Action Research in ELT

Continuum of Research Methods
Action Research Questionnaire Survey Research Interviews ELT RESEARCH METHODS

Verbal reports Introspective Research

Diary Studies

Case Studies Qualitative Research Ethnographies

ACTION RESEARCH
• Action Research can be defined as a combination of the terms ―action‖ and ―research.‖ Action research puts ideas into practice for the purpose of self-improvement and increasing knowledge about curriculum, teaching, and learning. The ultimate result is improvement in what happens in the classroom and school (Kemmis & McTaggert, 1982). • Action research is a systematic procedure done by teachers (or other individuals in an educational setting) to gather information about, and subsequently improve, the ways their particular educational setting operates, their teaching, and their student learning (Mills, 2011 ). • Action research is a systematic approach to investigation that enables people to find effective solutions to problems they confront in their everyday lives. It does not look for generalization but focuses on specific situations and localized solutions

Reasons Why Action Research is a Research

 An AR addresses questions of interest to other practitioners;  An AR generates data;  An AR contains analysis and interpretation.

What Differentiated Action Research from other Researches
– – – it is carried out by the practitioner (classroom teachers); it can be collaborative or individual; it is situational (identification and solution of problems in a specific context); it can be aimed at changing things (improving the current state of affairs). (Nunan, “Research Methods in Language Learning” (1992:17))

ACTION RESEARCH FEATURES
• AR involves action in that it seeks to bring about change, specifically in local educational contexts. • AR is a research because it entails the collection and analysis of data. • AR is participatory and collaborative as it provides for collaborative investigation by teams of colleagues, practitioners and researchers. • AR is contextual, small-scale and localized—it identifies and investigates problems within a specific situation.

Action Research Process
Question

Action Research Process

Action Research Procedures
• Stage 1: Researchers identify, evaluate, and formulate a problem that is viewed as critical to their everyday teaching. This problem need not be restricted to a particular class but could involve a system change such as curriculum innovations in a school system. • Stage 2: Researchers consult with other interested parties— teachers, other researchers, and administrators—in order to focus the problem more clearly and perhaps suggest the cause of the problem. This stage is crucial because it involves the clarification of the objectives and assumptions of the study. • Stage 3: Researchers review research literature to find out what can be learned from comparable studies. • Stage 4: Based on their reading, researchers may modify or redefine the initial statement of the problem, which may take the form of a set of objectives or a testable hypothesis. They also explicitly state the assumptions underlying the project.

Action Research Procedures (cont.)
• Stage 5: Researchers specify the research design including the participants, choice of materials, and procedures. • Stage 6: Researchers clarify how the project will be evaluated with an understanding that this evaluation will be continuous. • Stage 7: Researchers implement the project undertaking the data collection process. • Stage 8: Researchers analyze the data, draw inferences, and evaluate the project.

Data Collecting Methods
OBSERVATI ON INTERVIEW
QUESTIONNAIRE

SYSTEMATIC
(with observation guide) NON-SYSTEMATIC

DATA

COLLECTIO N

DOCUMENT S

learner-diary Teacher-diary
WRITTEN

TEST

ORAL PRACTICE/ROLE-PLAYING

Data Triangulation in AR
RESEARCHERS TRIANGGULATION
• Assigning some researchers to collect similar data so that the obtained data is “saturated” or constants TIME TRIANGGULATION • Similar data are collected in different times along the research period. SPACE TRIANGGULATION

• Collecting similar data from some different places.

THEORETICAL TRIANGGULATION
Comparing the obtained data to some different but interrelated theories (holistic approach)

As a process research which is naturalistic and transformative (aims to make changes) the situation of an AR continuously changes. To keep its reliability, the researcher needs to: 1) Attach original data (e.g. interview transcript and field notes 2) menggunakan lebih dari satu sumber data untuk mendapatkan data yang sama 3) berkolaborasi dengan sejawat atau orang lain yang terkait.

AR Proposal Outline
I. Introduction A.Background B. Problem Statement C. Research Objectives D. Research Significances

II. Review of Related Theories A. Literature Review B. Conceptual Framework C. Hypothesis (optional)

AR Proposal Outline (cont.)
III. Research Methodology A. Research Method: Action Research B. Research Setting and Subjects Features C. Research Variables D. Action Plan (e.g. Lesson Plan) E. Data Types and Sources F. Data Collection technique G. Data Analysis technique H. Data Triangulation I. Research Procedure J. Bibliography

References
McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching second language classrooms. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers Burns. A. (2010). Doing action research in english language teaching: A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge: Creswell, J. W. 2008. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New Jersey: Pearson Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. New York: McGraw-Hill Ross, Kenneth N. (ed.). (2005). Educational research: Some basic concepts and terminology. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning/ UNESCO.

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