io the senscof phraseswhich make small €ntitics in themsclves and which in turn go to build up a larger unit. Thcsc phrases have a definite plastic form, to which the senseand perceptions must bc sharpcncd in rccogniz-

5, Ex.33(Var. Bar 13)

Thc expositionof the manifold melodic,harmonic, and rhythmic implicationsof many such single voice absolutebalanceof rhythm. Such demands passages example, whose richness dcpcnds is the foregoing

ing the functions of every notc, whethcr it be as inrroduction, climax, conclusion, coda, or mere decoration. When we begin to put the voiccs together, rhe resulting harmony has an influcncc, especially on thc

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

phrasingof rhe longer sections. The building up of a stressor tension resolving to repose,although it occurs melodically, we find especiallyin harmonic progressions and in the relation of dissonance and consonance. Here we are not so much obliged to grapple with this dificult subject,because Variations are rhe all built on the same fundamental harmony and on the same rhythmic skeleton of four eight-bar phrases, much as they sometimcs stretch thesebounds, Another important feature,when all the voicesare put togethef, is the texture of the whole. It must not be too close,but must have air, so to speak. On the other hand, especiallyon rhe harpsichord,one must not break it apart with "holes" causedby too short or misplaced .Itaccata. This can occur mosr easily when the bassis played too short, thus removing rhe bottom of the srructuretoo suddenly. The distribution of legat0andrtdccata mtrst balancethrough the whole counterpoint,like the disrribution of black and white in a well made woodcur.

I might remark, in connectionwith harpsichord phrasing, rhat the principal meansof distinguishing notes consistsin infinitely varying degteesol lcgatoand :taccato(akho,tgh the instrument rs to some extent capable of accena)and, through the useof these very meaos of l,tato and,$accato,of the illusion of slight nuance. On the harpsichordone musr guard againsr makiog too short.rt4ccatl, the €ffecris quite unlike as that of the piano, in rhat the plucked string must be given sufficienttime to vibrate, whereasthe struck string vibrates instantly in pure sound. Perhapsthese remarks, for all their inadequacy, will demonstrare the furility of artempting ar all to indicate phrasing in the text, and perhapsrhey will convey some idea of the way in which the player must sepafate and analyze every phraseof rhescVariations, the funcrion of every note wiahin thar phrase, and the organizarionof smaller phrasesinto larger ones,and finally into the whole.

VII TEMPO
In the table on p. xxvi are indicated tempi used in performingthe Variations. Thesemay vary, however, accordingto the instrumentand acoustical conditions, and of course according to the phrasing chosen even, I fear, accordingto rhe metronome! The tempo should be mainrainedvery strictly within each variation. In Bach, especially in strongly rhythmical fast movements, clarity and coherence demanda degree of precisionin the small noae-values which is less frequently necessitated other music, where complete by rhythmic exacrilude is often lefr only to the main beats. This rhythrnic precision is especially necessaryro performarce on a nuanceless instrument like the orgao or the harpsichord, where the weakening effect of most rhythmic freedom cannot be compensated by nuance. On the clavichord, for example, one can play the same piecesmuch less strictly rhan on rhe harpsichord,because any rhythmic flexibility may be combined with a complete flexibility of nuaoce to produce something warm and perfectly hurnan, wher€as on the harpsichord or organ such freedomr going only half way, cannot have the samesincerity of effecr. For slow movements should make someexcepwe tion to the above temarks, becausethere the expression frequentlydepends upon a certain flexibility of small notes within the frame of rhe main beats. However, one of rhe greatest daogers rn tcmponbato is that slight rhythmic lluctuations which were originally sincere and inspiredby perfecttasre,in the course of ahe successive imitations which a professional performeris likely to make of his first good co[ception and performance become mannered and exaggerated, having lost some of their original signiEcaoce,resembling rhe afected movcmenrs of a bad dancer. Moreover,in most Bach movements, harmonic all and melodic detail is arrangedin such a symmcrical relation to the whole phraseor movementthar the musicalstructure can often be distortedby rhythmical fluctuations, like an elaborate Baroque facade mirrored in troubled water, or, as one is inclined to say in reminiscence of some performances, thrown heltet skelter by a seriesof earthquakes!

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

IrI conarast to the fluid legato of the canoos and those slow movdnents, the fast variations,esP€cially for two kcyboards,should have a kind of sparkling precision, down to the smallest note values. It is very beneficial to Practise these fast variations with a mearonome,and wise even thus to test the accuracy of largerrhythmical valuesin rhe slow movements'in order to insure against unconsciousextremes of rxbato. Of course there are two ways of achieving a true accuracyof rhythm and tempo, a quality which for the most part is not natural to the human organism of changing pulsetates. For just as one can fall beand mechanlow the human level into an insensitive (someof the most ical kind ofmetronomicalstrictness unrhythmical playing in the world comes from persofispractisirg with a metronome), so one can of rise abovethe weakness vacillating fleshand blood to an unswervingthythmic strengthand inevitability with balanced,sensitivephrasing, which, associated as can only be described supernatural. The metronome is only a mechanicalmeans of and assistance can in no way take rhe place of a real of feeling for rempo, which is a constant inner sense the rhythmical relationshipofeach part to the whole of The acquisitiono{ such a sense tempo may be aided in practiceby singing a rhythrnic motive from one parr of a piecewhile playing another. Attention is called here to some of the useful ancl enlightening patternsor modesof rhythmic thoughr ahat are to be fo'.rndamong the inexhaustibleriches of these variations (Exs. 33-39). Theseall suggestmodes of oba taining from smallernote-values rhythmic precision controlled by musical feeling rather than imposed only by mechanicalfinger disciplne.

Ex.35(Var.26,Bar 9)

Ex.36 (Var.14,Bar 1)

Bar Ex.34(Var.8, 11)

THE GOLDBERGV,{RIATIONS

Ex . 37 ( V a r .2R Bar 1)

r\l

t

Ct

7

Similarly in the Aria one may sing rhe rhythm of the first eight bars againsr the lasr eight, in bassas well as soprano,or superpose the sixteenrh- or rhe eighth-note motion of the last bars on alry preceding sectionof the Aria. Or one may sing simply the bass, either in its sirnplest form (dotted half-notes) or in a figure of quarter-notes. Especiallyuseful in establishing rhythmic equilibrium is playing the movementthrough alternatelvtfrirLirg ;r J the characteristic sarabande movemenr,*1. J . .f, .f J,

N

or e'en occasiona n lI"

) .

If one becomes rhus

Jj

sensitiveto the many sirnultaneous rhvthmic pulses, from sixteenth-notes ro.whole beats,or the rhythmic relation of measures rvithin a phrase,one begins to undersrandpart of the real vitalitv of mosr Bach motemenls. tr= In \:rr.8, rhi s fi gureJ )))l ))) -i-rfrom the beginning,may be used ro kccp the lefr hand under control from bars 9 to 16.
In \rar. 11, this figure, j. on Dars 1/ to Jl.

-Tr !

J

may be superposed

Ex. 38 (Var.17,Bars 27-22)

ln Var. 11, an alrernarion U.,-..n Jl

j

o,

@

l-

|

|
).

r-1-r
) ) )

). ) )^nr

mrv be useful .

In Var. 14, the performerin playing the opening passage shoulclbe minclf'.rl the subsequent of thirtvsecondnore rhvthm. The last two bars should be heard both in sixreen!h-nores and in thittv-seconds. In \ ar. 17, rhe rhrrhm ' 'l .er" hel pful , as a.a i" | I l'f1-1 asainst

well as rhe wh.rle tiqure f.]--

aaataa.aaaaa

E x . 39 ( V a r . 2 0 ,B a r 9 )

J-JlTi:*Ji .i
In Var. 20, the triplcr rhvchm should be superposedon the rhythm of the openirrgsccuon.

T n \ a r. 2 o ,

r--6-r h l lT i ata.aaa

I

ll 1a'l

e rc . . rh e rs

key to the whole moueXnt. In \rar. 28, the eighth-notemotion should always be felt. The trills will be smooth if thev are always felt simultaneously coming from the impulseof the as preceding strong beat and joining smoothly with the following.

THE GOLDDERGVARIATIONS

THE GOLDBERG VARIATIONS
Registration* A RI A V ar iat io l a IC Ia v .

I8' 8, 4, I6', 4', I8' II 8' 4' Lute I8"II 8' I8' ll 8' ( ano) I 8', II 8' I8' I8'II 8' I 8', II 8 I8' 4', 8' (Lute ?) I 8', II 8' I8' 16' I 8',II 8',4', I8', II 8' I8' II 8' Lute I 8', II 8' I8' 8, 4, I8"II 8' I8'
. Alla breve

Tempol J:5s
J:94

V ar iat io 2 . a IC l a v . Variatio l. C-auor.rr ar-r-'UNrsollo,a l Clav.

J: se
J,: 40 rh: rbs J=Es . rl): t8r
a.= 72 d:68

V ar iat io 4 . a l C l a v . Variario 5. a I oaqo2CIau. \rariatio [ ar iat io 6. CaNoNs ar,r,,{Srcouoe, a I Clav. 7 . a I o v e ro 2 C l a v . 9. CeNoNser,LaTtrze, a 1 Clav.

Yatiario 8. a2Clar,. Variatio

V ar iat io 1 0 . F u g h e tIa ,a I C l a v . \ ariatio 11. a 2CIau. Variatio 12. CeNoro ar,r,e Quenre V ar iat io IJ . a 2Clav. Yariatio 14. a 2Clat. Variatio 15. Casouo,rr,r,eQuIrvr,r,a I Clav. V ar iar io 1 6 . Ou v e ri u re ,a I C l a v . Yartatio 17. a 2 Clau. ,{LL.{ Variatio 18. CarqoNe Sosra,a 1 Clav. V ar iat io 1 9 . a l C l a v .
v zrtatto zv, d zL ld tt,

J:6s J: so J.= ,tz J:60 )= + o J.eo .0. s+
(J: J = 72,J.=6o 66, r8r )= (tl3 J : to8 ) =ae oL

. .
'

.h=rsp r l = ee
tl = S e

SsrrIN"x Variatio 21. CeroNr ar,r,,r Y ariario 22. a 1Clav.
v aftatto 2), a 2 L t4 u .

Yariario 24. CaNoNear,r,'Orrave, a 1Clav. V ar iat io 2 5 . a 2 C l a v . Y ati.atto 26. a 2 Claa,

. . .

) =m J = rc 2 J.: 6o
.D= lo

4', 16'(Lute or 8'Lutc?)

I8"II

8'

\:ariatio 27. CaNorr arr,,rNoNa, a 2 CIar'. I ar iar io 2 8 . a 2 C l a r. V ar iar io 2 9 . a l o v e ro 2 C Ia r' . \rariatio 10. a 1Clav. A RI A da C a p o Quodlibet

I8', II 8' I8" II 8' 16' I 8',II 8',4', I 6'I 8'II 8'4' , l8'

J:t+ rl.: 0o rl : 6 0 .l =aa J:so r/ : 5 s

*So lo 1 6 ' o r 4 ' sh o u ld b c u scdherei n sucha w rv astosound at normal ei ghFl oor Fi rch. l i ndi cates i the uscof tw o kcvboarrl s. Othcrof r h e lo se f n r a n u a l, II ' r h c u p per. Th€ presence commas ndi cates *ise th c in d ica tio n o f sto p s fr onr borh uppcr and l oner mrnual s i mpl i esrhe useof the coupl erfrom the l B u p p cr r n a n u eto th e lo n cr . .tll onance i s madc hcre both fot i nstrumcnts i ke th. so-cal l ed ach harpsi l chord rvirh four-foot on thc upper manual and for those $ith four'foot on the lower. tThc secondset of metronome indications (in parcnthescs)*as made eighreen rnonrhs befo.e rhe 6rsr. ls For the sake of trurhfulness. both arc givcn, srron.qll'' I now repsdiate someof the carjier tempi. Where thc poinrs of ad,ustment of thc ordinarl. metronome did not seemsatisfac.ory at rhe iime of mersutcme.t, points in bcrveen arc indicated.

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

VIII DYNAMICS
A harpsichord registration is indicated in the rableof tempi. It should be noticedthat this regir::a;ion is intendedto enhancethe symnetrical arrangement of rhe variarions, in thar the same 8' register is employedfor all the canonsand rhe samecombinarion for all rhe rwo-manual arabesques, whereasthe greatest possible variety is brought ro rhe orher rssorredforms, in accordance with rheir characrer. Changes registrationwithin the variations are of quite uncalled-for; rhey only bring a kind of disturbing restlessness the expressioqand utterl]' destroy the to eichitectural symrnetry. Each movement has its own tone-color, wirhin which all thc expressiveness of Jeclamarionand nuances form can be brought out of bl rouch and phrasing. This same chatacter should be preservedin a pcriormanceon the piano, by preservinga certain unity of volume and color within each variation and by :mploving the resources nuance only in smaller of jeqrees in order to enhancethe declamationof indiliJual phrases. One only doesviolenceto rhe music l.r artempting to render rhe form of the whole movement into pianisticchiaroscuro.However,eachvariarroo should be given a distincrly characterized color or d_vnamic level, Thc pedal should of course used be ''erl sparingly and only for coloring, not for sustainrng, aod should seldombe allowed to interferewirh ihe \vrirren rhythmical values. 1 false kind of expressiveness emotional cliand macricismshould not be imposed upon this music. Neither must we react against nincteenth-century fashioos in favor of a. mechanical, rigidly shallow, "abstract" style of Bach playing. As one must undersrandthc differcncebctween thc heartrending ravings of a Philoctctcs and rhe irtellectual sereniry of a Socrares a platonic dialoguc in like the Phaedo, though realizing that thc human implications of the one are no grearer rhan of the other; so onc musr distioguish in this music the elcments which direcdy appeal ro the senses and thosc which we would no more treat with the physical immediacy, one might almost say importunacy, of much of Wagner, than we would rcad a sonoet of Shakcspeare with dramatic iqflection and a brcak in our voices. As has been too ofren forgorten, therc is much in music that is nobler and emorionally more profound rhan superficial parhosof declamarion"Thoughrs that do often lie too deepfor tears". As far as cxprcssion through dynamics is coocerned, here is an entirely different sruff from Becthoven or Wagner, a kind of music which wirhin a movementundergoes very littlc change ofsentimcntor increase of intensity. The real expression dcpcnds upon rhe 6nest feeling for rhe significancc of the fundamental,germinal phrascs,inwardly sung melodies, intensely felt rhythmic ligurcs and sensitive harrnonic inflections; and the ability to expose, fully and nobly developedin obiective clarity, rhc continuity and emotional logic of the wholc.

rxviii

THE GOLDBERGVARIATIONS

IX GENERAL INTERPRETATION
Howcvcr much it is an act of imPu.{encethus to discusssomcthing which is far too Profound and complex to bc graspcd in words, it seenlsncccssary, ln order to explain all that has been s,rd beforc, to confesssomeof the feelingswhich incvrtably come with rhe playing of this music. The Aria seems to foreshadow the spirit of the and calm with whole work through the tendcrncss which the solemnity of the fundamental bass is clothed at its initial appearance. The frrst variation stands like a festive gateway leading to the inner world exposed in the following threc variations. These, like so many of the canons and the Aria, havc an unearthly pure swcctncss and a lyricism in evety phrasc that makes onc long to the instrumcnt,and one'swhole dissolvcone'sfingers, self into threc or fout singing voices. For a moment this quiet lyricism is interrupted by the shining smooth swiftness of the first arabesquc variation. Thcn comes a second canon of an almost nostalgic tendetness; ther, a fataway scherzo of thc utmost lightness and delicacy. The following arabcsquc and canon return to a lyricism whicb is interrupted by the brusque roughness of the Fughcma. This is followed by the delicate network of the third arabesqueand the sunny caoon at the fourth. Then comes a flute aria of a breath-taking quiet pure 1oy. The humor of the fourth arabesquc makes cven more striking thc appcaranceof the dark tragic caoon at the fifth which ends the first half of the variations. The second half opens with a maiestic Ftench Ouverture, followed by one of the lightcst of the vatiations. In the sixth canon and the arabesque like that lute-variationwe return to a lyric sweetness of thc bcginning, but rnore peaccful. Another arabesquccontrasts with thc sombre scvcnth which in turn loins on to the alla brctc This, for all its quicker tcmpo, transforms chromatic pathos of the canoo into that kind screne chastcned joy which follows pain. In seventh arabesquc wc burst forth in the most resrained exuberant loy, which is tranquilized io gcntle rocking of the canon at the octavc. Agaio are intcrruptcd to be carricd to even greater heights on the wavcs ofa quiet yet iresistibly passi on, thc ate aria. Front rhe cighrh arabcsque rions mount through a sprightly caton, glittcri trills, and waltzlikc bravura to the 6nal ]ubi climax in the Quodlibct, upon which the repetitioo thc Aria falls like a benediction. But for all their lyricism and tragic passion exuberance. thc Aria and the Variations scem of divine substanceentirely rcfincd and purified of thing pcrsonal or ignoble, so that in playing them secms only the unworthy mouthpiccc of a voicc. And even beyond the scope of ahe emoti that have been aroused.the ell'ectof the whole is of boundless oeace. in which onc returns rencwed, matured to ahe starting point, which sccn sccond time seemsso transfigured in thc light of travcrsed spirittral journey. But how Bach himself in pious humility ridicule these high-sounding words of ours with wry faceand with godJikc laughter: "Kraut und Riibcn. . . ." Rar.pa Krr.rp Salzburg,Septembff15, 1934.

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